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OFFICIAL GUIDE TO THE PROTECTED NATURAL AREAS IN PERU Copyright © 2013 SERNANP Servicio Nacional de Areas Naturales Protegidas por el Estado. Calle 17 Nº 355, Urb. El Palomar, San Isidro (Lima 27) Tel: (51-1) 2251053 www.sernanp.gob.pe / sernanp@sernanp.gob.pe Copyright © 2013 PROFONANPE Fondo de Promocion de las Areas Naturales Protegidas del Peru. Av. Javier Prado Oeste 2378, San Isidro (Lima 27) Tel: (51-1) 2181097 www.profonanpe.org.pe / prf@profonanpe.org.pe Original Tittle: GUIA OFICIAL DE AREAS NATURALES PROTEGIDAS DEL PERU Copyright © 2010 SERNANP / PROFONANPE.

Editor Ricardo Espinosa Compilation of Information SERNANP / Heads of area and Institutional File Photography Complete list at the end of the book Translation Francisco Molina / Ines Cook Design and Layout khameleonworld.com / Pedro Rodríguez / Wendy Saavedra Cartography Grupo Geo Graphos Articles Geology: Carlos Monge Internet Links: Luis Antonio Tovar Collaborators Services: Jose Soto / Analee Merino / Cecilia Kamiche Revision of Historical Facts: Cesar Astuhuaman Prepress and Printing Industria Gráfica Cimagraf S.R.L. First English Edition, September, 2013 Legal Deposit Nº 2010 – 05608 National Library of Peru ISBN: 978-612-45675-1-3 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, distributed, transformed or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, chemical, mechanical, optical, recording, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior express authorization of the Copyright owners: SERNANP and PROFONANPE.


OFFICIAL GUIDE

Natural Protected Areas P

E

PERÚ

R

U


Contents

Presentation 6 A guide of the present... to cultivate the future 8 Introduction 10 How to use this guide 12 Northern Coast 17 Los Manglares de Tumbes NS 18 Tumbes NR 24 Cerros de Amotape NP 28 El Angolo GP 34 Laquipampa WR 38 Bosque de Pomac HS 42 Central Coast 51 Lachay NR 52 Pantanos de Villa WR 58 Humedales de Puerto Viejo RZ 64 Bocatoma del Canal Nuevo Imperial PF 68 Southern Coast 71 Paracas NR 72 San Fernando NR 80 Lagunas de Mejia NS 84 Sistema de islas, islotes y puntas guaneras NR 88 *(northern, central and southern coast) 48 Northern Mountains 99 Tabaconas Namballe NS 100 Cutervo NP 104 Pagaibamba PF 108 Chancaybaños RZ 110 Sunchubamba GP 114 Calipuy NS 116 Calipuy NR 118 Central Mountains 121 Huascaran NP 122 Cordillera Huayhuash RZ 130 Huayllay NS 132 Junín NR 136 Chacamarca HS 140 Nor Yauyos Cochas LR 142 Southern Mountains 151 Pampa de Ayacucho HS 152 Machupicchu HS 154 Ampay NS 162 Pampa Galeras - Barbara D’Achille NR 166

4 Official Guide


Palm Trees in Sandoval Lake, Madre de Dios

Sub Cuenca del Cotahuasi LR Salinas y Aguada Blanca NR Titicaca NR Northern Rainforest Gueppi-Sekime NP Pucacuro NR Ichigkat Muja - Cordillera del Condor NP Santiago Comaina RZ Tuntanain CR Allpahuayo Mishana NR Pacaya Samiria NR Cordillera de Colan NS Alto Mayo PF Matses NR Sierra del Divisor RZ Cordillera Azul NP Rio Abiseo NP Central Rainforest Tingo Maria NP El Sira CR Yanesha CR Yanachaga Chemillen NP San Matias San Carlos PF Alto Purus NP Purus CR Pampa Hermosa NS Pui Pui PF Otishi NP Ashaninka CR Machiguenga CR Southern Rainforest Megantoni NS Manu NP Amarakaeri CR Tambopata NR Bahuaja Sonene NP New Protected Natural Areas Conservation Areas

170 174 178 189 190 194 198 202 204 206 212 216 226 230 234 238 244 253 254 260 264 266 272 274 278 280 282 284 288 290 295 296 300 308 312 320 328 337

The Earth‌ and the evolution of life 356 Links 358 Photographs 362 Acknowledgements 363

Protected Natural Areas | PERU 5


Presentation El Perú, desde los años sesenta del siglo XX, ha realizado uno de los esfuerzos más destacados a nivel global para establecer áreas protegidas con la finalidad de conservar su enorme biodiversidad y crear espacios donde la conservación vaya de la mano con el reto de generar posibilidades de desarrollo a través de ellos, no sólo para las poblaciones aledañas sino también para el país. Este esfuerzo ha llevado a que hoy el país cuente con más de 19 millones de hectáreas de áreas naturales protegidas, donde se incluyen algunas declaradas por la UNESCO como Patrimonio natural de la humanidad. El fin supremo de establecer áreas naturales protegidas es contar con espacios geográficos claramente definidos, reconocidos y gestionados para la conservación a largo plazo de la naturaleza y de sus servicios ecosistémicos, así como los valores culturales asociados. También para demostrar que la conservación de la naturaleza es una alternativa viable y eficaz para mejorar las condiciones de vida de las poblaciones locales y para garantizar servicios ambientales a favor de toda la humanidad. En un planeta agobiado por la destrucción de lo natural para dar paso a lo tecnológico, la humanidad necesita disponer de espacios para reencontrarse con lo natural y poder disfrutar de los beneficios culturales, científicos y naturales de una relación perdida con lo prístino, demostrando que el progreso y el desarrollo tienen necesidad de valorar lo natural. Después de cincuenta años de un esfuerzo continuo para proteger los más destacados ambientes naturales del país, donde la sociedad civil ha jugado un rol preponderante, hoy podemos estar orgullosos de lo logrado no sólo en lo ambiental sino también en lo económico y social. El Sistema de Áreas Naturales Protegidas 6 Official Guide


Lake Cullicocha and Santa Cruz peaks, Ancash.

por el Estado está dando sus frutos y se constata que este sistema aporta ingentes ingresos económicos a través del ecoturismo, la investigación científica, la producción de agua y de servicios ambientales. Numerosas comunidades aledañas a las áreas protegidas se benefician y cada día surgen nuevas actividades económicas en base a ellas. La Reserva Nacional de Paracas, el Parque Nacional Huascarán, la Reserva Nacional Pacaya Samiria o las áreas protegidas de Madre de Dios, por ejemplo, aportan importantes medios económicos para sus regiones y se perfilan como excelentes instrumentos para el desarrollo de sus zonas. Hoy el Perú cuenta con dos instituciones claves para la gestión y el manejo de las áreas protegidas: el Servicio Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas (SERNANP), como entidad autónoma para una gestión eficaz y eficiente, y el Fondo de Promoción de las Áreas Naturales Protegidas del Perú (PROFONANPE), el brazo financiero del sistema, que canaliza fondos internacionales. Al presentar esta Guía Oficial de Áreas Naturales Protegidas, lo hago con orgullo y satisfacción por lo logrado hasta hoy, y también con optimismo hacia el futuro, porque el potencial de desarrollo sostenible es enorme y ofrece todo un reto para el Perú. A todos aquellos –instituciones y personas– que han contribuido durante estos años a este enorme logro, vaya mi agradecimiento más sincero por los sacrificios realizados. El Perú se lo agradece.

Manuel Pulgar - Vidal Minister of Environment Protected Natural Areas | PERU 7


A guide of the present... The publication of an official guide to the protected natural areas in Peru is something we have been longing for, especially, those of us who are involved and feel identified with the preservation of the biological diversity found in these areas. And Profonanpe certainly is. Since its creation in 1992, our institution –unprecedented as a private mechanism until then- took on the challenge of becoming the financial arm of the National System of Natural Areas Protected by the State. The years gone by and the acquired experience made it possible to respond successfully to that challenge, basically thanks to the joint work with the national authority and to the growing support of the civil society, as well as to bilateral and multilateral cooperation, several international foundations and the private business sector. In this way, a regular and long term flow of financial resources has been secured, combining simultaneously several fund raising modalities –exchanges of debt for nature and non refundable financial donations, among others- along with varied schemes of portfolio administration, such as patrimonial and amortizable fiduciary funds. The Official Guide to the Protected Natural Areas is in many ways the graphic expression of the important achievements accomplished along these years: An important number of protected natural areas have reinforced their management abilities by means of the implementation of strategic and operative planning 8 Official Guide


Sunset in Redondococha, Loreto

to cultivate the future tools, the development of countless technical studies that help to direct and conduct the actions for conservation and sustainable development within and outside the areas, as well as a set of investments in civil works and equipment that facilitate the management and the public use of these singular natural sanctuaries. Nevertheless, there is still much to be done and that is a task we are all responsible for. Today, more than at any other time, it is essential that the protected natural areas be seen and understood as a resource of extraordinary potential for the economic and social development of the country. An important part of it is the possibility they afford us of knowing, visiting and assessing their values. For the first time, the reader, the traveler or the tourist will count on the practical and detailed help this guide offers in a single volume, in which updated information is provided on a reality that includes almost every landscape, climate and ecosystem in the planet. Profonanpe congratulates the Ministry of the Environment and the National Service of Natural Areas Protected by the State – SERNANP on this magnificent initiative and feels honored to have contributed to its fulfillment.

Alberto Paniagua Villagra Executive Director of PROFONANPE Protected Natural Areas | PERU 9


Introduction

The National Service for Natural Protected Areas by the State (SERNANP), in alliance with international cooperation partners, is pleased to bring to you the Official Guide of Natural Protected Areas of Peru. This guide aims to show the importance and value of the natural heritage for all Peruvian citizens, through these extraordinary 77 natural protected areas, distributed all over our country. Peruvian natural protected areas extend over 19 million hectares, containing almost all of the Ecoregions in the country. But these areas do not only keep biological diversity; they are also home for many indigenous people who live in harmony with the nature since ever, and who represent the cultural values that are also part of natural protected areas. The strong and permanent interaction between natural and cultural values in protected areas is the basis for them to offer outstanding opportunities for social and economic sustainable development in the long term. We are positive this guide will be a valuable tool to start discovering all the natural treasures Peru holds. Here you will find detailed and updated information regarding the astonishing biodiversity in each natural protected area, the history behind them, reasons for their creation, their most attractive spots, their 10 Official Guide


Rainbow over the jungle, Ucayali

touristic facilities; as well as the tips you will need when you visit them, starting a great adventure! We invite to join us in the conservation of these marvelous places enjoying responsible tourism or through careful research and investigation activities, so future generations will also be able to use and admire them. As SERNANP, we are committed to enhance and strengthen the National System of Natural Protected Areas by the State, with broader participation of local stakeholders, for the purpose of building an effective management model in Latin America, to face new challenges posed by the climate change and the urban expansion. Be welcome to join us in this journey!

Pedro Gamboa Moquillaza SERNANP Chief Protected Natural Areas | PERU 11


How to use this guide This guide provides accessible and precise information about all the protected natural areas in the country, describing their objectives, their history, the most important characteristics of their biodiversity and their principal attractions and services for the visitor. The text is accompanied by photographs that bring the reader closer to their qualities and comprehensive maps that facilitate an integral vision of their values. The areas have been grouped in nine regions according to their location, each of them starting with an interior front page and a list of the PNA included, with their respective location map. Each of these chapters has a color to distinguish it, which is visible even without fully opening the guide.

Central Rainforest

Megantoni

times. The initiative protected zone came the 1980s, threatened The focus in this landscape, and the colonization and the in | National Sanctuary main attraction that has seduced to dynamite “hard to man since antiquity, is the Pongo de places of the Pongo d IMPORTANT: In each area, it is indicated Mainique, a short and narrow canyon 1988, the Machiguen if visiting isperforated feasiblein or according thenot, mountain range by to the Urubamba River the River, asinfrastructure. it made its way Center for the Develo accessibility Urubamba or tourism towards the Amazonian plain. Many of them do NOT have facilitiesAmazonian Native (C Ministry of Agriculture i Thisbiological special geographical feature initiativeis to create a part, its wide diversity and times. The for tourism and visiting them even the design to p protected zoneiscame from out them in extraordinary scenic beauty. a sacred place for the Machiguenga the 1980s, threatened by an increasing the sacred port of The focusethnical in this landscape, andwho the venerate | National Sanctuary group, itandasthethe discouraged. We have to remember colonization intention of some main attraction that has seduced to dynamite “hard to go through” river. In 1999, the Te their the place sincebirthplace antiquity, is theofPongo de culture, that man these areas are for preserving places of the Pongo de Mainique. In the establishment of t Mainique, where a short and narrow canyon Tasorinchi, their1988, deity, It Council the dwells. Machiguenga of perforated in the and mountain range by the Urubamba presented, and it is onl ecosystems human presence River (COMARU), the is a gateway between the Andean and the Urubamba River, as it made its way Center for the Development of the that the State creates plain. toworlds Amazonian and, besides, shouldtowardsbethetheAmazonian limited the established Amazonian Native (CEDIA) and the Zone. In Ministry of Agriculture in CuscoReserved worked a threshold that issouls cross in their This special geographical feature out the design to preserve after Tonkini, consulting the circuits, which, in the majority ofiscases, a sacred place for the voyage to Machiguenga the beyond. The truth that Each protected area ethnical group, who venerate it as the the sacred port of the legendary categorization proposa river. In 1999, the Technical File for traveling through it, contemplating the have not been implemented yet. birthplace of their culture, the place -showing the category the establishment of the Sanctuary where Tasorinchi, their deity, dwells. It that numerous cascades fall directly on and, isin August that is a gateway between the Andean and presented, and it is only in March 2004 Sanctuary is created. to which it belongs- starts the river, as if a mysterious force had that the State creates the Megantoni the Amazonian worlds and, besides, Reserved Zone. In record time, a threshold that souls cross in their dared to disturb its natural and tranquil with a text box where its voyage to the beyond. The truth is that after consulting the population, the course, is something that cannot be is formulated proposal Megantoni traveling through it, contemplating the categorization FLORA | National Sanctuary and, in respect. August that same year, the location, area, date of numerousdone cascadeswithout that fall directly on deep feeling the river, as if a mysterious force had Sanctuary is created. More than 1,400 spe creation and altitude dared to disturb its natural and tranquil There are numerous inhabitants in the registered, but it is c course, is something that cannot be FLORA “The bridge between the vicinity the Sanctuary, Machiguenga there are between 3, done without feeling of deep respect. are indicated. More than 1,400 species have been Amazonia and the Andes” as wellin as the There are people numerous inhabitants the settlers in that total, including the registered, from but it is considered “The bridge between the vicinity of Andes the Sanctuary, Machiguenga are between 4,000 -mainly in thethere south-, and 3,000 in andlowland tropical forest Amazonia and the Andes” people as well as settlers from the in total, including the highland and its interior, at the Timpia Andes -mainly in the south-, and inupper ferns lowland tropical River, forests. Orchids andare exceptionally Wire-tailed Manakin (Pipra filicauda), one of the birdwatchers’ favorite bird species in its interior,there at the upper Timpia River, ferns are exceptionally plants in are some indigenous groups indiverse Megantoni; The Wire-tailed Manakin (Pipra filicauda), one of the birdwatchers’ favorite bird species in almost a fift Amazonia. there are some indigenous groups in Megantoni; almost a fifth of the orchids the Amazonia. voluntary as the Nanty/ voluntary isolation, such isolation, as the Nanty/ such found in their flowering periodfound (20 out in their flowering Kugapacori and others. “The bridge between the Kugapacori and others.of 116 species) are new to science. for tourism NO NO of 116 species) are new *Facilities*Facilities for tourism Amazonia and the Andes” part, its wide biological diversity and extraordinary scenic beauty.

Megantoni 7. CR Purus a 8. NS Pamp Hermosa Pui 9. PF Pui i 10. NP Otish inka 11. CR Ashaniguenga 12. CR Mach

Maria 1. NP Tingo 2. CR El Siraha 3. CR Yanes haga 4. NP Yanac Chemillen s Matia 5. PF San San Carlos Purus 6. NP Alto

1

7

2

3

4

5 9

8

6

10

11

12

part, its wide biological diversity and extraordinary scenic beauty.

The focus in this landscape, and the main attraction that has seduced man since antiquity, is the Pongo de Mainique, a short and narrow canyon perforated in the mountain range by the Urubamba River, as it made its way towards the Amazonian plain.

This special geographical feature is a sacred place for the Machiguenga ethnical group, who venerate it as the birthplace of their culture, the place where Tasorinchi, their deity, dwells. It is a gateway between the Andean and the Amazonian worlds and, besides, a threshold that souls cross in their voyage to the beyond. The truth is that traveling through it, contemplating the numerous cascades that fall directly on the river, as if a mysterious force had dared to disturb its natural and tranquil course, is something that cannot be done without feeling deep respect.

Location

ation

Surface Area :

face Area

ation Date

tude Range

CUSCO

: CUSCO : 215,868.96 ha

Creation Date

08/18/2004 : 215,868.96: ha

Altitude Range

: 400 - 3,800 meters

: 08/18/2004

GENERAL OBJECTIVES

DESCRIPTION

: 400 - 3,800 meters Sanctuary’s objectives are to The Sanctuary

HISTORY

The Wire-tailed Manakin (Pipra filicauda), one of the birdwatchers’ favorite bird species in the Amazonia.

: CUSCO : 215,868.96 ha

Creation Date

: 08/18/2004

Altitude Range

: 400 - 3,800 meters DESCRIPTION

The Sanctuary’s objectives are to preserve the ecosystems that develop in the mountains of Megantoni, which have been declared intangible, in order to keep their forests and water sources (the headwaters of the Timpia and Ticumpinia Rivers) intact; to protect the biological and cultural values of the area, such as the Pongo de Mainique, a sacred place for the Machiguenga people; to protect endangered species, species that have a restricted distribution and species that are new to science, keeping intact the important corridor between the Manu National Park and the Vilcabamba complex of protected natural areas.

The Sanctuary is located in the last foothills of the Ausangate Eastern Mountain Range, the lowest, the most discontinuous, woodland area of the Central Andes, forming a kind of “Conservation Bridge” between the Manu National Park and the Machiguenga Communal Reserve. It covers a zone with a mainly hilly and mountainous topography that includes from low altitude humid and deep canyons to Puna scrubfields at about 4,000 meters above sea level, with a great variety of climates that make possible the existence of 10 different life zones. This explains, in

DESCRIPTION ERAL OBJECTIVES Thehavebody ofintangible, the textmost discontinuous, been declared in order

FLORA

More than 1,400 species have been registered, but it is considered that there are between 3,000 and 4,000 in total, including the highland and lowland tropical forests. Orchids and ferns are exceptionally diverse plants in Megantoni; almost a fifth of the orchids found in their flowering period (20 out of 116 species) are new to science.

FAUNA

FAUNA Regarding birds, 378 species have been registered, among which guans,

FAUNA

people, together with other indigenous groups, have lived in the territories of the Urubamba River and its tributaries since ancient Regarding birds, 378 species have been registered, among which guans,

River and its tributaries since ancient

GENERAL OBJECTIVES

is located in the last foothills of the Ausangate Eastern Mountain Range, the lowest, the woodland area of the Central Andes, forming a kind to keep their forests and water sources of “Conservation Bridge” between (the headwaters of the The TimpiaSanctuary and is located in the last Sanctuary’s objectives are to the Manu National Park and the Ticumpinia Rivers) intact; to protect the foothills ofMachiguenga the Ausangate Eastern rve the ecosystemsbiological that develop Communal Reserve. and cultural values of the area, covers a zone a mainly hilly such as the Pongo de Mainique, a sacred ItRange, Mountain the withlowest, the e mountains of Megantoni, which 298 Official Guide |Southern Rainforest and mountainous topography that place for the Machiguenga people; to most discontinuous, woodland area been declared intangible, in order includes from low altitude humid and protect endangered species, species that Central Andes,to forming a kind ep their forests and have water sources deep canyons Puna scrubfields at a restricted distributionof andthe species about 4,000 Bridge” meters abovebetween sea level, are new to science, keeping intact of “Conservation headwaters of thethat Timpia and the important corridor between the with a great variety of climates that Manu make National Park andof the mpinia Rivers) intact; Manu to protect theand thethe possible the existence 10 National Park Vilcabamba differentCommunal life zones. This explains, in complex of protected areas. Machiguenga Reserve. gical and cultural values of the area, natural The preserve the ecosystems that develop in the mountains of Megantoni, which

HISTORY TheNO Machiguenga people, together with other indigenous groups, have HISTORY lived in theThe territories of the people, Urubamba TheMachiguenga Machiguenga together with other indigenous groups, have River and its tributaries since lived in the territories of theancient Urubamba

*Facilities for tourism

Location Surface Area

There are numerous inhabitants in the vicinity of the Sanctuary, Machiguenga people as well as settlers from the Andes -mainly in the south-, and in its interior, at the upper Timpia River, there are some indigenous groups in voluntary isolation, such as the Nanty/ Kugapacori and others.

times. The initiative to create a protected zone came from them in the 1980s, threatened by an increasing colonization and the intention of some to dynamite “hard to go through” places of the Pongo de Mainique. In 1988, the Machiguenga Council of the Urubamba River (COMARU), the Center for the Development of the Amazonian Native (CEDIA) and the Ministry of Agriculture in Cusco worked out the design to preserve Tonkini, the sacred port of the legendary river. In 1999, the Technical File for the establishment of the Sanctuary is presented, and it is only in March 2004 that the State creates the Megantoni Reserved Zone. In record time, after consulting the population, the categorization proposal is formulated and, in August that same year, the Sanctuary is created.

Regarding birds, 378 been registered, amon

The Urubamba River crosses the mountain range through the narrow and beautiful Pongo de Mainique.

The Urubamba River crosses the mountain range through the narrow and beautiful Pongo de Mainique.

For the native people of the Amazonia, the wild fauna is inseparable from the landscape, forming almost a single geographical unit: The Pongo de Mainique owes its name to the Machiguenga word “maeiniki”, that means “the cave of the bear”, while “Megantoni” comes from “meganto”, that is, Macaw, together with the suffix “-ni” (which they share with the Aymara language) making reference to the place where these animals live. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 299

includes the objectives For the native people of the Amazonia, of its creation and a The Urubamba River crosses the mountain the wild fauna is inseparable from range through the narrow and beautifulforming almost a the landscape, general description single geographical unit: The Pongo Pongo de Mainique. de Mainique owes its name to the Machiguenga word “maeiniki”, that of the area, followed means “the cave of the bear”, while “Megantoni” comes from “meganto”, by a concise synopsis of that is, Macaw, together with the suffix “-ni” (which they share with the Aymara language) making reference For the native peo its history. The history to the place where these animals live. the wild fauna It covers a zone with a mainly hilly as the Pongo de 298 Mainique, a sacred Protected Natural Areas | PERU 299 Official Guide |Southern Rainforest section may refer to the landscape, and mountainous topography that for the Machiguenga people; to single geographi the region’s includesthe from low altitude humid and ct endangered species, species thathistory, Mainique ow There is a highlighted text in many of the areasde deep canyons to Puna scrubfields at a restricted distribution and species Machiguenga wo communities that live about 4,000 meters above sea level, are new to science, keeping intact that reveals some interesting peculiarity of the area,means “the cave in itbetween and/orthethe with process “Megantoni” com a great variety of climates that mportant corridor which most of us ignore and which will enliven ourthat is, Macaw, make u National Park and Vilcabamba of thecreation of possible the the existence of 10 “-ni” (which curiosity to know the rich and special biodiversitysuffix different life zones. This explains, in plex of protected natural areas. Aymara language protected area itself. to the place wher of Peru better.

al Guide |Southern Rainforest

12 Official Guide

Protected Nat


Plovers in Puerto Viejo, Lima

National Reserve

Then, the area’s main flora and fauna values are listed, giving their common as well as their scientific names. Endangered or rare species are specially mentioned, which are usually objects of conservation of the area, as well as species that can be easily sighted in an eventual visit.

later, the Tambopata National Reserve was created and the Bahuaja Sonene National Park enlarged. Even though there was a good degree of participation of the State, the conservation organizations and the local settlers, the process of creation motivated some mistrust in the native communities, who were afraid their traditional access to natural resources would be cut back. In time, they have begun to understand that the Reserve may be their only alternative to preserve it.

Tambopata

FLORA There are different types of vegetation in the Reserve: The Aguajales (Mauritia flexuosa), the Pacales, the terrace forests and the gallery forests grow in the sedimentation plains. According Numerous nearby native communities still preserve their traditional ways.

to Puerto Maldonado in the 1960s, and the Interoceanic highway in the present, have brought about that 50% of the region’s inhabitants have been born elsewhere, and the other half, in their majority, are sons or daughters of migrants. This tendency that far from decreasing, is on the increase, represents a serious threat to the Reserve’s conservation objectives and, needless to say, the displacement of the native population, due to the extractive and absolutely unsustainable character that feeds it. In 1990, the Tambopata Candamo Reserved Zone is established, from which,

The composite eyes of the Dragonfly allow it to see almost 360° around

to the type of forest, 17 vegetal associations have been identified, and a total of 1,255 plant species. Among the ones that have commercial importance, are the Big-leaf Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla), the Spanish Cedar (Cedrela odorata), Tornillo (Cedrelinga catenaeformis), Kapok Tree (Ceiba spp., Chorisia sp.), Baru Tree (Dipteryx alata), Quina (Cinchona spp.), Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) and Panama Rubber tree (Castilla elastica). One study found 150 types of trees in only one hectare, giving a clear idea of the large biodiversity found in the entire protected area. The undergrowth, dark and humid, houses a large biodiversity.

The Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) grows in terraces that are not prone

to flooding in the Amazonian lowland tropical rainforest. In Peru, it grows exclusively in the eastern strip of the Department of Madre de Dios, covering 2.5 million hectares (30% of its entire area), and is the most important non timber commercial species that has great impact in the local economy. It is a valuable part of the habitat of numerous species of mammals for it is a source of food, as well as the nesting grounds for birds of prey. FAUNA Investigations carried out in Tambopata reveal that there are more than 632 bird species, 1,200 species of butterflies, 103 sp of amphibians, 180 fish species, 169 sp of mammals and 103 sp of reptiles. The Reserve offers healthy habitats for the recovery and protection of endangered species like the Giant Otter (Pteronura brasiliensis), Neotropical Otter (Lontra longicaudis) and felines like Jaguarundi (Herpailurus yagouaroundi), Puma (Puma concolor), Jaguar (Panthera

The Red Howler Monkey (Alouatta seniculus) is often seen in large groups.

onca), Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) and Margay (Leopardus wiedii). Among the species of primates, there are the Redfaced Spider Monkey (Ateles paniscus), Brown-mantled Tamarin (Saguinus fuscicollis), Emperor Tamarin (Saguinus imperator), Red Howler Monkey (Alouatta seniculus), Black-headed Night

310 Official Guide |Southern Rainforest

(01) Codes: Lima Phone Area

SERVICES

93; www. a, T. 23262 347, Luriam 83, T. 3771019; www. , Las Rosas Km o Casablanca;Chancay; Panam. Norte 135, San Luis de Cañete HOTELS rant Turistic llo de . Sur Km mbassy.com **Hotel Restau Chancay: **Casti & Restaurant; Panam 4; www.hotelese om Huacho: **Regina Hotel; ncahuacho.c **Huarco Hotel Uchupampa, T. 284119 anaresort.com 2841041 ana; hotelcasabla ncay.com Cañete: assy Lunahu 90; www.lunahu ; Los Andes s/n, T. castillodecha uana: ***Emb Km 38, Jita, T. 25412 Andes **Los Lunah 55 u.com Cañete T. 77252 Carretera a otelreginaper ***Rumihuasi; ry; T. 2841147; www.h Conda 1 s/n, Tacna de Chancay; El Castillo 151 Chancay: Uchupampa e: T. 2326293 Mi Rosedal; NTS Cañet Santa Maria, RESTAURA Lunahuana:de Armas, T. 2841310 Las Rosas 347, echancay.com os; Plaza Casablanca; www.castillodhuana.com Antojit ral@terra.com.pe Huacho: T. 3771019; lmayo al-luna de Mayo 1224, 77; www.mirosed T. 260-8170; www.e 28411 s 395, Cosmo (km 41), T. ; de Azpitia El Mayoral echancay. www.castillodtoursperu. CIES T. 3771019; andela RAVEL AGEN de Mayo 1224, 3808; www.c TOURISM/T Chancay; 1º Grau 203, T. 98940 l Castillo de Peru; Migue Agencia del Chancay: uana: Candela Tours 301, T. 2841084 & Tour; Grau com Lunah uana Travel com Lunah

ho: 940 Huac dora; Lima IES Maria Auxilia 641 Cañete: Clinica EMERGENC s/n Clinica ique s de Pierola Pedro; Echen Clinica San Barranca; Nicola Health: lpa 163 Hospital de Barranca: Niño y la Familia; Atahua ides 565 Clinica del Chancay; BolivarT. Jesus; Benav Comisaria o 2, Corazon de Chancay: Urb. El Milagr 89 s/n, 23230 T. Capac Martin 345, aria Huaral; Manco 44 Police: Huaura; San Comis s/n, T. 28410 Comisaria Huaral: de Armas Huaura: T. 3771222 Lunahuana; Plaza de Armas, aria s/n, Plaza uana: Comis Museo 2461024 Lunah Chancay: a; San Martin l de Huaur Distrita d EST l Municipalida ipalidad Distrita OF INTER ental de la Munic Museo Monum de Zuñiga 142, Lopez Huaura: de Chancay; Municipal T. 2255748; Lima, Este 1109; TATION Lima; www. TRANSPOR a/ Javier Prado a, T. 4240836, e 976, Huaur ltursa.com.p La Victori : 136, T. 98032 la Republica 941, 99 Lima; www.o oyuz.com. By Buses Sur; San MartinLinea; Paseo de Isidro, T. 22544 T. 2052370; www.s Cruz del 1160, San 4275642, sur.com.pe/ Aramburu 280, La Victoria, Lima, la Republica 151, T. rmeno. de www.cruzdel ea.com.pe Oltursa; 35 - Paseo 10, Lima; www.grupoo Tours; Huaral/ Mexico transporteslin era del Estanque, La Victoria, T. 20235 T. 47217 m Movil Soyuz: Cabec Prado Este 1091, Javier Prado Este 1059, www.expresocial.co de la Republica Lima; ; Javier Civa; Paseo a, T. 4243278; Ormeño; 2658121, pe Tepsa rs.com.pe Victori epsa.com.pe de Panama 2485, T. La oviltou www.t 627, sa.com Lima; Republica 00, Lima; www.m de la Republica www.emtrafe com.pe Cial; 749, T. 33290 .pe Flores; Paseo a, T. 4230046, Lima; Republica Paseo de la 1, Lima; www.civa.com oldt 109, La Victori Humb res, T. 575, T. 418111os.net Entrafesa; 513, Miraflo - Jose Pardo T. 2138813, Lima; www.floreshn res, nivel, Callao Chavez, 1er e Espinar 331, Miraflo ndant acional Jorge By Air: Peru: Coma uerto Intern Lan; Aerop www.lan.com Star Lima; p.com.pe 2138200, u.com www.la 00; T. 63010 www.starper t s/n, Callao, ”, Elmer Faucet Chavez "Jorge oldti). cional Airports: niscushumb erto Interna Penguin (Sphe Lima; Aeropu Humboldt l Guide 72 Officia

|Central

Coast

There is, also, an explanation on how to get to the area, and any difficulties or restrictions, of natural or economic type, are mentioned. The weather, which is detailed next, may be a deterrent factor, as, for example, in the areas where the roads disappear during the rainy season.

Natural Protected Areas | PERU 311

A map is included for each area, showing its limits and location, access routes, services and control posts, as well as some important attractions. There is a very brief and summarized list of the services and places of interest at the end of each chapter, based on the information provided by the Ministry of Foreign Commerce and Tourism. If you wish to appear in it, you should contact the offices of SERNANP. Hotels (***) cost more than $45 per double room, (**) cost between $45 and $25 and (*) cost less than $25. The principal attractions mentioned, found within the area as well as nearby, complete the information about the area, and services are listed, if there are any in the PNA, that are provided either by SERNANP or by private or communal enterprises.

A stone house, typical of the friendly village of Laraos.

HOW TO GET THERE The most frequently used is the route that follows the Panamericana Sur up to Cañete (at Km 140), from where another paved road takes you to Lunahuana (45 km), and from there, along a road that is being paved, to Llapay (inside the Reserve), then to Vitis and Huancaya (130 km). The road ends in Vilca. Through this route you access the detours that lead to Laraos, Carania and Miraflores. Through the detour towards Alis and Tomas, you can reach Huancayo after another 130 km. The road that takes you directly to the Cochas River basin follows the Carretera Central, via La Oroya, up to the Pachacayo Bridge, a little before reaching Jauja (220

km in total). From there, you cross the Mantaro River and you leave behind the pavement to enter the Reserve by Pachacayo and continue towards Hacienda Cochas. From here, you can continue through a difficult road (that reaches 4,500 meters above sea level) up to Huancaya (some 70 km more). Or, also, you may follow the same Ravine and, after another 80 km, get to Tanta. Along this last route, one crosses the Inca road in the Portachuelo Hill, from where the walk towards the Stairway of the Pariacaca usually starts. If one were to follow the more authentic pilgrimage road, one can start in Pachacamac, go up the Lurin River by Cieneguilla up to Huarochiri, enter the Reserve at the Ocsha Pass and carry on until you get to the foot of the Pariaca; all of it, along the ancient Inca route which is still possible to recognize and admire. WEATHER Rainy and frigid from December to April; dry and temperate from May to November. The temperature rises above 68 °F during the day (when sunny), descending to 14 °F at night, depending on the altitude at which one is. RESTRICTIONS You can visit the area throughout the year, although it is advisable to go from May to November.

The beautiful Mullucocha Lake, by the Inca road and scenario of mythical battles related to the Pariacaca

The Cañete River forms a lake in its encased riverbed.

ATTRACTIONS The principal tourist and recreational area is found in the zones neighboring the villages of Vitis, Huancaya and Vilca; and the zone that includes Marcatupe and the Piquecocha Lake; all of them are found along the Cañete River. While the whole Landscape Reserve has qualities for the development of tourist activities, these zones have been destined for building future infrastructure. Among the most usual and recommended activities are trekking, sport-fishing, mountaineering, cave exploration (Speleology), birdwatching and mountain bike trips.

and Vilca; the Piticocha, Mullucocha, and Paucarcocha Lakes in Tanta; the archaeological sites of Huamanmarca in Carania, Huaquis in Miraflores, Vinchos and Andas in Canchayllo; the impressive “andenes” of Laraos, Carania and Vitis, where one can observe four different types of them; the cave paintings of Cuchimachay in Tanta and Quilcasca in Laraos; the Inca road of the Pariacaca, very well preserved; the deepest cave in South America with more than 600 meters of depth, at more than 4,500 meters above sea level, and snow covered-peaks of heights of over 5,500 meters. Furthermore, one can easily see fauna such as Taruca, Deer and Condor. NEARBY ATTRACTIONS The city of Jauja, on the Carretera Central route; Lunahuana, a tourist place, the entrance door from the coast; and the beautiful Huarochiri, that only has pedestrian access to the Reserve.

In the long list of places to visit, the principal are the Cascades of Huancaya The venerated Apu Pariacaca, with its magnificent twin peaks.

SERVICES WITHIN THE AREA

Finally, the contact information of the administrative headquarters is given for each specific PNA, in case further information or an especial permit is required, or if there is need to notify the local headquarters of the area.

There are control posts in: Tinko Yauricocha, Llapay, Huancaya and Vilca, and sub administration headquarters in Alis (Lima) and Pachacayo (Junin). Huancaya: *Council Lodge and others; camping zone. Vilcas: *Council Lodge and camping zone. Laraos: *Koriwasi Hotel. Miraflores: *Council Lodge. CONTACT INFORMATION Administration headquarters of the protected area: Av. Huancavelica 3113 - Urb. COVICA - El Tambo - Huancayo, Tel: (064) 243 888 / (01) 968 218 462. 142 Official Guide | Central Mountains

Natural Protected Areas | PERU 143

Protected Natural Areas | PERU 13


There is a final chapter with a brief description of the numerous Regional and Private Conservation Areas, which have joined in the SINANPE’s conservation effort since the beginning of the century.

Taypipiña

Gotas de agua – 1

Puno, 2012 – 651.19 ha

Cajamarca, 2012 – 3 ha

It conserves important ecological values, as well as wild flora and fauna species of the high Andean Puna, promoting sustainable development in the area.

It conserves important ecological values and protects the tropical seasonally dry forests of Marañon-Chinchipe.

Checca

Los Chilchos

Puno, 2012 – 560 ha

Amazonas, 2012 – 46,000 ha

It conserves important ecological values, as well as wild flora and fauna species of the high Andean Peruvian Puna.

It conserves important ecological values and wild flora and fauna species of the Peruvian Yungas.

El gato

Camino verde Baltimore

Madre de Dios, 2012 – 45 ha

Madre de Dios, 2012 – 21.07 ha

Its aim is to conserve ecological values and wild flora and fauna species of the Ecoregion of the Moist Forests of the Peruvian southwestern Amazonia.

It conserves ecological values and wild flora and fauna species of the Ecoregion of Moist Forests of the Peruvian Amazonia.

Bosque Benjamin I

Larga vista – 1

Madre de Dios, 2012 – 28.41 ha

San Martin, 2013 – 22.32 ha

Its aim is to conserve ecological values and wild flora and fauna species of the Ecoregion of the Moist Forests of the Peruvian southwestern Amazonia.

It conserves important ecological values and wild flora and fauna species of the Ecoregion of the Moist Forests of the Ucayali.

Bosque de palmeras de la comunidad campesina Tauliamolinopampa

Larga vista – 2

Amazonas, 2012 – 10,920.84 ha

San Martin, 2013 – 22.50 ha

It conserves important ecological values, as well as wild flora and fauna species of the Peruvian Yungas in the Department of Amazonas.

It conserves ecological values and wild flora and fauna species of the Ecoregion of the Moist Forests of the Ucayali.

Gotas de agua – 2

Pucunucho

Cajamarca, 2012 – 7.5 ha

San Martin, 2013 – 23.50 ha

It conserves important ecological values and protects the tropical seasonally dry forests of the Marañon-Chinchipe.

It conserves ecological values and wild flora and fauna species of the Ecoregion of Ucayali’s Moist Forests.

Many private conservation areas are communal lands and the natives themselves are its managers

Berlin Amazonas, 2013 – 59 ha Its aim is to conserve ecological, flora, fauna, environmental, scientific, educational, and tourist values that give it importance, so it will contribute to the conservation of wild flora and fauna species of the Peruvian Yungas. Bosques de neblina y Paramos de Samanga Piura, 2013 – 2,888.03 ha Its aim is to conserve a representative area of the fog forests and moorland ecosystems of the Andes in the north of Peru. Regarding its flora, the Fog Forests and Samanga Moors present 217 species, distributed in 19 families.

340 Official Guide |Conservation Areas

In order to know which are the areas that make up the National System of Natural Areas Protected by the State, one may consult the complete list of NPA in the inside back cover, where each area has a reference number so it can be located in the complete map. A map key to all the guide’s maps of the specific areas is found in the back flip.

14 Official Guide

Natural Protected Areas | PERU 341


How to use this guide A list of the categories used by SINANPE to classify the protected areas, with a brief description of their meaning and purpose, is found in the front flip. Likewise, in the inside front cover, there is a diagram with all the Protected Natural Areas, according to the life zones in which they are found.

The Earth r ant facto the predominolden idea ge has been The global chan life in our planet. pendently beginning, s of lly and inde with Since the condition ed incidenta active planet lishes the inter h life evolv that estab radical Earth in whic in a dynamic and destroyed, with with of a solid and live and ed We form se eras is obsolete. s. ns that are eras to greenhou and ocea ice t ecosystem continents ges that go from that affec sea level the climate chan fluctuations of the fragile from ’s ary relatively extraordin n for man orks of life, is the reaso because plex netw , and that ion, s are com point of view with its conservat ages these Ecosystem dam the human ation ress ccup prog preo context of for nt rary, these and rece chaotic need ext, on the cont ubtedly justifiable l cont ed that his undo gniz ogica have reco they the geol he has being s. Seen from g and cohesive, since ed or evolved, ecosystem stron ntrollable disappear s are very before they of greater and unco of the ecosystem crust ns of years ones nature. The changes lasted millio rmines for these or planetary factor that dete te the causes either of tectonic , is not a de and clima e, magnitud ce geology, by itself of a region; latitu age and sity of similar s, rocks Earth’s surfa richness or diver see ecosystem gical rs; thus, we ly different the ecolo ributing facto surface of total y. cont toda are also ing the istics form natural areas ecosystem character protected an are zoni h time the Ama some of whic l context, , since the ed ons: geologica seven million years Instituti form the ly plete ple, from than s was com For exam zonia .org.pe/ d for more the Ande establishe www.acca western Ama the has been to coming from ene records from biental.pe/ s similar of rivers alidadam zon. Mioc a system of red layer turtles, www.actu great Ama sediments usks, ostracods, th to feed the diverse fauna in / ficant weal days: moll co.org.pe sited nowa mammals. The signi id and tepid contain very www.ape are depo of hum as land ones that e fish, as well to the combination lina.edu.p and s amo bed cdc.l crocodile stratum. found is ascri s edaphic ge or of species to a heterogeneou t to chan a.org.pe/ www.cim adapt had to adap climates and / nisms have an exception; it mustof great rivada.org orga cionp and not serva is lems beings www.con the human race e it will face prob All living pear. The know that y com g/ sight: we simply disap in the centuries to anperu.or , man already in www.eco ltaneously .org/ and, simu or die, since Many of them are ury- of esdelperu fifty years this cent e. rdaparqu les every magnitud ability -in of the www.gua lation doub e is a prob and in the level exist global popu me extinct. Ther re temperatu cting us will always to org.pe/ species beco rise in the global www.iiap. them oid impa with t aster life or fican ght et brou a signi ic global risk of a com rpe.pe/ es probably ult catastroph www.ima the oceans. The these spatial bodi could catap ring a glacial era as way, they and, just gob.pe/ we are ente t, in the same doubt that.htm www.inei. 0000 the plane e is little G/peru10 Ther_NNG ly an ges.acion e earlier. gob.pe/ chan maliz lasts bare m, or mayb _nor www.inia. existence e is a matter ol/IGN/Pre next millenniu l terms, our eb_espan rrenc gob.pe/w in geologica a catastrophic occu nsibility to take that, www.ign. If it is true , the probability of great respo nsibly and to e/ have the am.gob.p rces respo instant -thus our time scale, we www.min of our resou in make use of chance-, du.pe/ habitat, to unmsm.e . care of our wealth equitably museohn. the distributery&p2=per da.org/ ount peru.pan =spa&p=c ain.php?l rg/m ch.o swat www.park rg.pe/ onanpe.o www.prof

Links

To complete the information in the Guide, an excellent text and a graph illustrating the evolution of life compared with the age of the planet has been included, as well as an exhaustive list of Internet links, which will guide the reader who wants to get more involved in the wonderful world of the study of Nature and the active concern with its conservation.

Being the first concrete effort to massively divulge the natural wonders that a megadiverse country like Peru has, this official guide -based on the information that SERNANP has gathered in the whole country- will have known success if each one of its thousands of readers becomes an agent of change, either by the anonymous practice of non-contamination and respect for Nature, or by, why not? joining the team. We are counting on that. org/ aturaleza. www.pron sar.org/ www.ram / cal.org.pe www.rena

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Protected Natural Areas | PERU 15


16

Tricolored Heron (Egretta tricolor).


Northern Coast

1

1 2 3 4 5 6

Manglares de Tumbes NS Tumbes NR Cerros de Amotape NP El Angolo GP Laquipampa WR Bosque de Pomac HS

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Los Manglares de Tumbes | National Sanctuary

“Forests bathed by the sea” The abundant hydrobiological resources of the Mangroves attract a large number of bird species in their migration from distant regions. *Facilities for tourism

Location

YES

: TUMBES

Extension : 2 972 ha Creation Date

: 02/03/1988

Altitude Range

: 0 - 10 meters

GENERAL OBJECTIVES

DESCRIPTION

The National Sanctuary’s main objectives are to protect the mangrove woods and its ecosystems, which are unique and representative of northern Peru, where a great diversity of land and water flora and fauna species are found, as well as a great variety of aquatic invertebrates that have economic importance. Also, to protect endangered species, such as the Tumbes Crocodile, as well as to encourage the creation of recreational areas and to increase the flow of visitors in the neighboring areas.

The mangrove land is a type of tropical ecosystem that takes its name from the Mangrove, a tree physiologically and anatomically adapted to waters of great salinity that only grows in the intertidal zones, that is, zones that are flooded alternately by the sea and by the mouth of a river.

18 Official Guide |Northern Coast

In Peru, this habitat is only found in the northern part of the Department of Tumbes, except for 300 ha relict woodland at the mouth of the Sechura River, called La Bocana de San Pedro, in the Piura Region. In Tumbes, it is found


in the area that goes from the Tumbes River’s Estuary up to Punta Capones at the frontier with Ecuador. This habitat of mangroves, estuaries and channels, depends on a periodicity of alternating bodies of sea waters and the waters of the Zarumilla River that flood it, surrounded by a dry forest of trees adapted to low levels of rainfall. These extraordinary plant species have a long set of roots that virtually lift the tree as on stilts, and their seeds, in some cases, germinate on the tree itself before falling, perfectly adapted to an almost amphibian environment. On their treetops, thousands of birds find an ideal nesting place, or the necessary rest during their long migration, safe from inland predators. Among its impenetrable roots, shrimps and schools of fish enter with the high tide to feed and reproduce in the mangrove. When in low tide, various types of reptiles and mammals enter the mud in search of crustaceans and mollusks, constituting one of the environments with the greatest hydrobiological richness and highest productivity in the planet. Boating through the mangroves is a unique experience, being the vast diversity and the abundance of birds what first impresses you, as they become clouds of different colors. Along the routes created in the Sanctuary, and with the help of expert guides, one discovers the rich and intricate life that swarms unrelentingly among their roots, as well as peculiar animals that do not exist in any other place in Peru.

The local inhabitants, traditionally dedicated to the extraction of hydrobiological resources, nowadays find themselves involved in tourist activities for their greater benefit and that of the visitors and, at the same time, help with the preservation of this natural area. HISTORY The territory of Tumbes, which has been occupied for more than 10,000 years, was the scenario for some earlier local cultures -made up of incipient farmers, fishermen and sailors-, strongly linked to the zone which now belongs to Ecuador, especially in regard to the extraction of the Spondylus clamshell in the mangrove zones, whose large valves of reddish tone were used in the confection of the mullus and the offerings to the huacas. The ancient manors of Tumbes, known also as the Tumpis, became a part of the Tahuantinsuyo in the mid 15th century, 80 years before the arrival of Francisco Pizarro to their coasts and the beginning of the European conquest of the Inca Empire. The old pre-Hispanic Tumbes, the population of which is presumed to have reached 150,000 inhabitants, languished during the entire colonial era and part of the Republican times, until in 1942, after the conflict with Ecuador, the region was granted Department status. In 1986, a strategy developed by the Universidad Nacional Agraria de la Molina recommended the creation of a conservation unit for the mangrove zone of Tumbes, which was taken up

The only coastline with vegetation in Peru is found in the far north of Tumbes.

The Sanctuary is so rich in bird fauna, both migratory and resident, that this has led to its international recognition (1997) as a Wetland of International Importance: Ramsar Site. It corresponds to the southernmost point of the mangroves on the American Pacific Coast, and to the southernmost end of the great mangrove forest of the Guayas River Estuary and the Gulf of Guayaquil, of approximately 246,000 ha.� Protected Natural Areas | PERU 19


by the Government in 1988, pressed by the growth of shrimp farming activities within that fragile ecosystem. FLORA This ecosystem stands between the bio-geographical regions of the Tropical

border effect, forming the so-called Ecotones of great biological diversity, which sustain specialized fauna. Some species of flora stand out, such as the Red Mangrove (Rhizophora mangle), Colorado Mangrove (R. harrisonii), Black Mangrove (Avicennia germinans), White Mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa), Buttonwood (Conocarpus erectus), Saltwort (Batis maritima), Sea Purslane (Sesuvium portulacastrum) and Seashore Saltgrass (Distichlis spicata). FAUNA

Mangrove trees bathed by the alternating tides of fresh and salty waters.

It is highly diverse, from microscopic organisms up to the entire group of vertebrates excepting the amphibians, which are not found in this natural habitat. The fauna is an essential component within the inner workings of this ecosystem because it is found inserted, carrying out and integrating a number of ecological processes, many of which are dependent on the population stability of the fauna.

Seas of the Pacific Ocean and the Equatorial Dry Forest. The mangrove ecosystem, due to its peculiarity, manifests special and typical flora, with some biotypes that can be found in adjacent natural habitats; among them, the communities of halophytes and those of the dry forests, which can be found surrounding some parts of the mangrove forest, as well as in the continental land and in the islands. The influence exerted by the adjacent ecosystems has generated a

Diverse studies have identified up to 148 bird species in the mangrove forest ecosystem, of which 23 of them are migratory and 8 are residents: Clapper Rail (Rallus longirostris), Rufousnecked Wood Rail (Aramides axillaris), Mangrove Black Hawk (Buteogallus subtilis), Yellow-crowned Night-Heron (Nyctanassa violacea), Bare-throated Tiger Heron (Tigrisoma mexicanum), American White Ibis (Eudocimus albus), Great-tailed Grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus) and American Yellow Warbler (Dendroica petechia). Regarding reptiles, there are: Green Iguana, (Iguana iguana), Peru Desert Tegu (Dicrodon heterolepis), Peru Pacific Iguana (Microlophus peruvianus), Coniophanes Serpent (Coniophanes sp.), Boa Constrictor (Boa constrictor), Barnett's Lancehead (Bothrops cf barnetti), Black Iguana (Callopistes flavipunctatus) and Olive Ridley Sea Turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea).

Adapted to a flooded environment, the seeds ripen before they fall to the ground. 20 Official Guide |Northern Coast

The existence of various mammals has also been registered; among them: Crab-eating Raccoon (Procyon cancrivorus), Common Opossum (Didelphis marsupialis), Sechuran Fox (Lycalopex sechurae), Rat (Rattus norvegicus), Molina's Hog-nosed Skunk


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we have: the Mangrove Crab (Ucides occidentalis), Prawn (Pennaeus sp.), various Mangrove Cockle or Ark (Anadara tuberculosa, A. similis and A. grandis), Pen Shells (Atrina maura) and Mangrove Mussels (Mytella guyanensis). Worth mentioning is the American Crocodile (Crocodylus acutus), which could not be seen any more in the Sanctuary, but seemingly it has come back in these last years; this uncertainty confirms its status as a highly endangered species. The Silky Anteater (Cyclopes didactylus) is the smallest anteater in the world.

HOW TO GET THERE

Other studies report 105 species of fish, belonging to 43 families. From the total of species, 40% of them visit the mangrove land and 20% are resident.

From the City of Tumbes -1,246 km north of Lima on the Panamericana Norte-, following the same road for a further 20 km to the north, you arrive to Zarumilla. Once there, turning off the highway by the Reserve’s billboard, a dirt road carries you on for another 7 km up to the entrance post, called El Algarrobo, where you will find the Interpretation Center.

Within the crustaceans and mollusks

Another route of 5 km unpaved road

(Conepatus chinga), Silky Anteater (Cyclopes didactylus), Northern Tamandua (Tamandua mexicana) and Guayaquil Squirrel (Sciurus stramineus).

Protected Natural Areas | PERU 21


starts off at the sector of Villa Primavera in Zarumilla, and arrives in Puerto 25, where you find a variety of tourist services offered by associations of local villagers. Coming from Ecuador, the frontier town of Aguas Verdes is located at 6 km of the area. In Tumbes, overland transport is frequent and varied, and there are also daily flights from Lima to its international airport. WEATHER The average temperature goes from 65° F in winter to 86° F during the summer, and relative humidity runs from 73 to 80%. The Sanctuary presents a subtropical weather, and the influence of the Peruvian or Humboldt’s current and El Niño current, together with the Anticyclone of the South Pacific, produce irregular periods of droughts (100 to 300 mm per year) and rain (2,700 to 3,800 mm per year). RESTRICTIONS Even when it is possible to visit the site throughout the year, the dry season from April to November is the ideal time. And a two-day stay is recommended if you want to observe the mangroves at low and high tide. IMPORTANT: In order to enter the Reserve it is necessary to make a written request to the authorities at the Sanctuary’s headquarters 24 hours in advance. Working Hours: Mon to Fri 8.00 to 13.00 / 15.00 to 19.00. This request, in the case of travel tours, is made by the travel agency; it can also

The sighting of animals is one of the main attractions of the Sanctuary.

be done through the web. The entry is free of charge. Insect repellant is highly recommended. Entrance Fees in soles: Under 5 and above 65 years: Free. 5 to 15 years: S/3 (one day), S/6 (three days). Adults: S/10 (one day), S/20 (three days). ATTRACTIONS The tourist and recreational zone of the Sanctuary comprehends the Estuary of Zarumilla, and up to the Camarones Estuary, following through to the Matapalo Estuary until you get to La Envidia Estuary at the height of El Palmal sector. It has a total area of 137.4 ha (4.61% of the total), and there you can take on the following activities: Visiting the mangrove shore; canoeing and kayaking; sightseeing the mangrove ecosystem and birdwatching; and enjoying demonstrations of extraction activities

The Mangrove Heron (Butorides striatus), perched on a mangrove branch, lurking for its prey.

22 Official Guide |Northern Coast


Arriving to the footpath of “El Oscuro”, built in the mangrove woods.

The extraction of Blac Ark (Concha Negra), carried out by members of the local associations.”

of the hydrobiological resources of the ecosystem (Experiential Tourism).

within the mangroves in the entire country, where one can find lodgings, restaurants, handicraft shops or rent a boat for a ride to the estuaries and mangrove islands outside the Reserve. At Puerto Pizarro you can visit the crocodile’s farm run by FUNDEPES, which has 250 animals. Aguas Verdes (on the Peruvian side) and Huaquillas (in Ecuador) are bustling frontier towns where commerce takes place between the two countries.

The interesting Center of Interpretation is at the Control Post of El Algarrobo, located in the Buffer Zone, and visiting it is a must. There are also two circuits for small boat rides: a) Puerto 25 – Zarumilla Canal –Charca del Toro – Zarumilla Canal – Paracas Canal – Puerto 25. b) Puerto 25 – Paracas Canal – Zarumilla Canal – Punta Capones – Zarumilla Canal – Paracas Canal – Puerto 25. There is also a 60 meters long footpath in the buffer zone, a tourist path known as El Oscuro, implemented at the heart of the mangroves out of local materials. NEARBY ATTRACTIONS Puerto Pizarro, 15 km away from Tumbes, is the only fisherman´s dock

SERVICES WITHIN THE AREA In the buffer zone, adjacent to Puerto 25, the local associations of Nueva Esperanza (Tel: (01) 972 621 223 / www. ecoturismonuevaesperanza.com) and San Pedro (Tel: (01) 972 981 497) give basic lodging and meal services with products from the mangroves, such as cockle and mangrove crabs, which also tend to be part of the menu offered by the travel agencies. It is also possible to contract the services of these two associations, as travel agencies or to take tours to watch the process of extraction of the hydrobiological resources of the Sanctuary. CONTACT INFORMATION Administrative Headquarters of the protected area: Panamericana Norte 1739, in front of the Mariscal Caceres Stadium, Tumbes. Tel. (072) 526 489/ (01) 968 218 436. MEDA Peru: Executor of the Management Contract, Carrasco 217, Tumbes. Tel. (072) 524 430. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 23


Tumbes | National Reserve

“Frontier Forest” Tumbes presents similar species to the ones in the Amazonian Forest, such as the Noisy Mantled Howler Monkey (Alouatta palliata). *Facilities for tourism *Facilities for tourism NO NO

Location : TUMBES Extension : 19,266.72 19 266,72 ha Creation Date

: 07/11/2006 11/07/2006

Altitude Range

: 145 0 – 1200 – 1,200 meters meters

GENERAL OBJECTIVES The creation of the National Reserve aims at preserving biodiversity and the existing natural resources, promoting their rational and sustainable use guided by sound management plans, for the benefit of the neighboring communities and their social and economic development. DESCRIPTION The Equatorial Dry Forest is a unique ecosystem that can only be found in southern Ecuador and northern Peru and, as is usual with these unique ecosystems, they have a large number 24 Official Guide |Northern Coast

of unique endemic species of flora and fauna. This forest is called dry because it only receives rain from December to March and languishes during the rest of the year, when most of the trees lose their leaves and the undergrowth dries out and vanishes. The National Reserve of Tumbes is in reality a transition from the Equatorial Dry Forest to the Pacific Tropical Forest, a zone where the topography corresponds to low but steep hills, a kind of Tropical Savanna where the inflated and green ceibo trees, 10 to 15 meters high, stand out. The upper Tumbes River, charming, making its way among


wooded mountains and reddish soils, is a wonderful place to visit. HISTORY When we talk about Tumbes, we are talking about a frontier zone, and that shows in its history. After being on the periphery of the great Kingdom of Chimu, it was annexed to the Tahuantinsuyo as a spearhead against the northern kingdoms, and large palaces were built there, as the first chronicles at the time of the Spanish conquest tell us. Tumbes became one of the most neglected zones of the Viceroyalty, becoming again a “grey zone” in the development of the region. The situation remained much the same for this exprovince of Piura during the 19th century, a period of social upheaval, the time of birth and permanent readjustment of these young South American republics, a situation that lasted up to 1942, when Tumbes was upgraded to the category of Department in recognition to its heroic participation during the conflict with the neighboring country. The territory that nowadays makes up the protected area is the result of a process that began with the creation of the Reserved Zone of Tumbes, covering 75,102 ha, in 1994. The reduction in area out of the initial demarcation comes about because much of it is now part of the Cerros de Amotape National Park, with more restrictions for protection.

vegetation -local natural fodder as well as newly introduced- which is used by livestock farmers that come from Tumbes and Piura. In the list of 242 vegetal species that are registered, there are trees, bushes and weeds gathered in 161 genera, belonging to 71 families. Among the widely distributed species are: the Kapok (Ceiba trichistandra), Ficus (Ficus sp.), Buttercup Tree (Cochlospermum vitifolium), Chime Tree (Albizia guachapele), Huapala (Simira sp.), Anonilla (Annona sp.), Palo de Hacha (Machaerium millei) and Bongo (Cavanillesia platanifolia), this last one being an endangered species. FAUNA As a result of the first inventory of flora and fauna made at The National Reserve of Tumbes, important fauna has being reported, typical of the Dry Equatorial Forest and the Pacific Tropical Forest, standing out for their condition of risk the Tumbes Crocodile (Crocodylus acutus), the Grey-cheeked Parakeet (Brotogeris pyrrhopterus), the White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus peruvianus), the Guayaquil Squirrel (Sciurus stramineus), the Mantled Howler (Alouatta palliata), the Neotropical Otter (Lontra longicaudis), the Jaguar (Panthera onca), and the Margay (Leopardus wiedii). Among the most notorious results, there is a list of 20 species of mammals belonging to 15 families, and another of 137 bird species belonging to 40 families, 33 of

FLORA These days, there are several sectors of the Reserve with pasture type The Dry Forest of Tumbes becomes impassable during the rainy season.

The Tumbes Crocodile can live up to 80 years and it is the largest in the Americas (6 meters long). It knows how to remain still and submerged -it can stay without breathing for almost 2 hours- waiting for its prey, as it approaches to drink, in order to catch it and dismember it with its mighty jaws. Also adapted to salty waters, it has glands in the eyes to secrete the excess of salt: the famous “crocodile tears. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 25


them being endemic to the zone. Two of these endangered endemic birds are the Slaty Becard (Pachyramphus spodiurus) and the Grey-backed Hawk (Leucopternis occidentalis). HOW TO GET THERE An unpaved road, almost impassable in rainy season, takes you from Bocapan, at km 1,213 of the Panamericana Norte, to Huasimo; then, following a road which is being repaired, one gets to the border village of Cabo Inga. From here, after crossing the Cazaderos Ravine and entering the Reserve, you have to continue on foot for a couple of hours until you get to the control post of Zapallal. An alternative route from Tumbes is the entry by El Caucho (located in the neighboring Cerros de Amotape National Park), and from there, on foot or mule to the Bocana Murcielago area, where the building of a new control post has already been planned.

The Golden-olive Woodpecker (Colaptes rubiginosus), one of the most colorful birds in these forests.

Tumbes or Piura can be easily accessed by land. Interprovincial buses are constantly available. Also, there are daily flights from Lima to both cities.

relative humidity. The weather is subtropical, with great rainfall variances per year that go from 100 up to 2,000 mm. The temperature also has differentiated peaks, with an average of 95 °F in February and 59 °F in July-August.

WEATHER

RESTRICTIONS

It alternates between the desert climate of the Peruvian coast and the tropical sub-humid of Ecuador, with 80% of

IMPORTANT: In order to enter the area, it is necessary to make a written request for a pass/permit to the Reserve HQ. Working hours: Mon to Fri 8.00 – 13.00/15.00 – 19.00. Visiting the site during the dry season is recommended. Due to regular sentry patrols at the frontier line, it is important to be well informed about the routes one is allowed to travel and to take every preventive measure. ATTRACTIONS

The bromeliads “dress” the trees that support them. 26 Official Guide |Northern Coast

At present, there are no facilities for visitors, although it has been suggested that a zone for tourism should be established between the sectors of El Zapallal and Cabo Inga, with infrastructure for tourists, and footpaths into the woodlands and to the bi-national Puyango-Tumbes River, promoting fishing sports, canoeing and birdwatching.


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NEARBY ATTRACTIONS It is not possible to visit The National Reserve of Tumbes without crossing the Cerros de Amotape National Park, which engulfs it completely; so planning ahead for both destinies will be the most logical and convenient thing to do. The Hervideros thermal springs, with proper tourist infrastructure, are 5 km away from the entrance on the Bocapan side. Their waters, of moderate

temperature, along with the lovely beaches of the south of Tumbes, make an ideal complement to the visit to the Reserve. CONTACT INFORMATION Administrative Headquarters of the protected area: Panamericana Norte 1739, in front of the Mariscal Caceres Stadium, Tel. (072) 526 489/ (01) 968 218 424.

A rare Eyelash Viper (Bothriechis schlegelii) can be seen at the National Reserve.

Protected Natural Areas | PERU 27


Cerros de Amotape | National Park

“The jungle in the coast� Red-masked Parakeet (Aratinga erythrogenys), hunted for the pet market, is endemic to the Tumbes region. *Facilities for tourism

YES

Location : TUMBES & PIURA Surface Area

: 151,561.27 ha

Creation Date

: 07/22/1975 (extended on 07/11/2006)

Altitude Range

: 120 - 1,538 meters

GENERAL OBJECTIVES The National Park has as its goal to protect representative samples of flora and fauna of the Pacific Tropical Forest and of the Equatorial Dry Forest, which make up the central area of the Tumbes Endemism Region. DESCRIPTION The Park extends along the foothills of the Massif of the Amotapes, which is very old geologically speaking. It is presumed to be between 500 and 400 million years old, before the appearance of amphibians. This 28 Official Guide |Northern Coast

region has been identified by the Smithsonian Institute as a priority zone for preservation and investigation as a center of plant diversity, and is recognized by Bird Life International as an area of endemic bird species and a key place for the conservation of endangered birds. The Park protects the eco-regions of the Equatorial Dry Forest and those of the Pacific Tropical Forest. The latter is a very particular forest in the coastal region, for its hilly zones thick with trees and shrubbery, with Amazonian species like Cetico, Cedar, palm trees and matapalos, a


type of strangler fig. Its singularity is accentuated by its being surrounded by Dry Forest vegetation with plant associations as the ceibal, the chaparral and the algarrobal. The visitor can easily recognize the different life zones that exist within the Park, starting at the north, the most humid zone, with high levels of precipitation and where the greatest biodiversity is found. At the center and south, the hottest and most arid zone is found: hills of thorny shrubs and cactus, from sea level up to an altitude of 600 meters, along with great areas of very dry savannas, and others where forest arboreal species characteristic of the Dry Forest predominate, usually covered by bromeliads and epiphytes, such as the Spanish Moss, or groups of orchids that give these woods that exotic fairytale story appearance. Inside and in the proximities of the Park, there are small settlements that were already there before the Park was created. These people used to live on the extraction of resources, especially timber, and nowadays make their living from cattle farming; this fact constitutes a challenge for the management and preservation of an area with strict protection status like Amotape. It is a privileged land for birdwatching, trekking, canoeing and the respectful contemplation of a unique landscape in the country, and we hope it will

show an improvement in its tourist infrastructure in the near future. HISTORY The ancient history of the Cerros de Amotape still remains hidden in time and the forest. The only line that scholars and explorers have followed, with great difficulty until now, has been the one registered when Pizarro and his army took up the famous journey from Tumbes to Cajamarca. Retracing it, many pre-Hispanic sites have been found -an inventory of the Park reported 26 sites in 1998- the majority of them reduced to their foundations, and some of them of evident Inca origin, such as Guineal, in the Cusco Ravine. Its name comes from “the ravine (that took) to Cusco” – one of the famous Roads of the Incas, who in those days already dominated the area, controlling the northern Mullu (Spondylus) trade, among others. The dramatic population decrease that followed, added to the Spaniard’s “reductions” that relocated entire villages, caused the area to become depopulated. In our times, the need to contain de extraction of timber in the area was the cause for the early creation of the Tumbes National Forest in 1957. In 1970, the felling of trees and its related coal production, which used endangered tree species, were forbidden. In 1975 the Cerros de Amotape National Park

The Dry Forest, a particularly fragile and biologically diverse habitat.

The Northwestern Biosphere Reserve (RBNO, in Spanish), recognized by UNESCO in 1977, is a unique and fragile natural landscape, which involves three protected natural areas: Cerros de Amotape National Park (central zone), El Angolo Game Preserve and the National Reserve of Tumbes. Action has been taken to include the Manglares de Tumbes National Sanctuary in the future. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 29


was created with an extension of 91,300 ha and, in 1994, the Reserved Zone of Tumbes came into being. Finally, when the latter was categorized as a National Reserve in 2006, more than 60 thousand hectares of its territory then became part of the Park.

(Cedrela montana), Laurel (Cordia eriostigma), Pechiche (Vitex gigantea), and Balsa Tree (Ochroma pyramidale). FAUNA The Park has fauna species that are typical of the Peruvian coastal desert, the Pacific Tropical Forest and the Andes. More than 200 bird species have been registered in the area, although this number is not considered exhaustive. Cerros de Amotape is the protected zone with the greatest number of endangered bird species in the country, amounting to 14. Among them, the most outstanding are: The Gray-backed Hawk (Leucopternis occidentalis), Condor (Vultur gryphus), Gray-cheeked Parakeet (Brotogeris Blackish-headed pyrrhoptera), Spinetail (Synallaxis tithys), Pacific Royal Flycatcher (Onychorhynchus occidentalis) and Rufous-headed Chachalaca (Ortalis erythroptera).

Everything turns green again in the Dry Forest when the rain comes.

FLORA In the 5 life zones that there are in the Park, more than 1,000 plant species have been registered, distributed in 114 families. In the Equatorial Dry Forest, the most representative are: American Carob (Prosopis pallida), Spruce Hualtaco (Loxopterygium huasango), Palo Santo (Bursera graveolens), Buttercup Tree (Cochlospermum vitifolium), Charan (Caesalpinia paipai), Madera Negra (Tabebuia bilbergii) and Kapok (Ceiba trichistandra). In environments of greater humidity, specifically in the Pacific Tropical Forest, woods of major height and density exist, covered by epiphytes such as the Spanish Moss (Tillandsia usneoides) and orchids. Among the characteristic forest species we have: Palo de Vaca (Alseis peruviana), Bongo (Cavanillesia platanifolia), Cedro Tree 30 Official Guide |Northern Coast

The capricious forms of the ceibo trees stand out in the landscape.


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Within the boundaries of the Park, other endangered species can also be observed, such as: Mantled Howler (Alouatta palliata), Neotropical Otter (Lontra longicaudis), Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) and Tumbes Crocodile (Crocodylus acutus). HOW TO GET THERE There are 6 control posts (CP) at the Park’s borders that can be reached by five different routes, and a sixth route takes to a biological research station. They are detailed here, listed from north to south: 1. CP Isla Noblecilla: From Tumbes, go 20 km along the Panamericana Norte up to Zarumilla; then, via Papayal, one can enter the Park by a dirt road. 2. Biology Station El Caucho: From Tumbes, go to Pampas de Hospital by a 17 km paved road and, from there, take a 34 km dirt road up to El Caucho.

White-tailed Jay (Cyanocorax mystacalis).

3. CP Angostura: From Tumbes, go to Cabuyal (20 km after Pampas de Hospital) by a paved road and, from there, a 15 km dirt road that takes you to Angostura. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 31


4. CP Rica Playa: From Tumbes, there is a 17 km paved road to the settlement called Francos, and then you can take a dirt road for about 20 km more.

from 73.5 °F to 79 °F and the average annual precipitation is 500 mm in the Dry Equatorial Forests and 1,450 mm in the Pacific Tropical Forests.

5. CP Panales and Tnte. Astete: From Bocapan Ravine at km 1213 of the Panamericana Norte, you take an unpaved road 39 km long that takes you to Panales. Once in the Park, you follow the dirt road up to the crossing of Huasimo, and then go on till you arrive to CP Teniente Astete; 100 km in all.

RESTRICTIONS

6. CP Papallo: Sullana is found some 30 km north of Piura; from there, you take the road that goes towards Poechos, which is also a paved road, until you get to Querecotillo. From there, a dirt road takes you to CP Papallo. During the rainy season, the access roads are almost impassable. Tumbes or Piura can be easily accessed by land. Interprovincial buses are constantly available. Also, there are daily flights from Lima to both cities. WEATHER The weather at the Park is transitional from the desert climate of the Peruvian coast to the tropical subhumid weather of Ecuador. The average annual temperature oscillates

IMPORTANT: In order to enter the reserve, it is necessary to make a written request to the authorities at the Park’s headquarters, 24 hrs in advance. Visiting the Park during the dry season is recommended, that is, from April to November. Due to regular border patrols at the frontier lines, it is important to be well informed about the routes one is allowed to travel and to take all the necessary preventive measures. ATTRACTIONS At the didactic Biological Station El Caucho you can get a very clear idea of the beauty of the wild flora and fauna of the Pacific Tropical Forest, the only one in Peru. There, you also cross the Faical Ravine, of great natural beauty, the zones for birdwatching, such as La Poza del Pato y Campo Verde, and Las Pavas Ravine, where you can observe family groups of the Mantled Howler Monkey, noisy flocks of Gray-cheeked Parakeets, the Red-masked Parakeet (Aratinga erythrogenys) with its characteristic call, or the lovely Bronze-winged Black Parrot (Pionus chalcopterus).

The Tumbes River has great potential for kayaking, still to be developed.

32 Official Guide |Northern Coast


There are lots of Green Iguana (Iguana iguana) in Cerros de Amotape.

Cabo Inga and it ends up in Rica Playa, but the levels of difficulty along the river are yet to be established, as well as the opening and closing dates of the season. NEARBY ATTRACTIONS

The central zone is the warmest and the most arid, an area of thorny bushes and cactuses.

Rica Playa, one may say, is “the main gate� to the Cerros de Amotape National Park. Here, a series of circuits begin that combine valuable attractions for both sectors: nature and adventure. Most outstanding because of their natural attributes are: the Ucumares Ravine, the Bocana Carrillo and the Honda Ravine. Bocana Carrillo is the disembarkation point for the routes along the Tumbes River, and for those practicing fishing and canoeing who embarked at Honda Ravine and Cabo Inga.

The Park is the entrance gate to the National Reserve of Tumbes and it is next to El Angolo Game Preserve; visiting the three of them will be the ideal in the near future. The gorgeous coastal circuit composed by Mancora, Punta Sal and Zorritos beaches, are the perfect complement to the tour. CONTACT INFORMATION The Administration HQ of the protected area: Tumbes: Panamericana Norte 1739, Tel. (072) 526 489/ (01) 968 218 424; Piura: Los Cocos Mz. H, Lt. 23. Urb. Club Grau; Tel. (01) 969 417 863.

The access by Bocapan and Panales is very attractive because of its flora and fauna, as well as for its beautiful landscapes. The Huasimo gore stands out, a viewpoint that, as a watchtower, overlooks the Cazaderos Ravine and the Cusco Ravine. This route requires a stay of 2 days and it is programmed to be implemented in the future. The frontier zones of Teniente Astete, Capitan Hoyle and Cabo Inga, can also be accessed through linked routes branching from Bocapan. The Inca site of Guineal is located nearby Captain Hoyle village. The canoeing route begins at

El Caucho Biological Station, the most didactic entrance door to the Park. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 33


El Angolo | Game Preserve

“Bird Orchard� The Pacific Pygmy Owl (Glaucidium peruanum), a very small owl, is found throughout the American continent. *Facilities for tourism

YES

Location : PIURA Surface Area

: 65,000 ha

Creation Date

: 07/01/1975

Altitude Range

: 150 - 1,550 meters

GENERAL OBJECTIVES The objective of the creation of El Angolo is to preserve the Equatorial Dry Forest and its fauna resources through the sustainable management of the wild fauna, and to promote sport-hunting tourism in order to contribute to the social and economic development of the region. DESCRIPTION The landscape of El Angolo is characterized by having three typical Dry Forest formations. In the lower part, the algarrobal, with thorny 34 Official Guide |Northern Coast

shrubs and columnlike cactuses, cut by wide ravines; then, the dry forest hills, where a variety of forest species come into view like the Spruce Hualtaco (Loxopterygium huasango), Madera Negra (Tabebuia bilbergii) and Palo Santo (Bursera graveolens); finally, the ceibal, where the Ceibo trees or Kapok (Ceiba trichistandra) stands out as the characteristic species. This environment changes dramatically along the year: In the rainy season, the trees are covered with leaves and the undergrowth becomes abundant, making the forest impenetrable, while in the dry season the trees lose their leaves and the undergrowth dries out and is scarce.


Due to its location and climatic conditions, species from the Tropical Rainy Forest, from the coastal desert and also from the Andean highlands inhabit it. Regarding the bird population, 177 species have been reported, of which 37 are endemic to the Tumbes Endemism Region. Since 1977, it became part of the Biosphere Reserve of the Northwest, one of four recognized by UNESCO in Peru. It is the second protected area in the country with the largest number of endangered bird species. Considering the value of its endangered and endemic species, Bird Life International recognized the Game Preserve as an IBA or “Important Bird Area”. El Angolo is the only official game preserve in the country where sport hunting is practiced; being the Andean White-tailed Deer the most important species as much as hunting is concerned. HISTORY Towards 1950, by Mr. Calixto Romero’s initiative and within the grounds of the Negociacion Agricola Mallares S.A., El Angolo Game Preserve first became a private hunting center, attracting local and foreign hunters. In 1970, the company donated the hunting grounds in favor of the Agrarian Reform -an extension of 10,280 ha. Studies from researchers at the Universidad Nacional Agraria de La Molina came to the conclusion that the area deserved special interest due to its flora and

fauna, and due to its potential for the development of hunting as a sport and for recreational tourism. It was then that the Game Preserve was officially established in 1975, increasing its original size to 65,000 ha. Since 2002, the Sauce Grande sector (9,218 ha) is partially run by the Club de Caza, Pesca y Turismo, under contract of administration. Its management, while protecting these grounds as the deer habitat and promoting a regulated practice of hunting as a sport, has contributed to the protection of this wildlife site and, at the same time, favored the local villagers, which reap the benefit of activities related to this sport. FLORA At El Angolo there are 180 species, among which the following are worth mentioning: American Carob (Prosopis pallida), Faique (Acacia macracantha), Palo Santo (Bursera graveolens), Almendron (Geoffroea striata), Buttercup Tree (Cochlospermun vitifolium), Coral Tree (Erythrina sp.), Kapok (Ceiba trichistandra) and Sapote (Capparis scabrida). FAUNA Twenty nine species of mammals dwell in the area, among which are: the Andean White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus peruvianus), the Puma (Puma concolor), the Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), the Collared

The preservation of the Equatorial Dry Forest is the main objective of the Game Preserve.

In order to hunt at El Angolo Game Preserve, you are required to have a current hunting license; for which you need a previously granted sport fire arms license by DISCAMEC. Likewise, you must not have been disqualified by the Protected Natural Area Headquarters and you must pay for the right of use for each hunted specimen. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 35


(Campephilus gayaquilensis), Tumbes Tyrant (Tumbezia salvini) and Andean Tinamou (Nothoprocta pentlandii). HOW TO GET THERE From Sullana, 35 km north of Piura, you can go to the Sauce Grande Lodge taking a 115 km dirt road for 4WD vehicles; it takes three hours to get there. From Mancora (km 1,169 of the Panamericana Norte), the Fernandez Ravine control post can be reached in about 1 ½ hrs taking a 25 km unpaved road. WEATHER Desert like, with temperatures between 59 °F and 102 °F and average humidity of 66%. The rainy season goes from December to April. RESTRICTIONS

Colorful Black-tailed Trogon (Trogon melanurus), a bird closely related to the Quetzal.

Peccary (Pecari tajacu), the Guayaquil Squirrel (Sciurus stramineus) and the Northern Tamandua (Tamandua mexicana). From the 177 bird species, the following stand out: Condor (Vultur gryphus), King Vulture (Sarcoramphus papa), Rufous-headed Chachalaca (Ortalis erythroptera), Red-masked Parakeet erythrogenys), Gray(Aratinga cheeked Parakeet (Brotogeris pyrrhoptera), Guayaquil Woodpecker

IMPORTANT: You must apply for permission in writing to the authorities of the Preserve 24 hours in advance in order to enter the area. For hunting purposes you have to coordinate the visit with the Club de Caza, Pesca y Turismo Piura. We recommend visiting from April to November (dry season). ATTRACTIONS The area is interesting because of its flora and fauna, its potential for the practice of hunting as a sport, for birdwatching and recreational tourism. The most representative species for hunting purposes is the Andean White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus

The twisted Ceibo tree covered by Spanish Moss give the forest a fairytale atmosphere.

36 Official Guide |Northern Coast


80°00' Q

. Fern

Q. 36

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El Papayo

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San Jacinto 12.7

8.

Piura 30 km

peruvianus). The season for deer hunting goes from May to November and it is only allowed to hunt adult male deer. The most remarkable places because of the beauty of the scenery are the waterfalls at Los Pilares Ravine (where a tourist path is going to be implemented), and the Sauce Grande sector.

PIURA

Querecotillo

Mallares 9 Amotape Marcavelica El ArenalR Tamarindo io La Huaca Sojo SULLANA C h ir a San Lucas 80°00'

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Scale km 0

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20

CONTACT INFORMATION Administrative HQ of the protected area: Av. Los Cocos H-23, Urb. Grau, Piura. Tel. (073) 321 668/ (01) 968 218 473. Club de Caza, Pesca y Turismo Piura; Textil Piura, km 3.5 on the PiuraSullana Highway. Tel. (073) 333 190.

NEARBY ATTRACTIONS The neighboring Cerros de Amotape National Park and the circuit of beaches of the northern part of the Department of Piura, among which Mancora stands out, are a perfect complement to the visit to the Preserve. SERVICES WITHIN THE AREA There is only one lodging place in the Sauce Grande sector and it is run by the Club de Caza, Pesca, Turismo y Recreacion de Piura.

R

4°30'

32. 2

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Sauce Grande

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EL ANGOLO GAME PRESERVE

La Breíta 22

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El Alto

adre del ag ua Q. H uab Q. Pilares al

Cerezal Fernandez

5

7.2

15

Cabo Blanco

Game Preserve

CERROS DE AMOTAPE NATIONAL PARK

25

Los Organos 15.2

Ñuro

Vichayito La Capilla

3.9

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10

9.6

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N

Mancora

The Andean white-tailed deer (Odocoileus peruvianus), subjected to strict hunting norms within the Preserve. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 37


Laquipampa |Wildlife Refuge

“Zero Extinction” As a phoenix bird, after a century of being considered extinct, the White-winged Guan (Penelope albipennis) reappeared in its old habitat. *Facilities for tourism *Facilities for tourism NO NO

Location : LAMBAYEQUE TUMBES Extension : 8,328.64 19 266,72ha ha Creation Date

: 07/11/2006 11/07/2006

Altitude Range

: 200 0 – 1200 - 2,600 meters meters

GENERAL OBJECTIVES

DESCRIPTION

The objectives are to preserve a representative sample of the northwestern Dry Forest, which serves as a habitat for the Whitewinged Guan (Penelope albipennis), the Spectacled Bear (Tremarctos ornatus), the Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus) and other endemic bird species; and to carry out scientific and/or technological research on the behavior, management, reproduction in captivity and repopulation of the White-winged Guan and other species of flora and fauna.

Laquipampa was basically established to preserve the last refuge where the White-winged Guan species can be found in the wild. This bird is endemic to the Dry Forest and in grave danger of extinction; it is reckoned that approximately 300 specimens exist in Peru, its only habitat, as a whole. In Laquipampa, some 25 specimens are found living in the wild.

38 Official Guide |Northern Coast

The zone shows a varied topography, with dry riverbeds and depressions, steep hillsides and plains. Watered by the Moyan and Sangana Rivers that,


together, form La Leche River, the Wildlife Refuge has among its most important life zones, the Dry Forest, the Desert Scrubland and the Riverside Scrubland, with their almost unaltered landscapes and ecosystems; therefore, their protection is of high importance. HISTORY In Laquipampa (in Quechua: Pampa of Tears), archaeological traces that correspond to the Formative Period (2,000 to 500 BC) are found. Among the most interesting are the petroglyphs, iconographic representations of spirals, crosses and other figures that are difficult to define embossed in the rock and which have not yet been studied. The Wildlife Refuge was initially declared as a Reserved Zone in 1982. FLORA Among the main species of flora we have: Palo santo (Bursera graveolens), Pasallo (Eriotheca discolor), Strangler Fig (Ficus obtusifolia), Jamaican Cherry (Muntingia sp.), Spruce Hualtaco (Loxopterygium huasango), Sapote (Capparis angulata), Palo Verde (Parkinsonia aculeata), Longspine Acacia (Acacia macracantha) and Indian Rushpea (Hoffmannseggia glauca). Likewise, we find a variety of native flora such as the Angolo (Pithecellobium multiflorum), Cockspur Coral Tree (Erythrina cristagalli), American Carob (Prosopis pallida), Ebano (Ziziphus thyrsiflora), Huayacan (Tabebuia billbergii) and Orange Jessamine (Cestrum auriculatum); species such as the Nogal and Pasallo, which are used as natural dyes, and medicinal plants like the Yellow Geiger (Cordia lutea) and Milkwood.

FAUNA Most important is the White-winged Guan (Penelope albipennis) that has been classified as a critically endangered species, one of the four most endangered species in Peru. Laquipampa is the only protected area with a wild population of this species in the region, endemic to northern Peru; it forms part of the Tumbes Endemism Region and of the Equatorial Dry Forest eco-region. There used to be a biological corridor for wild life in Lambayeque, that is, the wild animals from the highlands of Laquipampa used to come down to the “algarrobales” of the Pomac Forest, the White-winged Guan among them. This system has been interrupted by agriculture, even though they are looking forward to recover it. The places where the White-winged Guan has being detected are Negrahuasi, Del Reloj and Shambo ravines, and the Lajas Sector. In addition, other species have been registered in the area: Bearded Guan (Penelope barbata), Ochre-bellied Dove (Leptotila ochraceiventris) and Henna-hooded Foliage-gleaner (Hylocryptus erythrocephalus), all of them classified as vulnerable species. There is, as well, the Rufous-necked Foliage-gleaner (Syndactyla ruficollis), also in the vulnerable species list, that has been seen at Shambo Ravine. Also, Red-masked Parakeet (Aratinga erythrogenys) and the Guayaquil Woodpecker (Campephilus gayaquilensis), both classified as almost in danger of

The reinsertion of the Guan to its natural habitat has been taking place with great success.

It is believed that the White-winged Guan used to inhabit the mangroves of Tumbes, but, as a consequence of man's intervention, it changed its habitat and looked for refuge in the dry forests of the north. It is found near humid areas locally known as “jagueyes”, where the Strangler Fig grows, since the Guan feeds on its fruits. It builds simple nests in trees and generally lays two eggs. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 39


extinction by BirdLife International; other species include the White-tailed Jay (Cyanocorax mystacalis), Southern Crested Caracara (Caracara plancus), and varieties of hummingbirds such as the Sparkling Violetear (Colibri coruscans), the Amazilia Hummingbird (Amazilia amazilia), and the Speckled Hummingbird (Adelomyia melanogenys). Among the mammals we have: White-tail Deer (Odocoileus peruvianus), Colocolo (Leopardus colocolo), Northern Tamandua (Tamandua mexicana), Collared Peccary (Pecari tajacu) and Spectacled Bear (Tremarctos ornatus). There are 2 species of amphibians and 17 species of reptiles, among which the following stand out: the geckos (Phyllodactylus reissi), lizards (Ameiva edrecantha), iguanas (Callopistes flavipunctatus), boas (Boa constrictor) and amphibians of the Dendrobatidae family. HOW TO GET THERE One can get to Laquipampa mainly taking a paved road that runs from Ferreñafe and Pitipo up to Batan Grande, and then taking an unpaved road

The conspicuous Spectacled Bear is protected in the Wildlife Refuge.

WEATHER Temperatures are high and vary from 64 °F to 77 °F with a relative humidity of 84% and longer daylight in December. RESTRICTIONS It is recommended to plan your visits for the dry season, from April to December. ATTRACTIONS A. White-winged Guan observation circuit (800 meters above sea level): The observation point for the Whitewinged Guan is located in Lajas, some 3 km west of Laquipampa. It can be seen from 5.30 to 8.30 in the mornings and from 4 to 6.30 in the afternoons. B. Bearded Guan observation circuit (1,100 meters above sea level): After a 2 hours walk from the Protected Zone’s Offices following a path, you arrive to Shambo Ravine, where you can appreciate a great number of these birds.

Superb glider, the Turkey Vulture flies searching for carrion.

passing by the villages of Motupillo, Mayascon, Mochumi Viejo, La Libertad and El Algarrobito, until you get to the Comunidad San Antonio de Laquipampa. The route from Chiclayo to Laquipampa, some 75 km, takes from 3 to 4 hrs. 40 Official Guide |Northern Coast

The Cascades of Lajas are located at a 20 minutes’ walk from the main office. These are a set of 4 waterfalls. The depth of their wells is 2 to 2.5 meters and their waters are lukewarm. They can be visited throughout the year, but better still from April to December. Other circuits are: the Spectacled Bear observation circuit and the archaeological zone. Birdwatching tourism: Our country ranks first in bird diversity worldwide (with 1,879


79°40'

79°35'

Piura 191 km

Motupe

9

6°10'

2

Chochope

Wildlife Refuge

N

Rio de Chochop e

23.5

La Ramada

Laquimpampa

Escalera Mountain pass

an a

ot

Q. S al

Angelina Mountain

uta

DAR Y

6°20'

B

EB

N OU

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LAQUIPAMPA REFUGE

6°25'

o

PIURA

Motupillo

Bosque de Pomac Historical Sanctuary 20 km

LAMBAYEQUE

Scale km

Batan Grande

7

Chiclayo 51 km

79°40'

0 79°35'

identified species), in view of which the creation of the Northern Macro Region Corridor is being promoted, a circuit that holds the greatest diversity of birds in the world, as well as being the one with the largest number of endemic species, and it includes Tumbes, Piura, Lambayeque, Cajamarca, Amazonas, San Martin and Loreto. The Bosque de Pomac Historical Sanctuary and the Wildlife Refuge of Laquipampa are part of this corridor.

5

10 79°30'

79°25'

CONTACT INFORMATION Administrative HQ of the protected area: Av. Victor Muro 1175, Ferreñafe. Tel. (074) 286 182/ (01) 968 218 461.

NEARBY ATTRACTIONS In order to get to Laquipampa one crosses the Bosque de Pomac Historical Sanctuary, so visiting both is ideal. There are also some spring waters close to Mochumi and one can spot the Spectacled Bear at El Jaguey, near Mayascon. SERVICES WITHIN THE AREA The offices of the Sanctuary are found in the buffer zone, at the east limit of the area, and can be useful as an information center.

6°15'

moc To

Q.

11

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Mochumi

La Calera

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17.3

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6°25'

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Chiclayo 69 km

Q.

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Laquipampa is the hope for the recovery of the White-winged Guan in Peru. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 41


Bosque de Pomac | Historical Sanctuary

“Millennia under the forest’s shadow” The Guayaquil Squirrel (Sciurus stramineus), endemic to the Equatorial Dry Forest, moving swiftly on the trees of the Sanctuary. *Facilities for tourism

YES

Location : LAMBAYEQUE Extension : 5,887.38 ha Creation Date

: 06/01/2001

Altitude Range

: 30 - 300 meters

GENERAL OBJECTIVES The Historical Sanctuary was constituted in order to preserve the indissoluble unity between culture and environment that is a characteristic of the relationship between the Equatorial Dry Forest and of the archaeological complex belonging to the Sican or Lambayeque culture. DESCRIPTION The northern coast of Peru has the best preserved portion of the Equatorial Dry Forest ecoregion, being the Bosque de Pomac Historical Sanctuary an emblematic and most representative 42 Official Guide |Northern Coast

sample. This great ecosystem forms part of the Tumbes Endemism Zone and it is considered a world priority area for conservation. The Sanctuary is located in the lower basin of La Leche River, a zone where rainwater filters into the subsoil, thus allowing the forest to survive during the dry season. The importance of the biological richness of the Equatorial Dry Forest of Pomac is evident, for its lands have been used for the establishment of numerous human groups since the early origins of the Andean high culture, providing resources and materials for their development. It has the most


important complex of pyramids in the country and the most numerous group of South America, composed of more than 20 pyramids of mud and adobe, distributed on a 45 km2 site. HISTORY During the Formative period (2,000 to 500 BC), the ceremonial center synthesized the most important religious and political power, reaching its peak in the outstanding monumental architecture. The Moche culture, with its ethnic and cultural identity molded by the ecological and territorial environment of the north coast of Peru, dominated the zone during the Early Intermediate period, from 100 BC to 700 AD. The pillars of the Moche power were an intensive agriculture based on an impressive irrigation system, large-scale fishing, metallurgy and craftsmanship with iconography of strong religious content, and a very active commercial exchange with far away territories. It is during the Middle Horizon period that the Lambayeque or the Sican culture expands in the main valleys in Lambayeque: Motupe, La Leche (with its capital in the Forest of Pomac), Lambayeque and Zaña. It appears around 750-800 AD, after the fall of the Mochica, reaching its peak between the years 900-1,100 AD and dominating most of the north coast of Peru, until the end of the 14th century, when it was conquered by the Kingdom of the Chimu, who advanced from the south.

religious in nature. A distinctive characteristic of the Middle Sican art is the Sican icon or Naymlap, a face in the form of a mask with winged eyes. Some of their pyramids had monumental dimensions, such as Huaca Lercanlech, with measurements of 100 x 100 x 40 m height. One of the most important Lambayecan legacies is its metallurgy, together with its very intensive agriculture and its long distance trade. The Tumi, the famous ceremonial knife, and the golden masks which have been used as national symbols, are Lambayeque objects that were sacked from elite tombs. During the Late Intermediate period, Tucume was its most outstanding center. It was Lambayeque’s most important center of power after Pomac was abandoned towards the year 1,050 AD, and the last seat of the Sican or Lambayeque culture. Later, it became the administrative center of the Chimu culture, as well as of the Incas during their domination at a later period. Ever since the end of the 16th century, new economic patterns and the new concept of property were imposed on these lands, and the use of these woods became more intensive with the livestock “estancias”, such as “Estancia Sican” (Pomac) with its excellent fodder producing woodlands. During the Republican period, the country estates were the norm. In 1969, the largest estates become the Agrarian

A major trait is its art, which was essentially figurative in its style and Through millennia, the forest contributed to the development of civilization in the northern coast.

The Algarrobo or American Carob (Prosopis pallida), with its twisted branches and wide canopy, endures prolonged droughts due to its extraordinary root system. It has two types of roots, one (or more) pivoting roots that can grow 60 meters deep in search for water (like a 20 floor building!), and a network of lateral, superficial roots that can grow in a 60 meters diameter. A giant of the desert. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 43


Cooperatives of Production constituted by the workers of the same; and the country estate of Batan Grande becomes the ACP Pucala. In 1984, the Education Ministry creates the Ecological and Archaeological Reserve of Batan Grande, with 4,600 ha. In 1991, the Reserved Zone of Batan Grande is established with 13,400 ha for the protection of its archaeological wealth and its woodlands and, finally, the current Sanctuary is constituted in 2001. FLORA Pomac belongs to the Equatorial Dry Forest ecoregion. The dominant forest species are the American Carob and the Sapote, quite tough vegetation that has developed specific characteristics in order to adapt itself to aridity, such as wide and deep roots, a slow rate of growth, small leaves, thorns, etc. There are three kinds of forest in Pomac: thick forest, semi thick forest and dry scant forest; while the vegetal formations are grouped in four: Chaparral (dense thicket of small evergreen trees), matorral or scrubland, cactuses and riverside vegetal associations. Among the main tree species, we have: American Carob (Prosopis pallida), Sapote (Capparis angulata), Longspine Acacia (Acacia macracantha), Palo Verde (Cercidium praecox), Angolo (Pithecellobium multiflorum) and Jerusalem Thorn (Parkinsonia aculeata). Also, some bushes like the Vichayo (Capparis ovalifolia), Cuncuno (Vallesia glabra) and Chaquiro (Pithecellobium excelsum); and cactus as the Neoraimondia gigantea.

Great Sican ceremonial headdress.

FAUNA The Sanctuary is the main refuge for wildlife of this type of ecosystem and it has a great variety of endemic species, many of them endangered ones. Up to this day, 89 bird species have been registered, 16 of them are endemic to the so-called Tumbes Endemism Region and 5 to Peru. Two species that are not found in any other protected area and that are highly appreciated by birdwatchers are the Peruvian Plantcutter (Phytotoma raimondii), which is in danger, and the Tumbes Swallow (Tachycineta stolzmanni), which is very rare in the dry forests. Notable, as well, are the Rufous Flycatcher (Myiarchus semirufus), another very rare species in the Peruvian coast, and the Black-

On the edge of the desert, life is concentrated under the cover of the forest, a fragile equilibrium, currently endangered.

44 Official Guide |Northern Coast


e

up

Olmos 58 km

Jayanca 4.4

6°25'

N

Huaca Julupe

al

Ja ya n

ca

Pacora

15. 3

Cruz Blanca

Huaca La Merced Las Salinas

Tucume Viejo

El Purgatorio Tucume Site Museum Viewpoint

7

La Calera Mountain

6

ON E

FER Z

Blan Mount

Tambo Real Mountain

BU F

4.5

i ym Ta

6°35'

Laquipam 36 k

Pitipo

Huaca La Yovera

PIURA

8

Punto Cuatro

8.2 Batan Grand

Huaca Partida

Rio

Huaca La Cruz

Tambo Real

BOSQUE DE POMAC HISTORICAL SANCTUARY 14

L A M B A Y E Q U E

Mochumi

Rio La Leche

BO UN DAR Y

Tucume

ora

La Saranda 5.1 10 .6

3

Huaca Sapame

Huaca Soledad

Ca Millenarian Tree Huaca Las Ventanas Huaca Huacas Lucía-Cholope Corte

Huaca Lercanlech Huaca del Oro

Illimo

ld ee sti aje

Huaca Sontillo

Rio Pac

na

6.1

Poma III Huaca Rivera

Huaca del Muerto

Huaca Quemada

Bosque de Pomac

La Tranca

Huaca Bandera

6°30'

Historical Sanctuary

Can

Rio

t Mo

13

Old P anam

erica

na

LAMBAYEQUE

Sican National Museum Scale km

Chiclayo 11 km

0

2 79°50'

4

FERREÑAFE

faced Ibis (Theristicus melanopis), not often seen in the “algarrobales”. There are also, the Amazilia Hummingbird (Amazilia amazilia), Peruvian Thick-knee (Burhinus superciliaris), Pale-legged Hornero (Furnarius leucopus), White-tailed Jay (Cyanocorax mystacalis), Cinereous Finch (Piezorhina cinerea), Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia), Lineated Woodpecker (Dryocopus lineatus), Harri’s Hawk (Parabuteo unicinctus), White-edged Oriole (Icterus graceannae), Scrub Blackbird (Dives warszewiczi), Vermilion Flycatcher (Pyrocephalus rubinus), Saffron Finch (Sicalis flaveola), Superciliated Wren (Thryothorus superciliaris), House Wren (Troglodytes aedon) and Red-masked Parakeet (Aratinga erythrogenys). Among the registered reptile species are: Iguana (Callopistes flavipunctatus), Green Iguana (Iguana iguana), Boa (Boa constrictor), Barnett's Lancehead (Bothrops barnetti) and Desert Coral Snake (Micrurus tschudii).

LA LIBERTAD

79°45'

79°40'

There are 7 species of mammals: Colocolo (Leopardus colocolo), Guayaquil Squirrel (Sciurus stramineus), endemic to the Equatorial Dry Forest, Sechuran Fox (Lycalopex sechurae), Gerbil Leaf-eared Mouse (Phyllotis gerbillus), Northern Tamandua (Tamandua mexicana), Tayra (Eira barbara) and the Common Vampire Bat (Desmodus rotundus). HOW TO GET THERE Northeast route: It is the principal and most frequently used access route. From the city of Chiclayo it goes through de Province of Ferreñafe and the District of Pitipo, until it gets to the sector known as La Curva. This road takes you to the Interpretation Center of the Sanctuary. The distance is approx. 41 km, and around 45 minutes’ drive. West Route: From the city of Chiclayo it is possible to enter the site through the District of Illimo. It takes 40 minutes (around 40 km) to get to the control post Protected Natural Areas | PERU 45


goes from December to May. The highest temperature is in February and March, with an average of 91 °F and the possibility of reaching a maximum of 97 °F. The lowest temperature is registered in July and August with an average temperature of 52 °F. ATTRACTIONS

The Peruvian Plantcutter (Phytotoma raimondii) attracts a great number of birdwatchers.

at the Illimo gate. In order to visit the site of Sican during the rainy season (January through March), it is recommended to enter through the Poma III´s gate, taking a detour from the old Panamericana at the Machuca Bridge, south of Pacora, in the direction of Huaca Rivera and Poma III. In Chiclayo, there is a constant flow of interprovincial buses to and from the rest of the country, and flights to and from the capital several times a day. WEATHER It is dry, hot and sunny most of the year. The rainy season runs from December to May. It rains mostly in the higher zones, and it is sporadic in the forest zone; nevertheless, La Leche River increases its volume considerably, literally dividing the forest in two. The warmest season

The affluence of visitors to the Bosque de Pomac has almost tripled in the last decade. Reviewing the list of things to see will give you an idea as to why this has happened: Interpretation Center: Tourist Reception center with all the information the tourist may need during the visit, as well as guiding, managed by the Asociacion de Promotores de Turismo – APROTUR, by young local guides from La Zaranda and La Curva. Retail of ecological products derived from the Andean carob and bee honey. Visiting Hours: Mon - Sun from 8:30 to 17:30. Millenarian Tree: An enormous American carob tree of capricious form, more than 500 years old, is the symbol of the algarrobos of the country, to which the locals attribute miracles and legends. Even though it appears to have lost heart, it continues to live and gives fruits. Salinas Vantage Point: Perfect in order to appreciate the majestic and vast dry forest crossed by La Leche River, and some of the prehispanic pyramids inside the Sanctuary.

Imparting an important lesson on adaptability, “The Millenarian Tree” owes its longevity to its inclined, gnarled and compact trunk.

46 Official Guide |Northern Coast


The ancient Huacas Colorada, Lercanlech and Del Oro (roofed), stand out like islands above the forest at the Pomac Sanctuary.

Karl Weiss’ Apicultural House: He was the promoter and the first technified apicultural producer in the region who made sustainable use of the dry forest resources. From the Formative Period (1500-500 BC), it is possible to visit the Huacas Lucia and Cholope: Monumental religious complex that includes the Temple of the Columns, still buried. Three Huacas from the Middle Horizon Period (800-1050 AD): Huaca Las Ventanas: The ceremonial center of the archaeological complex of Sican. At the cemetery of its temple, the famous ceremonial knives called Tumi were found. A visiting circuit and a viewpoint on top of the pyramid are being implemented here. Huaca del Oro: The pyramid, whose long platform apparently served as metal crafts workshops, used to have mural paintings alluding to the birdman, Ñaymlap or Ñamla, the main figure of their religious iconography. Huaca La Merced: Ceremonial center famous for the sumptuary gold and silver discoveries. From this Huaca one gets an excellent panoramic view of the woods, the dunes and hills of the entire Sanctuary. Birdwatching Tourism: The Sanctuary forms part of the Northern Macroregion that includes Tumbes, Piura, Lambayeque, Cajamarca, Amazonas, San Martin and Loreto, and contains the greatest diversity and endemism of birds in the world. The Peruvian Plantcutter, Pomac’s emblematic bird, can be seen nearby the Millenarian Tree.

NEARBY ATTRACTIONS The department of Lambayeque as a whole is an immense attractions park regarding archaeology and biodiversity, among them –just to name a few: Important museums like Sipan, at Ferreñafe; archaeological sites like Tucume, Pampa Grande or Sipan, regarding cultural patrimony; and The Wildlife Refuge of Laquipampa or the Private Conservation Area of Chaparri, regarding nature. Beautiful seaside resorts and traditional seaports such as Pimentel, Eten or Santa Rosa complement this magnificent picture. CONTACT INFORMATION Connection office: Av. Victor Muro 1175, Ferreñafe, Tel. (074) 286 182/ (01) 968 218 443.

Enchanting and interesting strolls await the visitor in Pomac. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 47


SERVICES Phone Area Codes: Tumbes (072), Piura (073), Lambayeque (074), La Libertad (044) Hotels Zarumilla: **Karibian; Panam. Norte Km 1187, T. 540058; www.hotelkaribiantumbes.blogspot.com Tumbes: ***Costa del Sol; San Martin 275, T. 523991; www.costadelsolperu.com ***Chilimasa; Manzana 2 Lote 16, Urb. Andres Araujo, T. 524555; www.hotelchilimasatumbes.blogspot.com ***Feijoo; Bolognesi 224, T. 522126; www.hotelfeijootumbes.blogspot.com ***Rizzo Plaza Hotel; Bolognesi 216, T. 523911; www.rizzoplazahotel.com La Cruz: **Costa Blanca; Panam. Norte 1252; T. 542013 Zorritos: ***Punta Sal Club Hotel; Panam. Norte Km 1192, T. 540088; www.puntasal.com.pe ***Arrecife; Faustino Piaggio 158, T. 5444268; www.arrecifehotel.com ***Florida Beach; Panam. Norte 1222, T. 972688988; www. playa-florida.com Bocapan: ***Playa Lucero; Panam. Norte Km 1214, T. 781309; www.playalucero.com Mancora: ***Dco Suites, Lounge & Spa; Playa Pocitas, T. 258171; www.hoteldco.com ***Grandmare; Playa Pocitas, T. 258716; www.grandmaremancora.com ***Costa Blanca; Playa Vichayito s/n, T. 258379; www.costablancademancora.com ***Las Arenas de Mancora; Panam. Norte Km 1213, T. 258240; www. lasarenasdemancora.com ***Playa Bonita; Playa Pocitas; T. 258393; www.playabonitaperu.com Sullana: **Los Portales del Chira; Jose de Lama 112, T. 507360; www.hotelportalespiura-px.trvlclick.com Piura: ***Costa del Sol; Loreto 649, T. 302864; www.costadelsolperu.com ***Los Portales; Libertad 875, T. 321161; www.hotelportalespiura.com ***Rio Verde; R. Mujica s/n, T. 285000; www.rioverde.com.pe ***El Angolo; F. Chirichigno 611, T. 323711; www.hotelelangolo.com/sede_piura.htm ***Oro Negro; San Martin H 85, T. 383481; www.oronegrotalarahostal.com/oronf842.swf ***Esmeralda; Loreto 235, T. 331782; www.hotelesmeralda.com.pe **San Miguel; Apurimac 1007, T. 305122; Tucume: Los Horcones; vecino al complejo arqueologico; T. (01)2121866; www.loshorconesdetucume.com Lambayeque: **Hosteria San Roque; Dos de Mayo 437, T. 282860 **Eco-Hostal Mamita Helmita; Castilla de Oro s/n, Fundo San Carlos, T. 782188 Chiclayo: ***Gran Hotel Chiclayo; Federico Villarreal 115, T. 234911; www. granhotelchiclayo.com ***Costa Del Sol; Jose Balta 399, T. 227272; www.costadelsolperu.com ***Garza Hotel; Bolognesi 756, T. 228172; www.garzahotel.com ***Gloria Plaza; Miguel Grau 397, T. 274555; www.gloriaplazahotel.com ***Casa de la Luna; Jose Bernardo Alcedo 250, Urb. Patasca, T. 270156; www.hotelcasadelaluna.com.pe ***Las Musas; Los Faiques 101, Urb. Santa Victoria, T. 239884; www. lasmusashotel.com.pe ***Paraiso; Pedro Ruiz 1064, T. 228161; www.hotelesparaiso.com.pe ***Gran Sipan; Luis Gonzales 1185, T. 222741; www.hotelgransipan.com ***Central Chiclayo; San Jose 976, T. 231511; www.chiclayo-hotelcentral.com ***Inti Hotel; Luis Gonzales 622, T. 235931; www.intihotel.com ***Latino´s; M. M. Izaga 600, T. 235437 **Tumbas Reales; Andalucia 208, Urb. San Juan, T. 227267 Pimentel: *** Puerto Del Sol; Malecon Seoane 916, T. 452783; www.puertodelsol.com.pe Trujillo: ***El Gran Marques; Diaz De Cienfuegos 145, Urb. La Merced, T. 249161; www.elgranmarques.com ***El Libertador; Independencia 485, T. 232741; www.libertador.com.pe ***El Golf Trujillo; Los Cocoteros 500, Urb. El Golf, T. 484150; www.granhotel.pe ***Suite Plaza Hotel Residencial; Bolognesi 360, T. 298383; www.suiteplazahotel.com ***El Brujo; Santa Teresa de Jesus 170, T. 250151; www.elbrujohotel.com ***Paraiso; San Martin 240246, T. 200073; www.hotelesparaiso.com ***Gran Bolivar; Bolivar 957, T. 222090; www.perunorte.com/granbolivar ***Recreo; Estete 647, T. 220055; www.hotelrecreo.com ***Continental; Gamarra 663, T. 241607; www.hotelcontinentaltrujillo.com ***Korianka; Independencia 808, T. 295931; www.korianka.com Huanchaco: **Huanchaco International; La Marina 466, Playa Azul, T. 461754; www.huanchacointernational.com **Las Palmeras; Larco 1150, Los Tumbos, T. 461199; www. laspalmerasdehuanchaco.com RESTAURANTS Tumbes: Cebicheria El Globo; Principal s/n, Urb. Jose Lisnher, T. 525649; www.cebicheriaglobo.com Picanteria El Retorno; Grau 413, T. 541003 Cebicheria Las Piedritas e Hijos; Tarata, 124, Miraflores, T. 524065 Las Terrazas; Simon Bolivar 328, T. 524660 Picanteria El Bohemia; Jorge Herrera 211, T. 972634456 El Manglar; San Martin 275 (dentro del H. Costa del Sol), T. 523991 Zorritos: El Brujo; Faustino Piaggio s/n, T. 544140 Bar Picanteria Cueva de los Tallos; Republica del Peru s/n Sun Beach; Republica del Peru 88, T. 505265 Mancora: Puerto Palos; Antigua Panam. Norte Km 1216, T. 858199; www.puertopalos.com Sullana: La Criollita; Plaza Grau 208, Marcavelica, T. 508349 Cebicheria Rogilu; Panam. Norte Km 900, T. 513143 Piura: Los Cantaros; Libertad 746, T. 418167 Picanteria La Santitos; Libertad 1014, T. 332380 El Puente Viejo; Manzana A Lote 3, Urb. Miraflores, T. 346398 Grand Prix; Loreto 395, T. 301929 Las dos Jarras; Panam. Norte Km 3, Zona Industrial, T. 356364 Los Peroles; Libertad, 520, T. 302347 Lambayeque: Casa Descalzi; 8 de Octubre 345, T. 284341 El Cantaro; 2 de Mayo 174, T. 282196 El Rincon del Pato; Augusto B. Leguia 270, T. 282751 El Pacifico; Huamanchuco 48 Official Guide |Northern Coast


970, T. 74283135 Chiclayo: Fiesta Gourmet; Salaverry 1820, T. 201970; www.restaurantfiestagourmet. com Huaca Rajada; Jose Leonardo Ortiz 490, T. 235932 El Huaralino; La Libertad 155, T. 270330; www.elhuaralino.com Vichayo Restobar; Alamos 230, Santa Victoria, T. 227664 Romana; Balta 512, T. 223598 Paprika; Balta 399, T. 227272 Hebron; Balta 605, T. 222709; www.corpetur.com.pe Peña Los Años Locos; Leoncio Prado 425, T. 223410; www.losanioslocos.com Tradicion y Sabor; Francisco Cabrera 642, T. 74326334 Pimentel: Tienda del Pato; M. Seoane 302, T. 452120; www.tiendadelpato.com El Muelle de Pimentel; M. Seoane 764, T. 74282437 Trujillo: Plaza Chicken Grill, Larco 903, T. 281749; www.plazachickengrill.com Il Valentino; Orbegoso 224, T. 221328; www.restaurantes.com.pe/index. php/Il_Valentino El Buen Paladar; America Norte 173, T. 206987 Las Bovedas; Independencia 485, T. 232741 El Sombrero; Mansiche 267, T. 241181 Tschudi, Orbegoso 554, T. 245612 Soluna Cocinabar; P. Urraca 477, Urb. San Andres, 1ª Etapa, T. 244282; www.solunacocina.com Chelsea; Estete 675, T. 257032 El Mochica; Bolivar 462; www.restaurantes.com.pe/index.php/El_Mochica_Trujillo Rincon Criollo; Estados Unidos 162, T. 244207 Huanchaco: Big Ben 5; El Boqueron 836, Larco, T. 461378; www.bigbenhuanchaco.com El Kero; La Rivera 115, T. 461184; www.elkero.com TOURISM/TRAVEL AGENCIES Tumbes: Rosillo Tours; Tumbes 293, T.523892 Tumbes Tours; Tumbes 341, T. 526086; www. tumbestours.com Preference Tours; Grau 427, T. 524757 Ecotours Travel; Grau 454, T. 523993; www. ecotourstravel.com Mapamundi Tours; Bolivar 338, T. 526813; www.mapamunditours.com Zorritos: Biosfera Tours; Faustino Piaggio 160, T. 544390 Talara: Contact Tour Talara; Callao 300, T. 304843; www.contactours.com.pe Mancora Travel; Panam. Norte Km 1213, T. 994268153; www.mancoratravel. com Piura: Orillas Del Mar; Loreto 460, T. 258494; www.orillasdelmarmancora.com Global Tour; Irazola 560, Urb. Miraflores, T. 344208; www.global-tour.net Delta Reps; Libertad 640, T. 321784; www. deltareps.pe Gina Tours; Corpac, 208, Castilla, T. 346000; www.ginatours.com Piura Tours; Ayacucho 585, T. 328873 Visa Tours Peru; Junin, 544, T. 673575 Lan Tours; Sanchez Cerro, cuadra 13, T. 313831 Chiclayo: Las Garzas Tours; Manuel Maria Izaga 445, T. 232867; www.lasgarzastours.com Mundo Tours; Manuel Maria Izaga 810, T. 208905; www.mundotoursperu.com Moche Tours; Siete de Enero 638, T. 224637; www.mochetours.com Indiana Tours; San Pedro 357, Morrope; T. (01) 998835617; reservas@indianatoursperu.com Amap Tour; Miguel Grau 761, T. 237729 Ceci Tours; Salaverry 770, T. 233242 Virtual Travel; Elias Aguirre 250, T. 234914 Trujillo: Archaeo Adventours; Luna Victoria 149, T. 470155 Contunor; Pizarro 478, T. 2015645; www.contunor.com Continental Travel; Independencia 616, T. 202415; www.continentaltravel.com Chacon Tours; España 106, T. 250901/255722 Trujillo Tours; Diego de Almagro 301, T. 233069; www.trujillotours.com Ok Tours; Alfonso Ugarte 609, T. 233032; www.ok-Tours.trujillo20.com American Tours; Bolivar 685; www.americanviajes.com Moche Tours; Francisco Pizarro 545, T. 291957; www.mochetours.com Huanchaco: Sunny Tours; Daniel Hoyle 150, T. 204423 Huanchaco Tours; Rivera Sur 312, Huanchaco, T. 462383; www.huanchacotours.com EMERGENCIES Health: Tumbes: Hospital de Apoyo JAMO; 24 de Julio 565, T. 524775/522222 Puesto de Salud Puerto Pizarro; Jose Olaya s/n Zorritos: Posta Medica; Prolg. Grau s/n, T. 544158 Piura: Hospital Reategui; Grau 1150, T. 303364/323181 Hospital Cayetano Heredia; Independencia s/n, T. 342420/342327 Lambayeque: Hospital Belen de Lambayeque; Ramon Castilla 597, T. 281190 Chiclayo: Hospital Nacional Almanzor Aguinaga Asenjo; Hipolito Unanue 180, T. 237776 Hospital Regional Docente Las Mercedes; Luis Gonzales 635, T. 238232/237411/ 237021 Chicama: Centro de Salud Chicama; Grau 495, T. 540167 Huanchaco: Centro de Salud Huanchaco; Atahualpa 128, T. 231581 Trujillo: Hospital Belen de Trujillo; Bolivar 350, T. 245281 Hospital Regional Docente de Trujillo; Mansiche 795, T. 231581 Police Tumbes: Jefatura Regional PNP; Tumbes Norte, T. 525250 Comisaria del Barrio San Jose. Interseccion Mayor Novoa y Zarumilla s/n, T. 522525 Comisaria El Tablazo; Hilario Carrasco 515, T. 524823 Piura: Comisaria de Piura; Sanchez Cerro, cuadra 12, T. 307641 Comisaria San Martin; Prolg. Grau, San Martin, T. 361197 Chiclayo: Comisaria de Chiclayo; Vicente de la Vega 1182, T. 270751 Policia de Turismo; Saenz Peña 830, T. 235181 Trujillo: III Region, Policia Nacional del Peru; Bolognesi 428, T. 222034/243758 Policia de Turismo; Independencia 572 OF INTEREST Tumbes: Museo de Sitio Gran Chilimasa – Cabeza de Vaca; Corrales, T. 521936 (INC Tumbes) Protected Natural Areas | PERÚ 49


Centro de informacion turistica; Bolognesi y Malecon Tercer Milenium, piso 3, T. 521757 Correos; San Martin 208, T. 523868 Sullana: Museo de la Cultura Jose Arens Berg; San Martin Piura: Casa Museo Almirante Miguel Grau; Tacna 662, T. 326541 Museo Arqueologico Municipal; Esquina Sullana y Huanuco, T. 334950 Museo de Arte Religioso de Piura; Libertad 366 Centro de informacion turistica; Ayacucho 377, Plaza de Armas Correos; Ayacucho s/n, T. 309393 Tucume: Museo de sitio de Tucume; caserio La Raya o Purgatorio, T. 422027 Ferreñafe: Museo Nacional de Sican; Batan Grande, T. 286469 Lambayeque: Museo de HISTORY Natural Victor Vaca Aguinaga; Atahualpa 481, T. 282110 Museo Arqueologico Nacional Brüning; Huamachuco, T. 282110 Museo Nacional Tumbas Reales de Sipan; Juan Pablo Vizcardo y Guzman T. 283978 Museo de Sitio Chotuna - Chornancap Centro de Informacion Iperu Lambayeque; Saenz Peña 838, T. 205703 Chiclayo: Correos; Elias Aguirre 140, T. 237031 Zaña: Museo de Sitio de Sipan; Complejo arqueologico Huaca Rajada, T. 800048 Trujillo: Museo de HISTORY Natural de la Universidad Antenor Orrego; 287141 Museo de la Catedral; Plaza de Armas, T. 235083 Museo de Arqueologia de la Universidad Nacional de Trujillo; Junin 682, T. 249322 Museo de Sitio Chan Chan; Chan Chan s/n, T. 206304 Museo de Sitio Huaca El Dragon; Pedro Murillo 1681, La Esperanza Museo de Zoologia "Juan Ormea"; San Martin 368, T. 235841 Pinacoteca Carmelita del Convento del Carmen; Colon y Bolivar, cuadra 8, T. 256155 Complejo Arqueologico Huaca de La Luna; (Parador Turistico) Centro de informacion Iperu; Diego de Almagro 420, T. 294561

TRANSPORTATION By Buses: Cruz del Sur; Tumbes Norte 319, Tumbes/ Arequipa cuadra 8, T. 337094, Piura/ Francisco Bolognesi 888, T. 237965, Chiclayo/ Amazonas 437, T. 261801, Trujillo; www.cruzdelsur.com.pe Linea; Bolivar 914, T. 524857, Tumbes/ Sanchez Cerro 1215, T. 303894, Piura/ Bolognesi 638, T. 232951, Chiclayo/ Sanchez Carrion 140, Terminal Norte, T. 297000, Trujillo; www.transporteslinea. com.pe Oltursa; Tumbes Norte 307, T. 523046, Tumbes/ Bolognesi 801, T. 325303, Piura/ Vicente de La Vega 101, T. 225611, Chiclayo/ Ejercito 342, T. 263055, Trujillo; www.oltursa.com.pe Tepsa; Tumbes Norte 199, T. 522428, Tumbes/ Loreto 1195, T. 306345, Piura/ Francisco Bolognesi 504, T. 236981, Chiclayo/ Amazonas 468, Sector El Molino, T. 201626, Trujillo; www.tepsa.com. pe Ormeño; Alameda Pachacutec 226188, T. 236144, Tumbes/ Piura 1141, T. 4280617, Piura/ Francisco Bolognesi 964, Chiclayo/ El Ejercito 233, T. 259782, Trujillo; www.grupoormeno.com.pe Cial; Tumbes Norte, T. 526350, Tumbes/ Bolognesi 15, T. 20587, Chiclayo/ Ejercito y Amazonas 395, T. 201760, Trujillo; www.expresocial.com Movil Tours; Bolognesi 195, T. 271940, Chiclayo/ America del Sur 3959, Urb. La Merced, T. 286538, Trujillo; www.moviltours.com.pe Civa; Tumbes Norte 518, Tumbes/ Grau 608, T. 473137, Piura/ Bolognesi 714, T. 223434, Chiclayo/ Ejercito 285, T. 251402, Trujillo; www.civa.com.pe Flores; Tumbes norte 570, T. 522272, Tumbes/ Loreto 1224, T. 306664, Piura/ Bolognesi 751, T. 239579, Chiclayo/ Ejercito 346 Trujillo; www.floreshnos.net Entrafesa; Tumbes Norte 307, T. 525850, Tumbes/ Los Naranjos 255 Club Grau, T. 337093, Piura/ Balta 110, T. 234291, Chiclayo/ Tupac Amaru 185 Huerta Grande, Trujillo, T. 471521; www. emtrafesa.com El Dorado; Tacna 351, T. 522984, Tumbes/ Sanchez Cerro 1119, T. 325875, Piura/ Pascual Saco y Oliveros 188, T. 506868, Chiclayo/ Nicolas de Pierola 1062, T. 291778, Trujillo; www. transporteseldoradopiura.com By Air: Lan; Bolognesi 250, Tumbes/ Aeropuerto Cap. FAP Guillermo Concha, Piura/ Manuel Maria Izaga 770, Chiclayo/ Diego de Almagro 490, Trujillo; www.lan.com Star Peru: 7 de Enero 632, T. 225191, Chiclayo/ Independencia 467, T. 207281, Trujillo; www.starperu.com

The Cart Driver Crab (Ocypodegaudichaudii) abounds in Peruvian beaches. 50 Official Guide |Northern Coast

Airports: Tumbes; “Cap. FAP Pedro Canga Rodriguez", Panam. Norte, Km 1276, T. 222601 Piura; "Cap. FAP Guillermo Concha", Corpac s/n, Castilla, T. 344505 Chiclayo; “Cap. FAP Jose A. Quiñones Gonzales", Bolognesi s/n, T. 229059 Trujillo; “Cap. FAP Carlos Martinez de Pinillos”, Carretera a Huanchaco s/n, T. 464013

Vermilion Flycatcher (Pyrocephalusrubinus).


Central Coast

1 2 3 4

Lachay NR Pantanos de Villa WR Humedales de Puerto Viejo RZ Bocatoma del Canal Nuevo Imperial PF

1 2

3 4


Lachay | National Reserve

“Oasis in the Mist” A Variable Hawk (Buteo polyosoma), perched on a dry branch at Lachay, lurking for future prey. *Facilities for tourism

YES

Location : LIMA Surface Area

: 5,070 ha

Creation Date

: 06/26/1977

Altitude Range

: 150 – 750 meters

GENERAL OBJECTIVES The purpose of the creation of this National Reserve is to restore and preserve a representative sample of the fog oasis ecosystem, as well as to do research for its rational use and to promote recreational activities in harmony with nature. DESCRIPTION Lachay has marked seasonal changes, something that is quite special and out of the ordinary in countries at the equatorial zones. If one comes in February, one finds a desolate 52 Official Guide |Central Coast

and lugubrious scene, with twisted, dark and leafless trees over a rocky, “apparently” sterile soil. But nothing is dead; everything is just sleeping. One cannot say it hibernates because this happens precisely during the summer. Between June and November, however, life becomes a feast in Lachay: a carpet of yellow, violet, white and rosy flowers covers the hillocks and ravines, from hill to hill. The blossoming of the Flower of Amancay marks the beginning of the fog oasis season –the number of birds increases considerably and some animals that are seldom seen


can be observed through the fog that engulfs everything. Finally, some months later, the nettle flowers bloom, just before everything goes dry again. Lachay is located, as every fog oasis, on the west flank of the Andes, facing the sea. There are three altitude zones: From 0 to 300 meters, we find the coastal desert; between 300 and 700 meters, we find the fog oasis with herbs and low bushes, the park like fog oasis with trees and herbs, and the fog oasis with bushes at the foot of the rocks and constant fog. Above the 700 meters and beaten by the winds, we find the fog oasis covered with moss and lichens. This is one of the reserves that are best prepared to show how a protected area should operate regarding research, learning and creating environmental awareness. Its closeness to the capital and to various important cities in the central coastal region has favored the affluence of visitors—about 30,000 annually—and their presence has promoted a more integral management of the areas for tourists and its circuits, as well as the training of forest rangers, who are trained in this area in order to go to other not so accessible areas later.

HISTORY Human settlements in Lachay have left traces in various places. In the Teatino sector there is a large cemetery, apart from a truncated three level pyramid, with associated ceramics in Chancay and Teatino style. In the sector of Torre Blanca there is another cemetery (1200-1532 AD). In the sector of Hato Viejo there are vestiges of human settlements, as well as in Palo Ravine, where another smaller pyramid is found. The old inhabitants of Lachay also left some rock paintings representing men, zoomorphic and phytomorphic figures and unidentified geometric designs. Lachay was first recorded in January of 1533, when Hernando Pizarro was traveling from Cajamarca to Pachacamac in order to fetch part of the ransom Atahualpa had offered. They crossed a village called Lachay, which they called “tambo of the partridges”, as these were abundant in every house. Testimonies of the mid-17th century say that Lachay was a place where the hills remained green for a longer period of time, as well as the ones at Pachacamac and Pasamayo, a condition that would explain a more permanent settlement here.

In short, Lachay is a perfect destination for a beautiful, healthy and instructive winter weekend for the whole family.

A yellow carpet of Nettle (Loasa urens) marks the end of the season at Lachay.

The fog oasis, a unique seasonal phenomenon caused by climatic factors proper of the Peruvian desert coast, plays an important role in the dynamics of several species. During the winter, it serves as a resting place, as well as for feeding and reproduction, thanks to its relatively abundant resources. Lachay is, for the time being, the only protected sample of this special ecosystem in the country. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 53


The fog oasis later became a place for the intensive grazing of introduced cattle during the wet seasons, thus putting native species in danger. Right up to the time of the creation of the Reserve, neighboring communities grazed their cattle in the hills of Lachay. Furthermore, the arboreal vegetation of the fog oasis was used as firewood, a common occurrence in all the forests and fog oasis of the coast. At the beginning of the 20th century the lumber of Lachay was employed in the building of public works, in this

The coastal mist produces a burst of green in the winter.

FLORA In Lachay, various types of vegetal communities have been identified: Fog oasis with trees with great capacity for collecting water from the fog; fog oasis with herbaceous cover, less humid than the latter; fog oasis with cactaceae and cactus groupings; and, finally, the desert, in the lowlands, with extensive sandy areas and seldom covered with fog in the mornings. 146 plant species have been registered, that include trees, bushes, herbs and cactaceae.

The gorgeous and evocative Flower of Amancay (Ismene amancaes).

Among the species that can be seen at the Reserve, the following stand out: Mito (Carica candicans), Palillo (Capparis prisca), Small Flowered Tobacco (Nicotiana paniculata), Wild Potato (Solanum phyllantum), Rocky Ground Begonia (Begonia geraniifolia),

way, affecting the fragile ecosystem even more. People also used to hunt in the fog oasis, with dogs and hawks as well as firearms, looking for deer, partridges and pigeons. The last specimen of White-tail Deer living in the wild in Lachay was killed by an English diplomat in 1941. In 1928, the fog oasis became property of the State, which allowed, five years later, for the first attempts at reforestation in 70 fenced hectares in Lachay. In 1941, it was extended to 400 ha and, finally, in 1977, the Reserve was created. 54 Official Guide |Central Coast

The Purple-collared Woodstar (Myrtis fanny) in the Hierbabuena Ravine.


77°24'

77°22' Naranjito Alto Mountain

N

National Reserve

11°20'

L I M A

Lachay Sayan 32 km

o

Q. Guayabit Fog catchers

Guayabito Altos Capilla Mountain

BUFFER ZONE BOUNDARY

Redondo Mountain

Mensia Mountain

5.6

Gorda Hill

Pampas de Luchihuasi

LACHAY NATIONAL RESERVE

2.5

Huacho 40 km na

Panamerica

7.8

2 Km 105

Rio Seco

Qu

ad br

io S aR

eco

11°24'

Carretera

e

11°24'

11°22'

11°22'

3

Doña MarÌa Pampa

Rio Seco Hill LIMA

Rio Seco Beach 3.5 km Lima

Scale km 0

1 77°24'

Lima 103 km

2 77°22'

Black Nettle (Loasa urens), Flower of Amancay (Ismene amancaes), Tara (Caesalpinia spinosa) and Pitahaya Cactus (Haageocereus lachayensis). FAUNA

77°20'

(Falco Peregrinus), Peruvian Thick-knee (Burhinus superciliaris), Tawny-throated Dotterel (Oreopholus ruficolis), Croaking Ground-dove (Columbina cruziana), Band-winged Nightjar (Caprimulgus longirostris), Sparkling

The fauna in the National Reserve of Lachay is composed of 13 species of mammals, 11 reptile species, 65 bird species and 10 species of mollusks that have been registered so far. The most diverse and attractive group in Lachay are the birds, resident species as much as visiting ones. These last ones arrive in the area during the wet season for nesting or feeding. Among the species that stand out in this group is the Thick-billed Miner (Geositta crassirostris), which is one of the birds endemic to Peru. Others include: Andean Tinamou pentlandii), Black(Nothoprocta chested Buzzard-Eagle (Geranoaetus melanoleucus), American Kestrel (Falco sparverius), Peregrine Falcon

A sample of rock painting in Lachay: Teatino. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 55


Violetear (Colibri coruscans), Peruvian Sheartail (Thaumastura cora), Purplecollared Woodstar (Myrtis fanny), Coastal Miner (Geositta peruviana), Vermilion Flycatcher (Pyrocephalus rubinus) and Peruvian Meadowlark (Sturnella bellicosa). Among the resident mammals we find native rodents: the Friendly Leaf-eared Mouse (Phyllotis amicus), Andean Leaf-eared Mouse (Phyllotis andium) and Northern Viscacha (Lagidium peruanum). Among the occasional species, the Colocolo (Leopardus colocolo) stands out. The Sechuran Fox (Lycalopex sechurae) is the largest mammal in the Reserve and it is frequently seen near the camping areas where food can be found. In regard to reptiles, 11 species are known, among which are: Desert Lancehead (Bothrops pictus), Elegant Racer (Alsophis elegans) and lizards of the genus Microlophus and Ctenoblepharis. Some mammal species that are no longer found in Lachay are the White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus peruvianus) and the Puma (Puma concolor). HOW TO GET THERE At km 105 of the Panamericana Norte you will find the detour that leads to

Thick-billed Miner (Geositta crassirostris).

the Reserve, a dirt road 3 km long takes you to the control post at the entrance and, 3 km further on, you arrive to the parking area. That is, Lachay is between the cities of Chancay and Huacho, 20 and 40 km away respectively. WEATHER Seasonal, with a wet period that goes from late July to mid October, with high relative humidity, an average temperature below 59 째F and frequent drizzle that favors the growth of vegetation. During the dry season from December to April, precipitations are few or lacking,

Lachay offers walking circuits of great beauty for the whole family, only an hour and a half away from Lima.

56 Official Guide |Central Coast


ATTRACTIONS Lachay has 400 ha that can be used by tourists for walks, camping, birdwatching and recreation. In this area, the Interpretation Center is found, where one can get a comprehensive view of the fog oasis ecosystem, and there are three different footpaths one can take: El Zorro Circuit: a 20 min tour, where the main attraction is getting to the water spring or “puquial”, the only one that remains from the 25 that there used to be in Lachay. Surrounded by the arid desert, Lachay is an oasis of life.

relative humidity drops (80%) and the highest average temperatures of the year are recorded (68 °F), originating high evapotranspiration. RESTRICTIONS The Reserve can be visited throughout the year, but it is between July and September that the vegetation develops and Lachay becomes full of flowers. School groups can only visit the Reserve Tuesday through Friday. Entrance Fees in soles: Under 5 and above 65 years: Free. 5 to 15 years: S/3 (one day), S/6 (three days). Adults: S/10 (one day), S/20 (three days).

Las Taras Circuit: a 1 h tour, where some rock paintings and a forest of taras can be appreciated. The Tara is a symbol of the great biodiversity within the fog oasis ecosystem. La Perdiz Circuit: A 2 h tour. Apart from visiting the water spring or puquial, this path takes us to the highest point called “Alto Capilla” where the “fog catchers” are found (a system for collecting water from the fog, used for reforestation) and to the zone of the cactuses. NEARBY ATTRACTIONS A long list of places to visit includes the two large cities of Chancay and Huacho, both seaports; the historical Huaura; Sayan and Churin along the route towards the mountains; and Huaral to the south. Punta Salinas, El Paraiso lagoon, the Albufera de Medio Mundo and the newly nominated World Patrimony site, Caral, make it worthwhile spending a few days in this area known as “el Norte Chico”. SERVICES WITHIN THE AREA Within the National Reserve there are three parking areas, three areas with restrooms and three camping areas with their corresponding barbecue zones. In one of them you will find the Interpretation Center for visitors. CONTACT INFORMATION Administrative headquarters of the Reserve: Panamericana Norte km 105, Chancay. Tel. (01) 968 218 450. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 57


Pantanos de Villa | Wildlife Refuge

“An Island of Life within the City” The Many-colored Rush Tyrant (Tachuris rubrigastra) carries out exquisite and delicate work in order to build its nest suspended in the totora. *Facilities for tourism

YES

Location : LIMA Surface Area

: 263.27 ha

Creation Date

: 09/01/2006

Altitude Range

: -1 to 5 meters

GENERAL OBJECTIVES The Wildlife Refuge was created in order to protect the migratory and resident bird fauna of these aquatic ecosystems, to preserve important associations of wild flora, typical of aquatic coastal ecosystems, and to protect the landscape in order to promote educational activities and tourism. DESCRIPTION Villa’s landscape is typical of the wetlands, with lagoons, puddles, a large bird life and characteristic vegetation, mainly totora, couch58 Official Guide |Central Coast

grass, reed beds and grasses. It is an ecosystem with a complex structure and functioning, with numerous physical, biological and human components and with great potential for the life of wild flora and fauna species of social and economic importance. The saline coastal lagoons are very attractive, especially during the winter, when migratory birds arrive from the north and flocks of thousands of birds can be seen, a unique and impressive spectacle. The marshes are located at the south of Lima, in a natural depression on the left bank of the lower part of the


Rimac River valley, and are part of the hydrological system of this river in its Ate-Surco-Chorrillos branch. They receive their water by filtration from the river and by infiltrations from parks and garden areas, irrigation channels and others. The plain of Villa is 35 meters below the level of Chorrillos’ plain, and this fact guarantees the flow of underground water to the marshes. This flat depression is surrounded by a straight beach line and hills 100 to 300 meters high, which give the marches ecosystem its microclimatic characteristics. Because of them, the marshes present a special landscape in the context of the Pacific subtropical desert, as part of the oasis formed by the Rimac valley and the Lurin River valley, which overlap; this landscape is unique within the urban center of the city of Lima, which, particularly in the immediate surroundings of this natural area is, unfortunately, chaotic. HISTORY The marshes of Villa occupy an area that belonged to the indigenous dominion of Sulco, the largest and most populated of the three that existed in the Rimac valley (Maranga and Carabayllo were the other two). It used to occupy the current districts of Surco, Surquillo, Miraflores, Barranco, Chorrillos and part of San Juan de Miraflores. “The marshes of Cunchan” were one of the four ayllus of Sulco, and the great road to Pachacamac -the most important religious center of the central coast-

crossed it. Its capital was Armatambo, located 7 km away from the refuge on the oriental foothills of what is now called Morro Solar. (The first Spanish “encomendero” of Surco and Barranco was Antonio Solar). A great irrigation channel used to run through Sulco and was known as the Surco River because it was wide enough for small boats to navigate. It terminated in the old estate of Villa, where, close to the sea, there used to be two large lagoons in which people could navigate for fishing and duckhunting. In Colonial times, these lagoons were visited by criollos and Spaniards; among them, the naturalists Hipolito Ruiz, Jose Pavon and the French Joseph Dombey, members of the botanical expedition to the Realms of Peru and Chile (1778-1789). During the last sixty years, the whole ecosystem has suffered severe depredation and only some relicts have remained in its surroundings, as the totoral and the juncal (reed beds), refuge of a great number of migratory birds. In 1977, the Council of Lima declares the Pantanos de Villa Metropolitan Zonal Park N° 25, for cultural and educational purposes; later, in 1991, Metropolitan Ecological Area and, finally, Great Natural Metropolitan Park of Lima in 1993. For its part, in 1989, the State first established the Pantanos de Villa Reserved Zone with 396 ha,

The presence of a large wetland full of life, within the city of Lima, is a treasure which has to be taken care of.

This wildlife refuge is ideal for carrying out studies of wild flora and fauna and hydric resources, but mainly to develop environmental education campaigns, due to its strategic location within the city limits. The Pantanos de Villa have enormous potential for becoming a major focus for cultural diffusion, education and the promotion of environmental values. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 59


recognized in 1997 by the Ramsar Convention as wetland of international significance; and later, after fifteen years of incessant adjustments of its perimeters, gave birth to the actual Wildlife Refuge of 263.7 ha, losing a third of its initial size. FLORA It is described on the basis of five existing biotical communities: 1) The aquatic community is the most important in the area, directly related to the bodies of water whose number and size vary depending on the water level. The biggest body of water has approximately 50,000 m² and up to 2 meters of depth, with abundant organic substratum. This community is formed by algae and diatomic plankton that feed many of the invertebrates. 2) The totorales, located at the south of the lagoons. The dominant species is the Typha domingensis, herbaceous of up to 3 m height. Other vascular, less conspicuous species include the Hendira sessilifolia, Hydrocotyle spp. and Myriophyllum aquaticum, also known as Parrot Feather. The totorales are very important for several types of birds that use them as refuges. 3) The vega, a vegetal community found in saturated soils, sometimes close to the bodies of water and other times close to the totoral or the couch-grass zones. It is formed mainly by Ciperaceae: Cyperus laevigatus and Eleocharis geniculata.

A great number of birds find in Villa the ideal place for breeding. 60 Official Guide |Central Coast

An Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) with a Tilapia in its claws.

4) The juncal or reedbed. In the south zone of the area, there is a community represented by the Chairmaker's Bulrush (Scirpus americanus), a species characteristic of the margins, wetlands and static aquatic environments. 5) The grasslands, where the gramineous plant known as Saltgrass (Distichlis spicata) predominates. It grows in saturated and highly saline soils. Sometimes the Paspalum vaginatum, Sporobolus virginicus and Scirpus americanus are also found. FAUNA The ornithological richness of the marshes of Villa is very important for the great number of species as much as for being a representative sample of the bird fauna of the wetlands of the central coast of Peru. The 208 species are grouped by their provenance: 49 species of resident birds that nest in the area and can be found throughout the year; among them: the Peruvian Thick-knee (Burhinus superciliaris), Amazilia Hummingbird (Amazilia amazilia), White-cheeked Pintail (Anas bahamensis), Cinnamon Teal (Anas cyanoptera), Osprey (Pandion haliaetus), Andean Coot (Fulica ardesiaca), Common Moorhen (Gallinula chloropus) and the Grayheaded Gull (Larus cirrocephalus). Migratory birds amount to 159 species, of which 53 come from North America and the Arctic, flying up to 25,000 km, as for example: Spotted Sandpiper


77°00'

Wildlife Refuge

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12°12'

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12°12'

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Pantanos de Villa

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0.5

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Scale km 0

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77°00'

(Actitis macularia), Western Sandpiper (Calidris mauri), Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus), Red Phalarope (Phalaropus fulicarius), Gray Plover (Pluvialis squatarola) and Tricolored Heron (Egretta tricolor). From the 19 birds that come from the southern part of South America we can mention: Gray Gull (Leucophaeus

Cinnamon Teal (Anas cyanoptera).

76°59'

modestus) and (Progne elegans).

Southern

Martin

There are 49 local migratory birds, such as: Great Egret (Ardea alba), Cinereous Harrier (Circus cinereus), Red-fronted Coot (Fulica rufifrons), Coastal Miner (Geositta peruviana), and Inca Tern (Larosterna inca); and 38 from the Andean region and some parts of the rainforest, being the Yellow-headed Caracara (Milvago chimachima) one of the most rare of the occasional examples. Finally, it is worth mentioning birds that were observed only during the time of the “El Niño” phenomenom, like the Peruvian Diving Petrel (Pelecanoides garnotii) and the Chilean Flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis). A particularly important event in the area is the reproduction of the Puna Ibis (Plegadis ridgwayi), a species characterized by its dark color and long bent beak that generally lives in puna ecosystems. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 61

ol

Av

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del Morro Ave. (old Panamericana Sur between km 19 and 22), only 15 minutes away from the Costa Verde beach circuit. An alternative route would be taking the Panamericana Sur until the Villa Bridge Road Exchange and then returning 1.5 km towards the north. Lima is the main center of connection with the rest of the country and abroad. WEATHER

A little Snowy Egret (Egretta thula), hunting for fish in the wetland.

The average temperature is 65 째F. Relative humidity: 85 to 99%. Rainfall is scarce, just winter drizzle. RESTRICTIONS

The following have been reported: 13 fish species, 41 species of insects and Arachnida, 11 species of gastropod mollusks, one species of frog (Bufo sp.) and three species of lizards, two of which are endangered species. The presence of rodents and bats has also been reported, as well as one specimen of Spectacled Caiman (Caiman crocodilus), the only survivor from the thirty that were introduced in the area some twenty years ago.

Entrance Fees in soles: Under 5 and above 65 years: Free. Students, 5 to 17 years: S/4. Adults: S/8. For groups (15 visitors as a minimum), a guide is provided. PROHVILLA should be consulted for large group reservations. ATTRACTIONS

HOW TO GET THERE

By their own initiative, the area is partially administrated by PROHVILLA, an organism of the Provincial Council of Lima, that offers three tourist circuits to visitors:

From the center of Lima City, one can get to the Pantanos de Villa by taking Huaylas Ave. or Defensores

Traditional Circuit (approx. 1 hour): One walks 1.5 km along footpaths that lead to two observation towers from

The silent Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia) is frequently sighted, even during the day.

62 Official Guide |Central Coast


NEARBY ATTRACTIONS An ideal circuit including history as well as nature, innovative for foreigners as well as for local people, would comprise a visit to the beach circuit of Barranco and Chorrillos, the Morro Solar with its panoramic view of the Bay of Lima, its monuments and its planetarium; and then, after visiting the Refuge, continue towards the valley of the Lurin River and the archaeological site of Pachacamac.

The city has grown in such a disorderly fashion until border the swamps.

where one can appreciate the whole landscape of the wetlands. Marvilla Circuit (approx. 1 hour): It has a length of 1.3 km in an area adjacent to the ocean shore where the greatest number of birds can be sighted. Tablitas Circuit-Bodies of Water (45 min): In this circuit, visitors enjoy a thrilling boat ride in one of the lagoons of the natural area. Just half an hour away from downtown Lima, in the first hours of the morning, more than 50 different bird species can be observed: 8 species of herons, 6 of ducks, 5 of seagulls, 3 of cormorants and 3 of grebes, among others.

Birds are the principal attraction in the Wildlife Refuge.

SERVICES WITHIN THE AREA There is an Interpretation Center and a Meteorological Station. PROHVILLA offers: boat rides and an expanded pier, five observation towers, bridges, an auditorium for 50 people, video exhibitions, a souvenir shop, a rustic restaurant, exhibition areas, guided tours, free parking and restrooms. CONTACT INFORMATION Administrative Headquarters: Jr. Alameda de Don Emilio, Mz. X, Plot N째10, corner with Av. Los Horizontes, Urb. Huertos de Villa, Chorrillos; Tel. (01) 254 8887. PROHVILLA Enquiries: Tel. (01) 254 7611 (ecotourism office). Protected Natural Areas | PERU 63


Humedales de Puerto Viejo | Reserved Zone

"An island of fresh water in the desert." Puerto Viejo is visited by numerous birds, like these charming migratory barn swallows (Hirundo rustica). *Facilities for tourism

YES

Location : LIMA Extension : 275.81 ha Creation Date

: 01/31/2008

Altitude Range

: 0 – 10 meters

GENERAL OBJECTIVES The main objectives are the preservation of the wild flora and fauna, the beauty of the landscape and its associated values, and to contribute to the region’s development by means of the sustainable use of its natural resources. DESCRIPTION The wetlands, by the definition given by the Ramsar Convention (UICN), are zones of the earth’s surface that are temporarily or permanently flooded, regulated by climatic factors and in constant interrelation with those live 64 Official Guide |Central Coast

entities that inhabit them. In general, this relationship is also critically fragile and it has an endemic character in our coasts, for being areas filled with life surrounded by inhospitable deserts. The Reserved Zone of Puerto Viejo is located south of Lima, between the Panamericana and the nearby seashore, and it receives its waters mainly from the Mala River and the neighboring irrigation complex of San Andres, as well as from the Chilca River. It is a singular wetland in regard to its waters, because its lagoon formations, in their majority, are made up of fresh water. Due to their


depth, the water becomes saline by its contact with the marine sandy soil. Because of the special characteristics of its bird fauna, basically sea and seashore species, it has been deduced that its function is basically that of a resting place, there being very few places for nesting. HISTORY Approximately 10,000 years ago, the zone was inhabited by groups of fishermen that achieved a certain degree of development to the point of establishing settlements, more than 6,000 years ago, precisely thanks to their agricultural development, one of the earliest in the continent and even in the world. Even today, one sees sown fields in the valley of Chilca, with fig trees in “sunken farms”, or large holes dug intentionally in order to collect the humidity from the subsoil –the origin of the wetlands of Puerto Viejo– just as it was done by the Chilca men of pre-historic times. After the Inca conquest of the zone, which established its provincial capital in Incahuasi (Huarco had been the capital before), came the Spanish conquest, which at some point had to choose between Lima (with the port of Callao) and Chilca (with the one at Pucusana), in order to fund the capital of the Viceroyalty. We all know which one won. The Council of San Antonio, in whose jurisdiction the area is located, declared the wetlands of Puerto Viejo as an Ecological Sanctuary and

Intangible Zone in 1995, but this meant little for the conservation of its biodiversity. By that time, the wetland was almost whole, but now, five beach resorts have cut it off from the seashore, which is vital to its ecosystem, and are using its waters, unbalancing this delicate ecosystem. Even a road has been built, cutting the area in two, affecting one of the basic principles of any living system: its continuity. FLORA The flora of the Reserved Zone is xero-halophyte, adapted to extreme conditions, like lack of water and arid saline soils. Among the hydrophytes there are: Bluegreen Algae (Cyanophyta), Green Algae (Chlorophytes), Euglenoids Dinoflagellates (Euglenophyta), (Dinophyta), Diatoms (Bacillariophyta), Golden Algae (Chrysophyta) and Red Algae (Rhodophyta). The presence of submerged and emerging vascular plants such as Myriophyllum aquaticum, Paspalum vaginatum, Typha angustifolia and Scirpus americanus, among others, is also significant. Among the halophytes which grow in saturated and highly saline soils, the Desert Saltgrass (Distichlis spicata) stands out. The American Carob (Prosopis pallida) and the palm trees (Parkinsonia sp.), belonging to the family of the Fabaceae, are also found in the area.

Part of the wetlands evaporates during summer, precisely when there is more activity in the nearby beach resorts.

This wetland is part of the Biological Corridor of the Pacific, vital for migratory birds coming from the Nearctic and Austral regions, and it is complemented by the wetlands of Paraiso, Medio Mundo and Pantanos de Villa, in the central coast, and by the Paracas National Reserve at the south. Puerto Viejo is so endangered nowadays, that it is the weakest link in the corridor. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 65


The first is categorized as one of the almost endangered species, together with the Turtleweed (Batis maritima), a species in critical danger. FAUNA

Rail (Rallus sanguinolentus), Common Moorhen (Gallinula chloropus), American Coot (Fulica americana), Andean Coot (Fulica ardesiaca), Wren-like Rushbird (Phleocryptes melanops) and Many-colored Rush Tyrant (Tachuris rubrigastra).

In this environment, a total of 77 bird species have been seen, distributed in 30 families, being among the most numerous the herons (Ardeidae) and the sandpipers (Scolopacidae), followed by the ducks (Anatidae) and the grebes (Podicipedidae), typical of wetlands. In the Puerto Viejo wetlands, it is possible to find the Coastal Miner (Geositta peruviana), a species of restricted distribution and considered endemic to Peru. There are also other 17 species endemic to the wetlands, such as: Pied-billed Grebe (Podilymbus podiceps), Great Grebe (Podiceps major), Whitetufted Grebe (Rollandia rolland), Ruddy Duck (Oxyura ferruginea), White-cheeked Pintail (Anas bahamensis), Puna Teal (Anas puna), Cinnamon Teal (Anas cyanoptera), Striated Heron (Butorides striatus), Least Bittern (Ixobrychus exilis), Puna Ibis (Plegadis ridgwayi), Plumbeous

The red color is produced by carotenoid pigments from microorganisms or algae.

Four bird species, whose populations have lost their ability to recover due to a variety of causes, have been registered. On their way to extinction: Peruvian Pelican (Pelecanus thagus) and Roseate Spoonbill (Ajaia ajaja). In a vulnerable situation: Chilean Flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis) and Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus). Within the area, the presence of native fauna is probable, like the Friendly Leaf-eared Mouse (Phyllotis amicus), or occasional, like the Sechuran Fox (Lycalopex sechurae), and there are reports of two species of lizards: Peru Pacific Iguana (Microlophus peruvianus) and Tschudi's Pacific Iguana (M. thoracicus), belonging to the Tropiduridae family. HOW TO GET THERE

The slender Black-necked Stilt (Himantopus mexicanus). 66 Official Guide |Central Coast

The Humedales de Puerto Viejo are located on the central coast of Peru, between kilometers 67 and 72 of the Panamericana Sur. There is an entrance to the Reserved Zone at kilometer 71, from where you arrive to a bridge and to an observation post, built in the 90s by the Yanavico association. This


76°44'

76°42'

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Humedales de Puerto Viejo

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Canarias B. Tres Islas B. Las Tres Marias Puerto Islands Nuevo B. Las Lagunas B.

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entrance is the one that, further on, takes you to Puerto Viejo Beach. WEATHER The weather is typical of the Peruvian central coast, temperate and humid in winter, and very hot during the summer. The average maximum temperature is 75.5 °F and the lowest is 61.5 °F.

rica

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San Andres Bridge

76°42'

76°40'

church (1674) “Nuestra Señora de la Asuncion”, now considered National Historical Monument, and some mud ponds famous for their healing powers at Las Salinas de Chilca. Mala, towards the south, and Pucusana, towards the north, complete the circuit.

ATTRACTIONS The viewpoint close to the Panamericana allows a privileged view of the ecosystem and it is ideal to catch sight of numerous birds. The beautiful beach of Puerto Viejo, within its area of influence, has several seasonal restaurants and ideal waves that attract surfers throughout the year. NEARBY ATTRACTIONS The visit to Puerto Viejo should include Chilca, which has a beautiful colonial

A nice observation post welcomes the visitors at the entrance to the Reserved Zone. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 67


Bocatoma del Canal Nuevo Imperial | Protected Forest

“Riverside refuge” Among the most attractive birds, there is the Black-necked Woodpecker (Colaptes atricollis), endemic to Peru. *Facilities for tourism

NO

Location : LIMA Surface Area

: 18.11 ha

Creation Date

: 05/19/1980

Altitude Range

: 350 meters

GENERAL OBJECTIVES Its objectives are to protect the bocatoma of the Canal Nuevo Imperial from the buffetings of the Cañete River, as well as to preserve the adjacent soils and infrastructure, with the purpose of guaranteeing the normal provision of irrigation water for the valley. DESCRIPTION This protected area is a small riverbank forest, adjacent to a section of the Cañete River, less than a kilometer long and crossed by the road to Lunahuana. The waters of the river are collected by a water intake for the irrigation of 8,000 ha of cultivated land. Though small in size, it shelters an important number of resident and migratory birds, ducks, herons, buzzards and goldfinches. The average temperature is 68 – 77 °F. HISTORY Being one of the zones in which agriculture 68 Official Guide |Central Coast

first developed in the continent, in the late years of the pre-Columbian era the valley of Cañete was among the most important, known as the dominion of Huarco and later conquered by the Incas. During colonial times and during the Republic, the valley was intensely cultivated. First, sugarcane and, later, cotton, were exported from the neighboring port of Cerro Azul, connected to the valley by railway since 1870. BIODIVERSITY A very arid valley, except for the riverbanks in which the protected forest is located and in which different species are found: Long-spine Acacia (Acacia macracantha), American Carob (Prosopis pallida), Mulefat (Baccharis salicifolia), Palo Bobo (Tessaria integrifolia), Chile Willow (Salix chilensis), Wild Cane (Gynerium sagittatum) and Tillandsia (Tillandsia latifolia). Among the bird population we can find: the Great Inca Finch (Incaspiza


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San Vicente de Cañete 23 km

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LIMA

Scale km 0 76°12'

1

2 76°10'

pulchra), the Vermilion Flycatcher (Pyrocephalus rubinus), the Slenderbilled Finch (Xenospingus concolor) and the Black-necked Woodpecker (Colaptes atricollis). Among the mammals we have the Sechuran Fox (Lycalopex sechurae) and various rodents. Among the reptiles, various lizards: Dicrodon heterolepis, Ctenoblepharis adspersa, Microlophus peruvianus and M. theresiae. Among the fish: Twospot Lebiasina (Lebiasina bimaculata), Carachita (Bryconamericus peruanus), Green Terror (Aequidens rivulatus), Mullets (Mugil sp., M. cephalus), Pejerrey de Rio (Basilichthys archaeus), Spotted Catfish (Trichomycterus punctulatus) and Guppy (Poecilia reticulata). The presence of Andean River Shrimp (Cryphiops caementarius) is important.

76°08'

ATTRACTIONS Birdwatching is the main attraction in the area, with some rarities like the Great Inca-finch, a bird of higher altitudes. Just above the canal, there is an ancient Inca road. Cañete has much to offer to the eyes and to the palate. And then, the beaches of Cerro Azul, at the south, and Lunahuana, towards the east, doorway to the Landscape Reserve of Nor Yauyos Cochas, complete the circuit.

HOW TO GET THERE From Cañete (kilometer 144 of the Panamericana Sur), take the detour to Lunahuana for about 25 km until you get to the area known as La Bocatoma. The Protected Forest is adjacent to it.

The canal, the water intake and the forest adjacent to the Cañete River. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 69

13°04'

13°02'

ñ

mo roni

Caltopa

Ca

si

1.7

1.8

hua ca a In

Rio

Socsi

rad eb Qu

2.8

Incahuasi

n Je Sa

Socsi Bridge

13°02'

Lucumo


SERVICES Phone Area Codes: Lima (01) HOTELS Huacho: **Hotel Restaurant Turistico Casablanca; Las Rosas 347, Luriama, T. 2326293; www. hotelcasablancahuacho.com Chancay: **Castillo de Chancay; Panam. Norte Km 83, T. 3771019; www. castillodechancay.com Cañete: **Huarco Hotel & Restaurant; Panam. Sur Km 135, San Luis de Cañete, T. 7725255 Lunahuana: ***Embassy Lunahuana; Uchupampa, T. 2841194; www.hotelesembassy.com ***Rumihuasi; Carretera a Cañete Km 38, Jita, T. 2541290; www.lunahuanaresort.com **Regina Hotel; Tacna s/n, Condary; T. 2841147; www.hotelreginaperu.com **Los Andes; Los Andes s/n, T. 2841041 RESTAURANTS Huacho: Casablanca; Las Rosas 347, Santa Maria, T. 2326293 Chancay: El Castillo de Chancay; 1 de Mayo 1224, T. 3771019; www.castillodechancay.com Lunahuana: Mi Rosedal; Uchupampa 151 (km 41), T. 2841177; www.mirosedal-lunahuana.com Antojitos; Plaza de Armas, T. 2841310 Cañete: El Mayoral de Azpitia; Cosmos 395, T. 260-8170; www.elmayoral@terra.com.pe TOURISM/TRAVEL AGENCIES Chancay: Agencia del Castillo de Chancay; 1º de Mayo 1224, T. 3771019; www.castillodechancay. com Lunahuana: Candela Tours Peru; Miguel Grau 203, T. 989403808; www.candelatoursperu. com Lunahuana Travel & Tour; Grau 301, T. 2841084 EMERGENCIES Health: Barranca: Hospital de Barranca; Nicolas de Pierola s/n Clinica Maria Auxiliadora; Lima 940 Huacho: Clinica del Niño y la Familia; Atahualpa 163 Clinica San Pedro; Echenique 641 Cañete: Clinica Corazon de Jesus; Benavides 565 Police: Huaura: Comisaria Huaura; San Martin 345, T. 2323089 Chancay: Comisaria Chancay; Bolivar s/n, Plaza de Armas, T. 3771222 Huaral: Comisaria Huaral; Manco Capac s/n, Urb. El Milagro 2, T. 2461024 Lunahuana: Comisaria Lunahuana; Plaza de Armas s/n, T. 2841044 OF INTEREST Huaura: Museo Monumental de la Municipalidad Distrital de Huaura; San Martin Chancay: Museo Municipal de Chancay; Lopez de Zuñiga 142, Municipalidad Distrital TRANSPORTATION By Buses: Cruz del Sur; San Martin 136, T. 98032976, Huaura/ Javier Prado Este 1109; Lima, T. 2255748; www.cruzdelsur.com.pe/ Linea; Paseo de la Republica 941, La Victoria, T. 4240836, Lima; www. transporteslinea.com.pe Oltursa; Aramburu 1160, San Isidro, T. 2254499 Lima; www.oltursa.com.pe Soyuz: Cabecera del Estanque, Huaral/ Mexico 280, La Victoria, Lima, T. 2052370; www.soyuz.com. pe Tepsa; Javier Prado Este 1091, La Victoria, T. 2023535 - Paseo de la Republica 151, T. 4275642, Lima; www.tepsa.com.pe Ormeño; Javier Prado Este 1059, T. 4721710, Lima; www.grupoormeno. com.pe Cial; Republica de Panama 2485, T. 2658121, Lima; www.expresocial.com Movil Tours; Paseo de la Republica 749, T. 3329000, Lima; www.moviltours.com.pe Civa; Paseo de la Republica 575, T. 4181111, Lima; www.civa.com.pe Flores; Paseo de la Republica 627, La Victoria, T. 4243278; www.floreshnos.net Entrafesa; Humboldt 109, La Victoria, T. 4230046, Lima; www.emtrafesa.com By Air: Lan; Aeropuerto Internacional Jorge Chavez, 1er nivel, Callao - Jose Pardo 513, Miraflores, T. 2138200, Lima; www.lan.com Star Peru: Comandante Espinar 331, Miraflores, T. 2138813, Lima; www.starperu.com Airports: Lima; Aeropuerto Internacional "Jorge Chavez”, Elmer Faucett s/n, Callao, T. 6301000; www.lap.com.pe 70 Official Guide |Central Coast

Humboldt Penguin (Spheniscushumboldti).


Southern Coast

1 2 3

*

Paracas NR San Fernando NR Lagunas de Mejia NS Sistema de islas, islotes y puntas guaneras (northern, central and southern coast) NR

1 2

3


Paracas | National Reserve

"TERRA MARIS" Paracas has the largest population -more than 50%- of the South American Sea Lion (Otaria byronia) in the Peruvian coast. *Facilities for tourism

YES

Location : ICA Surface Area

: 335,000 ha (217,594 of sea)

Creation Date

: 09/25/1975

Altitude Range

: -12 to 786 meters

GENERAL OBJECTIVES The National Reserve of Paracas was created with the following objectives in mind: to preserve marine-coastal ecosystems and their biological diversity; to protect the endangered species and their respective habitats; to ensure the sustainable and responsible use of hydrobiological resources; to preserve and protect the archaeological and cultural heritage; to guarantee the preservation and enhancement of the natural attractions for sustainable tourism; to ensure the existence of a portion of the Peruvian marinecoastal ecosystem influenced by the 72 Official Guide |Southern Coast

Humboldt Current, so it can provide support to educational processes, as well as investigation and recreational activities; to contribute to the sustainable development and welfare of the population of the Ica region. DESCRIPTION The National Reserve of Paracas is a unique place in the Peruvian coast due to its exceptional biological diversity. This diversity is generated by the Humboldt Current and phytoplankton flowering, which make this portion of the sea most productive and one of the richest in the world. It was declared Ramsar Site by the


Convention of Wetlands of International Importance in 1992. For almost half a century, it was the only marine-coastal protected area in our country (65% of its area corresponds to marine waters), created with the purpose of preserving representative samples of the biological diversity of the coastal desert and the cold sea. Paracas also has an exceptional cultural and historical value. Evidence of this is the 114 registered archaeological sites, testimonies of the successful interaction of the ancient inhabitants with the sea. Paracas’s particular and uneven geography, with the largest peninsula in the Peruvian coast and several bays and islands, is caused by the so called Coastal Mountain Range, which emerges here and later runs uninterrupted towards the south. The beauty of its landscape, a spectacular combination of sea and desert, the increase and diversification of services, and the access facilities, have placed it as one of the most visited areas of the National System, since it receives more than 100,000 visitors annually, most of them Peruvian, although more foreigners every day consider it part of the Nazca Lines circuit. HISTORY The oldest human remains found in Paracas (towards 7,000 BC) belong to hunter-gatherers of the Pre-Ceramic Period. Towards 1,000 BC, the first human groups who already knew pottery and had corn as part of their diets migrate to the Bay of Paracas. Furthermore, abandoning vegetable fibers like reed, totora and cactus, in this new stage, textiles are manufactured from cotton and wool from Camelidae, using the loom, which was unknown before.

The Middle Formative period starts with the Puerto Nuevo phase (800-600 BC), and contacts with the northern cultures (Chavin iconography) become stronger during the Karwas phase (600500 BC). The Cavernas phase (500-200 BC), which gets its name from their underground burials, and the Paracas Necropolis (200 BC-100 AD) of massive burials, are defined by J. C. Tello after his excavations in the site of Cabezas Largas and Cerro Colorado. Their characteristic traits are a high level in the manufacture of textiles, most of all in mortuary robes, and cranial trepanations. Later, due to some tectonic phenomenon related to variations of the sea level, the seashore settlements are abandoned and are not occupied again in a permanent way until Colonial times. At the beginning of the 11th century, the Ica-Chincha culture develops in a large part of the south coast of Peru, being San Gallan the most important settlement in Pisco, located in the middle part of the valley. The Incas made incursions into their territory, but it took them almost 50 years to become established there. By the end of the 15th century, this territory is finally incorporated to the region of Chinchaysuyo, to which it gives its name. San Gallan is re-occupied and the Inca administrative center of Tambo Colorado is built over it. The valley of Pisco was recognized during colonial times for the fertility of its lands. Since the first map of South America was made in 1574 by Diego

The encounter between the ocean and the desert produces a unique interplay of colors in the National Reserve.

El Candelabro, called Three Crosses or Calvario in the past, is a design excavated in the hill, in front of the sea, 150 meters high and 80 meters wide. It is mentioned in the Peruvian Nautical Charts since the end of the 19th century, and its making is attributed to the General San Martin, as a possible signal for the Independence Expedition. Of course, in those days the Nazca Lines had not yet been discovered, with which it bears an evident resemblance. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 73


Mendez, this zone was always depicted as a noticeable trait of the coasts of the Viceroyalty of Peru, and descriptions of its geography, weather and marine fauna are abundant in the historical records of the area. During the Peruvian War of Independence, the Liberation Expedition of the General Don Jose de San Martin landed in the coast of Paracas. The exploitation of the guano of the islands in front of the coasts of Paracas and Pisco, a natural fertilizer that brought great profit to Peru during the 19th century, began in the pre-Columbian era and its use was fundamental for agriculture: the oldest artifacts, including two ceramic pieces from the Moche culture, were found buried under 20 meters or more of guano. In 1960, the Pre-Historical National Park of Paracas was created, including just a few hectares, and was later incorporated into the Reserve when this one was created.

The story goes that San Martin “saw” the Peruvian flag in the colors of a flamingo in Paracas.

BIODIVERSITY Paracas has important centers of biodiversity and most of them are found in the marine-coastal zone. There are numerous and representative species of marine invertebrates (mollusks, polychaetes, crustaceans and echinoderms) and algae, many of which stand out for their value and commercial importance. To this day, 1,620 species have been registered. Of these registers, 317 correspond to algae, 54 to land plants, 109 to annelids, 194 to mollusks, 286 to marine arthropods, 129 to land arthropods, 101 to other types of invertebrates, 168 to fish, 10 to reptiles, 216 to birds and 36 to mammals. FLORA

The story goes that San Martin “saw” the Peruvian flag in the colors of a flamingo in Paracas. 74 Official Guide |Southern Coast

The vegetation is scarce. Close to the intertidal lines in the Bay of Paracas and in Mendieta, patches of halophytes are found, such as Sesuvium portulacastrum, Distichlis spicata and Cressa truxillensis. At the Reserve’s northeast border (Santa Cruz), Date Palm trees that have been introduced can be found, and forest patches of Chilean Palo Verde (Geoffroea decorticans) that would represent the northern limit of distribution of this species, as well as being where


76°30'

Lima 227 km

N

National Reserve

Paracas Chincha Norte Island Chincha Centro Island Chincha Sur Island

San Clemente

Road Los Libertadores

Rio Pi s c o

5

7

PISCO Ballestas Islands

Blanca Island San

15

Independencia

San Miguel

Tupac Amaru Inca

Andres

Los Viejos Beach

El Candelabro Port San Martin

Buena Vista

Talpo Beach

Colorado Hill

Talpo Hill Colorados Hill

Atenas B. Paracas Bay

11.5

Paracas

El Alamein Pan a

Punta Arquillo

La Mina B.

12 rica na

me

Lagunillas

Hill

VIllacuri Pampa

Santa Cruz

Julio C. Tello Museum

Punta Lagarto Lechuza

Santa Cruz Pampa

El Chaco

P. Yumaque

Pozo Santo

Ica 43 km

Sur

El Arquillo Mountain

La Catedral

6 14.

Toro Muerto Pampa

Colorados Mountain

14°00'

Las Salinas Beach

14°00'

San Gallan Island

Tambo Colorado 23 km

14

Tres Marias Islands

19

Piedra Redonda Islands

34

Salt flat de Otuma El Playón Punta Otuma

Blanco

El Diablo Mountain

16.7

Mendieta Beach Mountain Punta Gallinazos

I C A

Erizal Beach Rancherio

Laguna Grande Punta Sacasemita Flamenco Lagoon

Chucho Beach Canastones Beach

Punta Carreta

Cuesta Chilcatay Hill

Independencia Karwas Beach Bay

Pa c if ic O c e a n

Tunga

Independencia Island

Santa Rosa Island Punta Grande Barlovento Mountain

Punta Morro Quemado Barlovento Beach

PARACAS NATIONAL RESERVE

El Negro Beach

14°30'

Punta Caiman Punta El Gallinazo Punta Azua

ICA

Scale km 0 76°30'

5

10

Protected Natural Areas | PERU 75 76°00'

14°30'

Antana Beach


out. In Paracas lives more than 50% of the Peruvian population of the South American Sea Lion (Otaria byronia).

Amazing mimetism of an American Oystercatcher chick (Haematopus palliatus).

they are most densely concentrated in the country. Fog oasis vegetation is found in the higher zones (between 400 and 600 meters above sea level), with species of orchids, cactaceae and tillandsias, characteristic of this type of vegetal formation, that serve as refuge and habitat for invertebrates, reptiles, birds and small mammals. This type of vegetation depends mainly on the humidity generated by the fogs, which determine its season and distribution. FAUNA The main natural bank of the Peruvian Scallop (Argopecten purpuratus) in Peru is found at the Bahia de la Independencia, in the southern part of the Reserve. The diverse habitats of the Reserve, make it an ideal resting and feeding place for migratory coastal birds coming from the northern and southern hemisphere, as well as from the Andean highlands lakes. The most important wetland for these species is the Paracas Bay itself, which also contains a rich resident ornithological fauna. The area gives refuge to numerous endangered bird species. Two of them are in danger of extinction: the Humboldt Penguin (Spheniscus humboldti), and the Peruvian Diving-petrel (Pelecanoides garnotii). Both are endemic to the Humboldt Current and breed in the Reserve. Large marine vertebrates like turtles, birds, sea otters, sea lions and cetaceans are also found, of which the Marine Otter (Lontra felina) and the South American Fur Seal (Arctocephalus australis) stand 76 Official Guide |Southern Coast

Among the sea reptiles we have the Leatherback Sea Turtle (Dermochelys coriacea), the Green Sea Turtle (Chelonia mydas), the Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta), the Olive Ridley Sea Turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea) and the Hawksbill Sea Turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata), all of them migratory species. Land reptiles include serpents and lizards; among them, the Paracas Gecko is worth mentioning (Phyllodactylus angustidigitus). Among the land mammals, we find the Sechuran Fox (Lycalopex sechurae) and the Culpeo (Lycalopex culpaeus). HOW TO GET THERE There are two ways to get to Paracas by paved road. The first one crosses the city of Pisco and, coming from the north, is the most practical one. You leave the Panamericana Sur at kilometer 231 and arrive in Pisco after a 5 km ride. Driving west, you get to the sea wall of the old port, and then you go south for a further 4 km up to San Andres, a fishermen's town with a very colorful local fishing marine terminal. From here to Paracas

The wind eroding the soft cliffs capriciously.


A group of Guanay Cormorants (Phalacrocorax bougainvillii), guano producing birds, rest on a coastal islet in Paracas.

there are another 15 km of well paved road. The entrance to the Reserve is 4 km south of the beach resort. The southern route is taken at kilometer 275 of the Panamericana Sur and, crossing a desert saturated with saltpetre along a road that had better days, one gets to Paracas almost directly, 12 km later. There are two other routes, from Pozo Santo and from the city of Ica, crossing the desert in 4WDs and getting to the southern zone of the Reserve, as both go up to the Bahia de la Independencia, but are not recommended for those who don´t know the area.

Grupo Aereo Nº 9, but in both cases, there is no commercial service. WEATHER The average temperature in Paracas is high in relation to its latitude and its coastal location. The annual average temperature is 65.6 °F, varying from 71.6 °F in February to 60 °F in August. The average relative humidity is 82%. Rainfall

In case you are using public transportation, interprovincial buses to Pisco from north and south are constantly available, and between Pisco and Paracas, buses are continually coming and going as with any regular urban service. Minivans travelling to Laguna Grande are less frequent. It is also possible to arrive to Paracas by sea, of course, for the Port of San Martin is close by, apart from the jetty of El Chaco and other private ones; the same could be said for air traveling because there is an airport at San Andres, the

The shore presents occasional patches of halophytes in Laguna Grande. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 77


RESTRICTIONS

The Inca Tern (Larosterna inca), one of the most beautiful birds of the Peruvian coast.

Paracas is a destination without seasons. Even though more people visit it in the summer, looking for its beautiful beaches, its landscape and biodiversity can be enjoyed throughout the year. Transit of vehicles should be restricted to the existing paths. Transiting, even on foot, the area of El Candelabro, at the north of the peninsula, is forbidden. Entrance Fees in soles: Under 5 and above 65 years: Free. 5 to 15 years: S/3 (one day), S/6 (three days). Adults: S/10 (one day), S/20 (three days). ATTRACTIONS

is very scarce and the total annual average at the north of the Reserve is 1.83 mm. Due to the shape of the shores of Paracas, the thermal inversion phenomenon, characteristic of all Peruvian coastal regions, does not occur here, letting the sun shine throughout the winter. In Paracas, the southwest and south winds predominate, with annual average speeds of 6 and 7 knots respectively, becoming stronger during the winter. The famous “paracas� (para [rain] and acco [sand] in Quechua) are very strong winds, up to 17 knots speed, saturated with dust and sand; they come between June and September, but mainly in August. The winds between the island of San Gallan and the Bahia de la Independencia are considered the most violent in the Peruvian coast. They can dislodge a car door if it is opened inadvertently with the wind behind, and this is not an exaggeration.

La Mina and Lagunillas, sand beaches of quiet and clear waters, are ideal for the family. The Yumaque, Supay, Playon and Mendieta beaches are larger and suitable for camping; the same can be said of El Chucho, Karwas and Barlovento beaches, which are farther. The Interpretation Center and Museum are totally restructured now, guaranteeing a better service for visitors. For nature tourism and the observation of wild fauna, one should visit the wetlands of the Paracas Bay, which is in front of the Interpretation Center and where 217 bird species can be watched. There you can catch sight of the Chilean Flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis) and the plovers and sandpipers that come from North America and the Arctic. In order to watch sea lions, you have to go to Punta Arquillo, at the southeast of the Peninsula, where the South American Fur Seal (Arctocephalus australis) can

The incomparable and eternally sunbathed Peninsula of Paracas, contrasting against an always blue ocean. In the photo, Lagunillas and its jetty.

78 Official Guide |Southern Coast


NEARBY ATTRACTIONS

Inland, one experiences the desert and the endless dunes.

be seen. You can also catch sight of dolphins, sea otters, turtles and whales, among others. The high cliffs, product of the erosion of the wind and the sea, are a very important habitat for birds such as the Inca Tern (Larosterna inca), the Red-legged Cormorant (Phalacrocorax gaimardi) and the Peruvian Booby (Sula variegata), some of which can be observed from the tourist outlook of La Catedral, a capricious formation which collapsed with the earthquake of 2007. In Paracas there is a great bank of fossil sediments, at macro and microscopic level, such as the already famous giant penguin of Yumaque, approximately 1.5 meters tall, which will be exhibited in the near future, together with an extinct species of sea snail, the Turritella (Turritella woodsi), dated 45 million years old.

The promenade to the Ballestas Islands, very close but already in the Sistema de islas, islotes y puntas guaneras National Reserve, is the preferred destination in Paracas in order to watch the sea fauna and admire the famous Candelabro. You can set sail from El Chaco jetty, where a number of boat services are offered daily (two-hour trip and approx. S/40 soles per person), or from some of the hotels in the area. Pisco is a friendly and colorful city, as is the fishing terminal of San Andres. We also recommend visiting Tambo Colorado, the great provincial administrative center of the Incas and, probably, one of their better preserved mud buildings of the coastal region, located upriver in the Pisco valley. In Ica, visiting the now protected oasis of Huacachina, a beautiful lake among gigantic sand dunes, and the Nazca Lines, a culture which is an heir of the Paracas, are a must.

The visit to the Ballestas Islands, one of the main attractions.

SERVICES WITHIN THE AREA The Reserve has an Interpretation Center and the Julio C. Tello Museum, located at the north entrance to the area, both rehabilitated in 2009. There are four Control Posts: the Entrance Post, the Central Office at the Interpretation Center, Lagunillas and Laguna Grande. There are 35 km of well signaled tourist circuits. CONTACT INFORMATION Administrative center of the protected area: Punta Pejerrey Highway, km 27, Paracas. Tel. (01) 968 218 449. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 79


San Fernando | National Reserve

“The most beautiful coastline” The rare and elusive Marine Otter (Lontra felina), playfully approaches the rocks of the shore. *Facilities for tourism

NO

Location : ICA Extension : 154,716.36 ha (42,718 of sea) Creation Date

: 07/09/2011

Altitude Range

: 0 - 1,790 meters

GENERAL OBJECTIVES The aims of the National Reserve are to preserve the biological, cultural and landscape diversity of the coastal marine ecosystems that are part of the ecorregion of the cold seas of the Peruvian Current and of the Pacific moderate hot desert, as well as to promote the sustainable use of the area’s natural resources, contributing in this way to the well-being of the local population and future generations. DESCRIPTION The Reserve comprehends two very different, practically discontinuous sectors 80 Official Guide |Southern Coast

along the shore: In the north, a relatively accessible zone that includes the mouths of the Ica and Grande rivers, which color the great desert of Ica with its riverside forests, and a few sandy beaches that face strong winds, forming seasonal wetlands near Punta Caballas. In the south, we find, instead, the very special San Fernando’s Cove, the coastal hillocks and the inaccessible cliffs of Huasipara Hill. Between these two, dividing them, there is the Rio Grande (impassable in summer) and Mount Huaricangana, the highest mountain in the Peruvian coast (1,790 meters high), formed by the Nazca plate as it collided with the Continental plate.


San Fernando´s Cove, focus of the protected area, is a geographical feature that has no equal in the coastline: two parallel peninsulas, very close to each other, go out into the sea, and there is an island between them. If we could see it from above, it would look like the open beak of a bird about to swallow a fish. This area, relatively isolated and not frequently visited until the late 90s, has a quite rich marine and coastal marine biodiversity, including sea lions, marine otters, penguins and cetaceans, as well as a diversity specific of the Sierra, of guanacos and condors that come down to these lands -enticed by the fog oasis vegetation and fauna- through an endangered and fragile corridor. The National Reserve of San Fernando is the second, together with Paracas, to protect ocean areas (nearly 28% of its area) in a zone where the upwellings and the resulting biodiversity, ocean currents, relict forests, hills, reefs, winds, the beauty of the landscape, archaeological sites and isolation have come together, creating very important values for conservation. HISTORY Even when the zone presents evidence of the use of its resources since 4,000 years ago, as well as of having being occupied by fishermen and gatherers of the Archaic period, history really begins with small settlements and Paracas burials, preamble to what would become the most important local development: Nasca. Apart from the famous and gigantic lines carved in the desert, we are also in the influence area of Cahuachi (200 BC to 450 AD),

its extraordinary ceremonial capital, that competes with the city of Chan Chan for the title of the “largest mud city in the world” (42 km²). Waris and Chinchas later left a weak imprint in this part of the coast, until the region was assimilated to the Inca Empire. Already in our times, the mining development of iron deposits at the neighboring San Juan of Marcona, since the mid-20th century, has played a crucial role in the ecological balance of the area, which is now protected. FLORA In the marine environment, the microalgae feed commercial species such as Anchovy, Sardine, Pejerrey and Lisa, and the prairies of macroalgae such as the Red Algae (Porphyra and Chondracanthus), and Brown Algae or Kelp (Laminaria, Lessonia and Macrocystis), serve as shelter, feeding and reproduction grounds for invertebrates and fish. Onshore, the riverside woodlands of the lower basins present a rich relict flora of Huarango (Prosopis pallida) and Camphorweed (Pluchea chingoyo), representative of Ica. The grass Flor de Arena (Tiquilia ferreyrae) forms spots that coalesce with the desert. Also, the berries of the Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera) serve as food for the Woodpecker and the Long-tailed Mockingbird. Other species such as Tillandsia purpurea, Heliotropium curassavicum, Boerhavia

San Fernando, a unique scenario for the observation of coastal marine fauna.

The Humboldt Penguin, one of the only two species that live outside the Antarctic area, is endemic to the coasts of Peru and Chile. Thanks to the evolution of its wings into flippers, the so called “child bird" travels in the water with the same agility and speed other birds do in the air. Paracas, the isles of Pachacamac and Punta San Juan -next to San Fernando- are the principal places where its endangered population finds refuge. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 81


Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and Killer Whale (Orcinus orca). Onshore, the large mammals are: Culpeo (Lycalopex culpaeus), Pampas Cat (Lynchailurus pajeros), Puma (Puma concolor) and Guanaco (Lama guanicoe).

One of the few places on the coast where guanacos can be seen.

diffusa, Baccharis salicifolia and Tessaria integrifolia, are distributed at different altitudes in the Reserve. FAUNA Among the guano producer birds, there are the Guanay Cormorant (Phalacrocorax bougainvillii), Peruvian Booby (Sula variegata) and Peruvian Pelican (Pelecanus thagus). Endangered species like the Humboldt Penguin (Spheniscus humboldti), Red-legged Cormorant (Phalacrocorax gaimardi), Peruvian Diving Petrel (Pelecanoides garnotii) and the Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus). Among the marine mammals, there is the Marine Otter (Lontra felina), two species of sea lions (Otaria byronia and Arctocephalus australis) and thirteen species of cetaceans such as the Humpback Whale (Megaptera novaeangliae), Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus), Fin Whale (B. physalus), Sperm Whale (Physeter macrocephalus),

The following inhabit in the lower basin of the rivers: Dove (Columbina cruziana and Zenaida asiatica), Vermilion Flycatcher (Pyrocephalus rubinus), Long-tailed Mockingbird (Mimus longicaudatus), American Kestrel (Falco sparverius) and hummingbirds (Thaumastura cora and Amazilia amazilia); and, in their waters, the River Shrimp (Cryphiops caementarius), one of the few native species from the rivers of the South Pacific Ocean basin. HOW TO GET THERE To get to the northern zone, starting from Ica, you follow the Panamericana Sur up to the detour to Callango on km 340, which runs parallel to the Ica River for 70 km up to the river mouth. From this point, you can get to Punta Caballas by travelling along the beach for some 11 km. Or better, continue along the Panamericana up to the detour to Changuillo (km 410) and then drive on parallel to Rio Grande for some 37 km up to its end or up to Punta Caballas, which is close by. To get to the southern zone, from Nazca you take the Panamericana and go south for about 20 km and then take the detour at Poroma that takes you to San Fernando’s cove. It is a total of 70 km and it is the main route taken by the still few tourists that visit the National Reserve. The access route from San Juan de Marcona (45 km)

In San Fernando the presence of the Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus) is frequent.

82 Official Guide |Southern Coast


Ica 92 km

PALPA

Pampa de Huayuri

Nasca Lines

I C A

Pampa Salinas

nde

Rio Gra

R i o Ica

San Fernando

o

26

Q.

Santa Ana Beach Huasipara Beach

NASCA

Q. Pa jon al

San Luis Pajonal Q. P oro Poroma ma

Huaricangana Hill 1791 msnm

Oc n

Chauchilla Mummies

Mellizos Hill

eric

San Nicolas

ana

Punta La Isla San Juanito Beach

San Juan Bay

San Juan de de Marcona

75°30'

Cusco 662 km

nam

San Nicolás Bay ICA

Rio Taru ga Q. Ch auchilla

a ra P rete Car

ea

Marcona Hill

San Fernando Cove La Rinconada Beach

40

ic

Achupalla Hill

38

cif

Pampa Las Galgas

eA Río d

Cantalloc aqueducts Paredones

Vista Alegre

Pa San Fernando Sea Lion Colonies Los Ingleses Beach

os Soc

Ocongalla aqueducts Usaka Desert

72

15°00'

i Ing en

Estaqueria Cahuachi

SAN FERNANDO NATIONAL RESERVE

Punta Caballas

Rio

15°00'

Maria Reiche Museum

Pampa de Rayadores

Amara Hill

El Ingenio

Changuillo

Gran Tablazo de Ica

Samaca

National reserve

Llipata 21

Río Ica

N

Rio Grande

Huayuri

ja

75°30'

Ocucaje 26 km

A R E Q U I P A

Punta San Juan Acapulco Beach Punta Lobo Fino Punta Colorado

along the coastline with steep sand slopes can only be taken by 4WD cars. WEATHER The maximum temperature varies from 79 to 93 °F in summer and from 61 to 79 °F in winter. ATTRACTIONS San Fernando’s Cove is the main attraction, for its landscape and rich biodiversity, and precautions should be taken so tourism does not have a negative impact on it. The beautiful beaches, although very windy, in the Punta Caballas zone. The Rio Grande, which exposes a geological park by slitting open the enormous Mount Huaricangana, whose high summit on the edge of the sea offers a unique biodiversity and anthological panoramic views.

Arequipa 527 km

Scale km 75°00'

0

5

10

of the most beautiful and significant archaeological sites in the country. Marcona, with its special beaches, and Punta San Juan with its impressive protected fauna. CONTACT INFORMATION Av. Bisambra n/n - Nasca; Oficina Agencia Agraria Nasca - Ica. Tel. (056) 522 770/ (01) 968 218 448.

NEARBY ATTRACTIONS The Nazca lines, a unique worldwide tourist destination, and Cahuachi, one

Between the mouths of the Ica River and the Grande River, the desert is everything there is. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 83


Lagunas de Mejia | National Sanctuary

“A halt on the long pilgrimage� A Common Moorhen (Gallinula chloropus) feeds its chicks with one of the numerous aquatic plants present in Mejia. *Facilities for tourism

YES

Location : AREQUIPA Extension : 690.6 ha Creation Date

: 02/24/1984

Altitude Range

: 0,5 - 3,5 meters

GENERAL OBJECTIVES This National Sanctuary was created to protect endangered ornithological migratory and endemic fauna, as well as the associations of wild flora proper to the aquatic ecosystems of the coastal shores. DESCRIPTION Lagunas de Mejia is found in a narrow coastal band very close to the shore and the mouth of the Tambo River, whose northern banks are within the protected zone. These wetlands have international importance for being a resting and feeding ground for migratory birds coming from 84 Official Guide |Southern Coast

the Austral region, the Galapagos Islands, the Andean highlands and, most of all, the Arctic, since they are the only wetlands in more than 2,000 km on the Pacific south coast that have optimal environmental conditions for the natural development of a large population of migratory and resident birds. For this reason, Lagunas de Mejia National Sanctuary was designated RAMSAR Site in 1992 and, together with the Tambo River, it is considered an IBA (Important Bird Area) by BirdLife International. Specially during the summer, thousands of birds can be watched, and more than 30 different species can be


registered in only one visit, a spectacle of biodiversity that is unique in the farther south coast of Peru. HISTORY While the current coastal profile is of relatively recent formation, less than 300 years old, and the waters that feed the lagoons come from the Iberia Irrigation System built in 1970, the whole region used to be part of the influence zone of an early and yet unknown culture, Churajon, present in Tacna, Moquegua and part of what is presently Arequipa. It is believed that, during the Inca period, the productive lower valley of the Tambo River was a grand scale tribute collection center, due to its excellent agricultural production. In Republican times, the zone loses importance as attention is displaced towards the neighboring Mollendo, the major port in southern Peru, connected with Arequipa and the high Andean plateau by railway since 1871.

The riverside scrubland presents arboreal species up to 5 meters high, mainly Palo Bobo (Tessaria integrifolia) and Chilean Willow (Salix humboldtiana); bushlike species, as the Mulefat (Baccharis salicifolia) and the Water Wally (Baccharis glutinosa); and very small herbaceous species, such as Olney's Three-square Bulrush (Scirpus olneyi) and the Broadleaf Plantain (Plantago major), or very large, as the Horsetail (Equisetum giganteum). The dominant species in the “totorales” is the Bulrush (Typha angustifolia), in the “gramadales”, the Seashore Saltgrass (Distichlis spicata), which can exist in association with Verdolaguilla (Salicornia fruticosa), predominant in some areas, Chairmaker's Bulrush (Scirpus americanus) and Seashore Paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum). The dominant species in the “juncales” is the Scirpus americanus and in the “salicornial” the Salicornia fruticosa predominates. FAUNA

FLORA In the area, 48 superior vegetal species and 28 algae or inferior plants are found, among which we can mention: the hydrophytes such as Lemna minuta, Azolla filiculoides, Ludwigia octovalvis and Eichhornia crassipes; adnata hydrophytes such as Chara spp.; and radicant hydrophytes such as Scirpus americanus, Typha angustifolia, Hydrocotyle bonariensis and Paspalum vaginatum; halophytes as Distichlis spicata, Salicornia fruticosa and Sesuvium portulacastrum; mesophytes such as Flaveria bidentis, Ambrosia peruviana and Heliotropium curassavicum.

This area is one of the few places in Peru where the Red-fronted Coot (Fulica rufifrons) lives and where the Greyheaded Gull (Larus cirrocephalus) and the American Oystercatcher (Haematopus palliatus) nest. The ornithological fauna characteristic of the Sanctuary is made up of four groups: 79 species of resident birds in the Sanctuary; 6 species of resident birds in the sea just in front of the Sanctuary; 80 migratory species: 48 from North America or the Arctic, 19 from the south of South America, 3 from the northern coast or the

Mejia offers the only refuge in the Peruvian far south to thousands of migratory birds.

Half of the world’s birds migrate, that is to say, several thousand millions of them. Some travel just some kilometers, others, up to 25,000 km. They travel from south to north, from east to west, or from higher to lower altitudes. Some travel always by night and others, only during the daytime, making use of thermal currents that allow them to glide, saving energy, because they do not feed during the long journey. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 85


in these lagoons are: Gambuzia (Poeciliopsis sp.), Flathead Mullet (Mugil cephalus), Andean Pejerrey (Basilichthys semotilus), and Pacific Fat Sleeper (Dormitator latifrons). Among the invertebrates stand out: Freshwater Shrimp (Cryphiops caementarius), Cart Driver Crab (Ocypode gaudichaudii) and Water Snail (Hidrobia sp.), which are important as many birds feed on them. HOW TO GET THERE

Various lookout posts for birdwatchers are strategically placed.

north of South America and 10 from the Andean zone and the Amazonian forest. There are also 30 occasional species. Species of particular importance are: Franklin´s Gull (Larus pipixcan), which is the most abundant, Slender-billed Finch (Xenospingus concolor), which is especially protected in this Sanctuary, Sanderling (Calidris alba) and Chilean Flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis). Likewise, there is an abundant population of different species of grebes, ducks, and coots. The Sanctuary is one of the places in the world where the largest concentration of the Common Moorhen (Gallinula chloropus) is found. Other species inhabiting the area include the toads (Bufo limensis), lizards (Microlophus tigris, Liolaemus insolitus) and species of salamander (Phyllodactylus gerrhopygus and P. angustidigitus); mammals such as Molina's Hog-nosed Skunk (Conepatus chinga), Lesser Grison (Galictis cuja), Sechuran Fox (Lycalopex sechurae), Marine Otter (Lontra felina) and Montane Guinea Pig (Cavia tschudii); among the most notorious fish species 86 Official Guide |Southern Coast

The Sanctuary can be easily reached through three principal ways: Coming from the north (Lima or Arequipa), taking a detour at kilometer 981 of the Panamericana Sur, via Matarani, Mollendo and the Mejia beach resort; some 90 km altogether. There is a second one, taking the detour at km 1034 of the Panamericana and driving some 30 km, via Cocachacra. A third possibility: From the southern port of Ilo, take the new Costanera (coastal road) for 70 km, a route with beautiful landscapes. WEATHER During the summer months the average temperature is 76.6 °F, and in winter, 66 °F; the average annual rainfall is just 10.8 mm. RESTRICTIONS The Sanctuary can be visited at any time of the year; a complete tour takes two hours by car and four hours on foot. Entrance Fees in soles: Under 5 and above 65 years: Free. 5 to 15 years:

Gorgeous specimens of White-cheeked Pintail (Anas bahamensis).


72°00'

61°55'

National Sanctuary

llo Blanco aba Q. C

N

61°50'

17°00'

17°00'

Lagunas de Mejia A R E Q U I P A

MOLLENDO Q

a la Panamericana

Q. Curi Curi

s

15

Chirizuya Beach

ea

Cocachacra

Mejia Beach resort n

6

Oc

o 17°05'

Q.

fic

El Conto Beach

E BOUND ARY

BU FF

10

6

La Curva Rio

Lagoon Mejia Lagoon Iberia

2

ZO N

ci

ER

Pa

s Po

c

Sombrero Grande Beach

Freire Bridge

bo Tam

17°10'

Lagoon Boqueron

5

AREQUIPA

LAGUNAS DE MEJIA NATIONAL SANCTUARY

Catas Catas Beach

3

Bombon

Scale km 0 72°00'

2.5

S/3 (one day), S/6 (three days). Adults: S/10 (one day), S/20 (three days). ATTRACTIONS

Cost aner a

Punta de Bombon

Lagoon Punta de Bombon

5

61°55'

La Pampilla 17°10'

Las Rocas Beach

17°05'

na ali .S

61°50'

61°45'

CONTACT INFORMATION Administrative headquarters: Jr. Tupac Amaru and Bolivar Corner n/n, Mejia, Arequipa, Tel. (01) 968 218 434.

Privileged destination for bird watching; one of the few places in Peru where the Red-fronted Coot, can be observed. The Lagunas de Mejia circuit includes, from north to south, the three lagoons (Mejia, Iberia, and Boqueron), good sign postings and lookouts. There is also a footpath to visit the coastal shrub land. NEARBY ATTRACTIONS Mejia, 5 km away from the Sanctuary, is one of the most beautiful seaside resorts in the South that, together with Mollendo, has the best beaches. SERVICES WITHIN THE AREA There is a small visitor’s center with models and information panels, and five viewpoints built from rustic materials distributed in the wetland.

A pair of great grebes (Podiceps major), in evident courtship. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 87


Sistema de islas, islotes y puntas guaneras | National Reserve

“The great marine coastal treasure”

The cold Peruvian or Humboldt Current causes an abundance of plankton on which countless populations of anchovy feed, and these, in turn, are food for a great number of sea birds. *Facilities for tourism

Yes (14/18)

Location : Coast of PIURA to MOQUEGUA Nº of Areas

: 22 islands and islets & 11 guano points

Area : 140,833.47 ha (97.5% of sea) Creation : 01/01/2010 GENERAL OBJECTIVES The main objectives are to protect the populations of birds and marine mammals that take refuge in the islands, islets and guano points, or of those that use them in their migration routes; to manage the natural resources found in those spaces in a sustainable way, through compatible activities such as the use of the guano, tourism, recreation, responsible fishing, and sustainable marine aquaculture, promoting the participation of private investment, as well as of the local settlements and traditional users, in order to achieve 88 Official Guide |Southern Coast

a fair and equitable distribution of the benefits derived from their use; to protect the stocks of fish and marine invertebrates and to maintain the natural processes that the islands, islets, guano points and the surrounding waters supply; to contribute to the recovery of the fishing resources within and outside of the protected spaces; to prioritize scientific research that contributes to acquire knowledge and improve the monitoring of the biological diversity of the Peruvian coastal marine ecosystem; to promote the development of environmental


education and applied investigation for the development of fishing technology and marine aquaculture in favor of the local population that uses the Reserve’s resources. DESCRIPTION The 22 islands, islets and groups of islands, and the 11 points are located in a discontinuous manner along the coast, from the south of Piura to the south of Moquegua. The establishment of systems of marine and coastal-marine protected natural areas is a priority on a worldwide scale, today more than ever. The oceanographic and fishing characteristics of the Peruvian sea are run by a complex system of currents that give origin to one of the most important upwelling systems in the world. Upwelling waters have a high content of mineral salts, essential for the development of phytoplankton, which becomes highly abundant and, as a consequence, generates an abundance of schools of pelagic or deep-sea fish. The islands, due to their physical structure characterized by rocky elevations surrounded by islets, offer a wide variety of habitats such as rocky walls at different depths, bottoms with stones or gravel and sandy habitats. This variety of conditions allows various habitats to be generated in a small space. Almost the totality of benthonic species (approximately

90%) is found in depths of less than 50 meters. This is the most important zone for the conservation of the marine biodiversity in Peru, and in the case of islands, islets and guano points, which are places where the greatest biological richness is concentrated because of the dynamic that its waters present, this range of depth is totally contained within the existent two miles protection. The System gives refuge to not only almost the totality of the populations of the three guano bird species – Guanay Cormorant, Peruvian Booby and Peruvian Pelican, all of them in a vulnerable situation-, but also shelters the most important colony of Peruvian Diving-petrel, almost 72% of the Peruvian population of South American Fur Seal, 60% of Humboldt Penguin, (these last three an endangered species), 84.4% of South American Sea Lion (a vulnerable species), and important reproductive populations of other marine bird species. The islands, islets and guano points are inhabited exclusively by the guardians, who stay there permanently. Nevertheless, during the guano extraction season, groups of 200 to 400 workers are mobilized, who stay in the point or island temporarily, while it is exploited for a period of approximately 2 to 6 months.

The rich Peruvian sea, one of the most productive in the world.

The penetration of warm ocean waters, interrupting the continuity of the temperate Peruvian waters, is the phenomenon called El NiĂąo. These events bring about a diminution of the pelagic species and tend to be associated with a temperature rise in the coast and strong, highly destructive, precipitations. In the 20th century, the most intense events took place in 1925 and 1983 and, apparently, their intensity and frequency is greater and greater. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 89


As it always was, guano exploitation is still done by hand, at the north of Punta Coles.

HISTORY Since the earliest days of our era guano was a widely used resource, as is demonstrated by the archaeological Mochica objects found at great depth in the islands, under dozens of meters of guano. The Incas prohibited its disordered exploitation and administered its use to the extreme of dividing the land into lots. When the first Spanish chronicles wrote about them, the guano of the islands was a discovery that caused astonishment, for its abundance as for its effects, which produced excellent crops and fruit in the valleys of the coast. After a certain colonial lethargy, guano started to be extracted and exported with great commercial success in the mid-19th century, until the War of the Pacific (1879) and a disastrous external debt payment contract put the resource in foreign hands (which practically decimated the population of guano birds) and tied down the national production until the beginning of the XX century. In 1909, the Peruvian government created the Guano Administration Company (CAG) -one of the best examples of success in the sustainable management of a natural resource world-wide- which reorganized the administration of the guano industry and prioritized the 90 Official Guide |Southern Coast

development of national agriculture. This company made great scientific contributions in several studies during its first years and, to this, it added measures of administrative and engineering character in order to favor development and reduce perturbations of the bird populations, such as rotation in the exploitation of the guano units, a reduction of the perturbations during the breeding seasons, the prohibition of every human activity (like fishing and egg predation) around the islands, the artificial modification of the habitat in order to expand the birds’ area of residence (removal of stones, leveling of the topography, building of walls), the building of docks and administration buildings in propitious places, among others. The result was the spectacular increase in the guano bird populations, from four million in 1910, to 8-10 million in the 1930s. Then, in the middle of the century, the guano points were enclosed creating a sort of protected “artificial islands”, which had surprising results in less than ten years, increasing the bird population up to 20 million individuals. At that same time, the CAG faced a new and growing fishing exploitation, whose dynamics pretended to replace bird guano with a new fertilizer made from fish oil and flour. The problem was that this theory relied on the fishing of anchovy, the key species in the food chain, between the lower levels (plankton) and the higher (fish, birds, mammals), on the existence of which depend all the biological processes. The fishing exploitation grew disproportionately in the following years and the population of guano birds decreased and, until our days, it has not been able to recover its previous levels, a situation to which also the higher frequency of El Niño events in the last forty years has contributed. Since 1993, the Director Plan of SINANPE identified the islands, islets and guano points of the Peruvian coast as a priority zone for the conservation of biological diversity in Peru.


80°

75°

70°

National Reserve

N C O L O M B I A

Sistema de islas, islotes y puntas guaneras

E C U A D O R

LORETO TUMBES

AMAZONAS

PIURA

L A M B AY E Q U E

1 SAN MARTIN

CAJAMARCA

3

B R A Z I L

L A L I B E R TA D

P

E

ANCASH

R

U

HUANUCO

LIMA JUNIN

Pa

13 14 15 16

MADRE DE DIOS

LIMA

cif

H UA N C AV E L I C A

ic

Oc ea

17 18

CUSCO

n

AYA C U C H O

20°

PUNO

ICA

20

Lobos de Tierra Island Lobos de Afuera Islands Macabí Islands Guañape Islands, North & South Chao Islands Corcovado Islet Santa Island Punta Culebras Punta Colorado Punta La Litera Don Martín Islet Punta Salinas, Huampanu & Mazorca Islands 13 Grupo de Pescadores Islets 14 Cavinzas Islands, Palomino Islets 15 Pachacamac Islands

APURIMAC

15°

15°

19

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

U C AYA L I

PASCO

9 10 11 12

21

AREQUIPA

22 23

MOQUEGUA

24 25

16 Asia Island 17 Chincha Islands, North, Center & South 18 Ballestas Islands, North, Center & South 19 Punta Lomitas 20 Punta San Juan 21 Punta Lomas 22 Punta Atico 23 Punta La Chira 24 Punta Hornillos 25 Punta Coles

B O L I V I A

10°

8

10°

4 5 6 7

TA C N A

20°

2

C H I L E

Scale km

Protected Natural Areas | PERU 91 80°

75°

0 40 70°

80


delicatulum, Asterionella glacialis, Schroderella delicatula, Nitzchia pungen, Chaetoceros peruvianus, and C. debilis), dinoflagellates (Ceratium tripos, C. furca and Goniaulax polyedra) and coccolithophorids (Coccolithus huxleyi).

The Peruvian Pelican, one of the three main guano producer birds.

FLORA The coast of Peru has a narrow continental shelf (more so in the south than in the north), deep oceanic trenches, arid conditions in the coast and a high degree of endemism. In its land section, the islands, islets and guano points are practically devoid of vascular plants; hillocks type vegetation, where herbaceous communities predominate, can be found only in the higher parts of some islands, where relative humidity is high. The main phytoplankton species of the Peruvian current are: diatoms (Thalassiosira aestivalis, Pleurosigma sp., Coscinodiscus perforatus, Bacteriastrum

The area of the islands, islets and guano points includes the marine habitats within the two miles around each one of those units and, therefore, it includes most of the marine communities or pelagic (open water) or benthic (bottom) biological communities, where algae populations abound. Macro algae prairies are one of the most important habitats, although there has not been much research on their biodiversity (especially the Macrocystis and Lessonia). On the other hand, 6% of the microalgae species are endemic to the zone. FAUNA Almost 40% of the bivalve mollusks and 70% of the fish are endemic to the zone, where 872 mollusks species and 296 species of crustaceans have been registered. One of the most productive fishing is found in the Peruvian littoral, mainly based on anchovy, sardine and hake. These high biomasses of fish are the staple food of abundant populations of birds and marine mammals.

Thanks to the marine coastal reserves, the South American Sea Lion finds refuge in a safe environment.

92 Official Guide |Southern Coast


There is fauna categorized in different degrees of threat: Peruvian Diving-petrel (Pelecanoides garnotii), Humboldt’s Penguin (Spheniscus humboldti), Guanay Cormorant (Phalacrocorax bougainvillii), Redlegged Cormorant (Phalacrocorax gaimardi) and Inca Tern (Larosterna inca), regarding birds. Among the threatened mammals, there are the South American Fur Seal (Arctocephalus australis) and the South American Sea Lion (Otaria byronia). There are some 25 species of cetaceous in open water. Among the most common, there are the Burmeister's porpoise (Phocoena spinipinnis), the Dusky dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obscurus), the Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and the Short-beaked Common Dolphin (Delphinus delphis). The main species of migratory whales are: Fin Whale (Balaenoptera physalus), Blue Whale (B. musculus), Humpback Whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) and the Sperm whale (Physeter catodon). Among the bird species, there are also: Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis), Peruvian Booby and Masked Booby (Sula variegata and S. dactylatra) and Neotropic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax olivaceus). Marine turtles are also found, like Green Sea Turtle (Chelonia mydas), Leatherback Sea Turtle (Dermochelys coriacea), Hawksbill Sea Turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata), Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta) and Olive Ridley Sea Turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea). The sea fish biodiversity representing the two ecoregions in front of the Peruvian coast (Humboldt and Tropical of the East Pacific) has been estimated in nearly 900 species. The most important and characteristic species of the Humboldt Current is the Peruvian anchoveta (Engraulis ringens), which, after plankton, constitutes the basis of the ecosystem’s food chain. Other characteristic species are the South American Pilchard (Sardinops sagax), the Pacific Bonito (Sarda chiliensis), the Chilean Jack Mackerel (Trachurus symmetricus murphyi), the Chub Mackerel (Scomber japonicus),

the medusafishes (Seriolella sp.), the Pacific Menhaden (Brevoortia maculata chilcae), the Sea Silverside (Odontesthes regia), the Lorna Drum (Sciaena deliciosa) and the Corvina Drum (Cilus gilberti). Mollusks like the Surf Clam (Mesodesma donacium) and the Pacific Sand Crab (Emerita analoga) are found in the sandy bottoms. The Peruvian Scallop (Argopecten purpuratus) is the only species with which aquaculture activities are developed in some zones close to the islands and guano points.

A tourist boat sets sail from El Chaco in order to visit the Ballestas Islands.

In the specific case of the Lobos de Tierra Island, its special geographical position, relatively distant from the continent, and its climatic characteristics, allow the presence of a particular fauna community. Examples are the existence of one of the only reproductive colonies of Masked Booby (Sula dactylatra) for Peru and the presence of real corals, which have not been found in any other part of the country. HOW TO GET THERE As it is logical, the access to the islands is by sea, and recreational or tourist watercrafts are scarce or inexistent in places that are away from Lima or Paracas, so many times one may have to use fishing vessels to visit them. The accessibility variable goes from the distant Lobos de Tierra Island, Protected Natural Areas | PERU 93


The fishing activity and the Guano Reserve coexist in Punta Lomas.

120 km from Chiclayo, to the nearby Pachacamac Island, which are less than a mile distance from the beaches in the south of Lima. The guano points, on the other hand, are almost always found at a short distance from the omnipresent Panamerican Highway in the coast, with exceptions like Punta Lomitas or Punta Hornillos. Many of them are cloistered within a settlement, as is the case with the San Juan, Lomas and Culebras Points. If you have your own boat, the sea takes you to all of them without exception.

zone, although always scarce and irregular, concentrated between the months of January and April, and the average relative humidity goes from 70 to 80%. Relative humidity rises considerably in the central zone, reaching between 84 and 93%. Drizzle is more frequent in this zone and characteristic of the city of Lima. The southern zone shares the high relative humidity and the cloudiness of the central zone, although more moderate. RESTRICTIONS

WEATHER The waters of the Peruvian sea are temperate, between 57 and 70 째F depending on the season (much colder than they should because of their tropical position, that is, 79 to 82 째F), a temperature that has its cause in the upwelling of deep waters, which in turn is originated by the trade winds coming from the anticyclone of the South Pacific. They account for the aridity of the coast, since they cool the masses of air that move over the sea surface, condense them and give rise to the coastal fogs; they moderate the climate and are an important factor for the great scarcity of rainfall along the central and southern coast. Rainfall is more frequent in the northern 94 Official Guide |Southern Coast

Due to the presence of great conglomerations of birds and lobos marinos in many of the islands and points, visiting is forbidden and, generally, only the entrance of researchers and personnel is allowed. ATTRACTIONS The islands, islets and guano points have great potential for the development of ecotourism specialized in the observation of birds, cetaceans and fauna in general, as well as recreational diving. Until now, only the Ballestas Islands are the main focus of marine tourism in Peru, the profile of which is of visitors who look for experiences in nature tourism. The visit to these


islands is usually part of the visit to the National Reserve of Paracas, which results in benefit for both experiences. Only recently, the Cavinzas Islands and the Palomino Islets have joined in this activity, principally due to their closeness to the capital. NEARBY ATTRACTIONS The main natural attractions, among the innumerable that there are in such an extensive territory, are the protected marine-coastal Paracas and San Fernando National Reserves,

and those in the littoral like Pantanos de Villa, Humedales de Puerto Viejo and Lagunas de Mejia. The nearby ports or fishing coves like Malabrigo, Culebras, Vegueta, Carquin and Punta Lomas, present unique peculiarities and attractions, which combine architecture, landscape and gastronomy with traditional values. CONTACT INFORMATION Administrative headquarters of the protected area: Calle Las Tordillas 195, San isidro, Lima. Tel. (01) 717 6318 / 968 218 460.

Island / Point

Area (ha)

Lobos de Tierra Island

18,278.90

Lobos de Afuera Islands

8,265.13

Macabi Islands

8,015.76

Gua単ape Islands, north and south

8,487.36

Chao Islands

4,495.28

Chao Islands

5,228.21

Santa Island

6,662.71

Culebras Point

2,953.89

Colorado Point

2,209.86

La Litera Point

2,036.45

Don Martin Islet

3,312.02

Salinas Point, Huampanu and Mazorca Islands Grupo de Pescadores Islets

14,207.80 6,913.23

Cavinzas Islands and Palomino Islets

5,146.88

Pachacamac Islands

4,289.88

Asia Island

3,929.58

Chincha Islands, north, center and south

9,410.91

Ballestas Islands, north, center and south

7,197.01

Lomitas Point

2,465.85

San Juan Point

2,968.80

Lomas Point

2,404.26

Atico Point

3,467.69

La Chira Point

2,436.68

Hornillos Point

2,684.19

Coles Point TOTAL

3,365.14 140,833.47 Protected Natural Areas | PERU 95


SERVICES Phone Area Codes: Ica (056), Arequipa (054)

HOTELS Paracas: ***Libertador Paracas Resort & SPA; Paracas 178, T. 5186500; www.libertador.com. pe ***Doubletree Guest Suites Paracas Hilton; Lote 34, Urb. Santo Domingo, T. 6171000; http://doubletree1.hilton.com/es/dt/hotel/PIOPEDT-Doubletree-Guest-Suites-by-Hilton-ParacasPeru/index.do ***La Hacienda Bahia Paracas; Lote 25, Urb. Santo Domingo, T. 2131010; www. hoteleslahacienda.com/esp/paracas/index_paracas.html ***El Condor Club & Beach Resort; Lote 4, Urb. Santo Domingo, T. 545080; www.resortelcondor.4t.com ***Posada del Emancipador; Paracas 25, T. 532818; www.posadadelemancipador.com ***El Mirador Hotel; Panamericana Km 20, T.545085; www.elmiradorhotel.com Ica: ***Sol de Ica; Lima 265, T. 236168; www. hotelsoldeica.com ***Las Dunas Sun Resort; La Angostura 400, T. 256224; www.lasdunashotel. com ***Mossone; Balneario de Huacachina, T. 213630; www.visitaica.com/hotelmossone.html Nasca: ***Cantayo Spa & Resort; T. 522264; www.hotelcantayo.com ***Alegria; Lima 166, T. 522702; www.hotelalegria.net ***Casa Andina Nasca; Bolognesi 367, T. 523563; www.casaandina.com ***San Marcelo; Panam. Sur Km 444, T. 523183; www.hotelsanmarcelo.com ***Oro Viejo; Callao 483, T. 521112; www.hoteloroviejo.com ***Majoro; Fundo Majoro, Panam. Sur Km 448, T. 522750; www.hotelmajoro.com Arequipa: ***Libertador Arequipa; Plaza Bolivar s/n, Selva Alegre, T. 215110; www.libertador.com.pe ***Sonesta Posada del Inca; Portal de Flores 116, T. 215530; http://espanol.sonesta.com/Arequipa ***Alwa, Rooms & Services; Malecon Chili 9759, Urb. Los Pinos, Vallecito, T. 284598; www.alwahotel.com ***El Cabildo Hotel; Manuel Ugarteche 411, Selva Alegre, Cercado, T. 204060; www.cabildohotel.com ***La Casa de mi Abuela; Jerusalen 606, Cercado, T. 241206; www.lacasademiabuela.com ***Casa Andina Arequipa; Jerusalen 603, Cercado, T. 202070; www.casa-andina.com ***La Posada del Monasterio; Santa Catalina 300, T. 405728; www.inkanatura.net/hotelposadadelmonasterio.htm *** Viza; Peru 202; T. 232232; www.hotelviza.com/ ***La Posada del Puente; Puente Bolognesi 101, T. 253132; www. posadadelpuente.com/indexespanol.html ***La Casa de Melgar; Melgar 108, T. 222459; www. lacasademelgar.com Mollendo: **La Villa; Mariscal Castilla 366; T. 535051 **El Hostalito; Mayor Blondell 169; T.533674 ** La Cabaña; Comercio 240; T. 534671

RESTAURANTS Ica: El Caramba; Prolg. Ayabaca 862, T. 210789; www.perucaramba.com Soy Peru; Salaverry 329, T. 229422 El Pajonal; Prolg. Tacna 534, T. 211876 La Olla de Juanita; Fundo Tres Esquinas, Panam. Sur Km 296, T. 403275 La Estacion; Panam. Sur Km 307, T. 237164 Caine Y Pescao; Juan Jose Elias, 417, T. 228157 Nasca: El Porton; Ignacio Morsesky 120, T. 523490; www. elportonrestaurante.com Don Hono; Arica 254, T. 523066 La Cañada; Lima 160, T. 522917 La Encantada; Callao 592, T. 522930 Arequipa: Sol de Mayo; Jerusalen 207, Yanahuara, T. 254148; www.restaurantsoldemayo.com Guisos Arequipeños; Pizarro 111, Jose Luis Bustamante y Rivero, T. 464453; www.guisosarequipenos.com Ari Quepay; Jerusalen 502, T. 204583; www. aryquepay.com Zig Zag; Zela 210, Cercado, T. 206020 Capriccio; CC Cayma, Local 5, T. 255455 y Mercaderes 121, T. 391000 La Tratoria del Monasterio; Santa Catalina 309, T. 204062 Paquita Siu; Granada 102, Urb. Los Sauces, Cayma, T. 251915 Tradicion Arequipeña; Dolores 111, T. 430352 Chicha; Santa Catalina 210 Int. 105, T. 287360 La Nueva Palomino, Leoncio Prado 122, Yanahuara, T. 253500 Arequipa de Antaño; Arancota 136, Sachaca, T. 283345 Mollendo: El Muelle; Panam. Z-5 Miramar, T. 522395 Alejo; Panam. Sur Y-4, Miramar, T. 532891 Cebicheria Mary's; Comercio 216, T.532570

TOURISM/TRAVEL AGENCIES Ica: Alltuman Tours; Lima 215, Ofic. 8, T. 210670: www.alltumantours.com Buganvilla Tours; Camino Real, Manzana D-15, Res. La Angostura, T. 256581; www.buganvillatours.com Angel Desert Tours; Tacna 208, T. 216805; www.adticaperu.net78.net Aquarius Travels & Services; 96 Official Guide |Southern Coast


Callao 173, 2º Piso, T. 211555; www.acuariustravelagency.com Pino Tours; Urb. San Joaquin S-33, 2ª Etapa, T. 223584 T.T. Huacachina Tours; La Angostura 355, L-47, Res. La Angostura, T. 256582; www.huacachinatours.com Desert Travel and Service; Lima 171, T. 227215 Pisco: Periodo de Aventura; Urb. La Alborada, Manzana X, T. 532581; www.periododeaventura.com Paracas Reservas Tours Pisco; San Francisco 257, T. 534993; www.reservastourspisco.com Nasca: Alegria Tours; Lima 168; T. 523775; www.alegriatoursperu.com Andean Tempo; Ignacio Morsesky 126, T. 522379; www.andeantempo.com Estrellita del Sur; Callao 568 A, T. 522764; www. estrellitadelsurhotelnasca.com Arena Aventour; Lima 628, T. 523512 Senderos Travel; Arica 474, T. 523310 Arequipa: Aqp Servicio Integral de Viajes Arequipa; Santa Catalina 105 B, T. 281800; www.saaqp.com.pe Sudamerica Tour; Gutemberg 405, T. 266853; www.sudamericatour.com/ index.php Trotamundos; Portal de San Agustin 121, T. 202716; www.trotamundosaqp.com Colca Trek; Santa Catalina 204 Ofic. 3, T. 202461; www.colcatrek.com Volcanyon Travel; Villalba 414, Cercado, T. 205078 Colonial Tours; Santa Catalina 106, Cercado, T. 28668 Conresa Tours; Mcal. Benavides 177, Selva Alegre, T. 285420 Carlos Zarate Expeditions; Calle Santa Catalina 204, Ofic. 3, Cercado, T.202461 Coltur Arequipa; San Francisco 206, T. 239159 Classic Tours; Santa Catalina 114, T. 203322 Sky Viajes Arequipa; Santa Catalina 301, T. 205124 Travel Agency Internacional; Alvarez Thomas 107, T. 201494

EMERGENCIES Salud: Chincha: Hospital San Jose; Alva Maurtua s/n, T. 261421/269006 Pisco: Hospital de Apoyo San Juan de Dios; San Juan de Dios 350, T. 532332 Ica: Hospital de Apoyo Departamental; camino a Huacachina s/n, T. 232793/235101 Hospital Santa Maria del Socorro; Castrovirreyna 759 Nasca: Hospital de Apoyo; Callao, cuadra 5, T. 522586 Arequipa: Hospital Regional Honorio Delgado Espinoza; Daniel Alcides Carrion s/n, La Pampilla, Jose Luis Bustamante y Rivero, T. 231818/219702 Hospital Goyeneche; Goyeneche s/n, Cercado, T. 231313/223501 Camana: Hospital Apoyo Camana, Lima 550, Cercado, T. 571603/571858 Policia: Chincha: Comisaria de Chincha; Simon Bolivar 11, T. 266408 Pisco: Comisaria de Pisco; Plaza de Armas s/n, T. 532083 Ica: Comisaria de Ica; 2 de Mayo 274, T. 218235 Nasca: Comisaria de Nasca; Los Incas s/n, T.522042 Arequipa: Jefatura de Seguridad Ciudadana; Quinta Romaña 315, Cercado, T. 284354 XI Region, Policia Nacional del Peru; Emmel 106, Yanahuara, T. 254020 Policia de Turismo; Jerusalen 315, Cercado, T. 201258 Mollendo: Comisaria Mollendo, Islay, Cuadra 8, T. 534242 OF INTEREST Chincha: Museo Municipal de Chincha; Santo Domingo, cuadra 1, Chincha Alta Paracas: Museo de Sitio "Julio C. Tello"; Carretera Pisco - Puerto San Martin, Km 27, T. 620436 Ica: Museo Arqueologico Alejandro Pezzia Aseretto; Girasoles P-14, El Mirador, Res. La Angostura; T. 256276/232182 Museo de la Iglesia de la Compañia de Jesus; San Francisco Museo Regional de Ica “Maria Reiche Gross Newman”; Ayabaca, cuadra 8, T. 234383 Centro de informacion Iperu; T. 2249355 Direccion Regional de Comercio Exterior y Turismo, Grau 148, T. 238710 Correos; Libertad 119 A, T. 233881 Nasca: Museo de Sitio Lineas y geoglifos de Nasca Museo Municipal de Nasca - Casa Museo Maria Reiche; San Pablo, Panam. Sur Km 400 Arequipa: Convento-Museo de La Recoleta; Recoleta 117, Yanahuara, T. 270966 Monasterio de Santa Catalina; Santa Catalina 301, T. 229798 Museo Arqueologico Jose Maria Morante de la Universidad Nacional San Agustin; Independencia, Ciudad Universitaria, T. 229719 Museo Forestal de la Policia Ecologica; Parque Protected Natural Areas | PERÚ 97


Caballero 121, Urb. Jesus Maria, T. 460875/464354 Museo Historico Municipal Guillermo Zegarra Meneses; Plaza San Francisco 407, T. 211021 Museo Santuarios Andinos de la Universidad Catolica de Santa Maria; Santa Catalina 210, T. 200345/222554 Centro de Informacion; Plaza de Armas, Portal de la Municipalidad 110, T. 223265 Casona Santa Catalina; Santa Catalina 210, T. 221227 Gerencia Regional de Comercio Exterior y Turismo; Bolivar 206, Cercado, T. 232957 Correos; Serpost, Moral 118, Cercado, T. 215247 TRANSPORTATION By Buses: Cruz del Sur; Panam. Sur 196, Chincha/ Ramon Rojas, Urb. San Miguel, Ica/ Lima y San Martin, T. 523713 Nasca/ Salaverry 121 Cercado, T. 216625, Arequipa; www.cruzdelsur.com.pe Oltursa; Hotel Real Ica, Los Maestros s/n, T. 23-3330, Ica/ Lima 105, T. 522265, Nasca/ Salaverry 123, T. 220257, Arequipa; www.oltursa.com.pe Soyuz; Mcal. Benavides 704, T. 269239, Chincha/ Matias Manzanilla 130, T. 224138, Ica; www.soyuz.com.pe Tepsa; Panam. Sur Km 300, La Angostura, T. 256026, Ica/ Los Incas 124, T. 523775, Nasca/ Arturo Ibañez, Stand A1- A2, J. L. Bustamante y Rivero, T. 281894, Arequipa; www.tepsa.com.pe Cial; Matias Manzanilla 803, T. 238725, Ica/ Arturo Ibañez s/n, T. 430505, Arequipa; www.expresocial.com Flores; Matias Manzanilla 152, Ica/ 28 de Julio 106, T. 234021/244988, Arequipa; www.floreshnos.net By Air: Lan; Santa Catalina 118 C, Arequipa; www.lan.com Short tourist flights : Pisco: Aeroparacas; Aeropuerto Pisco, Caseta s/n, T. 2658073 Nasca: Aeroica; Aeropuerto Nasca – Hotel Maison Suisse, T. 2429164 Servicio Aereo Turistico Aero Palcazu; Panam. Sur Km 450, T.524004 Alas Peruanas; Lima 168, T. 522444 AeroCondor; Angostura 400, Hotel Las Dunas, T. 256230, Ica/ Panam. Sur Km 447, Hotel Nido del Condor, T. 52-2402, Nasca; aerocondor.com.pe Airports: Nasca:

aeropuerto "Maria Reiche Neuman", Vista Alegre, a 2,5 km de Nasca, T. 522801

Arequipa: aeropuerto “Teniente FAP Alfredo Rodriguez Ballon", Aviacion s/n, Zamacola, Cerro Colorado, T. 443560/443798

Grey-headed Gull (Laruscirrocephalus) 98 Official Guide |Southern Coast

Spectacled Bear (Tremarctos ornatus).


Northern Mountains

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Tabaconas Namballe NS Cutervo NP Pagaibamba PF Chancayba単os RZ Sunchubamba GP Calipuy NS Calipuy NR

1 3

2 4 5 6 7


Tabaconas Namballe | National Sanctuary

“Moorlands of Life� Tabaconas Namballe, in spite of its location and altitude, has Amazonian fauna and not Andean Patagonian, as the rest of the Peruvian Sierra. *Facilities for tourism

NO

Location

: CAJAMARCA

Surface Area

: 32,124.87 ha

Creation Date

: 05/20/1988 (expanded on 09/04/2009)

Altitude Range

: 1,600 - 3,800 meters

GENERAL OBJECTIVES The National Sanctuary has been created to protect and preserve a representative sample of the Andean Moorland and endangered species such as the Spectacled Bear (Tremarctos ornatus) and the Mountain Tapir (Tapirus pinchaque), as well as to protect the basins of the Tabaconas, Miraflores and Blanco Rivers. DESCRIPTION Near the northern Huancabamba depression is the southernmost moorland of the Andes. This type of ecosystem, of which there are only a few in Peru, is preserved in the Tabaconas Namballe 100 Official Guide |Northern Mountains

National Sanctuary. It is similar to the Andean plateau, with its graslands and scrublands, but very humid and almost constantly covered by fog. The other main difference between the Puna and the Andean Moorland is that the latter is inhabited by fauna that is originally Amazonian and not by species that are originally Andean-Patagonian as in the other case. The topography of the Sanctuary is mainly mountainous and, in the high parts, bare rocky outcrops and very steep slopes can be seen, although there are flat and undulating zones as well. From 1,600 meters above sea level up, the slopes go from moderately inclined to steep, and over 2,000 meters,


the steepest slopes are found, merged with abrupt craggy extensions and precipitous rock walls. Apart from its singular ecological characteristics, it embraces the sources of three important basins which are tributaries of the Amazon River, the Tabaconas River basin, the Blanco River basin and the upper course of the Miraflores River, which are home to an extraordinary biodiversity and have landscapes of great beauty. The group of Arreviatadas Lakes, declared Ramsar sites since 2007, stand out in the area. HISTORY Tabaconas Namballe is located close to a natural corridor between the Amazonian zone and the coast, which is also connected to the history of the people of the area. Being the ancestral territory of different tribes belonging to the large Jibaro group, they received the influence of regional cultural developments until the arrival of the Incas, who established high standard ceremonial and administrative centers very close by, such as Huancabamba and Caxas, next to the Qhapaqñan, the great Inca Road. The Spaniards arrived very early in the zone, as is demonstrated by the first founding of the city of Jaen in 1549. During the decade of 1940, national and foreign investors initiated studies for the exploitation of the woodlands of the provinces of Jaen and San Ignacio. This made the State set aside

an area to be used for the protection of nature and the “Oso Perdido (lost bear) National Forest” was created. In the 1970s, in order to protect these woods, again, an area of 49,260 ha was declared a reserved area, intended for studies and research on the natural regeneration of the forest, and in the 1980s the necessary studies were made to declare it a protected natural area. The Sanctuary was established in 1988, including approximately 29,500 ha. Nevertheless, the use of new technology and the reinterpretation of descriptive reports have made it possible to recalculate its extension and, since September of 2009, its surface area is officially more than 32,000 ha. FLORA At the Sanctuary, 286 species of plants have been reported, the ferns being one of the most diverse groups with 27 species, and the Asteraceae family being the other, with 26 species, both found mostly in the moorland at an altitude of over 3,000 meters. Numerous species of the Melastomataceae family (21) and orchids (22) have also been registered. Three botanical species important for conservation are: Romerillo (Podocarpus Oleifolius), highly apreciated for its wood; also, a tree which is endemic to the Andean moorland and without a common name, of the Gynoxys sp. nov. Genus, and the Cedrela odorata, known as

The climate at the Sanctuary is cloudy and humid most of the year, and has very specialized biodiversity.

The Mountain Tapir, known also as Pinchaque or “Large Beast”, feeds its almost 250 kg mainly with sprouts and ferns. It is the only tapir found outside the tropical forest; its fleecy fur allows it to withstand the low temperatures of the moorland where it lives, which extends up to an altitude of 4,000 meters. An endangered species due to the deterioration of its habitat, it is estimated that there are barely 200 specimens in the country. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 101


a very small nocturnal deer that takes refuge among the bushes during the day. HOW TO GET THERE

Orchids of the region (Maxillaria sp.).

“Cedar”, very tall and highly appreciated for the quality of its wood, and also in the list of endangered species. FAUNA 490 possible species of insects have been described in the area, among which 4 are new to science; also, 13 species of amphibians and 5 sp of reptiles, including a new lizard register for Peru. 186 bird species have been registered, and 43 of them are endemic to the zone. The tanagers are the most diverse, with 32 species. Additionally, there are 59 species of mammals, including a bat that feeds on fruit (Sturnira nov. sp.) and a rat that feeds on rice (Oryzomys nov. sp.), both possibly new to science. One of the most characteristic species in the moorland is the Mountain Tapir (Tapirus pinchaque), currently in danger of extinction, and the Spectacled Bear (Tremarctos ornatus), which is in a vulnerable situation. The site is also inhabited by other rare species, such as the Little Red Brocket (Mazama rufina) and the Pudu (Pudu mephistophiles),

Starting from Chiclayo, it takes a 9 h drive along a paved road to get to San Ignacio (400 km), and from there, still one more hour (about 50 km) to arrive to Alto Huamaca, the Sanctuary´s limit. From San Ignacio to Namballe (45 km) there is 1 ½ h distance, and from San Ignacio to Tabaconas (160 km) it takes 5 h by car, and then 2 more hours on foot, going by Chichilapas, in order to get to the Sanctuary’s limit (or seven hours if going by the Arreviatadas Lakes). You can also get to Tabaconas in about 3 h, by taking a dirt road from Huancabamba (around 110 km). There is regular interprovincial bus service to San Ignacio or Huancabamba, Chiclayo has an airport with daily connections to Lima, and Jaen has an airfield.

The beautiful “Bride’s Veil” Cascade, at the limits of the Sanctuary.

WEATHER

The tiny Red-billed Parrot (Pionus sordidus). 102 Official Guide |Northern Mountains

The Andean Moorland ecosystem is located in the high zones of the Sanctuary, and is characterized by its low temperature, with frequent fog and rainfall that, generally, tends to turn into hail. The average annual temperature


79°15'

79°20'

4°55'

79°25'

79°10'

National Sanctuary

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79°20'

79°15'

is constant, but the daily temperature may fluctuate in a gamut of 70 °F, and goes below 32 °F at night. Average annual rainfall is 1,800 mm and average relative humidity, 87%. ATTRACTIONS The lovely high Andean lakes of the Paramo, the Arreviatadas, are surrounded by rocky massifs and scrub fields, and there are small woods and scrubland on the hillsides and ravines. There are 4 major lakes and 12 smaller ones, with an extremely humid climate. The Paramos are a special and complex ecosystem, located at altitudes between the mountain forests and the perpetual snows, with a climate that has sudden temperature changes daily. This kind of ecosystem is found, in a discontinuous way, from Venezuela up to the north of Peru. Three main species of the podocarpaceas family, one of the few conifers of South America, are found in the protected area.

79°10'

5°20'

Mariscal Castilla

Limon Pampa

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5°05'

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Tabaconas

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79°25'

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Lakes Arreviatadas

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Alto Ihuamaca

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TABACONAS NAMBALLE NATIONAL SANCTUARY

HUANCABAMBA

San Antonio Port

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Chantaco

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LAMBAYEQUE CAJAMARCA

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Tabaconas Namballe

ECUADOR PERU

Ca n c h i s

Scale km 0

5 79°05'

10 79°00'

NEARBY ATTRACTIONS The petroglyphs of Manchara, the stone bridge over the Tabaconas River and the citadel of Coyona are worthwhile visiting. CONTACT INFORMATION Administrative headquarters of the protected area: Jr. Cajamarca 243 - San Ignacio, Tel. (01) 968 218 439.

The gorgeous “Corazon” (“Heart”) Lake, one of the Arreviatadas lakes. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 103


Cutervo | National Park

“High Altitude Forests” The Pacarana (Dinomys branickii), one of the vulnerable species, finds refuge and protection in Cutervo. *Facilities for tourism

YES

Location

: CAJAMARCA

Surface Area

: 8,214.23 ha

Creation Date

: 09/08/1961 (enlarged in 08/05/2006)

Altitude Range

: 2,400 - 3,500 meters

GENERAL OBJECTIVES The Cutervo National Park was founded in order to protect the Caves of San Andres de Cutervo and the adjacent natural forests, as well as to protect the flora and fauna of the area, specially the colonies of Oilbird (Steatornis caripensis), and the scenic beauty of the Tarros Mountains. DESCRIPTION Cutervo is the first protected area created by law in the country. Considered a Priority Zone for the preservation of Peru’s biological diversity and a Priority Zone for the 104 Official Guide |Northern Mountains

preservation of mammals, it is located on the southern end of the Tropical Moorlands, protecting the highest sources of the Marañon River’s basin in the Cajamarca region. There are four life zones in Cutervo: Very Humid Low Montane Tropical Forest, Very Humid Montane Tropical Forest, Humid Low Montane Tropical Forest and Dry Low Montane Tropical Forest. That is, it spans from impenetrable fog forests to cold Andean moors, the last preserved in the Cajamarca region and natural habitat of the Spectacled Bear. Moreover, they are the sources of the seven basin headwaters, mainly in the


Tarros Mountains, which are essential for the conservation of the lower lands. Human presence threatens the Park’s eco-systemic viability (genetic exchange), being the principal conservation strategy to involve the neighboring population and do research that will raise its economic and scientific value. HISTORY In the 1938 International American Conference in the city of Lima, the National Committee for the Protection of Nature is founded; in 1954, the Cutervo-Lima Cultural Federation makes a request to the Department of the Treasury, asking for the creation of the Cutervo National Park with 2,500 ha, without success. In 1960, the parliamentarian Dr. Salomon Vilchez Murga presents the motion for the creation of the Park, which is approved, and the first National Conservation Unit is created, with 2,500 ha. Since the 1980s, the Park submitted several proposals for its extension, but it is only in 2002, that a file is prepared which includes two sectors (north 25% and south 75%), finally approved in 2006, quadruplicating its initial extension. FLORA Its forests have ecosystems with outstanding biodiversity that includes orchid species, lichens, fungi, bromeliads and arboreal vegetation that have economic and medicinal

importance, such as the Peruvian Bark (Cinchona sp.), the Cedar (Cedrela sp.), the Oak (Nectandra sp.), the Walnut Tree (Juglans sp.), the Mexican Alder (Agnus jorullensis) and the Saucesillo (Podocarpus sp.). The relicts of white palm trees within the fog forest in San Andres are very important. In 2003, 7 genera of palm trees (Iriartea, Ceroxylon, Syagrus, Chrysalidocarpus, Attalea and Euterpe) and 2 genera of giant ferns (Osmunda and Cyathea) were identified. FAUNA There are 8 species which are endangered to some degree. In a vulnerable condition: Neotropical Otter (Lontra longicaudis), Spectacled Bear (Tremarctos ornatus), Giant Anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), Colocolo (Leopardus colocolo); in danger of extinction: Mountain Tapir (Tapirus pinchaque); in a rare or undetermined situation: Pacarana (Dinomys branickii), Grey Brocket (Mazama gouazoubira) and Mountain Paca (Cuniculus taczanowskii). Also, the following have been sighted: Jaguar (Panthera onca), Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), Oilbird (Steatornis caripensis), Golden-headed Quetzal (Pharomachrus auriceps) and the Andean Cock-of-the-rock (Rupicola peruviana). Furthermore, a new spider species (Ochyrocera peruviana) and three coleopterons (Andinorites striatus, A. vilchez and A. peruvianus) have been discovered.

The uneven landscape at the first National Park created in Peru.

In order to fly inside the caves, oilbirds have a special echo system to find their way in the dark, like sonars, emitting a click that can be easily heard as they fly. When they are 10 weeks old, the chicks weigh 50% more than their parents and their bodies are full of fat, a reason for which they were hunt in the past, to be used as fuel for stoves and lamps. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 105


dirt road) at Puerto Chiple and go up to Santo Domingo de la Capilla, the access gate to the Park. From there, the waterfalls and routes typical of the high Amazonian forest can be accessed, following a path for 1 ½ h. WEATHER It is predominantly humid to semicold with seasonal rains from October to March. The average temperature varies from 54 °F to 66 °F and annual precipitation is 780 mm. The eastern flank presents a climate typical of the high Amazonian forest, while the western flank one typical of the Sierra. RESTRICTIONS Bonnet Orchid (Pleurothallis sp.)

HOW TO GET THERE Cutervo is located 8 hours away from Cajamarca and 10 hours away from Chiclayo. From Chiclayo, following a dirt road that goes by Chongoyape and Cochabamba, you arrive to Cutervo (that has daily bus service to Chiclayo). In order to enter the Park, one has to follow the dirt road to San Andres for 2 ½ h, which takes to the complex of Pillco and the palm tree forest. If you go along the Marginal de la Selva (the paved road uniting Chiclayo and Jaen), take the detour (a

The best time to visit the area is between April and October. You must inform the Park’s headquarters in Cutervo of your visit and of the number of visitors. A Park Ranger will always go along with you. ATTRACTIONS In the Zone for Tourist Use: The Guacharos’ Cavern, the White Cavern, and the Bat’s Cavern; located in the village of Pajonal nearby San Andres, have very high vaults and long labyrinths, with stalactites and stalagmites. It is possible to observe the especial and nocturnal oilbirds in these caverns and, in the stream that runs through them, one also finds a

The exuberant forest with its Andean Wax Palms (Xerocylon sp.), the seeds of which are food for the oilbirds.

106 Official Guide |Northern Mountains


78°50'

78°45'

Jaen 65 km

National Park

ay u all

Las Juntas

ti n

6°10'

17

ar Rio Sa n M

Cutervo 6°10'

Rio C

c

N

78°40'

Santa Cruz

Q. Tam billos Jaen 112 km

Callayuc

C A J A M A R C A Cla nta r a

Rio S a

aya

il qu Cordillera Tarros

un ta in

Llipa Mountain

Pillco Mountain Pillco Complex

Q. del Pil

Pucanilla Mountain

Rio

lco

22

Socota Rio

Socota BUF

F ER ZO

NE

S o de

B

Ri

Rio COUNDA RY ulia

PIURA

e uc r

un

6°20'

35

ta co So

Mo

ties Q. Ca

6°15'

Pajonal

CUTERVO NATIONAL PARK

u ch ra Po

elo

San Andres de Cutervo

Jalcas Mountain

6°20'

Rio Callayuc

Santo Domingo de La Capilla

Rio M u yo c

Chorro Blanco Mountain Cavern los Guacharos

Pan de Azucar Mountain

Gu Rio

6°15'

Tambillos Mountain

Calabocillo Complex

a Ri o Y 30

CAJAMARCA LAMBAYEQUE

Scale km

CUTERVO Cochabamba 31 km 78°50'

Cajamarca 110 km

78°45'

very rare fish species known as Cavern Catfish (Astroblepus rosei). The palm tree forest is absolutely beautiful and has great ecological value for being the principal source of food for the precious Oilbird. The moors, mainly located at the highest altitudes of the Tarros Mountains, with its impenetrable forests and scrub fields, and lovely lakes such as La Flor (northern sector) and Pillco (southern sector), are worth visiting. There, spectacular orchids, bromeliads, and important mammals such as deer, spectacled bears and felines are found. NEARBY ATTRACTIONS East of the Park, the following are found: The Pillco Complex, where the Pillco Bird (of the trogonidae family) is often seen. The Complex consists of a high Andean lake of white sands, a rock forest with peculiar formations and a spectacular double waterfall.

0 78°40'

3

6

78°35'

The Chorro Blanco Waterfall, with an 80 meters fall and 45 meters wide, located in the middle of the forest, where birds and different flora species can be observed. This waterfall originates another one, the Embudo (funnel) Waterfall, with a 30 meters fall. The Chullpas of Llipa, funerary centers of the Quechuas, 5 m high, with decorative reliefs of monkeys, felines and geometric designs. West of the area are found: The Calabocillo Complex, which is a cavern in the concave rock formation, created by the Calabocillo Waterfall and where oilbirds live; and the Limon Guayaquil Waterfalls, 15 m high, with a blowhole. Between these two sectors, La Flor Lake, of great beauty, is found. CONTACT INFORMATION Administrative office of the protected area: Jr. Bolivar 264, Cutervo, Tel. (076) 437 457 / (01) 968 218 420. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 107


Pagaibamba | Protected Forest

“Green Sierra” A gigantic bromeliad stands on a thin stem, collecting the humidity of the forest in Pagaibamba. *Facilities for tourism

NO

Location : CAJAMARCA Surface Area

: 2,078.38 ha

Creation Date

: 06/19/1987

Altitude Range

: 2,450 - 3,400 meters

GENERAL OBJECTIVES Pagaibamba was declared Protected Forest to guarantee the normal supply of water for agricultural use and human consumption in the districts of Querocoto, Llama and Huambos, since the forest is a factor that regulates the zone’s climate and hydrological cycle as well as the sedimentation of the rivers; and, also, to preserve the soils, the road infrastructure, the populated centers and the farming lands. DESCRIPTION The area presents numerous steep hillsides, interrupted by a series of extraordinarily beautiful small ravines. The Pagaibamba forests are important for being the habitat of Andean Steppe and Puna species, and their role is vital for the regulation of the hydrological cycle and for the preservation of the soils. They are located in the upper part of the Obraje River and the Rocoto Ravine, tributaries of the Chotano River, source of the Atlantic basin. The annual 108 Official Guide |Northern Mountains

average temperature goes from 44 °F to 52 °F and annual average precipitation goes from 834 mm up to 1,722 mm. HISTORY Pagaibamba is found in the influence area of Pacopampa, a cultural center prior to Chavin, with which it is related. Very near also, the Incas left traces of fine architecture in Huambos, an indication of its relevance, which continued to gravitate, as capital of the province of Chota, up to the end of Colonial times. BIODIVERSITY The vegetation is constituted by arboreal species, being the best known: Saucecillo (Podocarpus sp.), Yellow Oak (Ocotea sp.), Lanche (Eugenia sp.), Bamboo (Chusquea sp.), Huasiquero, Lalush, Toche, Allo, Bigasquero, Taynga, Pancho, arboreal ferns and others. Also, the presence of Queñua (Polylepis sp.) and Andean Alder (Alnus sp.) has been registered.


79°05'

Pucara

Pacopampa

N

Protected Forest

Querocoto Q.

Pagaibamba

Q.

L

da Hon

uran ay

o ec

olina

C A J A M A R C A uan silh

Q. H o nda

Cu Rio

ón

NE B O UNDA RY

Q.

Cusilhuan

PAGAIBAMBA PROTECTED FOREST Ucchahuilca Mountain

ch Mo e

Incahuasi Mountain

Sa Q.

Challuaracra Chiribamba

Huambos

5

Q. Ch ir

ZO

Portachuelo Mountain

Cutervo 51 km

ib a

mb

Chiclayo 161 km

a

ER FF BU

a

uc ira cra

im

Río

L

6°25'

8

Caurarundo Mountain

Mo lle ba

b m

Rocoto

R

Checos Mountain

io

6°25'

Ch

Q. M

s

R io

Negro Mountain Campamento

Q.

Ro co to

Chucate Mountain

Hacienda Pagaibamba

Q

PIURA

.E l Rí

2 79°05'

In spite of the low temperature and the fact that there are few mammal species, the Spectacled Bear (Tremarctos ornatus) lives here. Additionally, the presence of Mountain Lion (Puma concolor), Whitetailed Deer (Odocoileus peruvianus), Razorbilled Curassow (Mitu tuberosa), Hooded Tinamou (Nothocercus nigrocapillus), Andean Guan (Penelope montagnii), Guayaquil Woodpecker (Campephilus gayaquilensis), Scarlet-fronted Parakeet (Aratinga wagleri) and Montane Guinea Pig (Cavia tschudii) has been registered.

CAJAMARCA

79°00'

NEARBY ATTRACTIONS Pagaibamba is surrounded by several protected areas, such as the Chancaybaños Reserved Zone, the Cutervo National Park and the Laquipampa Wildlife Refuge. As far as history is concerned, past and present, one can visit Pacopampa and Huambos. CONTACT INFORMATION Administrative center of the protected area: Jr. Bolivar 264, Cutervo, Tel. (076) 437 457 / (01) 968 218 420.

HOW TO GET THERE From Chiclayo, it takes about 6 to 7 hours, taking the road that goes from Chongoyape to Huambos (partly paved and partly a dirt road), and then 30 min more to get to Cusilhuan. ATTRACTIONS Among the attractions at the Protection Forest, first in line is its flora, which belongs to the clouded forests, both continuous or in patches; as well as the observation of fauna, like birds and the Spectacled Bear.

One of the westernmost clouded forests of the Peruvian Andes, with steep hillsides covered with vegetation. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 109

6°30'

6°30'

1

lp a ga

0

LAMBAYEQUE

an .M

Scale km

El Parco

o

Q


Chancaybaños | Reserved Zone

“Thermal springs and conservation” Butterflies, which together with moths make up the numerous order of the Lepidoptera, are, among insects, the ones with greatest color variations. *Facilities for tourism

YES

Location : CAJAMARCA Surface Area

: 2,628 ha

Creation Date

: 02/14/1996

Altitude Range

: 1,300 - 2,400 meters

GENERAL OBJECTIVES The Reserved Zone in Chancaybaños was created with the intention of preserving the subterranean thermal waters upwelling, and the wild species that inhabit the area, as well as to protect its ecosystems from depredation. DESCRIPTION The Reserved Zone embraces the basin of the Agua Dulce Ravine, tributary of the Chancay River, and a plain with gentle slopes covered by forest. It is found between the Huamboyaco River, the El Agua Dulce Ravine and the Santa Cruz - Chota highway. Also, the place known 110 Official Guide |Northern Mountains

as Los Baños, where the thermal springs are found, is inside the Reserved Zone. These are frequently visited in the region and have great potential for tourism, but have not yet been sufficiently promoted. The Reserved Zone of Chancaybaños was created to protect and preserve the subterranean thermal water upwelling and the wild species that inhabit the neighboring forest, being the only protected area in the National System that was created with this objective in mind, that is, to protect the thermal springs. The protected area is located on communal and private property, and the high degree of human intervention


slightly diminishes the beauty of the landscape. On the other hand, it offers excellent alternatives for Experiential Tourism, depending on the degree of interest and organization of the population settled within the area. The following life zones are found in Chancaybaños: Pre-Montane Tropical Dry Forest, Tropical Low Montane Dry Forest, and Pre-Montane Tropical Thorn-Scrubland. The natural vegetable population consists of bushes and trees belonging to the xerophytes group, and it is quite usual to see birds and mammals typical of this ecosystem. HISTORY Pre-Hispanic remains can be found within the area, which have not yet been studied, such as architectonic structures, human remains and pottery pieces coming from tombs and/or cemeteries, scattered throughout the zone, ransacked and in clear state of deterioration. Crossing from north to south, very close to the area, traces of the ancient Great Inca Road called Qhapaqñan, that connects Quito and Cajamarca, can be seen. At the north, not far away, in Huambos, the Incas built fine constructions that indicate the importance the place had. At the beginning of the 1990s, the Presidency of the Republic learns of the benefits of its thermal waters, of which it was fond of, arousing the Government’s interest in the protection of this resource and of the surrounding faique, molle, morera and taya forests, as well as of the place’s historical value.

In 1996, faced with the danger of an invasion that would have compromised the preservation of the thermal springs, the creation of the Reserve is formalized, including, not only the land of Los Baños where the thermal springs are located, but also the lands of Sotopampa, Choloque and Yanacaga. FLORA In the inter-Andean valleys the vegetation is typical of the savannah, with small trees and bushes and seasonal grasslands. Among the small trees, the Tara (Caesalpinia spinosa), the Jacaranda (Jacaranda sp.), the Huarango (Acacia sp.) and bushes such as the Hopbush (Dodonaea viscosa) and some cactuses of the Cereus gender, stand out. Primeval vegetation has been almost eradicated and substituted by agricultural crops. As indicators, the following are found: Spanish Broom (Spartium junceum), Maguey (Agave americana), Blue Gum (Eucalyptus globulus) and Capuli (Prunus capollin). The natural vegetation of the scrubland that only grows during the rainy season, with temporary brushwood and grasslands, includes: Hualtaco (Loxopterygium huasango) and Palo Santo (Bursera graveolens). FAUNA Among the most important fauna species, the following are found: Condor (Vultur gryphus), Puma (Puma concolor), Neotropical Otter (Lontra longicaudis), Tayra (Eira barbara), Bare-faced Ground

The woods neighboring the thermal baths, with creeks of gentle slopes.

There are almost 400 known thermal springs in Peru, with very varied temperatures and chemical compositions (sulfur, calcium, lithium, iron, bromide, iodine, chlorine, manganese, potassium, oxygen, bicarbonate and silica) and very few are put to good use either for health or tourism. The abundance of springs results from the displacement of the Nazca plate under the South American plate (subduction), a geological phenomenon from Mesozoic times that Natural Areas | PERU 111 stillProtected continues today.


WEATHER Sub-humid and semi-warm; average annual rainfall is 400 to 600 mm. The average temperature is 68 °F in the lower zones (1,400 - 1,900 m) and 59 °F in higher altitudes (1,900 - 2,400 m). RESTRICTIONS

The Reserved Zone is ideal for trekking or interesting long walks.

Dove (Metriopelia ceciliae), Vermilion Flycatcher (Pyrocephalus rubinus), Eared Dove (Zenaida auriculata), the Pacific Parrotlet (Forpus coelestis) and Redmasked Parakeet (Aratinga erythrogenys). HOW TO GET THERE From Chiclayo, a dirt road that crosses Chongoyape takes you to Santa Cruz de Succhubamba in about five hours. From there to the Reserved Zone and specifically to Los Baños, it takes another 1 ½ h along a dirt road. You can also get there starting from Cajamarca, taking a dirt road that passes by Chota and Santa Cruz that takes about 9 h.

It can be visited throughout the year, but it is advisable to go from May to November. Lodge fees are: S/15 Soles, includes access to the thermal baths (Council of Chancaybaños). ATTRACTIONS A great spot is the lookout of the Condor, in the Sotopampa sector, on La Palizada Hill, at 1,842 meters above sea level, from where one can watch its majestic flight and a large part of the reserved area. The thermal springs, with infrastructure managed by the Council of Chancaybaños, emerge through a fault line with temperatures between 95 and 113 °F. One of their properties is their high content of sulfur (60%), of industrial value. There are four private, family size pools. In the sector of Lagunas, close to the hot baths, there are two interconnected natural lakes, where cormorants, moorhens and other birds can be sighted among the typical Dry Forest vegetation that surrounds them. There are also a number of crevices and caves inhabited by bats in the zone. The faique forest, principal vegetal covering in these areas, associated with tara trees and huarangos, is found throughout the whole area. NEARBY ATTRACTIONS The neighboring protected areas, the Pagaibamba Protected Forest and the Cutervo National Park, are the ideal complement for a tour through the region.

Bromeliads on one of the lakes, near the thermal baths. 112 Official Guide |Northern Mountains

The city of Cajamarca is a first level tourist destination (even more so, if one is looking for thermal waters because the famous Baths of the Inca are found there); and on the way to Cajamarca one finds Granja Porcon, with special


78°55'

Cochabamba

Cutervo 31 km

Huambos 9 km

PIURA

4 10.

CAJAMARCA

Reserved Zone

Chota 36 km

Chancaybaños

6°30'

LAMBAYEQUE

Yamaluc

N

C A J A M A R C A

Romancaya Mountain Tambillo Mountain DA

Q. P acc hío

N

illa qu Pa

RY

Q.

BUFFER ZONE B O U

Montan Mountain

Baños

Río Huamboyc o

.6

6

32

La Palizada Mountain

CHANCAYBAÑOS RESERVED ZONE

Agua Salada 3.5 6°35'

6°35'

Chancaybaños Chanca y Rio

La Esperanza ha

C

Santa Cruz

Chiclayo 170 kms

o hor El C Rio

Q.

Molino Viejo

Rio

Huasipacccha

n c ay

El Guayao Huangaconga

.5 14

Scale km

Cajamarca 131 kms

SANTA CRUZ DE SUCCHUBAMBA

Andabamba

78°55'

cultural and natural attractions, well organized for the reception of tourists. Chota and Santa Cruz, with daily bus connections to Chiclayo, have tourist services for a pleasing overnight stay and a good meal.

0 78°50'

1

2

offers group and individual pools, a tourist lodge and a restaurant. Most of the visitors come from the surrounding districts and provinces such as Santa Cruz, Chota and Chancay itself. CONTACT INFORMATION

SERVICES WITHIN THE AREA The thermal springs complex, managed by the District Council of Chancay,

Administrative center of the protected area: Jr. Bolivar 264, Cutervo, Tel. (076) 437 457 / (01) 968 218 420.

The infrastructure at Baños includes private pools with adjacent accommodation.

Protected Natural Areas | PERU 113


Chancaybaños Sunchubamba | Game Preserve

“Recreation and conservation” The Saffron Finch (Sicalis flaveola), one of the most common and colorful birds in Sunchubamba. *Facilities for tourism

NO

Location : CAJAMARCA Surface Area

: 59,735 ha

Creation Date

: 04/22/1977

Altitude Range

: 950 - 4,200 meters

GENERAL OBJECTIVES Its objectives are to regulate hunting as a sport and to preserve the wild fauna resources. DESCRIPTION The Sunchubamba Game Preserve is a protected natural area where there are forests associated with a dense stratum of pastures, ideal conditions for wild fauna and cattle farming, and for the protection of the soil from erosion caused by water. It has a benign weather, with an average annual temperature of 59 °F. HISTORY The area currently included in the Game Preserve was, at some time, part of the Casa Grande country estate, which had the leading role in the sugarcane boom at the beginning of the 20th century. The 114 Official Guide |Northern Mountains

so-called “Sugar Barons”, turned it into the largest sugar mill in the world, making use of all the technical advances of those days and even having its own railway, which once had 16 engines and more than 900 wagons. In the second half of the century, already quite diminished when the prices of sugar fell, and mortally wounded by the Agrarian Reform, the empire collapsed. BIODIVERSITY The Peruvian Pepper (Schinus molle), whose wood and fruits are used as firewood and in the production of Chicha (corn beer), is found in these natural woods, as well as the Mexican Alder (Alnus jorullensis), used in carpentry. Among the bushes, the Hopbush (Dodonaea viscosa), also used as firewood, and the Llaulli (Barnadesia dombeyana), a very noxious plant for animals, stand out. Among the herbaceous, the introduced species, Kikuyu (Pennisetum clandestinum),


78°30'

Bambamarca 154 km

N

Game Preserve Los Baños del Inca

CAJAMARCA

Sunchubamba

Shaullo Grande

Layzon

Aguacucho

Llacanora

Cumbemayo

R io

Jesus

Catache El Pongo

7°15'

Pacasmayo 130 km

36

7°15'

Namora Matara

La Laguna

Magd alen a

San Juan

Ri o C aja

Hualqui

m

rca Cajabamba

a

46

Asuncion

59 km

SAN MARCOS

Chontayoc

PIURA

6

AMAZONAS LAMBAYEQUE

C A J A M A R C A

CAJAMARCA

23

Cospan

Rio

SUNCHUBAMBA GAME PRESERVE

LA LIBERTAD

Cachachi

18

Sunchubamba La Tranca Vieja

25

Campoden

Rio San Jorg e Chicama 97 km

L A

R io Ch i m i n Colpa

L I B E R T A D

78°30'

Atun Pampa

Sayapullo

invasive and creeping grass, covers 95% of the land between 2,400 and 3,000 meters above sea level. In the reforested woods, with more than 10 introduced species, the main ones are Monterey Pine (Pinus radiata), Silky Oak (Grevillea Robusta) and Cypress (Cupressus spp.) For big game hunting, the most abundant species in the Game Preserve are the White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus peruvianus) and the Red Deer (Cervus elaphus), which is an introduced species. For small game hunting, there are birds like the Andean Tinamou (Nothoprocta pentlandii) and the Black-winged Grounddove (Metriopelia melanoptera). Among the birds of prey, the Variable Hawk (Buteo poecilochrous), the American Kestrel (Falco sparverius) and the Aplomado Falcon (Falco femoralis) can be sighted.

aris Rio Cañ

7°30'

Co sp an

Salagual

Tambul

7°30'

Picas Mountain

13

41

BOUNDARY ZONE

Rio H ua yc ol

B UFFER

Scale km 0

3

6

78°15'

get to the village of San Juan. From there, take a dirt road to Huacraruco, main entrance to the Game Preserve. RESTRICTIONS Hunting in the area is forbidden unless one gets authorization from SERNANP. CONTACT INFORMATION www.sernanp.gob.pe

HOW TO GET THERE From Ciudad de Dios, halfway between Trujillo and Chiclayo on the Panamericana Norte highway, take the road that goes to Cajamarca until you

The uneven region of San Juan, at the northern entrance to the Preserve. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 115


Calipuy | National Sanctuary

“A forest of Puyas” The extraordinary inflorescence of the Queen of the Andes –Puya, Cahua or Titanka– the largest in the world, with hundreds of flowers and millions of seeds. *Facilities for tourism

NO

Location : LA LIBERTAD Surface Area

: 4,500 ha

Creation Date

: 01/08/1981

Altitude Range

: 3,500 - 4,250 meters

GENERAL OBJECTIVES The Sanctuary’s objectives are to protect the largest “forest” of Puya Raimondi (Puya raimondii), which constitutes a valuable biotic potential of the species; to preserve and manage the hydrographical basins of the Huamanzaña and Chorobal Rivers; to propitiate means and opportunities for educational, research and environment monitoring activities; finally, to propitiate means and opportunities for open-air recreation and for the development of tourism. DESCRIPTION The Calipuy National Sanctuary has one of the largest expanses of Puya, a rare wild flora species that has the largest inflorescence in the world, 11 or 12 meters high, and with more than 200 spikes with about 40 flowers each, where hummingbirds and other birds nest. This peculiar plant lives from 40 to 100 years, and flowers only for the lapse of three months just before it dies. It belongs to the bromeliads family 116 Official Guide |Northern Mountains

and only grows on sun-bathed hillsides and in soils with good drainage. The climate is that of the Moorland, humid and temperate. BIODIVERSITY Semi-woody and herbaceous plant species are found in the area, small and of medium size, distributed over stony or rocky soils. Vegetation, especially the semi-woody plants, is more abundant on the hillsides. Among the most important species we have: Puya (Puya raimondii), Jarava Ichu (Stipa ichu), Cactus (Opuntia floccosa), Achupalla (Puya angusta), Burclover (Medicago polymorpha), Lupine (Lupinus sp.), Quiguir (Baccharis obtusifolia), Pagua (Coreopsis senaria) and Calachugo (Proustia sp.). The most representative fauna species are the Guanaco (Lama guanicoe), the Spectacled Bear (Tremarctos ornatus), the Culpeo (Lycalopex culpaeus), the Whitetailed Deer (Odocoileus peruvianus), the


78°30'

Rio

La

N

L I B E R T A D

N ZO

E

L A

National Sanctuary

Ve ga

B UF

LA LIBERTAD

FER

Calipuy

ARY UN D BO

CALIPUY NATIONAL SANCTUARY Acque Mountain

Auguinate

Calipuy A Santiago de Chuco

Chagabal Monchugo

Quiguir

ANCASH

Zaile

Huallanca 18 km

Paybal

Huaraday

Cusipampa

ba

o ro

Llacamate

Rio T ab

El Naranjo Huamanzaña

Fila Milla Moradas Mountain

Shiringuera Mountain

Q de Q.

Huacate Mountain

u

de las Cabras Mountain

Santa Rosa

CALIPUY NATIONAL RESERVE

ita S

ueñ o

Las Pintadas Mountain

Quiroz Bridge

29

8°30'

8

Chontabal Mountain

Huallanca 70 km

Rio S a n ta

Scale km 78°30'

Chimbote 60 km

Northern Viscacha (Lagidium peruanum), the Puna Tinamou (Tinamotis pentlandii), the Andean Parakeet (Bolborhynchus orbygnesius), the Giant Hummingbird (Patagona gigas), the Black Metaltail (Metallura phoebe), the Condor (Vultur gryphus), the Aplomado Falcon (Falco femoralis), the White-throated Caracara (Phalcoboenus albogularis) and the Andean Lapwing (Vanellus resplendens). HOW TO GET THERE From Trujillo to Santiago de Chuco, it takes about 5 hours by a paved road that later turns into a packed dirt road. From Santiago de Chuco to the Sanctuary, there are 72 km by dirt road, which takes 3 hours more. One can also go from Chao to Llacamate in about two hours by a packed dirt road and, from there, to the Control Post of Auguinate in another 2 h by a dirt road.

A N C A S H

0

5

10

camping. Also, Chalacpamba (rocks with animal shapes) and the Ake archaeological site, 15 minutes away and at a two hour walk from Auguinate, respectively. SERVICES WITHIN THE AREA Control Post in Auguinate. CONTACT INFORMATION Administrative Office of the Sanctuary: Ca. Luis Felipe de la Puente Uceda 1951, Santiago de Chuco, Tel. (01) 968 218 433.

ATTRACTIONS Pupara and Poygon are the densest expanses of Puya in the Sanctuary, at a 40 minute walk from Auguinate; both are places with great views and ideal for

8°30'

h Rio C

l a chac a

l

Chao 13 km

There are about 60,000 puyas in the whole Sanctuary, grouped in numerous “rodales”. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 117


Calipuy | National Reserve

“Refuge for the Guanaco” One of the country´s largest populations of guanacos is found in Calipuy, the northern limit of its distribution in the continent. *Facilities for tourism

NO

Location : LA LIBERTAD Surface Area

: 64,000 ha

Creation Date

: 01/08/1981

Altitude Range

: 350 - 4,050 meters

GENERAL OBJECTIVES Its objectives are to preserve and protect the last relicts of wild Guanaco (Lama guanicoe) population, as well as the flora and fauna associated with it; to provide the means and opportunities for educational activities, the development of scientific research and the monitoring of the environment’s condition, as well as for open-air recreation and the development of ecotourism.

inter-Andean valleys, even at altitudes of 3,800 meters. Even when its distribution goes from Calipuy down to the south of Chile and Argentina, the species is in danger due to poaching (for its fur and meat) and to human activities that damage its ecosystem. The climate goes from dry and warm, to humid, temperate and cold. BIODIVERSITY

DESCRIPTION The Calipuy National Reserve is located in part of the territories of the town of Calipuy and in the district of Chao, in the provinces of Santiago de Chuco and Viru, respectively. It is the only Reserve in the National System which houses an important population of guanacos, one of the two wild Camelids native to Peru (the other one is the Vicuña), that lives in the abrupt ravines and dry hills of the western basin of the Andes and in some 118 Official Guide |Northern Mountains

The most representative flora species are: Jarava Ichu (Stipa ichu), Huanarpo Macho (Jatropha macrantha), Huanarpo Hembra (Cnidoscolus basiacanthus), Lupine (Lupinus sp.), Maguey (Furcraea occidentalis), Quiguir (Baccharis obtusifolia), Pagua (Coreopsis senaria) and Calachugo (Proustia sp.). Apart from the Guanaco (Lama guanicoe), other species can be observed, such as Puma (Puma concolor), Spectacled Bear (Tremarctos ornatus), Condor (Vultur gryphus) and White-tailed Deer


78°30'

Rio

La

N

L A

National Reserve

Ve ga

Calipuy

L I B E R T A D

LA LIBERTAD

CALIPUY NATIONAL SANCTUARY Acque Mountain

Chagabal Monchugo Paybal

Quiguir

ÁNCASH

Calipuy A Santiago de Chuco

Zaile Huaraday

Huallanca 18 km

Cusipampa

ba

8°30'

Fila Milla Moradas Mountain

Shiringuera Mountain

U N DARY BO

Q de Q.

Huacate Mountain

u

las Cabras Mountain

Santa Rosa

CALIPUY NATIONAL RESERVE

ita S

ueñ o

BUFFER ZO NE

Las Pintadas Mountain

29

El Naranjo Huamanzaña

Bridge Quiroz

Chontabal Mountain

Huallanca a 70 km

Rio S a n ta

Scale km

78°30'

Chimbote a 60 km

(Odocoileus peruvianus). Among the bird species, there is the Andean Lapwing (Vanellus resplendens) and the Scarletfronted Parakeet (Aratinga wagleri). HOW TO GET THERE From Trujillo to Santiago de Chuco, it takes about five hours by a paved road that later turns into a packed dirt road. From Santiago de Chuco to the Sanctuary, there are 72 km of dirt road, some 3 hours more. You can also go from Chao up to Llacamate in about two hours by a packed dirt road, and to the Guanacon Control Post, in another 2 hours by a dirt road.

0

5

10

A N C A S H

Peru are within the Reserve, and the Ocomalca and Ake sites are in the vicinity. SERVICES WITHIN THE AREA There is a Control Post in Guanacon. CONTACT INFORMATION Administrative Office of the Sanctuary: Ca. Luis Felipe de la Puente Uceda 1951, Santiago de Chuco, Tel. (01) 968 218 452.

ATTRACTIONS In Pampa Guanacon, an extensive plateau, at some 3,650 meters above sea level, where the largest population of guanacos is concentrated, groups of guanacos can be seen in the wild, feeding from the herbaceous and bush-like vegetation of the zone. The sighting of the Spectacled Bear is quite probable in the area. The archaeological sites of El Cuar and Alto

8°30'

Guanacon

Llacamate

8

Río T ab la

o ro

chaca

l

h Rio C

Chao 13 km

The guanacos live in steep and abrupt slopes up to almost 4,000 meters above sea level. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 119


SERVICES Phone Area Codes: Piura (073) Cajamarca (076) La Libertad (044) HOTELS Huancabamba: *Medina, General Medina 208, T. 473039 *Danubio, Grau 108, T. 473200 *El Dorado, General Medina 116, T. 473016 Cajamarca: ***Continental; Amazonas 781 T. 341030; www. hotelescontinental.com.pe/espanol1.html ***Costa Del Sol Cajamarca; Cruz de Piedra 707 Plaza de Armas, T. 362472; www.costadelsolperu.com ***Laguna Seca; Manco Capac 1098, T. 584300; www. lagunaseca.com.pe ***Casa Blanca; Dos de Mayo 446; T. 362141; www.hotelcasablanca.migueb. com ***Posada Del Puruay; Carretera A Porcon Km. 4.5, T. 367028; www.posadapuruay.com.pe ***El Gran Marques Cajamarca Hotel; Diaz De Cienfuegos 145 - 147, Urbanizacion La Merced, T. 481710; www.elgranmarques.com ***El Ingenio; Via de Evitamiento 1611; T. 367121; www.elingenio.com/ **Hacienda San Vicente Lodge; Barrio San Vicente, s/n - Parte Alta, T. 362644; www.sanvicentelodge. com **Cumbe Inn; Atahualpa 345, T. 366858; www.elcumbeinn.com/ RESTAURANTS Huancabamba: Se単ora Lina, San Martin 124, T. 378071 Saborely, Km 61 Huarmaca, T. 561848 Lizana Vilela, Morropon 557, T. 47 3102 Picanteria Yris, Piura 729, San Miguel del Faique, T. 679757 Cajamarca: Gran Bufet de Arte El Batan; Del Batan 369, T. 366025 El Zarco; Del Batan 170, T. 363421 y Restaurante Campestre El Zarco; Carretera Aeropuerto Km 3.5, T. 363611; www.elzarco. org Salas; Amalia Puga 637, T. 362867 Super Sabor; Evitamiento Norte, Manzana A-6, II Etapa, Urb. Santa Mercedes; T. 343516; www.micajamarca.com/SuperSabor/tabid/116/default.aspx Paskana Restaurante; Atahualpa, 947, T. 344217 El Querubino; San Martin 320, T. 340900 El Cajamarques; Dos De Mayo 311, T. 362128 Cascanueces; Amalia Puga 554, Hacienda San Vicente Restaurante; T. 822644 TOURISM/TRAVEL AGENCIES Huancabamba: El Arriero, Huancabamba 130, El Parque, T. 672453 Cajamarca: Atahualpa Inca Tours; La Mar 435, T. 367014 Cajamarca Trel; 2 De Mayo 574, T. 368642; www.cajamarcatrel.com Cumbe Mayo Tours; Amalia Puga 635, T. 362938 Clarin Tours; Del Batan 161, T. 366829; www. clarintours.com/condin.htm Mega Tours; Amalia Puga 691, T. 341876; www.megatours.org/nosotros. html Imperial Trel Adventure; Del Batan 149, T. 342737 EMERGENCIES Health: Huancabamba: Hospital Rural de Huancabamba, Km 1 Carretera Huancabamba - Piura, T. 472176 Cajamarca: Hospital Regional de Cajamarca; Mario Urteaga 500, T. 822414/822533 Hospital Sub Regional de Jaen; Prolongacion Huamantanga s/n, T. 731268 Police: Huancabamba: Comisaria de Huancabamba, General Medina 112, T. 473010 Cajamarca: Comisaria de Cajamarca, Ayacucho s/n, Plazuela Amalia Puga, T. 823438/822941 Comisaria Ba単os del Inca, Yahuarhuaca 207, T. 348002 Comisaria de Chota, Garcilaso de la Vega 724, Chota, T. 351171 Comisaria de Cutervo, Comercio 1097, Cutervo, T. 437349 OF INTEREST Cajamarca: Casa Museo "Mario Urteaga"; Dos de Mayo 777, T. 680151 Museo Arqueologico "Horacio Urteaga"; Del Batan 289 Museo Arqueologico y Etnografico (Conjunto Monumental de Belen); Belen 590, Cajamarca, T. 922602/362601 Museo de Arte Religioso del Convento de San Francisco; Plaza de Armas, T. 822994 Museo de Sitio de San Isidro; Junin 105, Plaza de Armas, T. 576023 Museo de Sitio Arqueologico Kuntur Wasi; De los Tayos, Pueblo Nuevo, T. 230235/230253 Centro de Informacion, Direccion Regional de Comercio Exterior y Turismo; Belen s/n, 6捉 cuadra, T. 822997 PromPeru, Servicio de Informacion al Turista; T. 2249355 Correos; Amazonas 443, T. 822206/824065 TRANSPORTATION By Buses: Cruz del Sur; Atahualpa 600, T. 821737, Cajamarca; www.cruzdelsur.com.pe Linea; Amalia Puga 691, T. 369219, Cajamarca; www.transporteslinea.com.pe Tepsa; Sucre y Reyna Farje s/n, T. 363306, Cajamarca; www.tepsa.com.pe Cial; Independencia 288, T. 368701, Cajamarca; www.expresocial. com Civa; Ayacucho 753, T. 821460/98055137, Cajamarca; www.civa.com.pe Entrafesa; Atahualpa 315, T. 829663, Cajamarca; www.emtrafesa.com Turismo Cajamarca; Sucre 594, T. 313037 By Air: Lan; Cruz de Piedra 657, Cajamarca; www.lan.com Star Peru: Junin 1300, T. 367243/361243, Cajamarca; www.starperu.com Airports: Cajamarca; "Mayor General FAP Armando Revoredo Iglesias", Manco Capac 1098, Distrito de Ba単os del Inca, a 3,5 Km de la ciudad, T. 343757 120 Official Guide |Northern Mountains

Andean Goose (Chloephaga melanoptera)


Central Mountains

1

1 2 3 4 5 6

Huascaran NP Cordillera Huayhuash RZ Huayllay NS Junin NR Chacamarca HS Nor Yauyos Cochas LR

2 3 4 5 6


Huascaran | National Park

“A Park at the Heights” The Cordillera Blanca, a snow covered world, tall and beautiful, so close to the equatorial line. In the background, standing out, the twin peaks of the Huascaran. *Facilities for tourism

YES

Location : ANCASH Surface Area

: 340,000 ha.

Creation Date

: 07/01/1975

Altitude Range

: 2,375 - 6,768 meters

GENERAL OBJECTIVES The National Park was created with the intention of preserving the following: Outstanding elements among its biodiversity, such as rare or endangered flora and fauna species, among which are the Vicuña, the Spectacled Bear and the Andean Condor; as well as relict forests of Puya, Queñua and Quisuar. It also seeks to preserve cultural manifestations in the area, past and present. The quality of its landscape: the main attraction and an expression of the quality of its ecosystems, as well as a central factor for the activation of the local economy. 122 Official Guide | Central Mountains

Water supply sources and the of the hydrological cycle: a value of the Park and one principal sources of benefits regional population.

stability central of the for the

DESCRIPTION The Huascaran National Park is a natural protected area of prime importance for Peru, with its mountain’s biological diversity, woods in a good state of preservation and extraordinary landscape and archaeological values, all sheltered by the great Cordillera Blanca. These exceptional characteristics motivated its denomination as Biosphere´s Reserve


(in 1977) and as World Heritage Site (in 1985) by UNESCO. The National Park’s territory is very uneven and encompasses the Cordillera Blanca, the highest and largest tropical mountain range in the world, with its eastern flank in the Conchucos zone and its western flank in the Callejon de Huaylas. The Andes were formed many millions of years ago, as a consequence of the collision of the Nazca plate against the South American plate, which provoked its rising. The formation of the Andes has taken 40 million years and, in fact, this process still continues. In the last 4 million years, they have risen 4,000 meters, to get to the height they have today. The area’s geological structures are very complex and Jurassic and Cretaceous formations show many creases and faults. Its soils are in a process of erosion, as much by retreating glaciers and climatic change, as by deforestation and heavy grazing. In the Huascaran National Park, the glaciers -712 in all- are distributed along 180 km. Around 200 are found above the 5,000 meters above sea level, and some 30, at an altitude of over 6,000 meters. 434 lakes have been identified, mainly of glacial origin. The majority of rivers that are born in their valleys run towards the Pacific basin: 27 are tributaries to the Santa River, the widest river in the Peruvian coast, and one is tributary to the Pativilca River; the other 17 run towards the Marañon River, in the Amazon Basin. The Park is a large water reservoir that feeds an enormous biological and economical

chain, from the valleys at its foothills and the hydroelectrically complexes, to the large agro-industrial projects of the northern coast. The seasonal melting of the glaciers provides clean water for animals and people, brings electricity to homes and irrigates farmlands. Its protection is a task of vital importance. The majesty of the incredibly high snowcapped mountains of the Cordillera Blanca, undoubtedly one of the most spectacular landscapes of Peru, is increased by the enormous height difference between the bottom of the valley (where the spectator is) and the peaks of the mountains. In the northern zone of the Callejon de Huaylas this height difference borders the 5,000 meters, giving the impression that the mountains are “touching” the sky. HISTORY Man has inhabited the Park and has been using its resources for the last 10,000 years. Proof of this are the numerous cave paintings found in the area. Great extensions of man-made terraces for agricultural use and old pens, fed by ingenious systems of dams and aqueducts, speak of an evolution towards cultural developments such as those of Sechin or Chavin, 3,000 years ago. Already in our era, regional developments such as Recuay are the precedent to the founding of late regional states, like those of Huari after 700 AD, and, finally, the Inca Empire during the 15th century.

What will happen to the innumerable bodies of water of the Cordillera Blanca when the glaciers do disappear?

Peru is one of the countries that is most affected by the global warming phenomenon. Placed between both tropics, where the sunrays are particularly unforgiving, and home to the largest congregation of tropical glaciers in the world, it is especially vulnerable to high temperatures. Experts predict that all the Peruvian glaciers situated below 5,500 meters above sea level are doomed to disappear before 2015, in other words, the large majority of them. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 123


79°40'

o l lota B U FFER ZONE BOU

m Po

ta Q. San

Lake Jatuncocha

Caraz 6,025

Cashapampa

Huandoy 6,395

oS

13

36 Portachuelo Mountain pass 4,767 Contrahierbas 5,543 Acochaca

nc ay

ell

Q.

ua

ac

Wilkawain

Monterrey

Huaullac

Centenario

N

A

38

6

Querococha

Mountain pass 4,178 Gueshgue 5,403 Mururaju 5,636

Utcuyacu

Tantash 5,530

Pachacoto

ac

ha c

Lake Guesgueccocha Rio Puma p a a mp

oto

Q.

ja

P

Lake Ututuo

Rio

Pastoruri 5,220

BUF

Pararin Llacllin

Rio Shi q u

Marca ar ca M

Rio Barranca 84 km

DA

Huayllapampa

HUANUCO PASCO

UN

R

Cotaparaco Tapacocha

LA LIBERTAD

Tuco

NE

BO

ta San Rio Y

rin Pa

37

ZO

Q.

FER

6°20'

e ond Kahuish

Buenos Aires

Parco Bridge

Malvas

Río Cotaparaco

LIMA

C Q.

Carpa

Cochapeti

ANCASH

Machac

6

Rio

lvas Ma

Chavín Yanashallash Mountain pass 35 4,680

Catac

Taur i

Huayan Rio A i

C

Lake Querococha

5

Ri o

Succha

A

Canrey Chico

Ticapampa

Coris

L

25

RECUAY AIJA

Huacllan

ch a

Sacracancha Tambillos

Rio Negro

Olleros

La Merced

Cashan 5,716

R Q. Sacracancha

R i o Vado

Huanchay

lta

Verdecocha Lake

nta Sa

i Q. Hu

Cajamarquilla

Pampas

Rio C arhuascan

Lake Rajucolta

co Q. Raju

Ri o

Pallca

Mallas Rio Ru re c

Cayesh 5,721

Pitec

Rataquena

hin ch ay

B

Ri

Ruri

Huatsán Quilcayhuanca 5,395

Lake Churup

HUARAZ

o Ch acch a n Pariacoto Pira Colcabamba

Lake Llaca p ju Co Q.

Llaca

11

6°15'

Río

c

anta oS

A

llp

H Q.

Cochabamba

nc h os

Lake Aquilpo

A

R

n rú Ac

61

Vicos

E G

Rio

HUASCARAN NATIONAL PARK Lake Ventanilla

Anta Pariahuanca Palcaraju Joncopampa 6,274 Chinchey Q. Ishinca Yungar 6,222 Aco Lake Tarica Huillac Ishinca Ishinca Jangas Ri 5,530

N

Qu

a

Chancos

A

Ri o

R L E I L

R L E I L

Acopampa Marcara

13

D

D

ca

sh Juitu

R

R

7

Mountain pass Huachucocha 4,200

Portachuelo Paqcharaju de Honda 5,751 Mountain pass Lake Sub Purhuay 4,600 Perlilla Administrative a o nd H 5,585 . office Q

Copa

CARHUAZ

s Q. Anga

ha

Lake Allicocha

O

O

Carhuac Tinco

C

15

C

Shilla Amashca

Q.

Shupluy

Cascapara

ninac Q. Ca

CHACAS

36

Pompey

Hualcan 6,125

SAN LUIS

10

rm Rio A

Punta Olímpica 4,990

Ulta

Musho

Yauya

oj

6

Ranrahirca

Cave of Guitarreros

San Nicolas

20

Yanama

26 Chinancocha

Matacoto Mancos

yo ama an Ri o Y

Rio Yur m a

Colcabamba

Vaquería

Yuracorral

Llanganuco Huascarán 6,768

YUNGAY

Llama

Llumpa

Pucaraju 5,825

a ari

Pampachacra

Musga

Lake Llanganuco

a ant

Pueblo Libre

PISCOBAMBA

Lucma

Huaripampa

Pirámide ron Lake 5,885 Pa Parón Rio

Rio Llutan 31 Ri

Casca

Q. Recodo

CARAZ

Cruz

Ul 51 ta

6°10'

Sucre Huata

5,947

Sta.Cruz 6,259

Huaripampa

Taulliraju 5,830 Punta Union Mountain pass

Q.

Hualcallan

22

Huayllan

Rio Ragranca

Lake Yuracocha Alpamayo

POMABAMBA ba

34

Huaylas

N 6,050

5,657

San Buenaventura Sanachgan

ure c

37

Q

ab am

ros Ced Lake Cullicocha Tayapampa

s . Lo

P

Huallanca

Q. Parco

Sihuas 100 km

NDARY

Rio

Santa 130 km

Rio Chucpin

Rio C

Yuracmarca

Lake Ahuashcocha

5

Pampas Chico Conococha

Raquia Cajacay

79°35'

i

50.6

. 10

Lake Conococha


N

ca au

National Park

io

P

79°35'

R

Huascaran Canchabamba

ó rañ Ma n R

Pinra

ra Pin io

H U A N U C O

A N C A S H

6°10'

Río

Scale km

HUACAYBAMBA

Chaccho

0

5

10

Copuma Bridge

Mirgas Rio Mirgas

LLAMELLIN

Cochabamba Ri o M ar a ño n

Chingas

Paucas

Aczo San Juan de Rontoy

R io

Huari io

c hc a

R

Arancay

Huacchis

Uco

Rapayan

Anra

Pu

Jirca

Huaritambo

Huacachi

Ponto

Cajay

Lake Carpa

HUARI sna M

Rahuapampa Río Masin Pomachaca Chana Bridge Huachis

9.3

16

o

Singa

Tantamayo Chavin de Pariarca

oq u e Q. P

Lake Antamina

ñ

rash Ca Q.

LLATA Rio

Chavin de Huantar

Lake Yanacocha

Jacas Grande n

o

San Marcos

a nc Tra

Quivilla Marias

Jircacancha

Pichgas

Tingo Chico Bridge

Rio sn Mo

Utcush Rio

ayash Q. T

Shunqui

a

pa hu

52

Chupan

15

Q. To

Huanzala

rre s

Tingo Bridge 18

s

Dinosaur tracks

LA UNION

.6 30

La

Choras

Cosma

55

ollota Q. C

Lake Juitococha

Río

CHAVINILLO carraHuánucopampa R i o V iz Cahuac San Cristobal Progreso 45 de Jacas Chico Huánuco Garu Iscopampa Chacabamba Viejo Tashga Huanuco 53 km nga Q. Yanase

Huallanca

Pachapaqui

Jivia Lake Niancocha

Baños

JESUS

Chaulan a ch

up e

Queropalca

Río N

79°30'

Cuncush

Huasta

CHIQUIAN

Yarumayo Rio

Río

Q. C o llota

Aquia

Margos

Bridge

o Lauri c

44

Huanchan

Huarin Rondos Huarin

Rio Pativi

lca

Obas

Baños Conoc

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13

Yanashalla Mountain pass 4,720

Pampamarca

Sillapata

d Andachupa

Yanas

cu

An

co apa Tar

Rio ac

luy Q. Pil

a

Lake Canrash

Chuquis

Pachas

6°20'

Ayash

m pa

8

Rio M

28

Punchao Miraflores Puños

Río Mara

10. 5

osna

Succha

6°15'

Huantar 7.5

Cauri 79°25'


Among the most important consequences of the arrival of the European conquerors, are the population decrease and the abandonment of the higher lands. Later, during Republican times, the large country estates took over the communal lands or “ejidos”, generating increasing social unrest until, in 1969, the Agrarian Reform returned the communal property lands in the lower areas and preserved the higher lands for conservation, and thus the Huascaran National Park was created in 1975. The Huascaran was climbed for the first time in 1908 by a Swiss-North American group, led by climber Annie Peck, and an expedition of the Club Andino Cordillera Blanca was the first expedition of Peruvian origin to reach its top in 1953. The region has endured many catastrophes associated to the fragility of the young geological formations of the Cordillera Blanca, like the 1970 earthquake, which buried Yungay and took the lives of more than 70,000 people. These events have left a mark in the history of the entire Callejon de Huaylas. FLORA The numerous life zones that coexist in the Park offer a wide spectrum of microclimates, which originate a mosaic of diverse types of vegetation

The “Castle” or new temple in Chavin, which has been designated a World Heritage Cultural Site.

intimately linked among them. 850 species of high Andean flora have been identified, distributed in 340 genera and 104 families. In this flora diversity, the bromeliads family is represented by the Puya Raimondi (Puya raimondii), mainly located in the Carpa and the Queshque Ravines. There, the relict forests of Quisuar (Budleia coriacea) and Queñua (Polylepis sp.) are also found. This last one is the tree that grows at greatest altitude in the world (1,800 - 5,200 meters above sea level), perfectly adapted to temperatures that would kill most plants. Peru -especially the Huascaran National Park- is a priority place for the preservation of these ecosystems, since it has the largest quantity and variety of queñuas, 18 of the 24 registered species. The great diversity of orchids and medicinal flora is also noteworthy, and species that are important as genetic resources: the wild Oca (Oxalis sp.), the wild Potato (Solanum sp.) and the wild Lupine (Lupinus sp.). FAUNA

The colorful Rima Rima (Ranunculus weberbaueri), flowering in Carhuascancha. 126 Official Guide | Central Mountains

Associated to the vast flora of the Park, numerous fauna species are found. The data indicates 210 bird species, from


33 families. Among the mammals, 8 genera and more than 10 species have been registered. Among the most outstanding, the Colocolo (Leopardus colocolo) and the Andean Mountain Cat (Leopardus jacobitus); the Spectacled Bear (Tremarctos ornatus), the Taruca (Hippocamelus antisensis), the largest deer in the Andes, and the Vicu単a (Vicugna vicugna); the White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus peruvianus), the Puma (Felis concolor incarum), the Culpeo (Lycalopex culpaeus), the Northern Viscacha (Lagidium peruanum), the Long-tailed Weasel (Mustela frenata agilis) and the Hog-nosed Skunk (Conepatus sp.). Among the most important birds, we find the Condor (Vultur gryphus), the Torrent Duck (Merganetta armata) and the Puna Tinamou (Tinamotis pentlandii). These are also found: the Puna Ibis (Plegadis ridgwayi), Yellowbilled Teal (Anas flavirostris), Ornate Tinamou (Nothoprocta ornata), Andean Flicker (Colaptes rupicola), American Kestrel (Falco sparverius), Andean Goose (Chloephaga melanoptera), Black-crowned Night Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), and Giant Hummingbird (Patagona gigas peruviana). Additionally, a great variety of ducks are found in the Park; among these, the Yellow-billed Pintail (Anas georgica spinicauda) and the Andean Crested Duck (Lophonetta specularioides alticola). Also, the Whitetufted Grebe (Rollandia rolland chilensis), the Giant Coot (Fulica gigantea), the

Tarucas, larger than deer and more difficult to find.

Andean Gull (Larus serranus), the Puna Hawk (Buteo poecilochrous) and the White-throated Caracara (Phalcoboenus albogularis), a protected species whose hunting has been prohibited indefinitely in the whole country. HOW TO GET THERE One gets to Huaraz in about 6 h from Lima, all the way along a paved road; one takes the Panamericana Norte up to Pativilca (210 Km), and then enters the route towards the Callejon de Huaylas (another 200 Km) going through Conococha. There is another way of access from Chimbote, along the highway that starts in Santa and goes towards Huallanca, the Ca単on

The fossilized tracks of a therapod dinosaur (such as the famous Tyrannosaurus Rex), a recent finding nearby the Conococha - Antamina highway.

Protected Natural Areas | PERU 127


The Llamas, just as in the past, carry the travelers’ loads along ancient roads.

del Pato and, finally, Caraz (175 Km); a dirt road with many tunnels. Another less frequented road, south of this last one, goes from Nepeña to Caraz, via Pamparomas. From Casma one can get to Huaraz along another paved road that goes through Pariacoto. From Huarmey, one can get to Recuay, via Aija. These last three roads go over the Cordillera Negra before arriving in the Callejon, offering a panoramic view of the snow-capped Cordillera Blanca. Between Conococha and Caraz, there are four routes that cross the Park from west to east and arrive at the Conchucos zone: 1) Conococha - Antamina Mine (a paved road up to here) - San Marcos. 2) Catac - Chavin, also a paved road. 3) Carhuaz - Punta Olimpica - Chacas. 4) Yungay - LLanganuco Lakes - Yanama San Luis. For the majority of circuits and recreation areas, there are dirt roads, as well as innumerable bridle paths. At the Pampa of Anta, 21 Km away from Huaraz, there is a small airport that has daily flights to Lima that take an hour.

WEATHER The dry season, locally called summer, even though during this time the coldest spells are registered, goes from May to September and offers the best conditions for mountaineering: Clear days, very little rain and moderate winds. They say in Huaraz that one experiences the four seasons each day; spring in the morning, summer at midday, autumn in the afternoon and winter by night. This analogy could be applied to the whole Peruvian Sierra. At 2,000 - 3,200 meters above sea level, temperatures are mild during the day and cold during the night; at 3,200 - 4,000 meters above sea level, sunny days produce a strong sensation of heat due to the tropical latitude. However, the really cold weather is found at 4,000 - 4,800 meters above sea level, with higher temperatures during the day that drop quickly when the sky becomes cloudy, and dropping even more during the night. At altitudes over 4,800 meters, the temperature reaches 32 °F, as it is here that the weather proper to the tropical high mountain appears: scorching sun, extreme dryness, low atmospheric pressure and temperatures that, at an altitude of over 6,000 meters, can go above 84 °F in sunny and windless days, while in the shade or at night they can go below 5 °F. RESTRICTIONS Conventional tourism can take place at any time of the year, but if one goes for adventure tourism, it is advisable to go from May to September.

The Callejon de Huaylas and the omnipresent snowed-capped Huascaran. 128 Official Guide | Central Mountains

Entrance Fees in soles: Under 5 and above 65 years: Free. 5 to 15 years: S/3 (one day), S/6 (three days). Adults: S/10 (one day), S/20 (three days).


ATTRACTIONS Among the numerous attractions at the Park, the following stand out: LLanganuco Ravine, 25 km away from Yungay: two beautiful lakes of glacial origin, Chinancocha and Orconcocha, with Queñua forests with a great variety of flora and fauna, and lovely views of the snow-capped Huascaran, Huandoy, Pisco, Yanapaccha and Chopicalqui. Purhuay Lake, in the province of Huari; it is large and there is a camping area. Paron Lake, 34 km away from Caraz, has turquoise waters and, from there, one can get views of the snow-capped Artesonraju and Piramide Garcilaso Mountain. Querococha Lake is 20 km away from Recuay, along the route to

identified, that include cave paintings, settlements, “andenes” systems, roads, farming terraces, “chullpas”, tombs, lookout points, fortifications, irrigation channels, micro dams, etc., being the most representative: Auquispuquio, Cullicocha, Queshquepachan, Paccharuri, Quilcayhuanca, Nuevo Tambo, Cayesh, Pachacoto and the pre-Hispanic road from Olleros to Chavin. NEARBY ATTRACTIONS Not to be missed is the extraordinary archaeological site of Chavin de Huantar, on the route to Huari. From there, one can go to a beautiful stretch of the Great Inca Road (Inca naani) that runs parallel to the Park. In the Callejon de Huaylas, a number of towns and cities such as Recuay, Carhuaz, Yungay and Caraz and everything between them, are worth visiting. In Conchucos, Huari, San Marcos, Chacas, San Luis, Piscobamba, and Pomobamba and many others are found. SERVICES WITHIN THE AREA

There are 434 lagoons in the Park, a source of life for the whole region.

Chavin, at the foot of the snow-capped Yanamarey and Pucaraju Mountains. Ulta Ravine: one of the most spectacular routes, from Carhuaz to Chacas ascending up to the Punta Olimpica (4,890 meters). Ishinca Ravine: one goes along various villages with great views of the Urus, Vallunaraju, Tocllaraju and Ranrapalca snow-capped mountains.

The Park has control posts in the Carpa sector and in the LLanganuco Ravine, and the local villagers provide food services, boat rental, memorabilia, etc. Likewise, they offer mountaineering services for the various adventure circuits. There are three mountain lodges in the Park: Pisco, Ishinca and Huascaran. CONTACT INFORMATION Administrative headquarters of the protected area: Federico Sal y Rosas 555, Huaraz, Tel: (043) 422 086 / (01) 968 218 423.

The main trekking circuits are: 1) Cashapampa - Santa Cruz - Huaripampa Yanganuco: 4 days; 47/68 km. 2) Alpamayo - Yaino - Santa Cruz - Cashapampa: 9/12 days; 140 km. 3) Churup Lake: 2/3 days; 20 km. 4) Olleros - Chavin: 3 days; 37 km. 5) Caraz - Cullicocha Lake: 2/3 days; 25 km. The Park has a total of 24 trekking circuits and 102 mountaineering destinies. 33 archaeological sites have been

Many High Mountain local guides offer their services at the Park. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 129


Cordillera Huayhuash | Reserved Zone

“A Snow Covered Paradise” The tall and impressive Jirishanca, one of the most beautiful snow-capped mountains in the Cordillera de Huayhuash. *Facilities for tourism

YES

Location : ANCASH, HUANUCO and LIMA Surface Area

: 67 589,76 ha

Creation Date

: 12/24/2002

Altitude Range

: 3,650 - 6,634 meters

GENERAL OBJECTIVES The main objective is the preservation of the high mountain ecosystems and their exceptional scenic beauty, as well as the protection of water heads and fresh water reserves. DESCRIPTION The Cordillera Huayhuash is considered one of the most beautiful mountain ranges in the world. In spite of its modest 30 km of length, a large number of high peaks reflected on numerous glacial lakes are concentrated here, resulting in a landscape of great scenic beauty. Less visited than the neighboring Cordillera Blanca, Huayhuash has the second highest peak in the country, Yerupaja, and five others that have altitudes of over 6,000 m. The people living in the perimeter of the area, rich 130 Official Guide | Central Mountains

in customs and culture, still preserve an important variety of representative native crops, as well as traditional knowledge of the use of medicinal plants. The climate is predominantly cold and dry, dropping below 32 °F at altitudes over 4,000 m during the night and milder in the populated valleys. BIODIVERSITY Different species of Queñua (Polylepis spp., P. racemosa, P. incana, and P. weberbaueri) predominate, as well as the Alder (Alnus acuminata), which grows here in a natural way. Among the most outstanding birds, we find the White-cheeked Cotinga (Zaratornis stresemanni), the Ashbreasted Tit-Tyrant (Anairetes alpinus), the Giant Conebill (Oreomanes fraseri), the Tit-like Dacnis (Xenodacnis parina),


77°00'

Huallanca

10°15'

Pacllon

Rio Lla m ac

Yerupaj· CO R

Lake Jurau

a llap Rio Hua y

ay

Jurau Trapecio Huacanan

Cajatambo

Yarupac

HUANUCO

Lake Juncacula

10°30'

AU RA

R

Lake Collorcocha

A

riri Rio Puman

C

ORDILLER

CORDILLERA HUAYHUASH RESERVED ZONE

ANCASH

Lake Patarcocha

Quesillojanja

Lake Viconga

Huaqshash

Poquian

N

H U A N U C O

Q. Guanacpatay Cuyoc

Pumac Copa Mountain

p Ru

Carnicero

AYHUASH HU

Lake Rurigallay

Huayllapa

Lake Carhuacocha

A LER DIL

y pa

Ri o Pativilca 110 km

Lake Solleracocha

Huacrish Suerococha

Mangas Nanis

Lake Mitococha Rondoy Jirishanca

Lake Jahuacocha

A N C A S H Rio H u a m

Cordillera Huayhuash

Ri o Achin

Santa Cruz Mountain

Reserved Zone

Lake Pacacocha

Lake Surasaca

L I M A

PASCO

Scale km

LIMA

Oyon 95 km 77°00'

the Tawny Tit-spinetail (Leptasthenura yanacencis) and the Torrent Duck (Merganetta armata); also, the Condor (Vultur gryphus), the Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus), and the Giant Coot (Fulica gigantea). Among the mammals, we have the Colocolo (Leopardus colocolo), the Andean Mountain Cat (Leopardus jacobitus), the Taruca (Hippocamelus antisensis) and the Vicuña (Vicugna vicugna). HOW TO GET THERE

0

2.5 5 76°45'

and there are seven communities that charge you in their respective areas. ATTRACTIONS Huayhuash’s wonderful landscapes are appreciated along the famous trekking circuit, a 165 - 180 Km footpath that surrounds it completely, and that takes between 12 and 18 days, considered among the most spectacular in the world. This circuit takes you across five high gorges, and the average altitude along the route is of 4,300 m.

Take the road that takes to the Callejon de Huaylas that starts from the Panamericana Norte at Pativilca, 200 Km north of Lima. In Conococha, take the detour towards Chiquian, and from there, a dirt road towards the communities of Llamac and Pacllon. You can also get there via Cajatambo, from Lima, or via Queropalca from Huanuco. RESTRICTIONS Tourist tours are managed privately

10°15'

Llamac

h

One of the most spectacular hiking trails in Peru is the one that totally surrounds Huayhuash. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 131

10°30'

Pinguash Mountain

Patas

R i o Huayhuash

Ri o

Q.

ush.

Quero

nc Cu

Chiquian

Q.

Huallanca 87 km Huaraz 104 km


Huayllay | National Sanctuary

"Geological garden" Huayllay, located in the Meseta de Bombon, is a traditional place for shepherding South American Camelidae. *Facilities for tourism

YES

Location : PASCO Surface Area

: 6,815 ha

Creation Date

: 08/07/1974

Altitude Range

: 4,100 - 4,546 meters

GENERAL OBJECTIVES The National Sanctuary’s objectives are to protect the Rock Forest of Huayllay geological formation, to preserve the flora, the wild fauna and the natural landscape, and to promote tourism in the protected natural area. DESCRIPTION In the National Sanctuary of Huayllay one finds a stone forest in which the erosive processes brought about by wind, water and the movement of glaciers, have given shape to a variety of giant rocks and very curious and attractive rocky figures –an immense geological 132 Official Guide | Central Mountains

Museum in the open air. This build-up of rock formations, from small ones to giant stone arches, resembling human figures, animals and other recognizable shapes, is found in the highest plateau in the country, the Meseta de Bombon. There are numerous archaeological vestiges, such as cave paintings -more than 500 in number- that are disseminated throughout the area, making us aware of an ancient relationship between man and this singular ecosystem. In the midst of the rock formations there are springs and wetlands that form numerous microenvironments where varied wild flora and fauna proliferate. Many


beautiful lakes and thermal springs embellish the scenery. There is an important influx of tourists that come to Huayllay, mainly of national origin, focused on nature and adventure tourism. HISTORY There are a large number of ancient cave paintings in Huayllay, which, even when they speak of a privileged site for symbolic representation (geometrical shapes, human and animal figures, mainly of Camelidae), they are not associated with permanent settlements in the place. The area of the Sanctuary shares the same cultural and historical background with Chinchaycocha Lake and the whole Meseta de Junin, so much that the great Inca settlement of Pumpu (from which the name Bombon derives) is found just a few kilometers away. This settlement used to be the principal center of the zone and is located at the edge of the great lake and by the Qhapaqñan, the axis of the Empire, whose immense traces can still be seen in the high plateau. The concern for the preservation of the geological formations at the “Rock Forest of Huayllay” has as a precedent the visit in 1620 of the Jesuit priests Francisco Patiño and Alejandro Ortiz, who considered them enchanted stones and recommended their protection. The National Sanctuary of Huayllay is created, together with the protected natural areas at the high plateau of Bombon, the National Reserve of Junin and the Historical Sanctuary of Chacamarca,

at the suggestion of the political and communal authorities of Junin. FLORA The Flora is represented mainly by scrub fields of Poaceas (grasses), commonly known as ichu, belonging to the Stipa, Festuca and Calamagrostis genera, important as food for ruminants and equines, even though, among them, there are some harmful and invasive species, like the sharp gramineae. There are emerging and submerged aquatic species, which grow in rivers and lakes and are good fodder for the local fauna. The Star Grass grows in the wetlands, from which the local people, following an ancestral custom, obtain peat or “champa”, used as fuel. The sole arboreal species in the Sanctuary is the Queñua (Polylepis sp.) and, among the semi-woody species, the Huamanpinta (Chuquiraga spinosa), the Putaga (Rumex peruvianus) and the Mata Mata (Tafalla thujoides). FAUNA The birds are the group that has the largest number of species in the Sanctuary, being the most common, the Buzzard (Buteo sp.), the Andean Lapwing (Vanellus resplendens), the Andean Gull (Larus serranus), the Andean Flicker (Colaptes rupicola), the Ornate Tinamou (Nothoprocta ornata), the Puna Tinamou (Tinamotis pentlandii), the Puna Ibis (Plegadis ridgwayi) and the Ash-breasted Sierra Finch (Phrygilus

Rock formations have always been considered sacred in the Andes, even in our times.

This colossal natural rock forest is the result of the cooling of volcanic rocks and their subsequent erosion by meteoric water, ice, wind, changes in temperature, etc. These are “young” rocks from the Pliocene, that is, 5 or 6 million years ago. The cooling of this volcanic mass adopts very conspicuous geological column-like shapes and their resemblance with any recognizable forms is a product of the imagination, like this “llama”. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 133


The nearby village of Huayllay is seated at 6 km from the Sanctuary, and the city of Cerro de Pasco, 40 km away, is connected to Lima by daily bus service (8 h). ATTRACTIONS

The Champa, typical of the Highland Wetlands, forming a thick vegetable carpet.

plebejus). The mammals are represented by the Montane Guinea Pig (Cavia tschudii), the Taruca (Hippocamelus antisensis), the Northern Viscacha (Lagidium peruanum), the Molina's Hog-nosed Skunk (Conepatus chinga), the Culpeo (Lycalopex culpaeus), the VicuĂąa (Vicugna vicugna), the Colocolo (Leopardus colocolo) and several species of mice. Among the fish, we have the Chalgua (Orestia sp.) and the Catfish (Pygidium sp.); the amphibians are represented by various species of toads, while among the reptiles there's only one species of lizard of the Liolaemus genus.

Tourism and recreational activities, in the Sanctuary, are undertaken mainly on the sector of Canchacucho, from where the hiking circuits depart. These go through areas where the largest number of rock figures have been identified and lead you along the Puna plains, an enormous green carpet, which are very attractive and perfect for Birdwatching and the observation of medicinal plants. A great number of rock figures and cave paintings can be appreciated along the tourist circuits (11 up to now), as well as the zone’s natural landscape with its especial biodiversity. Circuit 1, called La Cobra- Centro Magnetico, is the one which attracts the most visitors. At the thermal springs of Yanatuto, there are two ponds; one is natural, on the top of a rocky slope, and the other one has been built below; both are surrounded by giant rocks and the special landscape of Huayllay. You can get there taking a dirt road which runs

HOW TO GET THERE From Lima there are 312 km if you take the paved Carretera Central, via La Oroya, Junin and Carhuamayo; and 214 km if you go through Canta, from where it becomes a packed dirt road, but running at the rim of numerous beautiful lakes. You can also get there from Huaral. The nearby village of Huayllay is seated at 6 km from the Sanctuary, and the city of Cerro de Pasco, 40 km away, is connected to Lima by daily bus service (8 h). WEATHER From Lima there are 312 km if you take the paved Carretera Central, via La Oroya, Junin and Carhuamayo; and 214 km if you go through Canta, from where it becomes a packed dirt road, but running at the rim of numerous beautiful lakes. You can also get there from Huaral. 134 Official Guide | Central Mountains

A very tall and isolated stone column, shaped by erosion.

up to the sector of Siete Llaves and from there, taking a 15 minute walk. It is possible to camp in the area, but previous coordination is needed.


76°20'

N

National Sanctuary

Yarpoc

P A S C O

ra Mug

o

Cerro de Pasco 40 km

a racanch

Ri o

Ri

c Rio de Ra

Huayllay

Río Rio Ya hu Pumpu ar

RY

n

Rio C olo ra

Gayao Bridge

do

Ri

Canta 119 km

San José Lake Verdecocha

Lake Anilcocha

8

Huaygaga Mountain

u

Diezmo

R

icg

San Pedro de Pari Junin 44 km

Calaucancha Hill

Lake Leonpata

Lake Anascocha

Scale km

1.6

Q

J U N I N

ra

e

Huayllay

Huaral 152 km

.S hog

Jos

Rio

oS an

11°00'

go

Lake Huaychacocha

2

8.1

La Calera

Lake Huaychaumarca

0

Ti n

Rio An tic uac u o cho

Rí o

es Río Bagr

nticona

aro ant Ri o M

Lake Lacsacocha

Rio A

Canchacucho

na

Rio

Cancha Cucho Mountain

Lake Coricocha

Rio N egro

4.5

R i o V i ch a

HUAYLLAY NATIONAL SANCTUARY

j yo rr a

Lake Chinchaycocha (Junin)

Junin Punta Mountain

Ri

o

JUNIN NATIONAL RESERVE

do r C on

PASCO

ain hu LIMA

JUNIN

Lima

4 76°20'

76°15'

NEARBY ATTRACTIONS

CONTACT INFORMATION

The legendary and beautiful Japurin Lake is seated outside the Sanctuary, but adjacent to its northeast limit, and it is another excellent place for birdwatching, sport fishing and, also, camping.

Administrative headquarters of the protected area: Jr. San Martin 138, Lado Oeste, Junin, Tel: (064) 344 146 / (01) 968 218 432.

The neighboring National Reserve of Junin, which protects the highest lake in Peru, and the Historical Sanctuary of Chacamarca, both in the Meseta de Bombon, are the ideal circuit to set Huayllay in its historical and natural context. Pumpu, the Inca administration center, neighboring the Upamayo dam (and partly destroyed by it), at the initial sector of the Mantaro River, is a must. There are, also, the neighboring thermal springs of Calera, with infrastructure. SERVICES WITHIN THE AREA Control Post of Canchacucho. In this village you can find basic accommodation and meals.

10°55'

io G ra m arca

ria Pa Yanatuto

Huampay Pampa

The Japurin Lake, of great beauty, on the border of the Sanctuary. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 135

11°00'

Rio

UN DA

R

Bo mb o

10°55'

rpa ca

BO

Vicco a 9 km

Cochamarca Pampa

lua

noc Co

nde

mb o

Bombon Pampa

NE ZO

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BUFFE R

Mi

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R i o de

Lake Japurin

Rio T a

Rio Yah uar Ma yo Ri

Lake Conoc


Junin | National Reserve

"On the shores of the sky" Llamas getting ready for a very cold night in the Meseta de Bombon or Junin, at more than 4,000 meters above sea level. *Facilities for tourism

YES

Location : PASCO and JUNIN Surface Area

: 53,000 ha

Creation Date

: 08/07/1974

Altitude Range

: 4,080 - 4,125 meters

GENERAL OBJECTIVES The National Reserve’s objectives are to preserve the wild flora and fauna and the scenic beauty of the Junin Lake, as well as to contribute to the social and economic development of the region through the sustainable use of its renewable natural resources. DESCRIPTION The Reserve is located on the Meseta de Bombon, an extense plateau on the Nudo de Pasco, a point of junction where the Northern and the Central Mountain Ranges of the Peruvian Andes converge. Most of its 136 Official Guide | Central Mountains

surface is occupied by the Chinchaycocha Lake - also called Junin or “De los Reyes”the second largest lake in Peru and the one at the highest altitude, almost 300 meters higher than Titicaca Lake. This great water mirror, very shallow and of relatively mild temperature, is fed by 12 rivers and gives birth to the Mantaro River, main tributary to the Amazon River. By the influence of the Lake, the region hosts a special and diverse population of birds, residents as well as migratory. The Junin Grebe, in danger of extinction, is an important and emblematic object of conservation of the area. The Reserve was recognized by the Ramsar Convention in 1997 as a Wetland


of International Importance and as an Aquatic Birds Habitat. This enormous and special water mirror is in the process of aging or eutrophication (an increase of nutritious substances that provoke an excess of phytoplankton). Moreover, it is currently being polluted by mining tailings in the northeast zone, thus seriously endangering its fragile ecosystem. HISTORY For thousands of years, ancient hunters and gatherers inhabited the plateau, making the most of its abundant resources. Nearby developments such as Chavin, first, or regional, such as Wari, much later, spread their influence over the region to then, give way to local groups such as the Pumpush and the Wancas, who were to play a leading role in the great agricultural climax of the Valley of Mantaro, until the arrival of the Incas. The latter, demonstrating the importance that the region had in their geopolitical strategy, built large administration and ceremonial centers connected to the Qhapaqñan, their main road: Pumpu on the northern shore of the lake, and Tarmatambo and Jauja (Hatun Xauxa) on the south. This last one was the capital of the Viceroyalty during its first years. On August 6th 1824, the Battle of Junin took place in the plain at the south of the Reserve, which together with the Battle of Ayacucho in December that same year, would definitely seal the banishment of the Spanish armies from the country and the continent. In less than an hour of hard battle, the famous and victorious “Hussars of Junin”, became immortalized.

FLORA Among the most frequent types of vegetation covers, we have the “bofedales” (hydrophilic grasses of the wetlands): found in the high Andean zones, they are the habitat for diverse kinds of natural grasses that are fodder for the South American Camelidae. The scrubfields or “pajonales” (pastures of high-altitude Andean steppe and dry soils): It is the largest vegetal community in the Reserve, with a predominance of the Festuca and Calamagrostis genera, locally known as Chilhuar and Crespillo. The Puna grass: It represents around 30% of the area and is characterized by the presence of plants similar to the Arctic Tundra vegetation. Their appearance is determined by the variations in the proportion of species of the Calamagrostis, Alchemilla, Aciachne, Baccharis, Werneria, Plantago, Nototriche, Opuntia, Perezia and Picnophyllum genera. The large reeds or “totorales”: These occupy the shores of the Lake and are constituted by two species of up to 2 meters of height (Scirpus californicus and Juncus arcticus). FAUNA The Junin Lake (together with the Titicaca) is habitat to the richest diversity of migratory birds -endemic and resident- among all the Peruvian High Andean wetlands. Among them, the following are found: the Junin Grebe

The beautiful Lake of Chinchaycocha, the second-largest in the country, reflecting the Andean sky.

The Junin Grebe, locally known as Yacochuyu, is a gregarious and confident bird that prefers to dive rather than escaping, which makes it easy to observe from a boat. Although the size of its wings is normal, its incapacity for flying -which confines it to the Lake-, is owed to its underdeveloped pectoral muscles. Its reduced reproductive capacity, just one chick per year, makes the highly expected recovery of its diminished population, a slow process. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 137


lake can also be accessed by dirt roads coming from Canta or Huaral, harsher routes but with extraordinary views while crossing the Cordillera de la Viuda. Public buses connecting with the capital are varied and offer daily services. WEATHER Sub humid and semi-frigid. Temperatures run from 32 °F to 50 °F. Rainfall goes from December to March, with an average annual precipitation of 940 mm. Birds are the principal attraction at the Reserve, such as this flamingo taking flight.

(Podiceps taczanowskii), on the verge of extinction, the Junin Coot (Laterallus tuerosii), an endemic species, the Silvery Grebe (Podiceps occipitalis), the White-tufted Grebe (Rollandia rolland), the Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) and the Giant Coot (Fulica gigantea). Among the representative mammals are the Culpeo (Lycalopex culpaeus), the Long-tailed Weasel (Mustela frenata), the Molina's Hog-nosed Skunk (Conepatus chinga), the Northern Viscacha (Lagidium peruanum), the Colocolo (Leopardus colocolo) and the Montane Guinea Pig (Cavia tschudii). Among the fish, the most important are the Challhuas (Orestias spp. and Trichornycteris oroyae). HOW TO GET THERE The best route is the paved Carretera Central that goes up to Junin (240 km from Lima), via La Oroya. Junin and the

RESTRICTIONS Entrance Fees in soles: Under 5 and above 65 years: Free. 5 to 15 years: S/3 (one day), S/6 (three days). Adults: S/10 (one day), S/20 (three days). ATTRACTIONS The area for tourism has a set of already established routes, such as the boat ride and birdwatching tours. It is located in the eastern part of the Reserve and is adjacent to Pariacancha, Huayre (a Maca production center, with archaeological patrimony) and San Francisco de Uco, with its resort and recreational center. The Carretera Central facilitates the access to this shore of the Lake. In the western zone of the Reserve, which offers the best view point over the Lake, at a certain height, Huarmipuquio, with its thermal springs, is found. Auquivilca, of spectacular beauty, and Ondores (21 km from Junin) are on this side also, both with attractions of colonial character, apart from the biodiversity. In Ondores, there is the lookout point of Conoc, which attracts birdwatchers. Also on the west side, one can visit the rock formation known as “the head of Christ”, the colonial church of San Pedro de Pari, and recognize the great trace of the Qhapaqñan in its vicinity, which would appear that, goes over the waters. NEARBY ATTRACTIONS

The target of all preservation efforts: the future generations. 138 Official Guide | Central Mountains

The National Sanctuary of Huayllay and the Historical Sanctuary of Chacamarca form a circuit adjacent to the Reserve, thematically as much as geographically, and programming the visit to the


76°15'

Cerro de Pasco 22 km

Ninacaca

Pampa de Huampuay

Q

Lake Hualgalayoj

National Reserve

atay .P

Junin

8.5

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a

Rio San Jua n

8.6

N

Lake Chacacancha

Cerro de Pasco 32 km

Vicco

P A S C O

JUNIN NATIONAL RESERVE

Carhuamayo 7 11.

Lake Calcalcocha Lake Patocancha

San Pedro de Pari

Lake Antacocha

7.3

DA

R

RY

Palomayo 8.7

Conocc

Uco

7

Q. d e

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Mantaro

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Huayre

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Lake Chinchaycocha (Junin)

11

R FFE BU

11°00'

Diezmo

11°00'

4.5

Gayao Bridge

Rio C

Pumpu

Ondores PASCO

8

LIMA

Paccha

JUNIN

Lima 0

3

5

Sasicucho

Scale km 6

76°15'

three of them together will enhance the experience and triplicate the enchantment. The Inca site of Pumpu is located north of the Reserve, and the dam of Upamayo is close by, where the Mantaro River is born. The colonial churches of Ninacaca and Vicco, and the singular city of Junin, complete the circuit.

Huarmipuquio

Rescue Center for Junin Frog

3.2

5 76°00'

JUNIN La Oroya a 53 km

SERVICES WITHIN THE AREA There is an Interpretation Center in Ondores and an Information Center in the district of Vicco. CONTACT INFORMATION Administration center of the protected area: Jr. San Martin 138, Lado Oeste, Junin, Tel.: (064) 344 146 / (01) 968 218 441.

The colonial church of San Pedro de Pari on the west shore of the great Lake.

Protected Natural Areas | PERU 139


Chacamarca | Historical Sanctuary

"Pampa of Victory" The tall commemorative monument of the Battle of Junin, with a mini museum in its base, rises above the High Plateau. *Facilities for tourism

YES

Location : JUNIN Surface Area

: 2,500 ha

Creation Date

: 08/07/1974

Altitude Range

: 4,112 - 4,438 meters

GENERAL OBJECTIVES The objective is to preserve the natural scene of the Battle of Junin, as well as the flora, the fauna and the natural landscape of the protected area. DESCRIPTION Located to the south of the Meseta de Bombon, the Historic Sanctuary includes a vast plain and an extensive wetland surrounded by medium height hills, where the Battle of Junin took place. HISTORY The area was first inhabited more than 10,000 years ago, when the first settlements or “marcas” are established towards 3,800 BC: Marcacocha, Chacamarca, Huarmipuquio, and others. The Pumpush dominated the high Andean plateau, as the Waris, Yaros and Yachas had done before, and as, finally, the Incas did. Chacamarca, 140 Official Guide | Central Mountains

strategically built by the side of the Qhapaqñan, was an important storage center with a system of colcas (storehouses), where the tributes paid to the Incas by the local communities were kept. On Friday 6th of August 1824, the glorious Battle of Junin took place here, where the Patriot Army’s victory was declared after only 45 minutes of violent fighting. The Royal (Spanish) Army with 1,300 horsemen under the orders of Brigadier Canterac attacked first, spreading death and disarray among the Patriot lines which only had 900 horsemen. However, in one of the most anecdotic chapters in the fight for independence, the first Regiment “Husares of Peru” counterattacked the rearguard of the Europeans, following an order given by Assistant Major Jose Andres Razuri, who had the audacity of contravening orders. General La Mar had given the order to retire, to which Razuri shouted “Attack!” In a few minutes the Royal cavalry found itself decimated and in hasty escape.


Cerro de Pasco 72 km

N

Historical Sanctuary

JUNIN JUNIN NATIONAL RESERVE

Chacamarca 11°10'

11°10'

Q. Casapalca

Ondores 20 km PASCO

5

J U N I N

LIMA JUNIN

Chacamarca Chacamarca Hill

Batalla of Junin Monument

au ca

Chichausiri State House

u

Que brad a Yana

8 4.

Q. C

2

cancha

Que bra da Acor acra

Lima

Junin Punta Mountain

CHACAMARCA HISTORICAL SANCTUARY

Scale km

La Oroya 43 km

BUFFER ZONE BOUNDARY

0

1

2 76°00'

BIODIVERSITY

SERVICES WITHIN THE AREA

The principal vegetable associations are: the dense high-altitude scrubfields (pajonal), the Andean wetlands (bofedales or oconales) and the Puna grass lands. Among birds, the following stand out: the Puna Tinamou (Tinamotis pentlandii) and the Andean Goose (Chloephaga melanoptera), part of the local settlers diet, and the Andean Flicker (Colaptes rupicola), used for its medicinal qualities.

There is an Information Post at the entrance. Entrance Fees in soles: Under 5 and above 65 years: Free. 5 to 15 years: S/3. Adults: S/10. CONTACT INFORMATION Administration headquarters of the protected area: Jr. San Martin 138, Lado Oeste, Junin, Tel.: (064) 344 146 / (01) 968 218 441.

HOW TO GET THERE The Sanctuary is very close to the Carretera Central, 7 km south of the city of Junin and 240 km away from Lima. The weather is sub-humid and semi-frigid. ATTRACTIONS The monument to The Victors of Junin, built for the Centenary (1924), has a small museum within its base. The archaeological site, reduced to its foundations, is found close by.

It is common to see groups of vicuñas in the Historic Sanctuary. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 141


Nor Yauyos Cochas | Landscape Reserve

"Under the protection of the Pariacaca" Under, A family -the male with the white head- of torrent ducks (Merganetta armata), found in the rivers of Nor Yauyos Cochas. *Facilities for tourism

YES

Location : LIMA Y JUNIN Surface Area

: 221 268,48 ha

Creation Date

: 01/05/2001

Altitude Range

: 2 500 – 5 750 msnm (cumbre del Pariacaca)

GENERAL OBJECTIVES Its mission is the preservation of the higher basins of the Cañete and Pachacayo Rivers, which house ecosystems in the midst of a singular landscape of great beauty. These last ones coexist in a harmonious relationship with the activities of the rural communities, who have developed forms of social organization for the production and efficient use of its natural resources, protecting their cultural and historical values. DESCRIPTION The Reserve has two well-defined regions, the higher basin of the Cañete 142 Official Guide | Central Mountains

River in Lima, and the basin of the CochasPachacayo River in Junin. Both regions have a large number of snow-capped mountains, dozens of lakes, wetlands and cascades, forests of Puya, relicts of Queñua, Karkac and Lloque, millenarian villages and ancient agricultural area; in short, valuable elements that make natural wealth transcend the material, creating what in Nor Yauyos is being protected: the beauty. The Cochas River Ravine, a river of modest dimensions though principal tributary to the Mantaro River, has abundant pastures and relatively gentle slopes, ideal for sheep farming. There is important activity in this sense, led by the SAIS Tupac Amaru


and its Junin breed, the only ovine breed originally developed in Peru. On the other hand, the Cañete River carves a deep and encased valley, after leaving the cold Puna of its headwaters, and sometimes forms lakes, and others, cascades splashed by riverside woods, with a unique and incredibly beautiful rhythm. In order to enjoy this vibrant display of nature, the zone neighboring Huancaya is a good option and it is usually the most visited. Nor Yauyos Cochas is an inhabited Reserve. The farming communities have organized themselves in territorial groups with interdependent members in order to make use of certain resources in common, for the benefit of all. They base themselves on a principle of equality and are nonhierarchical, a wise system but insufficiently valued by our economy, simply because it hasn’t been taken into account. Most of the villages of the area are allocated in the Cañete River Basin, some of which preserve a harmonious traditional architecture (cultural assets in grave danger of extinction in the country), such as Laraos, a little town of stone houses, sitting over a solid system of “andenes” (artificially stepped terraces). Just a few hours away from Lima or Huancayo, and accessible to many, this is a region where tourism will play a decisive role in the future; and it depends on everybody that this be a positive one. HISTORY The history of this area has a distinctive feature that makes it unique, the

register made by Francisco de Avila, at the beginning of the 17th century in “Gods and men of Huarochiri” (The Huarochiri Manuscript), where he details myths, rituals, customs and, in general, the Andean world view at the time of the encounter of the two worlds, as well as the oral traditions that told of their ancient history; especially, the story that has Apu Pariacaca as its central character. Apu (Mountain) Pariacaca, tutelary snow-capped mountain of the region, was highly venerated then, in complementary opposition to Pachacamac, the other great ceremonial figure of the Central Andes. Although Apu Pariacaca’s cult was prior to the Incas, they not only respected its cult, but made it theirs, and proof of this was the work they displayed in the road that runs along its foot and mountainside, which used to connect Jauja with the coast, where they built a stone stairway of colossal dimensions erected at more than 4,500 meters above sea level. This beautiful two peak snow-capped mountain was revered with such devotion, that when its festivities were celebrated and men came from all over the land to present offerings, they put a stop to every conflict or fighting and the pilgrimage would take place peacefully. There are nearly 40 archaeological sites in the Nor Yauyos Cochas Reserve which demonstrate that the area used to be completely and continuously occupied, and these include cave paintings, citadels, roads, dams and, especially, agricultural

Part of the beautiful lakes and cascades which the Cañete River forms close to Huancaya.

In the immense network of Inca roads that cross the country, one of the more outstanding stretches is the one that used to connect the great pre-Columbian city of Jauja with the Sanctuary of Pachacamac, on the coast. About 50 km of this road cross the Reserve, and the stretch which is richest in nature, cultural manifestations and meaning, under the watchful eye of the Pariacaca, has some 15 km and can be covered in about 2 to 3 days. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 143


The impressive archaeological site of Huamanmarca, in Carania.

terraces, still in use in our times. The zone is considered by some as being one of the places in which this extraordinary farming technique had its origin. This harmony between man and nature, a reflection of the great natural and cultural values this region houses, manifests itself until today in the landscape.

by human activity, the great diversity of flora typical of the scrublands and shrubberies is endangered. Mixed forests with predominance of Karkac: consisting of Karkac (Escallonia myrtilloides) and Putaqa (Senecio soukupii), which forms a natural dam at the Papacocha Lake. The tree tops can reach a height of 10 meters and this is probably due to pedological and geological factors. Among the trees, we find Quisuar (Buddleja coriacea), and Queñua (Polylepis racemosa); and, among the bushes, Chejche (Berberis lutea), Zapatito (Calceolaria linearis) and Huamanpinta (Chuquiraga spinosa).The forests of Puya: made up of Puya (Puya raimondii). In these formations also live the Carqueja (Baccharis genistelloides), the Salvia (Lepechinia meyenii), the Jarava Ichu (Stipa ichu), the Chillicua (Festuca dolichophylla) and the Ortiga (Urtica magellanica), among others.

The process of creation of the protected natural area goes back to the initial efforts done by SAIS Tupac Amaru, which since 1970 advocated its preservation, managing to achieve a first designation as “National Tourist Reserve Zone” in 1996. Then, the Corporacion de Desarrollo de Nor Yauyos – CODENY, made up of the Councils, farming communities and public and private institutions of the province, reinforces the initial endeavor and, in 1999, the INRENA declares the “Reserved Zone of Alto Cañete and Cochas - Pachacayo”, with an area of 176,000 ha. Two years later, it was declared “Landscape Reserve” with its current extension. FLORA The following vegetable associations can be recognized: Scrubland with predominance of Queñua (Polylepis incana), with arboreal and shrublike elements. Scrubland with predominance of Lloque: principally made up of Chamanita (Dodonaea viscosa) and, in the higher parts, by forest vegetation dominated by Lloque (Kageneckia lanceolata). In the area surrounding Alis, strongly affected 144 Official Guide | Central Mountains

An Andean Goose, Huallata or Huashua (Chloephaga melanoptera).

FAUNA Among the species related to aquatic environments are: grebes (Podiceps spp.), herons (Egretta thula, Casmerodius albus and Nycticorax nycticorax), Puna Ibis (Plegadis ridgwayi), Andean Goose (Chloephaga melanoptera), and ducks (Anas spp.), among others.


76°00'

aro nt

Suitucancha

Landscape Reserve

Ma

Lake Huallacocha Bajo

RY BOUNDA ZONE FFER BU

Río

Huay-huay

N

Jayapaca Mountain

La Oroya 35 km

Chacapalpa

SAIS Tupac Amaru

El Rosario

Nor Yauyos Cochas

Canchayllo

Jauja 32 km

oB

Ri

cay o

ch a

Inca Stairs

Q. Y

Lake Lake Suyoc Piticocha Cuchimachay Lake Mullucocha

o

Lake Paucarcocha

Tambo Real

an

Lake Yongote

Rio

ZO

t

FFE R

20 76°00'

án

10

Lara

JUNIN LIMA

NE B

L I M A Rio H ua n

i

Callanga Mountain

Laraos

Carania

YAUYOS

Rio Cach

Cañete 130 km

Among the registered bird species in the various habitats the following are listed: Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus), Condor (Vultur gryphus), Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl (Glaucidium brasilianum), the Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), the Andean Parakeet (Bolborhynchus orbygnesius) and various hummingbirds (Myrtis fanny, Chalcostigma spp.), among others. Despite the human presence, it is still relatively easy to observe large size mammals, considered an indication of the ecosystems good health. Among the predominant species are: Culpeo (Lycalopex culpaeus), Whitetailed Deer (Odocoileus peruvianus), Long-tailed Weasel (Mustela frenata), Andean Mountain Cat (Leopardus jacobitus) and the Northern Viscacha (Lagidium peruanum). Other mammals present in the area are: Puma (Puma concolor), Taruca (Hippocamelus antisensis), Pampas Cat (Lynchailurus pajeros), Molina’s Hog-nosed Skunk (Conepatus chinga), Vicuña (Vicugna

Huantan

Lima

BU

Ri o

Scale km 0

Alis Huamanmarca

os

Ayaviri

Chaucha

T

Miraflores

Lake Huascacocha

Ay av iri

San Joaquin Huañec Quinches

Ticlla

Huancaya Vitis Tomas

O U NDARY

Lake Ticllacocha

o inc

R

ui n

Huancayo 10 km

Negro Bueno Mountain pass 4360 m.s.n.m.

Ri o

io

Joa q San

s

San Jose de Quero

NOR YAUYOS COCHAS LANDSCAPE RESERVE Lake Piscococha

lhua

sa ta Ro San

Vilca

Tanta

Ch a

y cha a ma Ri

te Río Cañe

Road Inca

Rio

12°00'

Tunsho

J U N I N

Pa Ri o

Pariacaca

Ri o

12°00'

C arhuapam pa

co l an

Lake Vichecocha Lake Lake Carhuacocha Huaylacancha Cochas

75°30'

vicugna), Llama (Lama glama), Alpaca (Lama pacos), White-eared Opossum (Didelphis albiventris) and three species of rodents (Akodon juninensis, Phyllotis sp. and Cavia tschudii). Among the ichthyologic resources we find the Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the Chalgua (Orestias spp.) and the Catfish (Trichomycterus rivulatus).

The magnificent pre-Hispanic “andenes”, still in use these days. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 145


A stone house, typical of the friendly village of Laraos.

HOW TO GET THERE The most frequently used is the route that follows the Panamericana Sur up to Cañete (at Km 140), from where another paved road takes you to Lunahuana (45 km), and from there, along a road that is being paved, to Llapay (inside the Reserve), then to Vitis and Huancaya (130 km). The road ends in Vilca. Through this route you access the detours that lead to Laraos, Carania and Miraflores. Through the detour towards Alis and Tomas, you can reach Huancayo after another 130 km. The road that takes you directly to the Cochas River basin follows the Carretera Central, via La Oroya, up to the Pachacayo Bridge, a little before reaching Jauja (220

km in total). From there, you cross the Mantaro River and you leave behind the pavement to enter the Reserve by Pachacayo and continue towards Hacienda Cochas. From here, you can continue through a difficult road (that reaches 4,500 meters above sea level) up to Huancaya (some 70 km more). Or, also, you may follow the same Ravine and, after another 80 km, get to Tanta. Along this last route, one crosses the Inca road in the Portachuelo Hill, from where the walk towards the Stairway of the Pariacaca usually starts. If one were to follow the more authentic pilgrimage road, one can start in Pachacamac, go up the Lurin River by Cieneguilla up to Huarochiri, enter the Reserve at the Ocsha Pass and carry on until you get to the foot of the Pariaca; all of it, along the ancient Inca route which is still possible to recognize and admire. WEATHER Rainy and frigid from December to April; dry and temperate from May to November. The temperature rises above 68 °F during the day (when sunny), descending to 14 °F at night, depending on the altitude at which one is. RESTRICTIONS You can visit the area throughout the year, although it is advisable to go from May to November.

The beautiful Mullucocha Lake, by the Inca road and scenario of mythical battles related to the Pariacaca

146 Official Guide | Central Mountains


The Cañete River forms a lake in its encased riverbed.

ATTRACTIONS The principal tourist and recreational area is found in the zones neighboring the villages of Vitis, Huancaya and Vilca; and the zone that includes Marcatupe and the Piquecocha Lake; all of them are found along the Cañete River. While the whole Landscape Reserve has qualities for the development of tourist activities, these zones have been destined for building future infrastructure. Among the most usual and recommended activities are trekking, sport-fishing, mountaineering, cave exploration (Speleology), birdwatching and mountain bike trips.

and Vilca; the Piticocha, Mullucocha, and Paucarcocha Lakes in Tanta; the archaeological sites of Huamanmarca in Carania, Huaquis in Miraflores, Vinchos and Andas in Canchayllo; the impressive “andenes” of Laraos, Carania and Vitis, where one can observe four different types of them; the cave paintings of Cuchimachay in Tanta and Quilcasca in Laraos; the Inca road of the Pariacaca, very well preserved; the deepest cave in South America with more than 600 meters of depth, at more than 4,500 meters above sea level, and snow covered-peaks of heights of over 5,500 meters. Furthermore, one can easily see fauna such as Taruca, Deer and Condor. NEARBY ATTRACTIONS The city of Jauja, on the Carretera Central route; Lunahuana, a tourist place, the entrance door from the coast; and the beautiful Huarochiri, that only has pedestrian access to the Reserve.

In the long list of places to visit, the principal are the Cascades of Huancaya The venerated Apu Pariacaca, with its magnificent twin peaks.

SERVICES WITHIN THE AREA There are control posts in: Tinko Yauricocha, Llapay, Huancaya and Vilca, and sub administration headquarters in Alis (Lima) and Pachacayo (Junin). Huancaya: *Council Lodge and others; camping zone. Vilcas: *Council Lodge and camping zone. Laraos: *Koriwasi Hotel. Miraflores: *Council Lodge. CONTACT INFORMATION Administration headquarters of the protected area: Av. Huancavelica 3113 - Urb. COVICA - El Tambo - Huancayo, Tel: (064) 243 888 / (01) 968 218 462. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 147


SERVICES Phone Area Codes: Ancash (043), Huanuco (062), Pasco (063), Junin (064) HOTELS Caraz: **Grand Hostal Caraz Dulzura; Saenz Pe単a 212, T. 391523; www.hostalcarazdulzura.com Carhuaz: **Comtucar; Carretera Central Carhuaz-Huaraz 1099, T. 394051; www.qnet.com.pe/ carhuaz Huaraz: ***Andino Club Hotel; Pedro Cochachin 357, T. 421662; www.hotelandino.com ***San Sebastian; Italia 1124, T. 426960; www.hotelhuaraz.com ***Colomba; Francisco de Zela 278, T. 421501; www.huarazhotel.com **El Tumi; San Martin 1121; T. 421784; www.hoteleltumi. com **La Joya; San Martin 1187; T. 425527; www.hotellajoya.pe **Grand Hotel Cesar's; Larrea y Loredo 721, T. 422227; www.grandcesarshotel.com **El Abuelo; 9 de diciembre 257, T. 394456; www.elabuelohostal.com Huanuco: ***Grand Hotel Huanuco; Damaso Beraun 775; T. 512410; www.grandhotelhuanuco.com **Garu; Pedro Puelles 465, T. 513096 **Casa Hacienda Shismay; San Sebastian de Shismay, T. 510040; www.shismay.com/ ** Nueva York; Alameda Peru 553; T. 562406; www.hotelnuevayork.net Cerro de Pasco: **Ruby; Antonio Martinez 306, Urb. San Juan, T. 721011 **Yaban; Circunvalacion, Mzna. D Lote 1, T. 422973 Huancayo: ***Loma Verde; Leopoldo Pe単a 770, Tambo Alapa, T. 581569; www.lomerdeperu.com/ ***Turistas Hotel; Ancash 729, T. 231072; www. hoteldeturistas.com/junin.html ***Presidente; Real 1138, T. 231275; www.hoteles-del-centro.com/ chcsp12.htm **Kiya; Giraldez 107, T. 214955; www.hotelkiya.com/ www.hoteles-del-centro.com/ chcsp14.htm **El Marquez; Puno 294, T. 219026; www.elmarquezhuancayo.com/ **Rivas Hotel, Marginal 252, T. 347520 Huancaya: ** Las Cascadas, Hospedaje- Restautante; Lima s/n, Huancaya; T. 768176; www.lascascadas.galeon.com * Sandoval Casas Carmela; Lima s/n (cerca Plaza de Armas), Huancaya; T. 9692004 RESTAURANTS Huaraz: Chifa Oja Ya; 28 de Julio 744, T. 422996 Pizza Bruno; Luzuriaga 384, T. 425689 Rinconcito San Marquino; Victoria 133, T. 454544 Chin Turistico; 17 de enero 439, T.454051 Buongiorno; 17 de enero 520, T. 454112; www.helloancash.com/buongiorno/ El Rinconcito Minero; Julian de Morales, 757, T. 422875; www.huaraz.com/rinconcito/ Del Sole; Simon Bolivar 485, T. 221297; El Cortijo; Cordillera Blanca s/n, Monterrey, T. 423813; www.helloancash.com/el_cortijo Huanuco: Cheers; Dos de Mayo 1201, T. 514666; Loockos; Abtao 1021; T. 512460 El Huerto de mi Amada; Leoncio Prado 1418, T. 511216 Pizzeria Don Sancho; General Prado 645, T. 516906 Chifa Shangai; General Prado 868, T. 518810 La Estancia Country Club; Km 3,5 carretera a Tingo Maria, Fundo Miraflores, T. 515402 Cerro de Pasco: Chifast; Los Proceres 3, tda. 3, Edif. de la Beneficencia Publica, Urb. San Juan; T. 423327 Latin Lover; CC San Juan, edificio 5, San Juan, T. 421696 El Conquistador; San Cristobal 226, Chaupimarca, T. 421983 El Cortijo; Circunvalacion Arenales 105 La Caba単a; Bolognesi 218 Huancayo: El Palomar; Real 1871, Chilca, T. 200293 El Parrillon; La Victoria 1775, El Tambo, T. 245866 Huancahuasi; Mariscal Castilla 2222, T. 244826; www.huancahuasi.com/ Sabores Peruanos; Julio Sumar 175, T. 245903 Leopardo; Huanuco y Libertad, T. 218126; www.leopardorestaurante. com/ Tarma: Lo Mejorcito de Tarma; Arequipa 501, t. 317329 Palacio Latino; Plza. Muruhuay, Tarma, T. 341115; www.restaurantesdeperu.com/destinos/junin/palacio_latino.htm Huancaya: Tradicion Restaurante; T. 212090 Recreo turistico Brisas de Mayo; T. 8106086 El Porvenir; T. 8106086 El Encanto; T. 8106087 TOURISM/TRAVEL AGENCIES Huaraz: Las Cordilleras; Manuel Torres s/n, Acopampa, T. 394322; www.lascordilleras.com Explorandes; Agustin Gamarra 835, T. 421960; www.explorandes.com Discovery Peru; Luzuriaga 834, T. 425689; www.discoveryperu.com Cordillera Blanca Adventures; Los Nogales 108, T. 424352; www. cordillerablanca.org Turismo Caminos; Agustin Gamarra 1190, T. 428803; www.turismocamino.com Exploring Peru; Caserio Coney, T. 421487; www.exploringperu.com Infinite Adventures; Pque. G. Civil 923, Santa Rosa, T. 423150; www.infiniteadventures.com Baby Tours; Villon Alto, Manzana 159, Lote 17, T. 423421; www.alpamayomountain.com/espanol/empresa.php Break Tours; Saenz Pe単a s/n, Manzana C2 Lote 09, T. 3932706; www.breaktorus.com Peru Mountain Explorers; Confraternidad Internacional Este 386, Interior 1, T. 425797; www.mountainexplorers.com Huanuco: Nit Wanuko Marka; Alfonso Ugarte 131; T. 510200 La Casa del Guia; Colectora Los Jazmines 860, T. 516295 Huayhuash Trekk; Manzana F Lote 8 B, T. 513036 Magic Peru; Tupac Amaru 208, T. 511945; www. magicperuhco.com Consultora Mya; Gral. Prado 815, T. 516702 Hatun Tours; Gral. Prado 656, 148 Official Guide |Central Mountains


T. 510484; www.hatuntours.com/ G Y R Mis enturas Tours; 28 de Julio 974, T. 511210 Servicios Multiples Dremza; 28 de Julio 824, T. 514461 Cole Trel; 28 de Julio 910, T. 517622 Trel Time; 28 de Julio 1065, T. 510414; www.treltime.com.pe Pillco Trel & Tours; 28 de Agosto 307, T. 516222; www. pillcotrel-tours.blogspot.com/ Huancayo: Peruvian Tours; Pque. Constitucion 122, 2尊 Piso, Ofic. 1, T. 213069 Dargui Tours; Paseo de la Bre単a 195, Ofic. 2, T. 233705; www.darguitours.com/ Explorando Trel and Adventure; Huancas 243, San Carlos, T. 217484 Huancaya: Candela Tours; Miguel Grau 203 (Lunahuana), T. 2841118; www.candelatoursperu.com/ EMERGENCIES Health: Huaraz: Hospital de Apoyo Victor Ramos Guardia; Luzuriaga s/n, T. 424146 Policlinico Ni単o Jesus de Praga; 28 de Julio 602, T. 428384/9613100 Huanuco: Hospital Regional; Hermilio Valdizan 910, T. 512400/513370 Cerro de Pasco: Hospital Daniel Alcides Carrion; Los Incas s/n, San Juan, T.722272/722108 Huancayo: Hospital Daniel Alcides Carrion; D. A. Carrion 1552, T.222157 Hospital El Carmen; Puno 911, T. 233371 Hospital Inmaculada Concepcion; Barrio Alapa s/n, T. 581043 Jauja: Hospital D. Olavegoya; San Martin 1153, T. 362007/361752 Tarma: Hospital de Apoyo Tarma; Pacheco 362, T.321401 Police: Caraz: Comisaria de Caraz; 20 de Enero s/n, T. 391335 Yungay: Comisaria de Yungay; T. 393300 Unidad de Salvamento de Alta Monta単a USAM - Yungay; Gral. Salas con Jaime Gonzales s/n, T. 393333 Huaraz: Comisaria de Huaraz; Jose de Sucre, cuadra 2, T. 421330 Comisaria de Anta; Plaza de Armas s/n, T. 443086 Chiquian: Comisaria de Chiquian; Comercio cuadra 13, T. 447124 Huanuco: Jefatura Policia Nacional del Peru; Constitucion 601, T. 512220/516480 Comisaria de Huanuco; Constitucion 505, T. 513117 Cerro de Pasco: Comisaria de Huariaca; Los Proceres s/n, T. 722326/722117 La Oroya: Comisaria La Oroya; Horacio Zevallos 209, T. 391411 Junin: Comisaria Junin; Bernardo Alcedo s/n, T. 344008 Jauja: Comisaria Jauja; Francisco Pizarro s/n, T. 362076 Concepcion: Comisaria Concepcion; Bolivar cdra. 5, T. 581042 Huancayo: Comisaria de Huancayo; Ferrocarril 550, T. 211653/200230/200758 Comisaria de El Tambo; Real 1001, T.247214 OF INTEREST Yungay: Museo de Arqueologia e HISTORYNatural de Yungay; Las Palmeras, Ranrahirca, Yungay, T. 682322 Huaraz: Museo Arqueologico de Ancash; Luzuriaga 762, Plaza de Armas, T. 421551/721551 Centro de Informacion; Dir. Regional de Comercio Exterior y Turismo, Campamento Vichay s/n, T. 721521 Oficina de Informacion Turistica; Plaza de Armas, bajos de la Municipalidad Servicio de Informacion al Turista de PromPeru; T. 2249355 Correos: Luzuriaga 702, T. 721030/721031 Chavin: Museo Nacional Chavin de Huantar; 1,6 km del Monumento Arqueologico de Chavin Huanuco: Museo de la Universidad Nacional Hermilio Valdizan; Dos de Mayo 680 Complejo Arqueologico de Kotosh; T. 512507 Museo de Ciencias Naturales; General Prado 499 Centros de Informacion; Dir. Regional de Comercio Exterior y Turismo, General Prado 718, T. 513223 Servicio de Informacion al Turista de PromPeru; T. 2249355 Correos; Dos de Mayo 1157, T. 512503 Cerro de Pasco: Museo de Filigrana de cobre; El Misti 120, La Esperanza Museo Tecnico Pedagogico de la Region de Pasco; Los Proceres, San Juan, T. 722215 Centro de Informacion; Dir. Regional de Comercio Exterior y Turismo, Edificio Estatal 3, San Juan Pampa, T. 722275 Servicio de Informacion al Turista de PromPeru; T. 2249355 Correos: 28 de Julio s/n, San Juan, T. 722143 Junin: Museo Historico de Chacamarca; Interior del Monumento a la Batalla de Junin, Chacamarca Jauja: Centro de Informacion; Dir. Regional de Comercio Exterior y Turismo, Grau 528, T. 362897 Huancayo y alrededores: Museo de Sitio Wari Willca, Plaza Principal del anexo de Huancan, Huari, T. 227080/432027 Museo Regional de Arqueologia de Junin; Grau 195, Cuarto piso, Parque Los Heroes, Chupaca, T. 439323/232535 Museo Etnografico Santa Rosa de Ocopa; Convento de Ocopa, Santa Rosa de Ocopa, T. 210217 Museo Salesiano; Santa Rosa, El Tambo, T. 223627 Servicio de Informacion al Turista de PromPeru; T. 2249355 Correos; Centro Civico, Foco 2, T.231271 Protected Natural Areas | PERU 149


TRANSPORTATION By Buses: Cruz del Sur; Simon Bolivar, Manzana C Lote 12, Huaraz, T. 728726/ Ayacucho 281-287, Huancayo, T. 235650; www.cruzdelsur.com.pe/ Linea; Simon Bolivar 450, Huaraz, T. 426666; www.transporteslinea.com.pe Ormeño; Antonio Raymondi 835, Huaraz/ Mariscal Castilla 1379, Huancayo; www.grupoormeno.com.pe/home.php Movil Tours; Simon Bolivar 452, Huaraz, T. 422555/ Ferrocarril 601, Huancayo; www.moviltours.com.pe GM: 28 de Julio 535, Huanuco, T. 519770; www.geocities.com/gminternacional Expreso Molina Union: Pasco 1141, Pasco, T. 236144/ Huancayo 1141, Huancayo, T. 4280617 Empresa de Transportes Junin: Terminal Terrestre Oficina 7 y 8, Chaupimarca, Pasco, T. 421043/ Amazonas 669, Tarma, Junin, T. 321234 Lobato: Angaraes 323, Huancayo By Train: Ferrocarril Huancayo Huancavelica; Ferrocarril s/n, Chilca, Huancayo, T. 235011 By Air: Lc Busre; 28 de Julio 1015, Huanuco, T. 519595; www.lcbusre.com.pe/ Airports: Anta: “Cdte. FAP German Arias Grazziani”; km .23 Carretera Huaraz – Caraz, Anta, T. 443095 Huanuco: "Alf. FAP David Figueroa Fernandini"; Carretera Huanuco – Apto. km 6, T. 513066 Jauja: “Francisco Carle”; Francisco Carle s/n, Jauja, T. 362109

Andean Lapwing (Vanellus resplendens)

150 Official Guide |Central Mountains

Darwin's Rhea (Rhea pennata)


Southern Mountains

1

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Pampa de Ayachucho HS Machupicchu HS Ampay NS Pampas Galeras - Barbara D' Achille NR Sub Cuenca de Cotahuasi LR Salinas y Aguada Blanca NR Titicaca NR

2 3

4

5 6

7


Pampa de Ayacucho | Historical Sanctuary

"The Final Battle" Impressive obelisk commemorating the Battle of Ayacucho, which, in 1824, marked the end of the war for independence, initiated by Tupac Amaru in 1780. *Facilities for tourism

YES

Location : AYACUCHO Surface Area

: 300 ha

Creation Date

: 08/14/1980

Altitude Range

: 3,400 - 4,050 meters

GENERAL OBJECTIVES The main objectives are the protection of the natural and historic patrimony of the scene of the Battle of Ayacucho and to preserve the cultural and handicraft traditions of the neighboring towns and villages; also, to improve and extend the tourist circuit of Ayacucho - Wari Ruins Quinua - Pampa de Ayacucho, offering facilities so the area can be used for cultural and recreational activities.

Wari culture expanded from here up to Cajamarca and Lambayeque, towards the north, and up to Cusco and Arequipa, towards the south. Later, the Incas made Vilcashuaman, to the south, one of their major administration and ceremonial centers when they dominated the region.

The Sanctuary is located in an elevated plain of some steepness, and due to its privileged location, it is a natural lookout point from which the lovely scenery of the Ayacucho countryside can be observed. The weather is dry and temperate; the rainy season lasts from December to March.

The Battle of Ayacucho, on December 9th 1824, is considered the culminating moment in the South American War of Independence because it was here that Viceroy Jose de La Serna capitulated. In times of great confusion, in which the identity line separating both sides was very fine and mutiny and desertions occurred on both sides, the great strategy of the “Marshal of Ayacucho�, Antonio Jose de Sucre, in the battlefield forced the royalist capitulation of Jose Canterac, after the Viceroy La Serna had been wounded and taken prisoner.

HISTORY

BIODIVERSITY

Between the 7th and 10th centuries, the

Among

DESCRIPTION

152 Official Guide |Southern Mountains

the

native

plants,

worth


74째07'

N

Tambo 48 km

Historical Sanctuary

Pampa de Ayacucho

Huanta 54 km

PAMPA DE AYACUCHO HISTORICAL SANCTUARY

13째02'

Chihuacorara Q

Mountain

UF

FE

Patapampa

ta pa dres An da a r Curi Orcco ue b

13째02'

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Qu RZ ON eb EB ra OU da ND AR Y

Condorcunca Mountain

Ac ray pam pa

A Y A C U C H O

B

Quinua Monument

Quinua

Apucancha LIMA HUANCAVELICA

Ayacucho 36 km

ICA

Scale km 0

0.5

AYACUCHO

1 74째07'

mentioning are: Puna Salvia (Salvia gilliesii), Common Sage (Salvia officinalis), Andean Lupin (Lupinus hirsutus), Aztec Clover (Trifolium amabile), Pinco Pinco (Ephedra americana), Plantain (Plantago sp.) and Jarava Ichu (Stipa ichu). It is possible to appreciate birds like the Puna Tinamou (Tinamotis pentlandii), the Andean Tinamou (Nothoprocta pentlandii), the Andean Goose (Chloephaga melanoptera), the Mountain Caracara (Phalcoboenus megalopterus), the Andean Lapwing (Vanellus resplendens) and the Rufous-bellied Seedsnipe (Attagis gayi).

of Independence (1780 - 1824), initiated by Tupac Amaru. There are, also, the archaeological site of Wari and the town of Quinua, where the Museum of the Battle and the Capitulation Room are found. Huamanga (Ayacucho), a town full of ancient churches, is the entrance door to the Sanctuary, by which one goes obliged but with delight.

HOW TO GET THERE The Sanctuary and the town of Quinua are located at 37 km (paved) from the city of Ayacucho. The city of Ayacucho is 568 km away from Lima (8 h). There are bus services to the capital permanently, as well as air flights. ATTRACTIONS There is a sober landmark, an obelisk of 44 m height, commemorating the War

Panoramic view of Pampa de la Quinua, where the tall monument stands out. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 153


Machupicchu | Historical Sanctuary

“Universal Wonder� Like the home of a fable giant, Machupicchu is seated on the steep mountains of the High Forest of Cusco. *Facilities for tourism

YES

Location : CUSCO Surface Area

: 32,592 ha

Creation Date

: 01/08/1981

Altitude Range

: 1,725 - 6,264 meters

GENERAL OBJECTIVES The Historical Sanctuary has the following objectives: To protect the scenery and the natural environment, as well as the existing archaeological monuments and other cultural elements; the conservation of untouched and intervened natural ecosystems and their native flora and fauna species, making efforts and implementing procedures for their ecological restoration and recovery; to preserve a representative sample of the Incas integrated use of ecosystems; to preserve samples of pre-Hispanic works and techniques for the use and preservation of the soil, water and Andean 154 Official Guide |Southern Mountains

crops; to propitiate scientific investigation in the fields of Biology, History, Archaeology and Anthropology; to allow the development of suitable recreational and tourist activities, which can generate income for the area, the region and the country. To help visitors enjoy and acquire further knowledge of cultural values for their own education; to contribute to the sustainable socioeconomic development of the local population, in order to improve their quality of life. DESCRIPTION The Sanctuary is found in an area that has very special geographical characteristics:


from snow-covered peaks with heights of over 6,000 meters above sea level, to the warmer and humid zone of the Urubamba River, which sinuously divides the valley in two, below the 2,000 m, creating the Canyon of Torontoy. Its pronounced gradient, enhanced by the complex system of winds it propitiates, creates microclimates which are the source of a great biodiversity. To this exceptional natural richness, the incomparable archaeological jewel of Machupicchu is added, a pre-Columbian Andean feat, which combines its plazas, “andenes” and temples with its surroundings, in such a harmonious way that the entire world considers it among its treasures. It was declared Mixed World Heritage Site -natural and cultural- by UNESCO in 1983. Machupicchu is today the mecca for tourism in South America, as well as the most characteristic icon of our country. The citadel (at 2,400 meters above sea level) was built on the natural neck connecting Machupicchu to Waynapicchu -meaning Old Mountain and Young Mountain respectively-, two protrusions with vertical hillsides, carved by the Urubamba or Wilcamayu River that surrounds them forming a peninsula of inaccessible terrain. While its position at the peak makes it almost unassailable, the lack of any defensive construction reveals that it was not necessarily this concern which made them choose such a location. We would have to consider that isolation is also coveted for sacred environments. The reasons that used to make people consider a place as sacred – in the universal tradition – are many: Home of the gods or ancestral spirits, springs

of water or medicinal plants, places of revelation and interior transformation. Many people consider the place an important energetic center. These are immaterial values that do not always leave tangible traces and, therefore, science may fail to appreciate them. More than 40 outstanding archaeological complexes are found at the Sanctuary, associated with amazing irrigation and “andenes” systems, interconnected by footpaths that produce vertigo, frequently carved in the bare rock. Among these, the footpath starting from the railway lines between Ollantaytambo and the Town of Machupicchu (Aguas Calientes), has achieved great fame, being placed among the ten best known trekking routes in the world. The wild flora is particularly diverse in this region, since it belongs to 10 different life zones, including species typical of the Andean woods, such as the Queñua in the higher parts, down to epiphytes, bushes and palm trees, typical of mountain woods of lower altitudes. The Historic Sanctuary of Machupicchu confronts a great challenge in the future due to the intensive tourism in its area: To remain as a symbol of the heights which humanity can reach, while preserving, unaltered, the fragile equilibrium between man and nature. HISTORY Seemingly, the region where the Sanctuary is found did not have a large

Situated in the limit between the rainforest and the sierra, the biodiversity of Machupicchu has a bit of both.

The Spectacled Bear, Ukuku or Ukumari in Quechua, is the only bear of South America and Peru has its largest population. It inhabits mainly in the Humid Forest, from 800 to 4,000 meters above sea level, although it also visits the glaciers and the desert coast. A loner, it climbs easily onto trees, its typical feeding place, where it uses to prepare itself a bed of bromeliads. When it wakes up….it eats them all. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 155


72°30'

N

en

tes

ua

sC

ali

Santa Teresa Rio

a ubamb

Mandor

Temple of the Moon 5.5

2.5

Putukusi Mountain

Waynapicchu

San Miguel Mountain

8 2400 msnm San Miguel Bridge Inca 3 Bridge

Machupicchu Pueblo (Aguas Calientes)

2

PC Aguas Calientes

7

Ruinas Bridge

R

Inti Punku 3

San Miguel PC Intihuatana

Rio

PC Wiñaywayna

Choquesuysuy

Chachabamba

Ao ba

mb a

6

y

ay

o

a Pa

ca

m

Chaquicocha Sayacmarca

Que

ca

bra d

4

Rio Sayamar

4

Runkurakay Mountain pass 3924 msnm

Runkurakay PC Pacaymayo 3 Warmiwañusca Mountain pass 1.5 4200 msnm

Cochapata Mountain

da

am b

Wiñaywayna

Lucmabamba

za

ub

3

Intipata

Phuyupatamarca Phuyupatamarca Mountain pass 3670 msnm

Q. C al

Ur

a

Rio

Ag

io

S a nta Teresa

13°10'

Machupicchu

da

Que

Ur

b ra

Yana ma yo

ba

R io ba m

R i o W ay r u r u

Rio Ao

Lake Cochapata

brad a Pi ll on

Tahuarcay Mountain

e

Qu

can b

Huamantay 5459 msnm

ra

da

da

Ra

ya

ba

Q ue

ra eb

Rí o

Ao

ch

a

Que

m

C

ba

MACHUPICCHU HISTORICAL SANCTUARY

Hua

Palcay 5422 msnm

m an

13°20'

t ay

Salcantay 6264 msnm Que

Salcantaycocha Lake

b ra

da

S isa

ypampa

Huayracmachay Mountain pass 4525 msnm

Rio

nc

o

Tucarhuay 5910 msnm Scale km

156 Official Guide 0

2

Bl

a

Incachiriasca Mountain pass 4850 msnm

4 72°30'


Historical Sanctuary

Machupicchu Q.

ac

Q. M am

Luc u

ma

yo

ua

Q. Pampa

Huajayhuillca 5361 msnm

13°10'

h

C u rc u r

Rio

Qu

Torontoy

Bonanta 5319 msnm

aH

bra

rad

da

eb

ue

i squ

12.5

o

aM

mp

ra d

yta

eb

ua

Qu

Q

a yo

qui

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Ri o C h a q i m

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Torontoy

PC Piscacucho

5

3.

4.5

Wayna Q'ente

6

Misccay

Casamientuyoc Mountain

Chillca Sillque Ollantaytambo a 4.5 km

Carpamayo

Llaqtapata

Palomar

Piscacucho

Salapunku

Qoriwayrachina

PC Qoriwayrachina

Wilkarakay

ka

ma

yo

Ri o S i l l q u e

p ac c a hu ana

Ke s

o

am

a

y

PC Wayllabamba

Ri

Río P

nc

a

4 Tres Piedras Wayllabamba

U S C O

h ac

ala

luch

Hu

Llul

Cu

si c

ada

h a up iw a yoq

Rio

ebr

R. C

Rio

Qu

5

12

a

Tunasmoqo Llulluchapampa

Huayanay 5345 msnm

13°20'

Inca Channel

Pampacahuana Huayanay Mountain pass

CUSCO

e .L

ch

erí

a

AYACUCHO

Q

Tocto Mountain pass 3950 msnm

APURIMAC

Protected Natural Areas | PERU 157


last outbreaks of the Inca insurgence, which had its center precisely in the neighboring Vilcabamba Mountains. Little is known about what happened or when the sacking of its treasures took place, because the area was not inhabited by the Spaniards thereafter. Nevertheless, several references in maps and notebooks of travelling scholars reveal that it was not lost, in the strict sense of the word. Following the traces of the last refuge of the Inca rebels in the jungle, the mythical “lost city”, Hiram Bingham arrives to Machupicchu in 1911, led by its humble settlers. Since then and during the next three years, he directs the studies and excavations at the citadel – which included the dispatch of all the archaeological material abroad – and reveals it to the world. The Intihuatana, considered a solar clock, indisputable icon of the Citadel.

population before the Incas, who inhabit it towards the mid-15th century, a time at which the building of Machupicchu begins in that most isolated area. The Incas had inhabited the highest part of the basin for a long time, until they were threatened by the neighboring Chanca nation. In response, the Incas, led by Pachacutec, conquered the Chancas, and the victory was so conclusive that it opened the doors for uncontainable expansion; finally, the Incas became the uncontested lords of the known world. The abundance of buildings used for religious purposes and the fine architecture, apart from some coincidences in the oral traditions and the Spanish chronicles, have led scholars to reaffirm the ceremonial character of Machupicchu, even with the hypothesis that it may have been the last abode of the sovereign (that is to say, for his mummy), who would have ordered its construction. Among the Incas, the mummified sovereigns would receive the same treatment they used to have during their lifetime, which included the reception of tributes as well as participating in the celebrations, being his ph’anaka, or lineage, the one in charge of managing and offering these privileges to the deceased. Machupicchu was abandoned sometime during the 16th century, when the Spaniards managed to extinguish the 158 Official Guide |Southern Mountains

The construction of the railway in 1941 and the creation of the district of Machupicchu give rise to a series of attempts on the natural heritage, which the Archaeological Patronage, the site’s authority since 1945, did nothing to prevent. A team of researchers and authorities, becoming aware of the situation, request the State to protect Machupicchu declaring it Natural Area, something that finally takes place in 1981. FLORA Among the principal species, we can mention: Alder (Alnus acuminata), Toroc (Cecropia tacuna), White Cedar (Cedrela lilloi), Red Cinchona (Cinchona

Sword-billed Hummingbird (Ensifera ensifera).


pubescens), Pacae Blanco (Delostoma integrifolium), Chachafruto (Erythrina edulis), Brazilian Coral Tree (Erythrina falcata), Chachacomo (Escallonia resinosa), Yanay (Nectandra furcata) and Laurel (Nectandra laurel). In the Warmihuañusca Pass, relict woods of Unca (Myrcianthes oreophila), Queñua (Polylepis racemosa) and Th’asta (Escallonia myrtilloides) can be observed. Orchids deserve special mention (with more than 190 species in 30 genders), among of which the Masdevallia veitchiana and the Maxillaria Floribunda stand out. FAUNA The most representative of the area include: Torrent Duck (Merganetta armata), Kalinowski Agouti (Dasyprocta

The Llamas were the only means of transporting loads in such a rough geography.

The Sanctuary is rich in orchids, such as this Wakanki (Masdevallia veitchiana).

kalinowskii), Northern Viscacha (Lagidium peruanum), Ring-tailed Coati (Nasua nasua), White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus peruvianus), Dwarf Brocket (Mazama chunyi), Culpeo (Lycalopex culpaeus), Puma (Puma concolor), Golden-olive Woodpecker (Piculus rubiginosus), Andean Cock-of-the-rock (Rupicola peruviana), Spectacled Bear (Tremarctos ornatus), Condor (Vultur gryphus) and Neotropical Otter (Lontra longicaudis). In the sector of Warmihuañusca, viscachas and deer can be seen and, sometimes, even the Spectacled Bear. HOW TO GET THERE From Cusco, it is necessary to go to the neighboring town of Poroy to take the morning train that will take you directly

to the Town of Machupicchu (Aguas Calientes) in about 4 hours, from where you ascend to the citadel by bus or on foot. You can also take the paved road up to Ollantaytambo and then, take the train as well. Through another route, you can get by road from Cusco, via the pass of Puerto Malaga, Santa Maria, Santa Teresa and Intiwatana, and from there, on foot along the railroad track up to Aguas Calientes. Without a doubt, the best way to get to Machupicchu, for those who venture to do it, is to travel along some of the Inca Roads, and enjoy a more ample vision of the Sanctuary. Cusco has an international airport, and offers a number of daily flights to Lima. By land, you can follow several different routes from Lima, being the paved road that goes through Nazca, Puquio and Abancay, the ideal one. Cusco is also connected by land with Puno, Arequipa and Puerto Maldonado. WEATHER Dry and cold in the high Andean zones; temperate and humid in areas adjacent to the Amazon or “Ceja de Selva”. The temperature fluctuates from 54 °F to 75 °F in the citadel’s zone. The rainy Protected Natural Areas | PERU 159


and to allow the ecosystems to recover. Fees: the entrance to the citadel of Machupicchu in 2009 cost S/. 124.00 and S/.62.00 for students (with proof of status); for the national tourist and locals the fees are promotional, which have to be consulted before the visit. The fees for the Inca Roads long paths are S/.247.00 and S/.124.00 for students, while for the short ones (see attractions), the fees are cut in half. The support personnel (Porters) pay just S/.42.00 in any one of them. Machupicchu Pueblo -Aguas Calientes- at the bottom of the Canyon of the Urubamba River.

season goes from November to March, although fog spells or passing rains are possible throughout the year. RESTRICTIONS The Sanctuary can be visited throughout the year, but it is recommendable to go from May to October, when the weather is not rainy. The Inca Roads can only be traveled by those who contract the services of travel agencies authorized by local officers, following specific regulations and within the established allowance of 500 tourists per day. Therefore, it is recommended to make reservations with the tourist operators several months in advance. In www.sernanpshm.gob.pe a list of authorized operators can be found. Furthermore, the network of roads is closed during February for maintenance

ATTRACTIONS The citadel of Machupicchu is the principal destination for the majority of tourists who visit the country, reaching almost two million visitors per year. The following form part of the Sanctuary: the archaeological complexes of Patallacta, Wayllabamba, Paucarcancha, Runcurakay, Sayacmarca, Phuyupatamarca, Wiñaywayna, Intipata and Intupuku, which are along the Inca Road; Salapunku, C’anabamba, Q’orywayrachina, Q’ente, Wayna Q’ente, Torontoy, Chachabamba, Choquesuysuy and others, are in the valley. The Sanctuary Inca Roads Network has six routes, four long and two short ones listed here in that order: Route 1: Piscacucho (km 82), Cusichaca, Wayllabamba, Wiñaywayna, Machupicchu. Route 2: Q’orywayrachina (km 88), Wayllabamba, Wiñaywayna, Machupicchu.

Tourist destiny of world significance. The visit to Machupicchu will always be an unforgettable experience.

160 Official Guide |Southern Mountains


Route 3: Salkantay, Wayllabamba, Wiñaywayna, Machupicchu. Route 4: Piscacucho (km 82), Q’orywayrachina (km 88), Pacaymayo Bajo, Chachabamba (km 104), Wiñaywayna, Machupicchu. Route 5: Chachabamba (km 104), Wiñaywayna, Machupicchu. Route 6: Salkantay, Q’orywayrachina (km 88).

Wayllabamba,

The most frequently taken, Route 1, in its almost 40 km goes through three mountain crossings or Abras, at an altitude of around 4,000 meters above sea level, from where, if the weather allows it, one gets a spectacular view of the rough and uneven surroundings, between high snow-capped peaks and profound canyons. Getting to Machupicchu on foot, in the same way its inhabitants used to do it, is an experience that cannot be surpassed. NEARBY ATTRACTIONS A list that only included the attractions which Cusco and its surroundings possess could fill several books. Recounting those who are on the route to the Sanctuary and the Sacred Valley, the most important would be Ollantaytambo, a living Inca town, Uchuy Q’osqo, above Calca, the superb stepped hillsides (“andenes”) of Pisac and Moray, the old salt mines of Maras and the picturesque towns of Yucay, Chincheros and Urubamba.

Stone stairway at Q’orywayrachina.

SERVICES WITHIN THE AREA There are seven control posts and entrances for visitors in the sectors of Piscacucho, Q’orywayrachina, Wayllabamba, Pacaymayo Alto, Wiñaywayna, Soraypampa and Intiwatana. Camping areas with restrooms have been designed, especially in Route N° 1 (that takes 4 days and 3 nights), in Wayllabamba, Pacaymayo Alto, Chaquicocha, Wiñaywayna, Q’orywayrachina and Chachabamba, and there is good signaling and indications in all routes. The town of Machupicchu Pueblo or Aguas Calientes, that has been growing uncontrolled in the last decades, offers countless tourist services, in every price scale, including the railway terminal, medical emergency centers, thermal baths, memorabilia, grocery stores, restaurants of all kinds and various hotels. CONTACT INFORMATION A list that only included the attractions which Cusco and its surroundings possess could fill several books. Recounting those who are on the route to the Sanctuary and the Sacred Valley, the most important would be Ollantaytambo, a living Inca town, Uchuy Q’osqo, above Calca, the superb stepped hillsides (“andenes”) of Pisac and Moray, the old salt mines of Maras and the picturesque towns of Yucay, Chincheros and Urubamba. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 161


Ampay | National Sanctuary

"Forest of Intimpas" The main object of conservation in the Sanctuary is a relict forest of intimpas (Podocarpus glomeratus) that grows in the foothills of the snow peaks. *Facilities for tourism

YES

Location : APURIMAC Surface Area

: 3,635.5 ha

Creation Date

: 07/23/1987

Altitude Range

: 2,800 - 5,235 meters

GENERAL OBJECTIVES The main objectives are: To preserve endemic species of flora and fauna, especially the relict of Intimpa (Podocarpus glomeratus), the only South American conifer genus in Peru, which is in danger of extinction; to protect the soil and water resources in the Pachachaca River basin, guaranteeing the stability of the soils and the normal provision of water for human settlements and agriculture development in the lower part of the basin; to preserve the wild species of fauna and flora that constitute valuable biotic potential that could favor the economic growth of the 162 Official Guide |Southern Mountains

region; to preserve and protect the scenic beauty of the zone, its geological, geomorphological and physiographic formations, promoting the development of environmental education, as well as tourism. DESCRIPTION The grounds of the Sanctuary, an isolated component of the Vilcabamba Mountains, is practically a whole steep slope, at the foot of the snow-capped Ampay Mountain, with very few flat zones where some beautiful lakes appear, creating a spectacular landscape. In the southern and lowest section, the majestic forest of Intimpas is found, principal


object of conservation of the Sanctuary. Located just a few kilometers away from Abancay and from the important route between Cusco and the coast, the Sanctuary is very accessible and a very special place for nature tourism.

Intimpa) in the Fog Forest. The forest of intimpas (Podocarpus glomeratus), the most valuable species among the native flora of the Sanctuary, occupies approximately 600 ha. The Lupinus ampaiensis and the Bomarea ampayesana species were found here for the first time.

HISTORY

We also find here: Unca (Myrcianthes oreophila), Chachacomo (Escallonia resinosa), Wancartipa (Randia rotundifolia), Wamaq’ero (Styloceras laurifolium), Chuyllur (Vallea stipularis), Jalasto (Oreopanax ruizii), Siraca (Rubus robustus), T’asta (Escallonia myrtilloides) and Capulipishay (Prunus rigida); edible ferns such as Ullpu (Asplenium squamosum), mosses, lichens and, specially, orchids, with more than 44 species, being the most well known the ones of the Telipogon genus.

Archaeological findings in the zone denominated Abrigo del Ampay and the cave paintings of Parwani are evidences of the zone’s early occupation by huntergatherers. The Chankas developed in the region, after the decadence of the Wari Empire. It seems that the Incas carried out an important resettlement in the area by means of their “mitimaes” system, bringing whole families from coastal regions as far as the south of Ecuador, in order to develop agriculture in this warm valley. Vestiges of their settlements are still found in Tamburco, close to Abancay, a principal Inca center by the Qhapaqñan. After the arrival of the Spaniards, the area was divided into large farms dedicated to the production of wine, sugarcane and, finally, sugarcane spirits, whose owners used the Sanctuary (part of the Patibamba farming estate) as hunting grounds. Early in the 1960s, various studies were made which recommended the protection of its exceptional biodiversity. FLORA Ampay, with its wide range of microclimates, houses a great variety of high altitude vegetation, from rock flora of the Puna (lichens on rocky places), to trees 15 meters high (Chachacomo,

FAUNA Twenty-two species of mammals, belonging to eight families, have been registered. The smallest are the rodents, such as the Montane Guinea Pig (Cavia tschuddi) and the Northern Viscacha (Lagidium peruanum). Among the felines, the Puma (Puma concolor) stands out, and among the herbivores, the Whitetailed Deer (Odocoileus peruvianus) and the Taruca (Hippocamelus antisensis). The most colorful among birds are the hummingbirds, specially, the Sparkling Violetear (Colibri coruscans). There are also, the Apurimac Spinetail (Synallaxis courseni), considered endemic to the region, the Undulated Antpitta (Grallaria

Only the Yareta and the Ichu prosper at such high altitude.

Intimpa comes from the Quechua, Inti (Sun) and Pa (suffix indicating ‘belonging to’). This giant “tree of the sun”, houses within its leafy top, a large number of epiphytes, bromeliads, fuchsias and begonias, with colorful flowers that contrast admirably with the intense dark green of its leaves. Mammals such as the Mountain Cat and the Deer, as well as 161 bird species, 23 of them hummingbirds, inhabit these woods. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 163


64 °F. As you ascend towards the Sanctuary, the temperature drops considerably. In the higher parts, rainfall reaches the 710 mm annually. The rainy season goes from December to March. RESTRICTIONS

The Huillcaqocha Lake (seasonal), at the foot of the Ampay snow peak.

squamigera) and the Andean Goose (Chloephaga melanoptera). Among the insects, the Wayt’anpu (Metardaris cossinga) stands out, a daylight butterfly used as food in some Andean villages. HOW TO GET THERE You can get to Abancay from Lima following the route to Nasca and Puquio (1,027 km) by a paved road, and from Cusco (that has an airport), via Limatambo (198 km and about 4 h). From Abancay, there is a 5 km dirt road that takes you to the entrance to the area, where the Visitors Center is found, as well as the beginning of the pedestrian route that goes up to the snow-capped Ampay Mountain. WEATHER The temperature is temperate in the city of Abancay, with an average of

It is recommendable to visit the Sanctuary during the dry season, from May to October. All expeditions and visits should register their entrance with the area headquarters. Entrance Fees in soles: Under 5 and above 65 years: Free. 5 to 15 years: S/3 (one day), S/6 (three days). Adults: S/10 (one day), S/20 (three days). ATTRACTIONS All places are accessible on foot, in a few hours and along well signaled routes. Laguna Chica or Ankasqocha, called like this for being a resting place for birds or “ankas”, is found surrounded by the Intimpa forest, which gives it a special atmosphere. There is, as well, Uspaqocha Lake or Laguna Grande, with its beautiful and peculiar shape, like a volcanic cone. The Intimpa forest, the largest in the country and the more relevant attraction in the Sanctuary, has a large diversity of flora and fauna, ideal for a photographic safari. The snow-capped Ampay, one of the main natural attractions in the area, is located on the northeastern end, where its two peaks stand out covered with perpetual snows. It has caverns with stalactite and stalagmite formations and, at its foot, three other small

In spite of its steep sides, the top of the Ampay is quite easy to climb.

164 Official Guide |Southern Mountains


72°55'

National Sanctuary

Tambobamba

que Q. Muña

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13°30'

Huanipaca

Ampay Choquequirao 32 km

Lake Isujcocha

A P U R I M A C BUFFER ZONE

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10

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1.8

Chalhuanca 107 km

Sonbrerunioc Mountain

Sim ple

Q. U rpayh uayco Q. Truji pata

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Pachachaca Bridge Andahuaylas 136 km

Aysar Condor Mountain

1 Tamburco

Molinopata

16

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CUSCO

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13°40'

5

Sulluhuilco Mountain

4.7

2.

16

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Ampay Lake Tornoqocha Pucatoroyoc Mountain Rititakana Mountain pass Lake Lake Uspaqocha Huillcaqocha AMPAY NATIONAL Q’elloccasa Mountain SANCTUARY

Q.

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Yanajajayoc Mountain

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Marancarayoc Mountain

qoc ha

Scale km 0 72°55'

seasonal lakes. It is appropriate for practicing amateur mountaineering, and on its west flank, rock climbing is practiced as well. The Phacchaqpata Waterfalls, fed by the waters of the Yuraqrumi Lake -on the eastern part of the Sanctuary, with access through Q’erapata- have 2 falls more than 20 meters high each, and their beauty is enhanced by the surrounding vegetation they water as they fall. The Sanctuary has three natural lookout points: Chuyllurpata (at 3,150 meters above sea level), Condortiana (3,250 m) and Accoccasa (3,450 m), this last one with the best views.

2

APURIMAC AYACUCHO

4 72°50'

SERVICES WITHIN THE AREA Existe un Centro de Visitantes en el principal ingreso al area. CONTACT INFORMATION Sede administrativa del area protegida: Prolg. Cusco 923, Urb. Las torres, Abancay, T. 321232/RPM#523508; snampay@sernanp.gob.pe

NEARBY ATTRACTIONS Saywite and its famous sculpted stone are found very close to Abancay, on the road to Cusco, and from this zone you may access, via Cachora, to the spectacular archaeological site of Choquequirao. Limatambo completes the Inca archaeological circuit in the region.

The Laguna Chica or Ankasqocha Lake, surrounded by the Intimpa forest. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 165

13°40'

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Cachora

13°35'

Chillca

N


Pampa Galeras - Barbara D' Achille | National Reserve

"Vicuñas’ refuge" A symbol of the beauty and strength of the Andean world, the vicuña remains wild and free in Pampa Galeras. *Facilities for tourism

YES

Location : AYACUCHO Surface Area

: 6,500 ha

Creation Date

: 05/18/1967

Altitude Range

: 3,990 - 4,160 meters

GENERAL OBJECTIVES

DESCRIPTION

The National Reserve of Pampa Galeras - Barbara D’Achille as a tribute to the disappeared conservationist journalist. It was created on the high and cold punas of the rural community of Lucanas and a considerable number of other rural communities live in its area of influence. The vicuña is the most representative and numerous species in Pampa Galeras and its protection and conservation motivated the creation of the National Reserve. Another important species is the Guanaco, which, like the Vicuña, is also found here in the wild.

The National Reserve of Pampa Galeras was established in 1967, and the name was modified in 1993 and renamed as

The largest population of vicuñas of the country and the world is concentrated in such a small space and

The main objective in Pampa Galeras is the conservation of the Vicuña (Vicugna vicugna), a native species of wild fauna, allowing its sustainable management for the economic benefit of the High Andean communities with the intention of giving them a better quality of life, as well as the conservation of the other natural resources of wild flora and fauna in the area.

166 Official Guide |Southern Mountains


in highly adverse conditions, including archaeological vestiges that give testimony to this ancient husbandry in the area. Because it possesses wild flora and fauna species of great importance for the region, and also because it is close to the Nazca Lines as well as in the tourist corridor to Cusco, Pampa Galeras may find in tourism its best ally in favor of conservation. HISTORY In Pampa Galeras, as in the rest of the Andes, the South American Camelidae was always a source of wealth for its ancient inhabitants. They provided a number of benefits: meat, leather, fibers for textiles, manure for the soil and fuel. In order to assure these resources, the species were domesticated, and they managed to produce two species, the Llama and the Alpaca. The large flocks of wild and domesticated South American Camelidae, which during the Inca Empire spread all over the Tawantinsuyo -there were about 1.5 million vicuñas in the early years of the Spanish Conquest, according to some historians-, were later replaced by introduced herbivores (sheep), and they were slaughtered in great number, leading them to their current degree of dispersion. The National Reserve of Pampa Galeras was established based on a Cooperation Agreement subscribed between the Lucanas community and the Peruvian government with the purpose of protecting and preserving the Vicuña in the place where the largest known population existed, becoming, in this

way, a source for repopulation for other zones of the country since the late sixties. This recovery was confirmed by the two official censuses in 1994 and 2000, which corroborate that the national population of vicuñas doubled, from 66,559 to 118,678 specimens, a growth rate led by Pampa Galeras. This recovery was possible thanks to a number of legal measures, agreements between Andean countries and the adhesion to international agreements, such as CITES; in addition to the inclusion of local farming organizations in the activities of conservation, management and use of the vicuña, recognizing their rights over the Camelidae that live in their communal lands and allowing its economic exploitation within a special legal framework; and also, to the consolidation of the vicuña fiber market, after several decades of prohibition, with accepted prices, becoming increasingly widespread in the exclusive world of international Haut Couture. FLORA Regarding wild flora, 80 species have been registered, among which stand out, for their beauty, the Puya (Puya raimondii) and, in the stony valleys, the relict forests of Queñua (Polylepis sp.) and Quishuar (Buddleia sp.). The characteristic vegetation in the Reserve are the scrubfields, made up of several species of Poaceae, such as the Festuca sp., Stipa ichu, and Calamagrostis sp., that are part of the High Andean grasslands. These

Pampa Galeras leads the great recovery of the vicuña population of the last decades.

Garcilaso de la Vega, in his Royal Commentaries of the Incas, tells us: …a solemn hunt, which…. they called chaco… The number of Deer, Roe Deer and Red Deer,….was very large, over 30,000 and 40,000 heads, a beautiful thing to see and which caused great rejoice….The coarse wool of the guanacos was distributed among the common people, and the wool of the vicuñas, for being greatly appreciated and due to its finesse, was all for the Inca... Protected Natural Areas | PERU 167


November to March, with precipitations between 300 and 600 mm. RESTRICTIONS The Reserve may be visited throughout the year, but it is recommended to go during the dry season, from April to November. ATTRACTIONS

A young and gracious Northern Viscacha (Lagidium Peruanum).

plants grow in large disperse groups, among which species such as the Tola (Lepidophyllum quadrangulare) and the Senecio sp. predominate. FAUNA Apart from the Vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) and the Guanaco (Lama guanicoe), the Taruca (Hippocamelus antisensis), the Culpeo (Lycalopex culpaeus), the Northern Viscacha (Lagidium peruanum), the Common Opossum (Didelphis marsupialis) and the Long-tailed Weasel (Mustela frenata agilis) are found. Among the 20 species of existing birds in the Reserve, the most representative are: the Condor (Vultur gryphus), the Chilean Flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis), the Ornate Tinamou (Nothoprocta ornata) and the Puna Tinamou (Tinamotis pentlandii). In the aquatic environments, the Yellow-billed Pintail (Anas georgica) and the Yellow-billed Teal (Anas flavinostris) stand out.

In the chaccu ceremony, hundreds of people enclose a great zone, and gradually reducing the circle, they urge on the vicuñas towards conic “trap sleeves”, gently giving security and comfort to the specimens, while they pick them one by one in order to shear their precious fiber. These traditional ceremonies -there are about 900 in the whole country, carried out between May and November- have their peak in the one that takes place on the 24th of June in Pampa Galeras every year, and which is a wonderful spectacle. There are three circuits that have been implemented: The first one takes you from the camp to the pre-Inca houses and traps for capturing vicuñas; another one takes you to the caves where you can watch cave paintings; a third one, to the area of the Polvorin, to watch the

HOW TO GET THERE The Reserve is found at the side of the South Inter-Oceanic Highway, at km 89 of the Nasca-Cusco sector, 530 km away from Lima, 45 km from Lucanas and 95 km from Puquio. WEATHER The weather is frigid, with an average temperature of 43 °F, which can reach 23 °F in winter. The rainy season goes from 168 Official Guide |Southern Mountains

The local population is dedicated to the production of vicuña wool.


Pallpo Ri o Putitanja

N

Rio

HUANCAVELICA

Mountain

National Reserve

I

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AYACUCHO

Pampas Galeras Barbara D' Achille

ICA

Santiago Achalla de Vado Mountain

Ayacucho 307 km

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Q. L la

17

Tastayoc Mountain

14°45'

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A Y A C U C H O

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PAMPA GALERAS BÁRBARA D’ACHILLE NATIONAL RESERVE

Jechaorjo Mountain

4

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m

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Jo San

Huayllapata Hill

R

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Puquio 16 km

Sanayorjo Mountain

Campground

Pampa hu asi

San Juan

Condorcencca

14

Azul Orjo Mountain

Morrollullucha Mountain

74°15'

guanacos. Two more circuits are about to be implemented: From the camp to the Puya forest (Titankapampa) and another one to the Turpoccocha Lake. NEARBY ATTRACTIONS If you come from Lima, the Nazca Lines is a destination you cannot miss, as well as the city and its surroundings. On the way to Cusco, Puquio has a beautiful lake and good restaurants. SERVICES WITHIN THE AREA If you come from Lima, the Nazca Lines is a destination you cannot miss, as well as the city and its surroundings. On the way to Cusco, Puquio has a beautiful lake and good restaurants. CONTACT INFORMATION Administrative headquarters of the protected area: Av. Bisambra n/n, Nasca, (Agencia Agraria de Nasca office), Tel: (056) 522 770 / (01) 968 218 447.

In Pampa Galeras, the largest chaccu of vicuñas in the country takes place. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 169

14°45'

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Minaschayoj Mountain


Sub Cuenca del Cotahuasi | Landscape Reserve

"The Great Canyon" Two condors (Vultur gryphus), emblematic bird of the Andes, soaring majestically between the peaks. *Facilities for tourism

YES

Location : AREQUIPA Surface Area

: 490 550 ha

Creation Date

: 05/27/2005

Altitude Range

: 950 - 6,093 meters (Solimana’s Peak)

GENERAL OBJECTIVES The Reserve aims at the preservation of biological, cultural and landscape diversity, as well as of its various ecosystems, within the parameters of a harmonious relationship between the economic activities of the population and the natural resources, encouraging the sustainable development of the Cotahuasi basin, which constitutes a sample of the biological diversity of the Western Andes. DESCRIPTION Cotahuasi, the largest protected area of the Peruvian Sierra, has one of the 170 Official Guide |Southern Mountains

deepest and most beautiful canyons in the planet, origin of the second most important river in the coastal zone of Peru, the Ocoña River. This impressive canyon, fruit of millions of years of fluvial and aeolian erosion, extends from the hillsides of the Solimana snowy mountain up to the confluence of the Ocoña River, reaching a depth of 3,500 meters in the sector of Ninacocha. A Tourist Reserve Zone since 1988, in the Canyon’s surroundings there are temples, archaeological zones and extensive and ancient “andenes” (some 12,000 ha), which demonstrate the creativity of its native population to adapt to its rough


but beautiful geography, harmoniously preserving the ecosystems. The subbasin, which practically covers Arequipa’s province of La Union, also stands out for its fascinating and rich biological diversity, associated with the High Andean wetlands, with endemic species that have not been protected in other areas, abundant species that are scarce in the National System or new registers that widen their distribution. Since the zone has become a highly appreciated destination for nature and adventure tourism, the inhabitants of Cotahuasi, who since immemorial times and in relative isolation have privileged sustainability in their relationship with the earth, now commit themselves to sharing their extraordinary wealth with us. HISTORY A transit area for more than 10,000 years for hunter-gatherers, as is shown by the existing cave paintings, the zone was later occupied and it developed on its own, including the andenes systems, all along the pre-Columbian era, with two great exceptions: during the Wari dominion, between the 8th and 10th centuries, which was less determining, and during the Inca rule, which marked a great change starting in the middle of the 15th century. After overcoming the sustained defense of the town of Alca, an event that people still remember in the basin, the Incas built here one of their most important roads to the coast and to its special resources, making use of the resources of the zone as well, and erected a ceremonial center in Cahuana and an administrative center in Maukallacta.

Already in Republican times, Orbegozo rewards the local loyalty to his cause when he becomes President, and raises La Union to the category of Province. FLORA The Reserve registers 108 species of flora which are endemic to the country: Jara Jarul (Abutilon arequipense), Tarasa Herb (Tarasa marinii), Chavelina (Malesherbia angustisecta) and Lupine (Lupinus paruroensis), among others. There are wild species inhabiting at altitudes between 3,900 and 5,000 meters above sea level, such as the: Yareta (Azorella compacta), Sasawi (Leucheria daucifolia), Huamanripa (Senecio violaefolius) and Poposa (Xenophyllum poposum), which are used in traditional medicine. Others species are used to build houses in the high lands: Jarava Ichu (Stipa ichu), mixed with clay, and Kishuar (Buddleia incana) for the beams. The Queñua forests (Polylepis sp.), which are used as firewood and for construction, are usually found in association with other species like T’asta (Escallonia myrtilloides), K’olle (Buddleia coriacea) or Toqare (Gynoxis longifolia). In the rocky hillsides, the Puya or Titanka (Puya raimondii) is found and in the Andean Wetland, the Tola (Parastrephia lucida and Baccharis tricuneata) stands out. FAUNA In the Reserve, 211 vertebrate species have been reported, 158 sp of birds,

River erosion has modeled the abrupt landscape of the Reserve to a great extent.

The Andean Mountain Cat, known also as Titi, inhabits the Andean heights from the center of Peru up to Argentina and Chile. It has a gorgeous appearance, tabby, and with a long cylindrical furry tail tainted with dark rings, which doubles its length. A sacred animal for some ancient cultures and of practically unknown habits, it is seriously endangered due to poachers and the loss of its habitat. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 171


and Puma (Puma concolor). Among the herbivores, there are the Vicuña (Vicugna vicugna), the Guanaco (Lama guanicoe) and the Taruca (Hippocamelus antisensis). HOW TO GET THERE

In Cotahuasi, the harmonious and millenarian relationship between man and the land is protected.

33 sp of mammals, 7 sp of amphibians, 8 sp of reptiles and 5 sp of fish. At different altitudes, different fauna can be observed; from 900 to 3,400 meters above sea level, the endemic Blacknecked Woodpecker (Colaptes atricollis) and, from that altitude up, the Andean Flicker (Colaptes rupicola); the Variable Hawk (Buteo polyosoma), registered between 1,200 and 3,300 meters above sea level, in its turn is replaced by the Puna Hawk (Buteo poecilochrous) found at altitudes that go from 3,500 to 5,000 meters above sea level. A species that is not found in any other protected natural area is the White-bellied Fat-tailed Mouse Opossum (Thylamys pallidior) and, in only a few, the Slender-billed Finch (Xenospingus concolor). Worth mentioning is the presence of three species of flamingos (Phoenicoparrus andinus, P. jamesi and Phoenicopterus chilensis), and of carnivorous mammals such as: the Andean Mountain Cat (Leopardus jacobitus), Culpeo (Lycalopex culpaeus)

The road that connects the Reserve with the rest of the country starts off from the Panamericana Sur (km 900), running as a paved road up to Aplao and Chuquibamba, and continues as a packed dirt road up to Cotahuasi. WEATHER The weather is different at different altitudes, and goes from the very dry and semi-warm of the coastal desert, to frigid at the altitude of the perpetual snows, passing through temperate in the low Inter-Andean valleys and frigid in the dry high mountain tundra. ATTRACTIONS There are several attractions: Huanzococha, Paniura y Apalcocha Lakes, which have complex and fragile ecosystems; the Waterfalls of Sipia, with an impressive fall of 150 meters height, the ones in Oskune with an 80 meters fall, and others; cave paintings, archaeological Inca sites and earlier ones, and numerous irrigation channels that complement the impressive “andenes” system. There are about 200 thermal springs (almost each town has one), with temperatures between 77 °F to 200 °F, being the one at Luicho the most visited and with good infrastructure.

The imposing Coropuna snow peak -which rises above the 6,400 meters above sea level, neighboring the Reserve- stands out in the icy landscape of the Reserve.

172 Official Guide |Southern Mountains


73°00'

14°30'

Cotaruse

Chalhuanca 82 km

Puquio 172 km

72°30'

Mollebamba

N

Landscape reserve

A P U R I M A C

Sub Cuenca del Cotahuasi

APURIMAC

Huamanrripa San Diego

AYACUCHO

Lake Huacullo

Tranca

Crespo Lake Collpa AREQUIPA

A Y A C U C H O

SUB CUENCA DEL COTAHUASI LANDSCAPE RESERVE Lake

Coracora a 72 km

ru

Lake Machucocha

Puyca Marcani

Alca

Ayahuasi Taurisma Luicho Mungui Tomepampa San Jose Charcana de Ushua Sipia Cotahuasi Waterfall Toro Corculla Velinga Sayla 6

Oyolo

Caylloma 70 km

Quinsapuquio

Chilcaymarca Rio Andahu

30

0

otahuasi R io C

73°00'

Camana 188 km

35

Andagua

Coropuna

Camana 242 km

72°30'

Orcopampa

a

A R E Q U I P A

Salamanca Chichas

Escribano Mountain Valle de los Volcanes

Chachas Scale km 0

6

12

Near the Village of Ocoruro, there are small volcanoes and geysers bubbling at more than 122 °F. The scenic beauty includes, apart from the panoramic views from high lookout points, snow peaks such as the Solimana and the Firura, or the Cordillera del Huanzo, with several peaks. There are, also, the rock formations of Huico and of SantoSanto, with more than 5 km of rocks eroded by the wind; the “rodales” of puyas in Huaynacotas and Puyca, or in Lauripampa and Tauna, where they are protected by the local population, and the “rodales” of column like cactuses in Quechualla; the forests of Queñua in Andamarca, Sayla, Puyca, Toro and Cahuana, and much more. NEARBY ATTRACTIONS The beautiful Parinacochas Lake in Ayacucho, and the neighboring and related Canyon of Colca, in Arequipa, may complete a circuit full of nature and living history.

15°00'

jo O

Hualhuac Huaynacotas

Tauria

15°30'

Ri o Lake .Llanajille

50

Colta

Maukallacta

15°30'

15°00'

Runtuyoc Mountain Lake Huanza

ro

Ecma

Adventure sports attract experienced tourists to the impressive Waterfalls of Sipia. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 173


Salinas y Aguada Blanca | National Reserve

"Under the Protection of the Volcanoes" The flamingos or parihuanas (their Quechua name), visiting the shallow saline waters that abound in the Reserve. *Facilities for tourism

YES

Location : AREQUIPA and MOQUEGUA Surface Area

: 366,936 ha

Creation Date

: O8/09/1979

Altitude Range

: 3,500 - 6,075 meters (Chachani’s Peak)

GENERAL OBJECTIVES Its mission is to guarantee the conservation of natural and landscape resources and to propitiate the rational use of the renewable natural resources. It also intends to promote tourism and the social and economic development of the neighboring population. DESCRIPTION The Reserve is characterized by the presence of the majestic volcanoes Ubinas, Pichupichu, Misti and Chachani towards the southwest and the snow peaks Chuccura and Huarancante to the north. The high-Andean plains, 174 Official Guide |Southern Mountains

sprinkled with gorgeous lakes and wetlands, complete the icy landscape in most of its territory, which is mainly inhabited by South American camelids and a great number of land and aquatic birds, as certified by its designation as RAMSAR site, since 2003. Salinas y Aguada Blanca was initially conceived as a place for the protection of vicuĂąas, but nowadays, it is also the principal water reserve for the city of Arequipa and its surroundings. This singular ecosystem provides a valuable and irreplaceable environmental service: the winds coming from the high plains of Bolivia and Puno provoke rain, snow and hail between October and April,


which are retained by the Andean scrubfields, totorales, yaretales and Que単ua forests, saving the moisture in the wetlands and lakes, as well as in the subsoil, from where it is later slowly released along the year, thus regulating the hydrological cycle for the benefit of the local communities. All these characteristics, added to its capricious rock formations, its archaeological sites, the rich living culture of its current inhabitants and its easy accessibility, make the Reserve one of the more valuable protected natural areas in the country. HISTORY Nomadic hunters and gatherers started traveling across the Reserve 10,000 years ago, leaving vestiges such as the ones in the Mollepunco, La Pulpera, Sumbay and Tarucani caves, where paintings similar to those at Toquepala are found. In time, these groups became established in the zone, originating the first forms of domestication of wild camelids. In the 12th century, the Collagua settled in Cabana, Yanque, Lari and Sumbay. They appear as a group that separated itself from the Lupaca of Lampa, after the Wari influence declined. It was very difficult for the Incas to conquer them, who finally seal an alliance by a marriage between their rulers. Herding activity increased and the definitive domestication of Llamas and Alpacas was achieved.

in San Juan de Tarucani and San Antonio de Chuca), have inherited and maintained a vision of the world highly linked to nature and the balance of all its elements. Its economy, based in the herding of camelids, provides them with meat and fibers for their use and trade. These people keep alive the Yanapacuy, the Ayni and the Minka, systems of reciprocal help between communities and people, apart from the knowledge and use of medicinal plants. FLORA The local flora is basically constituted by herbaceous and bush species, with just one arboreal species; it includes 358 plant species, which correspond to 155 genera, 47 families, 31 orders, 4 classes and 3 divisions. Among the principal vegetable associations, starting with the most extensive, we have: Puna scrubfields or Andean tall grass fields, covering almost 70% of the area, desert and tola scrublands, 25%, and Andean wetlands, yaretales and Que単ua forests, in the remaining 5%. FAUNA The vertebrates are represented by 207 species, from which 37 are mammals and 158, birds. The reptiles are represented by 5 species, amphibians, by 4 and fish, by 3. The herbivores characteristic of Puna fauna are the South American camelids:

The current population of the Reserve (some 3,000 people, mainly settled

The Salinas Lagoon and the Ubinas Volcano stand out in the high Andean landscape of the Reserve.

Some 3,850 guanacos live in our country, from the coastal desert up to the cold and humid High-Andean zones. They are branch eaters and, preferably, grazers, even though they can eat roots and subterranean stems, and even drink sea water, thanks to their highly efficient digestive system. Unlike the highly protected Vicu単a, the guanacos manage to survive precariously, and are endangered due to poachers and to the deterioration of their habitat. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 175


the Control Post of Cañahuas, 80 km (on the route to Colca), to San Juan de Tarucani, 100 km (on the old road to Puno), and 160 km to San Antonio de Chuca. Arequipa has an airport with several daily flights to Lima, and regular public bus services connect it with the rest of the country. WEATHER

The Common Snipe (Gallinago gallinago) acquires the colors of the Andean grass.

the domesticated Llama (Lama glama) and Alpaca (Lama pacos), and the wild Vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) and Guanaco (Lama guanicoe), this last one scarce in number and in critical situation in the Reserve, where only some 150 specimens are found. There are also Taruca (Hippocamelus antisensis) and Northern Viscacha (Lagidium peruanum). The carnivores are Puma (Puma concolor), Andean Mountain Cat (Leopardus jacobitus), Colocolo (Leopardus colocolo) and Culpeo (Lycalopex Culpaeus). Among the resident birds, the Andean Goose (Chloephaga melanoptera) that is found in large numbers, Andean Crested Duck (Lophonetta specularioides alticola) and flamingos (Phoenicoparrus andinus, P. jamesi and Phoenicopterus chilensis) stand out.

The average temperature is very low, ranging from 35 to 46 °F. Wide fluctuations take place, between day and night, or exposed to the sun or in the shade. The average annual rainfall is 200 to 600 mm, 65% of it falling mainly from January to March. Throughout the year, it can frost, reaching -4 °F. ATTRACTIONS

HOW TO GET THERE

The Reserve has a good network of roads permitting access to a large part of the protected natural area, like its surrounding circuit, where you can appreciate its principal attractions: the Chachani, Misti, Pichupichu and Ubinas volcanoes, the Salinas Lagoon, the Pampa del Confital, the rock formations of Mauca-Arequipa, or the ones at Pillones and Puruña in Pampa Cañahuas; the Laguna del Indio, the cave paintings of Sumbay, various extensive wetlands, volcanic craters like Chuccura, and thermal springs like Umalaso; apart from a vast network of rivers and streams, where diverse ecosystems, with their characteristic fauna and flora can be observed.

From the city of Arequipa to the control post of Salinas, there are 79 km, to

It also offers the possibility to practice adventure sports, as far as they are

The Common Snipe (Gallinago gallinago) acquires the colors of the Andean grass.

176 Official Guide |Southern Mountains


Tuti

71°35'

Valley Colca

Pallamallo

Ccanasata

Coporaque

Yanque Achoma

N

Quenco Achoma

CHIVAY

National Reserve

Pasma

Salinas y Aguada Blanca

A R E Q U I P A Patapampa

Chalhuanca

59

Pampa de Tocra

Tocra

Juliaca 153 km Lakes Lagunillas

Lake El Indio Dique Los Españoles

40

Chalhuanca Crossing

Imata AREQUIPA

Vizcachane

16°00'

El Confital

Sumbay

Tambo T A C N A Cañahuas

30

Pillones

Patahuasi 52

Quiscos

Alto Pati

Puruña Rock formations

Environmental Police

El Frayle Dam

Chachani

Tarucani

C Rio

AREQUIPA Uchumayo Tiabaya

48

Aguada Blanca Dam

i h il

Tambo de Ají

Charcani Grande

Misti Volcano

Salinas Salinas Huito

R

Chiguata Sabandia 71°30'

io A n

ayo da m

57

Picchu Picchu Scale km Volcano

Huito Lake Salinas

6

12

Mosopuquio

Ubinas Volcano

Sta. Lucia de Salinas

Apacheta Chica

Ubinas

Salinas Moche

0

Lake Coline

Patimayo Bridge

SALINAS Y AGUADA BLANCA NATIONAL RESERVE

Yura

Toroya

16°00'

36

Sumbay

MOQUEGUA

Imata Rock formations

San Antonio de Chuca

Pillones Rock formations

Logen 71°00'

Matalaque

SERVICES WITHIN THE AREA There is an Interpretation Center in Tocra and Control Posts in Salinas Huito and Cañahuas. Along the paved road that crosses the Reserve, one can find basic food services, basic grocery stores and police patrolling. CONTACT INFORMATION Interpretation Center of the Reserve, in Tocra.

compatible with the protection of the Reserve, such as trout fishing during the authorized period, mountaineering on the spectacular volcanoes, biking and trekking.

Administrative headquarters of the protected area: Los Jazmines 119, Urb. Primavera, Llanahuara, Arequipa, Tel.: (054) 257 469 / (01) 968 218 456.

NEARBY ATTRACTIONS These are, mainly, the lovely city of Arequipa, with its elegant architecture and its gorgeous countryside, and the spectacular tourist destination which is the Colca Canyon, to which one accesses through the Reserve.

Local people working in the extraction of salt in Salinas. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 177


Titicaca | National Reserve

"Inland sea" The emblematic Titicaca Grebe (Rollandia microptera), a protected bird in the National Reserve. *Facilities for tourism

YES

Location : PUNO Surface Area

: 36,180 ha

Creation Date

: 10/31/1978

Altitude Range

: 3,810 meters (Historical level of Titicaca)

GENERAL OBJECTIVES The Reserve’s main objectives are the preservation of the wild flora and fauna of Titicaca Lake, to support the local socioeconomic development and to preserve the cultural traditions of the population living in the vicinity of the Lake and to promote recreational activities in the natural environment. DESCRIPTION Lake Titicaca has a total of 8,600 km2, of which more than half belongs to Peru. Three zones are acknowledged: The Lago Mayor or Chucuito Lake (the area 178 Official Guide |Southern Mountains

with the greatest depth: 283 meters), the Lago Menor or Wiñaymarca Lake and the Bay of Puno. It has five principal tributaries: the Ramis, Huancane, Coata, Ilave and Suches Rivers. Its only discharge is through the Desaguadero River, but only 9% goes to it, the rest is lost by evaporation. The temperature of its waters varies from 52 to 57 °F. The Reserve is located in the waters of Lake Titicaca, in two sectors that do not have physical continuity: 1) The Ramis Sector, with 7,030 ha, in the Province of Huancane, which includes a zone of “totoral” and a pelagic zone on the right banks of the Ramis and Huancane


Rivers, and the Yaricoa and Sunuco Lakes on the left bank of the Huancane River. 2) The Puno Sector, with 29,150 ha, in the Province of Puno, with “totorales” between the Estevez Island and the Capachica Peninsula. The floating islands of the Uros are inside the protected area, as well as adjacent to it; many are prepared to receive visitors and other small ones are only used for housing. Nowadays, the Uros are dedicated to tourism and the handicrafts business, activities which they have added to traditional fishing and hunting -preserving their ancestral link with the Lake’s natural resources-, their islands are one of the places with more potential for tourism in the Reserve. The rural communities, who have been reinforcing their organization with Conservation Committees, have volunteer Park Rangers who are in charge of the orderly use of resources and give support in surveillance and control, reporting to the Community Assembly and informing the area’s personnel. The whole Peruvian side of the Lake received the RAMSAR site designation, especially as a habitat for aquatic birds, in January 1997, and the following year the Bolivian side received it also. Puno, the entrance door to the Reserve, set in a unique and marvelous landscape, is nowadays the second tourist destination in the country. HISTORY When talking about Titicaca, we are talking about the rich cultural tradition of one of the places where agriculture

had its origin in the Andes, a place where camelids were domesticated and important crops such as Potato, Quinua and Cañihua were developed. The region had outstanding historical periods with Pucara (400 BC - 600 AD) and Tiwanaku (200 BC - 1,200 AD). Later, the kingdoms of the high Andean plateau flourished (1,200 AD - 1400 AD), and were considered rich even in Colonial times, due to the abundance of camelids and to the access they had to resources from different ecological zones in the coast and in the highland tropical rainforest. And, finally, the emergence of the Incas, who were bound to the Lake by oral tradition, as their place of origin or Pakarina, which explains the great importance they gave to the Islands of Titicaca and Coati (of the Sun and of the Moon) as worship places. The Lake divided the Qhapaqñan, coming from Cusco, forcing it to run along its two opposite shores, by the routes of the Omasuyo (east) and Urcosuyo (west), towards the south. The human group that apparently resisted being assimilated to these strong civilizing currents, sticking to their own culture -which is still reluctant to be properly defined-, inhabit nowadays the Reserve, floating on their totora islands: the Uros, the “water people”. The “totora” ecosystem on the shores is very fragile. If the water level rises, it drowns the coming shoots and big lumps of vegetation get dislodged, as was the case in 1986 and 1987. Likewise,

The highest navigable lake in the world, a very singular habitat.

In Peru, there are three species of Flamingoes or Parihuanas: Andean (Phoenicoparrus andinus), James’s (P. jamesi) and Chilean (Phoenicopterus chilensis), being this one the most abundant in the Reserve, as well as in the coast. Of gregarious habits, even for the mating dances, the flamingo feeds in shallow and saline waters, from microorganisms which it filters thanks to its beak and tongue, which has specialized membranes and protrusions.” Protected Natural Areas | PERU 179


the Totora (Schoenoplectus tatora), an emerging species, also classified as belonging to the Scirpus genus. Adding both sectors, the Reserve covers approximately 27,600 ha of “totorales”.

The planting of totorales assures the provision of this useful resource for the local population.

if the water level falls due to little rainfall or drought, it leaves immense areas of totorales exposed and in dry land, thus exposed to grazing, burning and desiccation, as it happened between 1995 and 2000 and from 2007 to 2008.

The Totora has enormous social, economic and ecological importance. The tender Totora is used as fodder for livestock of all kinds, including camelids, and it is considered the basic food for livestock in the lakeside zone. When it is well grown, it is dried in the sun to be used as raw material for handicrafts, the construction of boats of different sizes, mattresses or “quesanas”, huts and for building the floating islets of the Uros, because its crisscrossing rhizomes in time form a compact floating structure called “quilli”, on which they live. Furthermore, the neck or sprout of the Totora, called “chullo”, which is the basal portion of the stem, is used for human consumption, as well as the rhizomes or “sak’a”.

FLORA In the area of the Reserve and its surroundings, a total of 171 flora species have been found, out of which 15 genders and 21 species are aquatic and semiaquatic vegetation. The most conspicuous is without doubt

The “siji llacho” is used as fodder for livestock.

The Totora, its extraction, and one of the many final products. 180 Official Guide |Southern Mountains

Among other abundant species, similar to the Totora, there is the Juncus articus. The principal submerged species, rooted at the bottom, locally named “llachos”, are: Yana Llacho (Elodea potamogeton), Hinojo Llacho (Myriophyllum elatinoides) and Siji Llacho (Potamogeton strictus and Zannichellia palustris). There are also free-floating species, such as the Water Lentil (Lemna gibba), abundant in eutrophic waters, and the aquatic fern (Azolla filiculoides) which looks like floating rugs of redish-green coloration.


70°00'

Chupa

Sicuani 197 km

N

Arapa

National Reserve

4

Titicaca

Lake Huecare

18

Lake Titihue

Rio Ram is

18

Lake Collpacocha Acopata Pampa

Lake Pucacocha

26

Saman

5

Rilipunta

RAMIS SECTOR Rio Anta

oR amis

PUNO

Jatunisla Punta Cururuni

10

AREQUIPA

MOQUEGUA

Lake Titicaca

5

18

15

18

22

Leque Pampa

Pusi

5

Punta Acoisla 15°30'

Carcajachi Mountain

JULIACA

15°30'

Lake Yaricoa Lake Sunaco

Caminaca

Cusco 310 km

Conima 73 km Lake Huinihui

ét

Lake Uyasi

Taraco Ri

Rio Huancan

15°15'

P U N O

Lake Cancollachi

Huancane Lake Cupisco

15°15'

Lake Arapa

R io

ra po Co

a ta

o

18

3

Caracoto

Coata

Segna Mountain

Rio Co j

14

ela

8

que

7

Huata

Lake Quivillaca

Carata Mocco

12 Crucero Pampa RZ FF E BU

Capachica

RY DA UN BO E 12 ON

Ticonata Island Pucará Pampa

TITICACA NATIONAL RESERVE

Rio Ilp a

9 Sillustani 15°45'

Allan Island

PUNO SECTOR

ic a ch pa Ca

Atuncolla

Uros floating islands

Pe nin su

Yapura

la

Lake Cupecocha

Paucarcolla

Huerta Huaraya

21

Arequipa 274 km

PUNO

Foroba Island Uros floating islands

3

6

Conraya Mountain

Chu cui to

Esteves Island

Scale km 0

Lake Titicaca

a sul nin Pe

Rio Totora ne

Viscachane Mountain

Moquegua 240 km

Juli 63 km 70°00'

Chilata Island Quipata Island

15°45'

21

C Rio

9

Incasaya Pampa


local population, mainly by the Uros. Other species are used for medicinal purposes, like the Puna Ibis (Plegadis ridgwayi) and the Chilean Flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis), considered to be on its way to extinction.

The Puna Ibis (Plegadis ridgwayi), inhabitant of the totorales.

FAUNA There are 159 registered fauna species, out of which 15 are mammals, 105 are birds, 9 are amphibians and 4 are reptiles; there are more than 26 fish species as well. The most representative fauna of the Reserve are the birds, among which the endemic Titicaca Flightless Grebe (Rollandia microptera) stands out, which is seriously endangered by indiscriminate hunting and by the presence of fishing nets in its habitat. The Andean Coot (Fulica ardesiaca), the Common Moorhen (Gallinula chloropus) and wild ducks (Anatidae) have economic importance because they are consumed by the

Other birds have economic importance because they are considered plagues for agriculture, as the Yellow-winged Blackbird (Agelaius thilius), or biological weather indicators, like the Andean Lapwing (Vanellus resplendens) and the Wren-like Rushbird (Phleocryptes melanops). The Many-coloured RushTyrant (Tachuris rubrigastra) that lives in the totorales is a very beautiful bird. Among the amphibians, there is the famous giant Titicaca Water Frog (Telmatobius culeus), known as kelli or huankele, an endemic species which lives mainly in the depths of the Lake. The native ichthyofauna is constituted by some endangered species, such as Boga (Orestias pentlandii), Suche (Trichomycterus dispar) and Mauri (Trichomycterus rivulatus); together with species that are considered already extinct, like the Titicaca Orestias (Orestias cuvieri). Nowadays, the native species in major demand are the Carachis (Orestias agassi, O. luteus and O. ispi); of these, the first two inhabit in the totorales

The Titicaca is one of the sunniest places in the planet; even when cloudy, in some corner the sun comes through.

182 Official Guide |Southern Mountains


HOW TO GET THERE The Ramis sector is reached from Puno via Juliaca and Taraco, by paved road. The Puno sector is reached by boat from the Port of Puno; there are frequent services that take you to the Uros islands in about 20 minutes. Puno is accessed by several roads, all of them paved: From Cusco (394 km) and from Arequipa (294 km), connected also by railway (384 km and 258 km respectively) with renewed service. From Tacna, one can get to Puno via Moquegua (300 km). Bolivia is Puna teals in flight over the great Lake.

and in submerged macrophytes and the last one, in the pelagic zone and in deep channels. The introduced species that have even higher commercial value are the Rainbow Trout (Oncorhyncus mykiss) and the Pejerrey (Basilichthys bonariensis), also the main cause for the population decrease of native species. The Uros are traditionally bird hunters and egg harvesters, for commercial ends as for their own consumption, and they sell the surpluses at the markets of Puno and Juliaca. Bird hunting is in the process of being regulated through management plans and its illegal practice constitutes a real threat. An Uro settler cruising in his “caballito de Totora�.

also connected to Puno from La Paz by a paved road that goes through Desaguadero. The neighboring Juliaca (42 km) has an airport and daily flights to Cusco, Arequipa and Lima. Finally, Puno is a lake port and connecting Bolivia (Copacabana, Puerto Perez) and all the islands of the Lake. WEATHER From January to April, the weather is temperate and rainy; from May to August, very cold and dry. From August to September, there are strong winds, and from September to December, it is temperate and dry. Annual average rainfall is 1,400 mm. The Lake works as a thermoregulator for the zone that surrounds it, producing humidity and warming it. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 183


The Uros receive many visitors in their floating islands, to whom they offer their hospitality and colorful handicrafts.

RESTRICTIONS Visiting during the dry season, from April to November, is recommended, although in February, apart from visiting the area, one can attend the Festivities of the Candelaria. Fees in Soles: (Puno sector only) S/5, charged by the Uros; this income is not for the Reserve Administration. ATTRACTIONS Among its attractions are the enjoyment of the splendid scenery, recreation and birdwatching, and the possibility of appreciating the different cultural expressions of the

local population. Between April and September, the lake level is the best for optimum sailing in the protected area, with clear and sunny days, and from September to December, a greater number and variety of birds can be observed, especially migratory ones. From the 2nd to the 18th of February, the Festivities of the Virgin of the Candelaria take place (in the city of Puno), one of the most important cultural and religious manifestations in the country. Three circuits have been considered for the visits (still in process of being established), all of them in the Puno sector: The Huilli River tourist circuit,

The Titicaca is like a large Totora farm, a home to important biodiversity.

184 Official Guide |Southern Mountains


which starts at the Community of Huerta Huaraya and continues southwards towards the Uros’ Islands, a quite visited place. The tourist circuit of Carata Mocco, special for birdwatching, where the sighting of the Titicaca Grebe is guaranteed. The tourist circuit of Yapura, considered for aquatic adventure. One can navigate aboard small vessels, following a lake path through the Totorales with the help of a local guide, in order to observe the birds and the floating islands of the Uros, who are very traditional.

colonial churches. And, if time allows it, getting to know the islands of the Sun and the Moon, on the Bolivian side of the Lake, would make up for the long trip.

NEARBY ATTRACTIONS In this part of the Lake there are several islands, beautiful and worth visiting, among which Taquile and Amantani stand out, with rural tourist services run by local communities, as well as Suasi, with private tourist services. On land, there are a great number of places surrounding the Lake that are historically and culturally interesting; among these, there are some recent communal initiatives: In the Capachica Peninsula, there are Llachon, Yapura, Paramis and Ccotos. In the Chucuito Peninsula, Karina and Luquina Chico are found, this last one with excellent services. More distant, but highly recommended are Cutimbo, Chucuito and Sillustani, archaeologically interesting, and Juli, Pomata and Zepita, for their lovely

This immense inland sea has been the epicenter of one of the most important origins of the Andean culture.

SERVICES WITHIN THE AREA There is an Interpretation Center in the island of Foroba and a small center in the Huerta Huaraya community, both 10 minutes away from the city of Puno, by road. The Reserve also has three Control Posts in the island of Foroba, in Carata Mocco and in Yapura. In Carata Mocco there is a camping zone among the islands, with restrooms. In the islands of the Uros there is access to tourist services such as lodges, boat renting, food stands, the totora and loom handicrafts, restrooms, etc. CONTACT INFORMATION Administrative headquarters of the protected area: Pasaje Dos de Febrero 154, Puno, Tel. (051) 368 559 / (01) 968 218 451. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 185


SERVICES Phone Area Codes: Ayacucho (066), Apurimac (083), Arequipa (054), Cusco (084), Puno (051) HOTELS Ayacucho: ***Ayacucho Hotel Plaza; 9 de Diciembre 184, T. 310222; www.bookingbox.org/ hotelplaza/index.php **Ya単ez; Mariscal Caceres 1210, T. 314918; www.bookingbox.org/hotelyanez/ espanol.html **San Francisco de Paula; Callao 290, T. 312353; www.hotelsanfranciscodepaula. com/ **Santa Rosa; Lima 166, T. 314614; www.hotel-santarosa.com/pagina1024x768.htm **Santa Maria; Arequipa 320, T. 314988; www.jianhoteles.com.pe/ayacucho.html **Sierra Dorada; Urb. Mariscal Caceres, Manzana I Lote 21, T. 319639; www.sierradorada.com.pe/hotel.php **Marques de Valdelirios; Bolognesi 720, Cercado, T. 318944 **El Meson; Arequipa 273, Cercado, T. 312938; www.hotelesinperu.com/hospedaje/elmeson/hmeson.htm Andahuaylas: **Imperio Chanka; Cesar Vallejo, 384, T. 423065 **Encanto de Apurimac; Juan Antonio Trelles 157, T. 423527; www. encantodeapurimac.com/ **Sol d e Oro; Juan Antonio Trelles 164, T. 421152; www.soldeorohotel.com. pe/ Apurimac: ***Turistas de Apurimac; Diaz Barcenas 500, T. 321017; www.hoteldeturistas.com/ apurimac.html **Tampumayu; Carretera Nasca - Cuzco Km. 361, T. 523490; www.hoteltampumayu. com/esp/index.html Arequipa: Ver costa Sur Cusco: ***Libertador; Plza. Santo Domingo 259; T. 231961; www.libertador.com.pe/hotel_destino.php?hotel=3&destino=2 ***Monasterio; Palacio 136 (Plza. Las Nazarenas), T. 241777; www.monasterio.orient-express.com ***Jose Antonio; Pardo 1080, T. 239030; www.hotelesjoseantonio.com/ ***Novotel; San Agustin 239, T. 581030; www.novotel. com/es/home/index.shtml ***Picoaga; Santa Teresa 344, T. 252330; www.picoagahotel.com/ ***Casa Andina Private Collection; Plazoleta Limacpampa Chico 473, T. 232610; www.casa-andina.com Urubamba: ***Sol y Luna Lodge & Spa; Urubamba 069, T. 201620; www.hotelsolyluna.com/ ***Casa Andina Private Collection; Valle Sagrado Quinto Paradero Yanahuara, T. 984765501; www.casa-andina. com Machupicchu: ***Sumaq Machupicchu; Hermanos Ayar, Manzana 1 Lote 3, Machupicchu Pueblo; T. 211059; www.sumaqhotelperu.com ***Inkaterra Machu Picchu Pueblo Hotel; Machupicchu Pueblo, T 245314; www.inkaterra.com/en/machu-picchu Puno: ***Casa Andina Puno Plaza; Grau 270, T. 367520/ Casa Andina Private Collection Puno; Sesquicentenario 1970, Sector Huaje, T. 363992/ Casa Andina Puno Tikarani; Independencia 143, T. 367803/ Casa Andina Private Collection Suasi Island; Isla Suasi, T. 95131007; www.casa-andina.com ***Eco Inn; Chulluni 195, Barrio Nueva Esperanza, T. 2431273; www.peruhotelsguide.com/hotel/eco-inn/en/ ***La Hacienda; Deustua 297; T. 365134; www.lahaciendapuno.com/ ***Sonesta Posada Del Inca Lago Titicaca; Sesquicentenario 610, Sector Huaje, T. 364111; espanol.sonesta.com/LakeTiticaca ***Libertador Isla Esteves; Isla Esteves - Lago Titicaca s/n, T. 367780; www.libertador.com.pe/ ***Casona Plaza; Arequipa 655, T. 365614; www. casonaplazahotel.com Chucuito: **Las Caba単as; Tarapaca 153, T. 351276; www.chucuito.com/ RESTAURANTS Ayacucho: Pollos y Parrilladas Nino; 9 de Diciembre 205, T. 438192; www.bookingbox.org/ nino/espanol.html Sierra Dorada; Urb. Mariscal Caceres, Manzana. I Lote. 21, T. 319639; www. sierradorada.com.pe Ni単achay; 28 de Julio 178, Interior 112; T. 313832; www.bookingbox.org/esninachay.html Pizzas Pastas Antonino; Cuzco 144, T. 315738; www.bookingbox.org/antonino/index. html Los Alamos; Cusco 215, T. 312782; www.bookingbox.org/losalamos/espanol.html La Colmena; Cusco 140, T. 311348 El Monasterio; 28 de Julio 178, T. 312353 Tradicion; San Martin 406, T. 812595 Las Flores; Jose Olaya 106, T. 316349 Urpicha; Londres 272, T. 813905 Puquio: La Estancia; Cristobal Colon 109, T. 452087 Apurimac: Puma de Piedra; Los Sauces, 327, Barrio Pochccota, T. 421100 Flores; Huanuco 259, T. 724549 Don Diego; Circunvalacion s/n; T. 322287 Grauino; Arenas 206, T. 322133 Andahuaylas: Complejo Turistico Familiar Huallpar; Huallpar 124, T. 725604 El Roble; Juan Antonio Trelles 264, T. 423331 La Casona; Ramon Castilla, T. 421230 Arequipa: Ver costa Sur Cusco: Pachacutec Cusco; Portal de Panes 105, Plaza de Armas, T. 245041; www. cuscoperu.com/pachacutec Blue Berry Lounge Bar; Portal de Carnes 236, T. 249458; www. cuscorestaurants.com/ El Truco; Regocigo 299, T. 232441; www.cuscoperu.com/eltruco Pacha Papa; Plaza San Blas 120, T. 241318; www.cuscorestaurants.com Map Cafe; Plaza Nazarenas 231, T. 262992; www.cuscorestaurants.com Inka Grill; Portal de Panes 115 Plaza de Armas, T. 262992; www. cuscorestaurants.com/ Restaurante Paititi; Portal Carrizos 270, Plaza de Armas, T. 252686; www. restaurantpaititi.com/ El Indio Feliz Restaurante Bistro; Yupanqui 4 Manzana 12, T. 211090; www. indiofeliz.com/espanol/contact.html Puno: Mojsa; Lima 635, T. 363182; www.mojsarestaurant. com/ Puno Plaza; Puno 419, Plaza de Armas, T. 364239; www.punoplaza.com/Bar-Restaurant-PunoPlaza-Hotel.html Los Portales; Puno 521, T. 363928; www.hellopuno.com/losportales Balcones 186 Official Guide |Southern Mountains


de Puno; Libertad 354, T. 365300; www.balconesdepuno.com La Choza de Oscar; Libertad 354, T. 351199; www.lachozadeoscar.com Casa Grill La Estancia; La Libertad 137, T. 365469; www. hellopuno.com/casagrill Cusicuna; Infancia 430, T. 242917 Pizzeria del Buho; Lima 453, T. 356223 Internacional; Lima 347, T. 363955 La Barca; Arequipa 754; T. 364210 Pizzeria Apu Salkantay; Lima 347, T. 363955 TOURISM/TRAVEL AGENCIES Ayacucho: Willy Tours; 9 De Diciembre 107, T. 314075; www.wilytours.com/ Oli Tours; Via de Evitamiento, los Artesanos, Manzana B Lote 10, T. 318019; www.sisi.com.pe/olitours/index.html Viajes y Turismo Ayllu Tours; Los Andes, Manzana H Lote 13, T. 317520 Apurimac: Agencia de Viajes Oreon; Ricardo Palma 330; T. 422877 Arequipa: Ver Costa Sur Cusco: Inkanatura Travel - Cusco; Ricardo Palma J-1, T. 243408; www.inkanatura.com.pe Aqp Servicio Integral de Viajes; El Sol 864; T. 243918; www.saaqp.com.pe Condor Travel Cusco; Saphy 848, T. 225961; www.condortravel. com Adventure World; Prolg. El Ejercito 253, T. 243692; www.adventureinca.com Explorer's Inn; Plateros 365, T. 245342; www.explorersinn.com Qori Travel Service; Heladeros 157, T. 233077; www. goritravel.com Sky Viajes y Turismo; Ancha de Santa Catalina 366, T. 240141; www.skyperu.com Caiman Manu; Garcilaso 210, T. 254042; www.manucaiman.com Andean Adventures; Manzana 13 Lote E, T. 263498; www.andeanadventuresperu.com Andean Explorers; Triunfo 338, 2º Piso, T. 242975; www.andeanexplorerscusco.com T Y G Travel; Plateros 365, T. 241969; www.tgtravelperu. com Andina Travel Treks & Eco Adventure; Santa Catalina 219, T. 251892; www.andinatravel.com Peruvian Explorer, Manzana B Lote 2, T. 275701; www.peruvianexplorer.com Puno: Allways Travel; Tacna 234, T 355552 www.titicacaperu.com/es/ Quipus Travel; Moquegua 218; T. 363381; www. quipustravel.com/ Nayra Travel; Lima 419 Oficina 105, T. 364774; www.nayratravel.com/ Amaru Tours; Tarapaca 260, T. 353112; www.amarutours.com/ Balsas Tours; Tacna 240, T. 364362; www. balsastours.com/ Edgar Adventures; Lima 328, T. 369927; www.edgaradventures.com/ Kafer Viajes y Turismo; Arequipa 179, T. 354742; www.kafer-titicaca.com/ Kolla Tours; Moquegua 679, T. 369863; www.titikakakolla.com/ Kontiki; Melgar 188, T. 353473; www.kontikiperu.com/avance/ Titikaka Adventures; Lima 208 (Galeria Camino Real), T. 367404; www.titikakaadventures.com/ EMERGENCIES Health: Ayacucho: Sub Region de Salud Ayacucho; Independencia 355, T. 812180 Hospital de Apoyo de Huanta, Mariscal Castilla 616, T. 321030 Hospital de Apoyo San Francisco, Huanta s/n, San Francisco, Ayacucho, T. 835103/835202 Puquio: Hospital de Apoyo Puquio; Jhon Kenney s/n, T. 452225 Abancay: Hospital Regional Guillermo Diaz de la Vega; Daniel A. Carrion s/n, T. 322247 Chalhuanca: Hospital de Apoyo Nº 3 Chalhuanca, Plaza De Armas s/n, T. 320299 Andahuaylas: Hospital Subregional Chanka, Hugo Pesce 180, Andahuaylas, T.7211020/722545 Arequipa: Ver Costa sur Cusco: Hospital Regional; De la Cultura s/n, T. 223691 Centro Medico Municipal; Micaela Bastidas s/n, Wanchaq, T. 224272 Sicuani: Hospital de Apoyo Sicuani; Urb. Manuel Callo Zevallos, T. 351020 Puno y alrededores: Hospital Regional Manuel Nuñez Butron; El Sol 1022, T. 369286/351021/352931 Hospital Carlos Monge Medrano; Carretera Huancane km. 2, Juliaca, T. 321901/321131/325327 Hospital de Apoyo Juli de Puno; Juli 470, Chucuito, T. 854121 Hospital de Apoyo Ilave; Atahualpa s/n, Ilave, T. 852041 Hospital Lucio Aldazabal; Pauca, Santa Cruz s/n, Huancane, T. 866131 Hospital de Apoyo Yunguyo, Lima 938, Yunguyo, T. 856317/856318/856057 Police: Ayacucho: Comisaria de Ayacucho; 28 de Julio 325, T. 812332 Policia Nacional de Turismo; Dos de Mayo 100 Comisaria Huamanga, Grau s/n, T. 319466 Comisaria Huanta, San Martin 601, T. 332072 Puquio: Comisaria Puquio, Tacna 657, T. 452195 Abancay: Comandancia General de la Policia Nacional del Peru, Lima 1000, T.321094 Comisaria de Abancay, Puno s/n, T. 321222 Andahuaylas: Comisaria de Andahuaylas, Peru 198, T. 721671/721054 Arequipa: Ver Costa sur Cusco: Policia de Turismo; Ovalo de Pachacutec, Sotano del monumento a Pachacutec, T. 249654 Comisaria Aeropuerto de Cuzco; Aeropuerto, T. 247727 Comisaria Cusco; Shapi 510, T. 249659 Comisaria San Jeronimo; Manco Capac Cuadra 1, T. 277396 Comisaria Espinar; Hector Tejada 102, T. 434878 Machu Picchu: Comisaria Machupicchu; Imperio de Los Incas s/n, T. 211178 Ollantaytambo: Comisaria Ollantaytambo; Plaza de Armas s/n, T. 204086 Urubamba: Comisaria Urubamba; Palacios s/n, T. 201092 Sicuani: Comisaria Sicuani; Pumacahua 240, T. 351080 Juliaca y alrededores: Comisaria de Juliaca, San Martin con Ramon Castilla, T. 324795 Comisaria Aeropuerto de Juliaca, Aviacion s/n, T. 322905 Comisaria de Ayaviri, Cuzco y Dos de Mayo, T. 300945 Comisaria de Lampa, Miguel Rios s/n, T. 9928054 Puno: Region Policial XII; Puno; T.353988 Policia de Turismo; T. 364806 Comisaria de Puno; El Sol 450, T. 337555 Yunguyo: Comisaria Yunguyo, Junin / Audiner, T. 302207 Protected Natural Areas | PERU 187


OF INTEREST Ayacucho y alrededores: Museo de Arte Popular "Joaquin Lopez Antay"; Portal Union, Plaza Mayor Museo Historico "Andres Avelino Caceres"; 28 de Julio 508, T. 818686 Museo Historico Regional Ayacucho "Hipolito Unanue"; Independencia 502, Complejo Cultural Simon Bolivar, T. 312056 Centro de Informacion; Dir. Regional de Comercio Exterior y Turismo, Asamblea 481, T. 812548 Oficina de Informacion Turistica de la Municipalidad, Plaza de Armas Servicio de Informacion al Turista de PromPeru; Apto. Coronel FAP Alfredo Mendivil Duarte, Del Ejercito 950 Correos: Asamblea 295, T. 812224 Museo de Sitio de la Pampa de la Quinua; Plaza Principal de Quinua s/n Museo de Sitio de Wari; Carretera a Quinua Km.25, Pacaycasa Apurimac: Museo Arqueologico y Antropologico del Instituto Nacional de Cultura; Prado 310, T. 324116 Centro de Informacion; Dir. Regional de Comercio Exterior y Turismo, Arenas 121, T. 321664 Servicio de Informacion al Turista de PromPeru, T. 2249355 Correos: Arequipa 213, T. 321088 Andahuaylas: Museo del Instituto Nacional de Cultura; Ricardo Palma 445, Centro Civico Anton Spinoy, T. 722642 Correos: Peru 243, T. 721062/721120 Arequipa: Ver Costa Sur Cusco: Museo Cusicancha; Maruri s/n, Cusco, T. 234441 Museo de Arte Contemporaneo; Palacio Municipal, Plazoleta del Regocijo, T. 240043 Museo de la Catedral; Plaza de Armas, T. 222781 Museo de San Jeronimo; Casa Cabildo, Plaza de San Jeronimo, T. 223245 Museo del Convento de La Merced; Plazoleta Espinar, Mantas, T. 231821 Museo del Convento de Santa Catalina; Santa Catalina 190, T. 226032/223245/228613 Museo del Convento de Santo Domingo, Qoricancha; Plaza de Santo Domingo, T. 222071 Museo del Instituto Americano del Arte; El Sol, Galerias Turisticas Museo Historico Regional del INC (Casa Garcilaso); Garcilaso y Heladeros s/n, T. 223245 Palacio Arzobispal; Los Herrajes, T. 225211 Museo Inca de la Universidad Nacional San Antonio Abad, Cuesta del Almirante, T. 237380 Museo de Sitio de Pikillacta, Km. 32 Cusco - Puno, T. 223247 Centro de Informacion; Dir. Regional de Comercio Exterior y Turismo, De la Cultura 734, Tercer piso, T. 263176 Oficina de Informacion Turistica; Portal Mantas 188, T. 26-3176 Servicio de Informacion al Turista de PromPeru; T. 2249355 Correos; El Sol 800, Cusco, T. 224212/248352 Urubamba: Museo de Sitio de Chinchero, Plaza de Armas de Chinchero, T. 223245 Machupicchu: Museo de Sitio de Machupichu, Sitio Arqueologico MachuPicchu, T. 239137 Puno y alrededores: Museo San Juan de Letran y Templo de la Asuncion; Juli 325, T. 368278 Museo de Sitio del Complejo Arqueologico de Cutimbo; Complejo Arqueologico de Cutimbo, T. 368279 Museo Litico de Pukara; Plaza de Armas de Pukara, T. 368280 Centro de Informacion: Dir. Regional de Comercio Exterior y Turismo, Ayacucho 682, T. 351261 Servicio de Informacion al Turista de PromPeru; T. 2249355 Correos: Moquegua 269, T. 351141 TRANSPORTATION By Buses: Cruz del Sur; Mcal. Caceres 1264, T. 812813, Ayacucho/ Diaz Barcenas 1158, T. 382863, Abancay/ Pachacutec 510, T. 248255, Cusco/ El Sol 568, T. 352451, Puno; www.cruzdelsur.com.pe/ Tepsa; Esquina Juan Pablo Castro con Pachacutec, T. 324863, Abancay/ Terminal Terrestre Oficina 152, T. 224534; Pachacutec 510 Wanchaq, T. 253954, Cusco; www.tepsa.com.pe Orme単o; Terminal Terrestre, ovalo de Tio, Cusco/ Mantaro 229, Juliaca, Puno; www.grupoormeno.com.pe/home.php Cial; Terminal Terrestre, Alameda Pachacutec, Manzana B Lote 2, T. 243669, Cusco/ Primero de mayo 730, T. 367821, Puno; www.expresocial.com Civa; Mariano Melgar 389, T. 365882, Puno; www.civa. com.pe Expreso Los Chankas; Mariscal Andres A. Caceres 921, T. 812391, Ayacucho/ Malecon Grau 248, T. 722441 Abancay Empresa Transportes San Jeronimo; Arenas 214, T. 323910, Abancay Carhuamayo; Terminal Terrestre Teatro, C-8 s/n, T. 237144, Cusco Transporte Wari; Industrial 251, Terminal Terrestre, T.247217, Cusco JULSA; Mantaro s/n, T. 368133, Puno By Air: Lan; El Sol 627 B, T. 2138200, Cusco/ San Roman 125, Juliaca, T. 367227, Puno; www.lan.com Star Peru: El Sol 627 Ofic. 101, T. 234060, Cusco; www.starperu.com/ Lc Busre; 9 de Diciembre 161, T. 316012, Ayacucho; www.lcbusre.com.pe/

Gray Lizard

188 Official Guide |Southern Mountains

Airports: Ayacucho: "Coronel FAP Alfredo Mendivil Duarte Ballon", Del Ejercito 950, T. 312418/317701 Apurimac: Aeropuerto de Huancabamba, Carretera Andahuaylas-Huancabamba km 15, T. 571533 Cusco: "Alejandro Velasco Astete", Velasco Astete s/n , San Sebastian, T. 222601

Marvellous Spatuletail(Loddigesia mirabilis)


Northern Rainforest

1

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Gueppi-Sekime NP Pucacuro NR Ichigkat Muja Cordillera del Condor NP Santiago Comaina RZ Tuntanain CR Allpahuayo Mishana NR

7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Pacaya Samiria NR Cordillera de Colan NS Alto Mayo PF Matses NR Sierra del Divisor RZ Cordillera Azul NP Rio Abiseo NP

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5 9

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Gueppi-Sekime | National Park

“Triborder Tropical Forest” The beautiful Rainbow Boa (Epicrates cenchria), of nocturnal habits, shows colorful reflections in the light of the sun or the photographer’s flash. *Facilities for tourism

Location

: LORETO

Surface Area

: 203,628.51 ha

Creation Date

: 10/25/2012

Altitude Range

: 114 - 160 meters

GENERAL OBJECTIVES The main objective is to protect the landscape and ecosystem diversity of the Napo and Japura-Negro Ecoregions and the species living in them, especially the endangered and endemic ones, and those that have suffered strong pressure on their population levels, allowing the natural development of their biological processes. DESCRIPTION The landscape in Gueppi-Sekime –the northernmost of all the areas in the National System, barely some kilometers away from the Equatorial Line- is a mosaic of low hillocks and wetlands. Its 190 Official Guide |Northern Rainforest

NO

importance for conservation, apart from the so-called Pleistocene Napo-Putumayo Refuge which borders on the southern part of the area, is due to the fact that, according to The Field Museum, it is the richest in species of the planet regarding several biological plant, fish, amphibian, reptile, bird and mammal groups. The zone of greater endemism is the one between the basins of the Lagartococha, Aguarico and Napo Rivers; which is also a migration route for birds and a transit route for large animals, with complex hydrobiological ecosystems. A very important ecosystem in the zone is the black waters system, with wetland aquatic and herbaceous vegetation formations.


The area has neighboring indigenous Secoyas, Kichwas and Huitotos communities, which are the reason for the creation of two Communal Reserves in the Park’s original territory, reducing this last one to its most deserted zones. The fragile survival of the traditional communities is endangered by the illegal exploitation of timber-yielding and hydrobiological forest products and migrant agriculture that devastates great forest areas, carried out by the ever-growing populations of colonists, who have different customs and interests. The protected area may help to alleviate this unbalance, in benefit of the communities and of the conservation of the area’s rich biodiversity. HISTORY The nearby Napo River had a prominent historical role when Francisco Orellana and his soldiers (initially accompanying Gonzalo Pizarro and then on their own) crossed the area in 1542, downstream, to discover the great Amazon River, in one of the most fantastic discovery trips in South American history. The fabulous account of the journey was the origin of the myth of the Amazons (ferocious, tall and white women, against whom they supposedly fought) and a valuable register of how developed and populated the zone was, at that time. A military and religious mission went upstream the Aguarico River in 1636 in order to establish a “reduction” for the Secoya natives, and founded San Pedro de Aguarico and the Reduction of San Miguel, south of the current settlement of Pantoja.

border confrontations that, happily for all concerned, ended decades ago. The Gueppi Reserved Zone, created in 1997 with 625,971 ha, was modified in 2012 to give rise to the current National Park and to the Communal Reserves Airo Pai (247,887.59 ha) and Huimeki (141,234.46 ha), the first one, in sustainable benefit of the Secoya ethnic group, and the second, in benefit of the Kichwas and Huitotos. COMMUNITIES The presence of Kichwa indigenous communities in the basins of the Aguarico, Lagartococha and Angusilla Rivers (Napo River’s basin), and of the Secoya-Pioje and Huitoto in the Putumayo’s basin, dates back to preColumbian times (1,500 to 2,000 years ago). The Kichwa communities have indirect influence in the Aguarico Napo basin, and the others influence directly the Putumayo zone and the micro-basins of the Yuvineto, Angusilla, Yaricaya and Peneya Rivers, forming 23 communities in all that base their existence in a traditional harmonic coexistence with nature. Also, five larger populated centers: Pantoja, Soplin Vargas, Tres Fronteras, El Estrecho and Santa Clotilde hold relatively recent mestizo populations, of diverse origin. FLORA Until now, 1 400 plant species have been reported, as well as a genus that is new

The most important historical facts of the last century mainly refer to the

In the jungle of Gueppi-Sekime, there are numberless lakes and water mirrors, like the one shown in the photo.

The Jaguar or Otorongo -from the Quechua uturunku- is the king of the Amazonian jungle. At the top of the food chain (it has no predator), this solitary and expert hunter has such a powerful jaw that its more conspicuous relatives, the lion and the tiger, would envy it. In spite of its magnificence, modern man and uncontrolled growth threaten it with extinction. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 191


sabalo (Brycon sp.), Barred Sorubim (Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum) and dorado (Pseudoplatystoma rousseauxii); among the mammals: Puma (Puma concolor), South American Tapir (Tapirus terrestris) and Humboldt’s Woolly Monkey (Lagothrix lagotricha); Harpy Eagle (Harpia harpyja), Festive Amazon (Amazona festiva), Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao), Blue-and-yellow Macaw (Ara ararauna), Spix's Guan (Penelope jacquacu), Wattled Guan (Aburria aburri) and Mealy Amazon (Amazona farinosa), among the birds; and Black Caiman (Melanosuchus niger), Cuvier's Dwarf Caiman(Paleosuchus palpebrosus), Yellow-footed Tortoise (Geochelone denticulata) and Mata Mata (Chelis fimbriata), among the reptiles.

The Common Potoo (Nyctibius griseus), camouflaged, as if it were just another branch.

to science, of the Violaceae family, and 4 new species: Banara sp. (Flacourtiaceae), Mollinedia sp. (Monimiaceae), Vitex sp. (Verbenaceae) and Columnea sp. (Gesneriaceae). Species that stand out are: Kapok Tree (Ceiba pentandra), Spanish Cedar (Cedrela odorata), Tornillo (Cedrelinga catenaeformis), Leche Caspi (Couma macrocarpa), Granadillo ( Platymiscium dimorphandrum ), Bloodwood (Brosimum rubescens), Azucar Huayo (Hymenaea oblongifolia), Moena (Aniba sp.), Rosewood (Aniba rosaeodora), and a diversity of palm trees like the Aguaje (Mauritia flexuosa). FAUNA The following have been reported: 184 fish species, 46 large mammal sp., 437 bird sp., 48 reptile sp. and 59 amphibian species. Species in vulnerable condition stand out: Jaguar (Panthera onca), Amazonian Manatee (Trichechus inunguis), Spectacled Caiman (Caiman crocodilus), Amazon River Dolphin (Inia geoffrensis), Giant Otter (Pteronura brasiliensis), Charapa Turtle (Podocnemis expansa), Yellowspotted River Turtle (Podocnemis unifilis), Wattled Curassow (Crax globulosa) and Paiche (Arapaima gigas), this last one with a rare distribution, due to isolation. The following fish are also found: Gamitana (Colossoma macropomum), 192 Official Guide |Northern Rainforest

HOW TO GET THERE Starting from Iquitos, it takes 8 days going by boat along the Napo River and 22 days along the Putumayo River, and there is no regular boat service. Hiring a plane or hydroplane (express) to go up to Pantoja or Soplin Vargas may cost $2,500 dollars for 4 passengers, or 500 kg. WEATHER The weather is tropical humid, with precipitations that go from 3,000 to 4,000 mm. ATTRACTIONS Gueppi-Sekime has great potential for the development of nature and experiential tourism. In the black water lakes, very rich in hydrobiological resources, one can

The innocent Yellow-footed Tortoise (Geochelone denticulata) suffers persecution in the whole Amazonia because of its meat.


National Park

Gueppi-Sekime

observe shore birds and parrots, as well as Black Caiman, Amazonian Manatee and Paiche. The landscape around the lakes is impressive, and it is there that the collpas are found, as well as in the lakes of the Lagartococha, Angusilla and Peneya Rivers. NEARBY ATTRACTIONS

Fronteras and basic lodging in Soplin Vargas. CONTACT INFORMATION Administrative Headquarters of the protected area: Jorge Chavez 930942, Iquitos, Tel. (065) 223 555 / (01) 968 218 474.

The two neighboring Communal Reserves, Airo Pai and Huimeki, are a good alternative. From Gueppi-Sekime, one can also visit the Cuyabeno Fauna Production Reserve in Ecuador, with tourist infrastructure in Cuyabeno and Laguna Grande; following the Napo River, one gets to Roca Fuerte, and along the Aguarico, one gets to Lago Agrio, from where one can go to Quito. In the Putumayo’s basin, one can visit La Paya National Natural Park in Colombia, and get up to Puerto Leguizamo. SERVICES WITHIN THE AREA There is a surveillance post in Lagartococha, an airport at Tres

Tres Fronteras. This photo was taken from Peru, and it shows Ecuadorian territory in the center and Colombian territory in the background. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 193


Pucacuro | National Reserve

“Evergreen Forest” A region of high humidity such as Pucacuro is densely populated by amphibians, such as this Hypsiboas geographica, frequently seen on trees. *Facilities for tourism

Location

: LORETO

Surface Area

: 637,953.83 ha

Creation Date

: 10/23/2010

Altitude Range

: 151 - 287 meters

GENERAL OBJECTIVES The National Reserve was created with the aim of protecting a representative sample of the Moist Forest in the Napo Ecoregion and the Napo Endemic Center, as well as protecting the riverheads of the hydrographic basin of the Pucacuro River and guaranteeing the continuity of processes which generate goods and environmental services, and values provided by ecosystems associated to it. DESCRIPTION The basin of the Pucacuro River, northern tributary to the Tigre River -which, in 194 Official Guide |Northern Rainforest

NO

turn, is tributary to the Marañon River-, is constituted by the Panayacu Ravine and the Aleman, Baratillo and Tangarana Rivers. The Pucacuro basin is in the heart of the denominated “Ecoregion of the Moist Forest of Napo”, one of the most important zones in the world for the preservation of biodiversity because of its exceptional wealth of species and endemism. In the basin’s area, 40 cochas or lakes with great icthyological diversity are found, originated by the meanders made by rivers of narrow course, which are enclosed between terraces and frequently flooded. The principal ecosystems present here are the Moist Forest with hills and low terraces, Moist Forest with high stalks, Moist Forest


with seasonal floods or “tahuampas”, and Swamps of palm trees where the “aguajales” predominate. The area is exceptionally rich in fauna, above all, in species of economic and scientific interest that have already been decimated or become extinct in other more accessible areas. The latest studies in the area have shown a great diversity of species, in particular, bird and primate species, this last group being probably the largest in the country. HISTORY The history of Pucacuro is the same as in the rest of the Amazon: an unbalanced relationship of exploitation and extermination, which has brought about the drastic reduction of ethnic groups that were counted in thousands in pre-Columbian times, now reduced to a very small number, many of them displaced and on the verge of disappearing. In the Reserve there are no settlements, although the presence of an ethnic group called Kichwa, already integrated to society, is found to the south of the area, and the Arabela, another ethnic group, is found to the north, adjacent to the basins of the Napo and Curaray Rivers. Traditionally, the mid and lower basin of the Pucacuro have been the fishing and hunting grounds (for subsistence) of a native community called “28 de Julio” and other neighboring ones. In 1943, the district of Intuto was created in the lower basin of the Pucacuro, the most populated area adjacent to the Reserve. The activities in the hydrocarbon lots in

the protected area, pre and post the establishing of the same, for the time being are just for exploration. FLORA In the National Reserve, 246 species of plants have been registered, including six species in vulnerable condition, as the Rosewood Tree (Aniba rosaedora), six others which are almost endangered, such as the Kapok Tree (Ceiba pentandra) and Chuchuwasi (Maytenus macrocarpa), and two palm trees (Euterpe catinga and Astrocaryum urostachys), of which the first is endemic and the second has not been registered in other protected areas. FAUNA Even though the register is incomplete, a total of 1,060 species have been reported, including 77 mammals, 452 birds, 69 reptiles, 91 amphibians, 145 fish and 226 Lepidoptera. Among them, 30 have been reported as endemic to the Napo Ecoregion. In Pucacuro there are viable populations of wild fauna species which have already disappeared or are quite scarce in other areas of the region, particularly White-fronted Spider Monkey (Ateles belzebuth), whose population is the largest in the country, Giant Otter (Pteronura brasiliensis), Salvin's Curassow (Mitu salvini), Harpy Eagle (Harpia harpyja) and Charapa Turtle (Podocnemis expansa). Other species categorized as endangered in the region and with

Endless varieties of fauna and flora live in the exuberant Moist Forest of Pucacuro.

Peru is the fourth country in the world (after Brazil, Madagascar and Colombia), with the largest diversity and number of primates, and new species are constantly being discovered. There are 36 different species, 10% of the world total, out of which three are endemic to the Pucacuro basin: the Equatorial Saki (Pithecia aequatorialis), the Goeldi's Marmoset (Callimilco goeldii) and the Collared Titi (Callicebus torquatus), which are very difficult to see in other protected areas. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 195


onca), the Giant Anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), the Silky Anteater (Cyclopes didactylus); and birds, such as the King Vulture (Sarcoramphus papa), Blue-andyellow Macaw (Ara ararauna), Red-andgreen Macaw (Ara chloroptera), Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao), Red-bellied Macaw (Orthopsittaca manilata) and Chestnutfronted Macaw (Ara severa). Also, the Yellow-spotted River Turtle (Podocnemis unifilis), the Black Caiman, the Spectacled Caiman, and the Smooth-fronted Caiman (Paleosuchus trigonatus).

A Moth has “eyes” on its wings as a means for intimidating possible predators.

large populations in the Pucacuro region include the Silvery Woolly Monkey (Lagothrix poeppigii), Giant Armadillo (Priodontes maximus) and Blue-throated Piping Guan (Aburria pipile). There are reports of healthy populations of Goeldi's Marmoset (Callimico goeldii) on the southeastern end of the Reserve, reports which are unique in the whole “selva baja”. The presence of the Equatorial Saki (Pithecia aequatorialis) stands out, a primate whose distribution is restricted to the Napo Ecoregion and which is found abundantly in Pucacuro. The long list includes species which are in vulnerable or undetermined condition, like the Lucifer Titi (Callicebus lucifer), the Margay (Leopardus wiedii), the Jaguar (Phantera

HOW TO GET THERE The access from Iquitos is by fluvial transport, following the Amazonas, the Marañon River and, finally the Tigre River, until you get to the district’s capital, Intuto. From there, the Pucacuro River is taken. From Iquitos, there are 272 km to the mouth of this river. Iquitos has an international airport with daily flights to the capital, Lima. WEATHER The average annual precipitation is 2,700 mm - 3,500 mm and, generally, it exceeds the limits of evapotranspiration, originating runoffs. Humidity varies around 86% and the average annual temperature is between 77 and 78 °F. During the driest season, from June to July, short moderately cold spells, known as “Frio de San Juan”, tend to occur (occasionally reaching from 57 to 59 °F).

A clear example of how the cochas or lakes are formed, in the disconnected branches of the rivers.

196 Official Guide |Northern Rainforest


Pucacuro

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PUCACURO NATIONAL RESERVE

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RESTRICCIONES The site can be visited throughout the year. Nevertheless, fluvial transportation is limited by the low flow volume in the rivers and their excessive sinuosity, which make the journey a long, tedious and expensive one. Vessels are scarce and access is very difficult, since the fluvial transport service only makes weekly journeys to the Tigre zone, so it is better to get a rented or private boat for the trip, with an engine of no less than 150 hp.

75°00'

74°30'

of the numerous “collpas”, natural mineral licking places. CONTACT INFORMATION Administrative headquarters of the protected area: Jorge Chavez 930, Iquitos, Tel. (065) 223 555 / (01) 968 218 455. Coordination Office of Ituto, Radio Frequency: 6980, Indicative: Pucacuro.

ATTRACTIONS Due to the good state of health of its biodiversity, the basin of the Pucacuro has great potential for the development of extreme ecotourism and investigation tourism, as long as one has adequate infrastructure as encampment or biological stations, guaranteeing the visitor the opportunity to watch large primates and ungulates, as well as birds

A trap-camera surprises a South American Tapir (Tapirus terrestris) in a collpa at night. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 197

3°30'

Rio

76°00'


Ichigkat Muja - Cordillera del Condor | National Park

“Sacred Mountains” The caimans, such as this black one (Melanosuchus niger), looming with its gelid and patient ferocity, wherever there is water in the Amazon. *Facilities for tourism

Location

: AMAZONAS

Surface Area

: 88,477 ha

Creation Date

: 08/10/ 2007

Altitude Range

: 50 - 2,700 meters

GENERAL OBJECTIVES Its objective is to preserve a unique sample of the Montane Forests of the Ecoregion of the Cordillera Real Oriental. DESCRIPTION The Park protects a very special Ecoregion, due to its location at the southern end of the Cordillera Real Oriental that extends from the north of Peru to the south of Colombia, crossing Ecuador, characterized by a steep pre-montane habitat, the dominant vegetation of which varies dramatically with the altitude gradients in a relatively small area. 198 Official Guide |Northern Rainforest

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In general, it is a seasonal tropical forest, always green, of wide leaves and, in the lower areas, locally known as “ceja de montaña”, the woods are tight and exuberant. As they gain altitude, the forests diminish in height and, in high altitudes, the trees become cloud forests and, finally, dwarf forests. These humid montane forests are naturally isolated and have been fragmented by human activity; it is considered that a large part of them has been replaced by farming systems or grazing lands. The importance of this natural protected area is increased by being part of an almost untouched territory, a refuge


for the fauna and flora species of such a singular Ecoregion. The Ichigkat Muja - Cordillera del Condor National Park is of national importance for conservation for the singularity of its ecosystems, for its great biological diversity and for possessing areas of cultural and mystical importance of one of the most singular cultures in America, the Jivaro, famous for their ancient head reduction practices. HISTORY This region is the ancestral territory of the Awajun and Wampis people of Peru, and of the Shuar of Ecuador, which, together with the Achuar of Peru, form the great Jivaro ethnolinguistic family. This culture, which already had relations with the Mochicas 2,000 years ago, resisted the Incas and the Spaniards; then, the enslaving colonization at the time of the rubber boom and, later, the one brought by the timber and gold fevers. In this ancestral and vast territory of great biological richness, the only stable population, as a result of the 20th century territorial conflicts happily ended in peace in the same century, is constituted by the military personnel of both countries. Special mention should be made to the square kilometer within the Park that was ceded by the Peruvian government to the Ecuadorian government in 1999 as private property (without sovereignty), in which the place known as Tiwintza is found. These 100 ha of land, 20 km south of the frontier line and still not

yet connected to it by land, must only be used for conservation ends or for commemorative activities. The Awajun and Wampis sporadically enter the Park in search of flora and fauna for their subsistence and to make use of their places of cultural importance. FLORA The tepui-like vegetation, unique to Peru, is only found in the high zones of the sandstone formations of the Cordillera del Condor, covered with brush, herbaceous meadows and bare rock. By its structure and plant families, this vegetation resembles the one encountered in much older sandstone tepuis in the highlands of the Guyanas. The Park preserves 10 species of restricted distribution, and 3 of them inhabit in the tepuilike vegetable association. There are rare species or species of restricted distribution; among them: Meliosma Pseudolmedia macrophylla, sp., Micropholis venulosa and Miconia sp. FAUNA Among the registered endangered species is the Pacarana (Dinomys branickii) and the White-fronted Spider Monkey (Ateles belzebuth), and there is evidence of the presence of the Spectacled Bear (Tremarctos ornatus) and of the Mountain Tapir (Tapirus pinchaque). A halting place

The Cordillera del Condor has the beautiful tepui-like formations, unique in Peru.

The endangered Spider Monkey is adapted to living in the high branches of the trees. To its long extremities -the front ones, thumbless, which it uses as hooks in order to swing- it adds, like a third hand, its strong and very long prehensile tail, exclusive of some American primates, which allows it to suspend itself over a bunch of fruit with both hands free....a true “spider�. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 199


Pristine forests, ancestral territory of the Awajun and Wampis ethnical groups.

and Santiago Rivers, and it takes 15 hours if you travel aboard a “peque peque”, a slower river boat. To get to the western zone, it is necessary to travel aboard a speedboat for 6 to 7 hours, surmounting the Marañon and the Cenepa Rivers up to Huampami, from where there are still 6 to 7 days more going on foot because the river becomes innavigable. To Santa Maria de Nieva there is a packed dirt road 180 km long coming from Bagua (some 10-12 h), although the most frequented road is the one that goes to Saramiriza, which is longer (250 km) but in better condition, taking a detour at the end. Bagua is at 8 h drive from Chiclayo by paved road. WEATHER

for migratory birds and a corridor for mammals, the Park hosts migratory birds such as the Canada Warbler (Wilsonia canadensis) and the Swainson's Thrush (Catharus ustulatus). Among the 158 registered bird species, there are, also, the Salvin's Curassow (Crax salvini), the Spot-winged Parrotlet (Touit stictopterus), Golden-plumed branickii), Parakeet (Leptosittaca Subtropical Pygmy Owl (Glaucidium parkeri), the Napo Sabrewing (Campylopterus villaviscensio), the Ecuadorian Piedtail (Phlogophilus hemileucurus), the White-chested Swift (Cypseloides lemosi), the Andean Tyrant (Knipolegus signatus), the Yellow-billed Jacamar (Galbula albirostris), the Coppery-chested Jacamar (Galbula pastazae), the Fulvous Shrike-Tanager (Lanio fulvus), and others. Among the mammals, a recently discovered endemic marsupial, Caenolestes condorensis, stands out.

It has a tropical humid climate, with precipitations from October to April, reaching maximum intensity during the last 2 months of the rainy season; the average annual precipitation is 2,400 to 4,500 mm. RESTRICCIONES To enter the Park, previous coordination with the native communities of the zone is necessary. Boats are scarce

Among the butterflies, there are: Yphthiimoides sp., Pedaliodes sp. ca., Pedaliodes sp. n.2, Phthiotis sp. and Euptychia sp. A great number of small bats are found in this habitat, mainly from the Phyllostomidae family, which feed on fruits or nectar. HOW TO GET THERE In order to get to the eastern part of the Park, it takes 12 hours aboard a speedboat, starting from Santa Maria de Nieva and travelling along the Marañon 200 Official Guide |Northern Rainforest

The Park protects the southernmost -and better preserved- foothills of the Cordillera Real Oriental.


78°00'

National Park Cahuide

Ichigkat Muja Cordillera del Condor

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and fluvial transport takes long and is tedious and expensive. ATTRACTIONS The Caves of the Tayos, geological formations where the Oilbirds (Steatornis caripensis) are found, which are part of the local diet. Various Collpas, crucial habitats for the fauna, of great nutritious value. Numberless cataracts, considered sacred places by the local communities, important in their world view. The scenic beauty of the tepui-like vegetation. Within the Park, there is the square kilometer ceded to Ecuador as private property, after the Peace Treaty was signed.

20 77°30'

CONTACT INFORMATION Administrative headquarters of the protected area: Mz. S-1, Lote 1, Barrio Vista Alegre, Villa Santa Maria de Nieva, Amazonas, Tel: (01) 968 218 431.

NEARBY ATTRACTIONS The salt mines, a traditionally used resource, of great importance for the native communities within their world view and for their daily diet; and the clay mines for the manufacturing of pottery.

A rainbow alights on the recently pacified region. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 201


Santiago Comaina | Reserved Zone

"Refuge of biodiversity" The feared Bush Master (Lachesis muta), one of the most poisonous in the Amazonian forest, although it tends not to attack man. *Facilities for tourism

NO

Location : AMAZONAS and LORETO Surface Area

: 398,449 ha

Creation Date

: 01/21/1999 (modified 08/10/2007)

Altitude Range

: 200 -1,400 meters

GENERAL OBJECTIVES The main objective is the preservation of the Cordillera del Campanquiz, an important element in the complex geological formation of the region and one of the most beautiful landscapes in the country, which provides ecological and evolutionary conditions that support and generate great biological wealth in its interaction with the Amazonian plain. DESCRIPTION The Reserved Zone Santiago Comaina is located in the “Selva Alta” and in the zone where the “Selva Baja” begins, delimited by the low foothills of the oriental Andean basin, and made up of tropical moist forests. It is adjacent to the Pleistocene Refuge and Evolution Center of the Marañon, and -if exhaustive studies were carried out- we might be talking about the protected natural area with the greatest fauna diversity in the country. The landscape is typical of the 202 Official Guide |Northern Rainforest

Montane Forests Ecoregion of the Cordillera Real Oriental in the zone where it meets the Amazonian plain. BIODIVERSITY Approximately 2,069 plant species have been identified, among which the following should be pointed out: Spanish Cedar (Cedrela sp.), Big-leaf Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla), Lupuna (Cavanillesia umbellata), Tornillo (Cedrelinga catenaeformis) and Capirona (Capirona decorticans). Also, 18 species which are endangered to different degrees have been found, such as: Celtis iguanaea, Patahancomia peruviana, Dracontium loretense, Tabebuia serratifolia, among others. The flora is highly diverse, many of which have medicinal, alimentary or ornamental use, such as the Peruvian Bark (Cinchona spp.) The Reserved Zone is a home to 48 mammal species, 113 bird sp, 14 reptile and amphibian sp, and 1 sp of fish, which are


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ICHIGKAT MUJA CORDILLERA DEL CONDOR NATIONAL PARK

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TUNTANAIN COMMUNAL RESERVE

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SANTIAGO COMAINA RESERVED ZONE

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PIURA

LORETO AMAZONAS CAJAMARCA SAN MARTIN

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found in different degrees of risk; 6 of them being endangered species: Condor (Vultur gryphus), Spectacled Bear (Tremarctos ornatus), Giant Otter (Pteronura brasiliensis), White-fronted Spider Monkey (Ateles belzebuth), Amazonian Manatee (Trichechus inunguis), and Charapa Turtle (Podocnemis expansa). In addition, there are also Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), Black Agouti (Dasyprocta fuliginosa), Shortear Dog (Atelocynus microtis), Lowland Paca (Agouti paca), White-lipped Peccary (Tayassu pecari) and Mountain Tapir (Tapirus pinchaque). More than 838 species of birds have been reported, among which stand out by the number of species: the hummingbirds (Trochilidae), the parrots (Psittacidae) and eagles (Accipitridae).

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ATTRACTIONS In the southernmost part of the Reserved Zone, one and a half hours away from Santa Maria de Nieva, the impressive and enclosed Pongo de Manseriche is found and also, very close, the Fossil Ravine, where large numbers of marine fossils are found. CONTACT INFORMATION Administrative headquarters of the protected area: Mz. S-1, Lote 1, Barrio Vista Alegre, Villa Santa Maria de Nieva, Amazonas, Tel: (01) 968 218 431.

HOW TO GET THERE The access to the west sector is the same as for the Ichigkat Muja National Park (see previous pages). In order to reach the east sector, on the other hand, one needs to go upstream the Morona River for 2 or 3 days starting from its mouth in the Marañon River, which is found 2 h away from Nieva and 6 h from San Lorenzo.

The local communities participate in the management of the protected area. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 203


Tuntanain | Communal Reserve

"Ancestral resources" The arboreous ferns, among the most ancient land plants in the world, already existed 300 million years ago. *Facilities for tourism

NO

Location : AMAZONAS Surface Area

: 94,967 ha

Creation Date

: 08/10/2007

Altitude Range

: 300 - 2,150 meters

GENERAL OBJECTIVES Its objective is the preservation of a representative sample of the Montane and Pre-Montane Moist Forests of the Tropical Yunga in the northeastern part of the country. DESCRIPTION The Communal Reserve is located in the Tropical Yunga or “Selva Alta� that corresponds to the montane moist and foggy forest zone. The landscape is mainly mountainous, with steep folds and summits, and the ground cover is characterized by tall, exuberant and dense woods, loaded with bromeliads, orchids, lianas and vines. The trunks of almost every tree are entirely covered with abundant epiphytes and creepers, support and sustenance for an abundant biodiversity. The average annual precipitation is 2,200 - 3,400 mm (reaching its maximum in March/ April). NATIVE COMMUNITIES The Reserve has areas of cultural and 204 Official Guide |Northern Rainforest

religious importance for the inhabitants of the adjacent native communities, constituted mainly (92%) by the Jivaro ethno-linguistic group: in the east, the communities of Yutupis, Yujagkim and Kagkas; in the north, the communities of Kunt, Entsa and Villa Gonzalo; and in the south, Inayuam, Saasa and Achu. There are 26 native communities and annexes, whose members carry out traditional hunting, gathering and farming activities, mainly for their own consumption. BIODIVERSITY Thirty new flora species have been registered in the Reserve, such as: Justicia manserichensis, Anthurium ancuashii, Philodendron campii, Rhodospatha mukuntakia, Inga japurensis, Alloneuron liron, Psychotria paeonia; as well as 13 endemic species, such as: Trichosanchezia chrysothrix, Rhodospatha brentberlinii, Aechmea vasquezii, Guzmania diazii, Tillandsia rojasii, Cybianthus huampamiensis; and 19 which are endangered to some


78°00'

Rio Cen epa

Wachim

Rio

Communal Reserve

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Putuim

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za

Nueva Esperanza

N

Tuntanain Puerto Galilea

TUNTANAIN COMMUNAL RESERVE

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4°00'

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4°00'

Rio

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SANTIAGO COMAINA RESERVED ZONE

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Santa Rosa UNDARY

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San Juan

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SANTA MARIA DE NIEVA

Rio Mara ñon

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Adsacusa

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CAJAMARCA

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LORETO AMAZONAS

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4°30'

Fortaleza . Potoch e

s

Buchigkim

Rio

PIURA

A M A Z O N A S

Santa Rosa

Saramiriza

Pajacusa

Nuevo Belen Ebron

Scale km 0

10

Ajachin 20

Yamakentsa Bagua 180 km Huaracayo

L O R E T O 77°30'

78°00'

degree, such as: Myrcia fallas, Euterpe catinga and Ceiba pentandra. There are numerous fauna species which are endangered or in risk, such as: South American Tapir (Tapirus terrestris), Goeldi's Marmoset (Callimico goeldii), White-fronted Spider Monkey (Ateles belzebuth) and Pacarana (Dynomis branickii). Among the 48 registered bird species, these stand out: Amazon, Green and Green-and-rufous Kingfisher (Chloroceryle amazona, C. americana and C. inda, respectively), Alagoas Curassow (Crax mitu) and Wattled Guan (Aburria aburri). There are also some migratory birds, such as: Little Ground Tyrant (Muscisaxicola fluviatilis), Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica) and the Forktailed Flycatcher (Tyrannus savana).

Chinganaza (10 to 12 h), up to where they become nonnavigable. ATTRACTIONS The headwaters of the small tributaries that flow into the Santiago or Dominguza Rivers; there are also cataracts, tayo caves and collpas. CONTACT INFORMATION Administrative headquarters of the protected area: Mz. S-1, Lote 1, Barrio Vista Alegre, Villa Santa Maria de Nieva, Amazonas, Tel: (01) 968 218 431.

HOW TO GET THERE From Santa Maria de Nieva, following the Marañon River and then the Dominguza River, some 8 to 10 h. One may also follow the Santiago River up to the mouth of the Potoche Ravine (1 to 2 h) and, from there, 5 h more in peque peque. Likewise, along the Yutupis Ravine (8 h) or along La

The Cenepa River, western boundary of the Reserve. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 205


Allpahuayo Mishana | National Reserve

“The great forest of Varillales” A bird of great beauty, the White Hawk (Leucopternis albicollis) gets ready for a surprise attack.

*Facilities for tourism

YES

Location : LORETO Surface Area

: 58,069.9 ha

Creation Date

: 01/16/2004

Altitude Range

: 104 - 185 meters

GENERAL OBJECTIVES The main objective is the preservation of the biological diversity and habitat of the “varillal” and “chamizal” forests on white sand that belong to the Napo Ecoregion, as well as of the forests, adjacent to the mid-basin of the Nanay River, that are subject to floods of black waters (Igapo). DESCRIPTION Allpahuayo Mishana is located in the mid basin of the Nanay River and has a rich natural patrimony. It is very close to the city of Iquitos, and it is influenced 206 Official Guide |Northern Rainforest

by it, as well as by the large population living in the zone, facilitated by the River itself and by the highway to Nauta. There are two significant types of habitat: 1) the white-sand “varillales” forests. These are very special ecosystems that have a high diversity of soils and different drainage conditions, which give rise to unique flora and fauna, adapted to very harsh environmental conditions. 2) The forests that are subject to floods by the black waters of the Nanay River (tahuampas), the only Igapo forests known in Peru, in which a considerable number of species of very restricted


distribution are found. The hydrological pattern of the Nanay River is similar to the one of the Amazon River, with two perfectly differentiated periods: the one of high waters, “creciente” or flood tide, has its climax in May, and the one of low waters, “vaciante”, has its high point in September. There is a 6 meter difference between both, on average, at the lower basin of the River. Approximately half of the surface of the National Reserve consists of private plots. These plots, starting from kilometer 23 of the Iquitos-Nauta highway, belong to the following Institutions: BIOAM, INIA, IIAP, Fundo Piura and GOREL. Allpahuayo Mishana has an exceptional potential for environmental education and wildlife tourism owing to its closeness to Iquitos. The Reserve also protects many of the water sources which supply the city and guarantees that the communities settled in the zone may continue to make traditional use of renewable natural resources. HISTORY The region has been devastated repeatedly since its contact with the “Old World”. First, it was the subjugating intrusion of the Spaniards in their search for gold; the second time, with evangelizing intentions that materialized in forced missions and “reducciones de indios”, to which Iquitos owes its foundation in 1757; and the third and most noxious of them, the infamous Rubber Fever, during

the last decades of the 19th and early 20th centuries, which cruelly killed off a large part of the native population on account of their methods of torture and slavery. The Reserve, particularly on the side adjacent to the Iquitos-Nauta highway, becomes more densely populated at the end of the 1970s during the forest clearings for the roadwork. In those days, and more aggressively during the 1980s, large plots for farming exploitation in the zone were promoted. Nevertheless, some communities have a much older history, such as Mishana, Samito or Shiriara, since there are registers of their foundation almost a century ago, seemingly due to the decline of the Rubber Boom. The support of the local population, who saw the protected natural area as a strategic ally to achieve sustainability in the use of resources, a guarantee for their own permanence in the area and the possibility of sustainable development for themselves and for their descendants, was crucial for achieving the legal recognition of this protected area. COMMUNITIES The settlers of the Reserve are divided in two main groups: the inhabitants of the traditional rural communities located on the banks of the Nanay

Allpahuayo Mishana is a home to a number of native communities, such as Anguilla, in the photo.

The Iquitos Gnatcatcher (Polioptila clementsi) is a bird that is only found in the varillales white-sand forests in the north of Allpahuayo Mishana, and its estimated population is less than 100 specimens. This beautiful and tiny insectivorous species, with pearly back and wings, is one of the rarest and endangered species on the planet, and it will inevitably disappear if nothing is done to save it. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 207


FLORA

The flora of the Reserve includes specialized species such as this Centrosema.

River, and the colonists settled in the plots along the Iquitos - Nauta highway. The first group is much older and descends from the first settlers in the region (mainly, Cocamas and Iquitos), racially mixed during the process of colonization of the Peruvian Amazon that has been taking place during the last 150 years. These communities control and manage a common traditional territory and have their own regulations for the administration of their territory and its resources. They still preserve traditional ways of life and for organizing work, such as the “minga” and the communal assemblies.

The existence of soils of white quartzite sand gives the forest ecosystems of the Reserve particular characteristics. The white-sand forests that are found in it are the most representative concentration of these rare ecosystems detected in the Peruvian Amazon so far, and they are geographically endemic species of the “varillales” of the Nanay basin, as for example: Jaqueshubera loretensis (Leguminosae), Ambelania occidentalis (Apocynaceae), Spathelia terminalioides (Rutaceae) and Hirtella revillae (Chrysobalanaceae). The floodable forests of the Nanay, on the other hand, share characteristics and species with the Igapo Forests of the Rio Negro from Brazil, including plant genera, such as: Symmeria (Polygonaceae) and Mollia (Tiliaceae), and species such as Caryocar microcarpum (Caryocaceae). There are also: Aguaje de Varillal (Mauritia carana), Huasai de Varillal (Euterpe catinga) and Caimito de Varillal (Pouteria sp.); Aguajillo (Mauritiella aculeata), Carachacaspi (Tachigalia sp.), Irapay (Lepidocaryum tenue), Caspi Oil (Caraipa tereticaulis) and Pashaco (Macrolobium acaciifolium).

The villages inside the Reserve, including their immediate area of influence, have a little more than 1,100 inhabitants. The population is mainly dedicated to farming for subsistence and to the exploitation of the wild natural resources, especially of the Irapay -palm leaf for roofing-, wood for fire and wood coal, fishing and hunting of wild fauna, and some non-timber forest resources. These are mainly for self-consumption and also for small-scale commerce. Apart from the population settled within its area, the Reserve is currently used, in different ways and with different intensities, by settlers of the surrounding areas. Besides the city of Iquitos and other villages in between, which also exert pressure, there are about 20 villages in the periphery of the Reserve, with some 3,000 inhabitants in all. 208 Official Guide |Northern Rainforest

The Varillal forest of the Nanay River is the most representative of the Peruvian Amazonia.


73°40'

73°30'

N

LORETO

National Reserve

Allpahuayo Mishana

SAN MARTÍN CAJAMARCA

Padre Cocha

Puerto Bellavista Nanay Puerto Masusa

L O R E T O Ri o

Manacamiri Lake Moronacocha Lake Rumococha Santa Clara

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IQUITOS

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Rio It aya

3°40'

AMAZONAS

Santo Tomas Lake Zungarococha Zungarococha Quistococha Puerto Almendra Lake Quistococha Cruz del Sur Ninarumi Lagunas Maravilla Llanchama Samito San Martin Mishana Varillal Yuto

3°50'

3°50'

Libertad

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IIAP

ALLPAHUAYO MISHANA NATIONAL RESERVE

El Paujil II Zona

Yarana Yuto

4°00'

Q. Yuto Q. Moen a

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Q,

Pa

a

Cu raca

Q. 4°00'

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15 de Abril

u

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Q.

Santa Maria de Nanay

lometa

ta

Shiriara Nanay Rio

13 de Febrero

Scale km

Nauta 80 km

BUFFER ZONE BOUNDAR Y

73°40'

73°30'

FAUNA Up to now, 145 species of mammals have been registered, some of them very rare and highly vulnerable. Two of them are endemic: the Equatorial Saki (Pithecia aequatorialis) and a rare rodent (Scolomys melanops). The first one, together with the Lucifer Titi (Callicebus lucifer), are primates that are protected only in Allpahuayo

0

5

10

73°20'

Mishana and Pucacuro. On the other hand, there are 475 bird species, out of which 21 are only found in forests on white sands, including 6 species that are new to science, and 9, endemic to the Napo Ecoregion. Three birds, which are endemic to Peru, stand out: The Iquitos Gnatcatcher (Polioptila clementsi), the Allpahuayo Antbird (Percnostola arenarum) and the Mishana Tyrannulet (Zimmerius

The small Tucuxi (Sotalia fluviatilis) lives in fresh water as much as in salt water.

Protected Natural Areas | PERU 209


rare and endemic to the Napo Ecoregion and which are not found in any other protected natural area. In addition, there are 155 fish species, distributed in 106 genus and 29 families, among them, several endemic species, and 95% of the captured species can be categorized as ornamental. HOW TO GET THERE From the Airport, in the city of Iquitos, there are 22 km (some 30 min.), to the village of San Jose. From Santa Maria, the capital of the district of Alto Nanay, it takes 2 hours in peque-peque, navigating downriver in the Nanay. The Ancient Antwren, one of the newly discovered species.

villarejoi). There are also: the Ancient Antwren (Herpsilochmus gentryi), Northern Chestnut-tailed Antbird (Myrmeciza castanea centuculorum) and the Saffron-crested Tyrant-Manakin (Neopelma chrysocephalum). There are, as well, 83 amphibian species and, among them, 5 which are rare; 4 anurans endemic to the Napo Ecoregion; one salamander that is new to the country, and one species of the Caecilia genus, which only lives in Allpahuayo Mishana. Also, 120 reptile species have been registered, including several that are

There is an international airport in Iquitos, with daily flights to Lima. The National Reserve can also be accessed by river from Pucallpa or Yurimaguas in Peru, and from Leticia in Colombia or Manaos in Brazil, by the great Amazon. WEATHER Tropical and rainy, with an average temperature of 79 째F. Annual precipitation is 2,500 - 3,000 mm, with a relative humidity of 80 - 100%. ATTRACTIONS In the sector of the Nanay River, the Igapo forests affected by the seasonal black waters floods can be observed. Inside the Reserve (km 23), an animal

The skies turn red in the Reserve, encouraging night life to awaken.

210 Official Guide |Northern Rainforest


breeding center, BIOAM, is located, where the sustainable handling of wild animals, like the Capybara and the Collared Peccary, is carried out with commercial ends. There is a birdwatching tourist circuit in a “varillales” forest, close to the IquitosNauta highway (km 25), which is visited by a great number of foreign and national tourists; it belongs to the Instituto Nacional de Innovacion Agraria - INIA. Very near (km 26), the Centro de Investigaciones Allpahuayo - CIA, of the Instituto de Investigaciones de la Amazonia Peruana - IIAP, is found, where native medicinal and fruit plants can be seen in a tourist circuit with interpretative paths among the tall and dry, or low and humid, “varillales”, where one can enjoy the exquisite biodiversity. In the Ninarumi village, in the outskirts of the city of Iquitos, there is a pier that connects the villages of the Nanay River basin. One can take a boat and in 30 minutes one gets to San Martin, the first village inside the Reserve and, continuing, the villages of Mishana, Porvenir, Yuto, 15 de Abril and Anguilla, in whose jurisdictions various cochas are found. In these, one can practice sport fishing of the Tucunare (Cichla monoculus), as well as enjoy ecological tourism. Finally, at km 28 we find the El Irapay Control Post, where a dirt road starts off to the village of Mishana, passing by a great number of “varillales” in the way.

Black water Cocha, typical of the National Reserve.

NEARBY ATTRACTIONS The city of Iquitos is the most populated city in the Amazon, as well as the entrance gate to the Reserve. There are several places to visit there, such as the iron house built by G. Eiffel, the Matriz church and the neighborhood and port of Belen. In the surroundings, there are more than a dozen animal nurseries that keep diverse species in semi-captivity, from butterflies to caimans; and between this warm city and the Reserve, there is the Quistococha Zoological Park. Finally, the neighboring Pacaya Samiria National Reserve, which can be the perfect finale for the visit to this region. SERVICES WITHIN THE AREA In the Reserve, there is the Control Post El Irapay. This Interpretation Center has four modules: flora, land fauna, aquatic fauna, and the last one, of the people and the forest. These give information that facilitates and orientates the visit to the protected area; apart from this, they serve as a link between foreign and national investigators and give active support to the communal management of natural resources. Mon-Sat 8:30 h to 14.30 h. CONTACT INFORMATION Administrative Headquarters of the protected area: Jorge Chavez 930942, Iquitos, Tel. (065) 223 555 / (01) 968 218 459. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 211


Pacaya Samiria | National Reserve

“An Ocean of Palm Trees” The aquatic world within the Amazon Forest has an absolute king, the Black Caiman (Melanosuchus niger). *Facilities for tourism

YES

Location : LORETO Surface Area

: 2’080,000 ha

Creation Date

: 02/04/1982

Altitude Range

: 83 - 160 meters

GENERAL OBJECTIVES Its aim is to preserve the flora and fauna resources as well as the scenic beauty characteristic of the tropical moist forest. DESCRIPTION Pacaya Samiria, the second largest protected natural area in Peru with more than 20,000 km² (as large as the Departments of Tumbes and Tacna taken together), has a large biological diversity and an important human population that makes use of its natural resources. Located in the 212 Official Guide |Northern Rainforest

area that lies in the angle formed by the Marañon and Ucayali Rivers as they converge to become the Amazon, from the Huallaga to the very apex near Nauta, the Reserve comprises the basins of the Pacaya, Samiria and YanayacuPucate Rivers. Although the zone can be described mainly as a low jungle flood plain, there are some low hills at the source of the Pacaya River. This topography, added to the hydrological cycle of the Amazonia where flood and ebb tides alternate with each other, creates a number of isles, channels and cochas (lakes), among which the famous Cocha El Dorado in the


Yanayacu’s lower basin stands out, the principal tourist destination in the Reserve and a successful example of initiative in community experiential tourism. This enormous territory has unique ecosystems and an extraordinary biodiversity, as well as aquatic and land flora and fauna resources; it is the breeding center for several icthyological species and it has zones with highly productive fish habitats; it also has the largest protected forest area that is subject to floods (varzea) in the Amazonia. This giant wetland motivated its designation as one of the first RAMSAR Sites in the country in 1992. Among the most abundant and typical species of these forests is the Aguaje, a palm tree the fruits of which feed the local fauna as well as the human population. Among the representative, varied and numerous fauna, the Paiche, the largest freshwater fish on earth, stands out. Pacaya Samiria is a land inhabited by numerous communities, both native and traditional as well as recently settled colonists. It is a rich and generous territory, the resources of which have been used for subsistence for as long as people can remember, and it continues to offer its benefits to thousands of people in the zone and in the neighboring cities, but nowadays organized and with management programs that protect the source of their resources and guarantee its sustainability for the future. An outstanding example of this committed involvement is the healthy

recovery of the Paiche and the Yellowspotted River Turtle populations, within the protected natural area. There is a wide offer, either for tourism or for the study of the Reserve’s biodiversity, with varied services that go from one-day visits to the zone of El Dorado, or refuges and programs in which one has the chance of learning the ancestral customs of men and women of the jungle during several days, to the luxurious experience of navigating all over the area in large and elegant boats. Any of these make Pacaya Samiria National Reserve the best option to get to know the wonderful Peruvian Amazonia, natural and cultural heritage for Peruvians as much as for the entire world. HISTORY The history of the people of the Amazon region in the last 500 years can be summed up in two words: reduction and resistance. They were reduced by the conquerors in their search for gold; their culture and way of life was reduced to conform to foreign standards during the process of evangelization, and their population was reduced to an alarming number during the democratic Republican era, by the cruel extermination and slavery promoted by the ambitious Rubber Fever (1880 to 1910 approx.). The current native population of the protected area is, in their majority, the heirs to this resistance.

Pacaya Samiria is the second largest protected natural area in the country.

Regardless of its voluminous appearance, the Amazonian Manatee is the smallest species of its kind and the only one who inhabits exclusively in fresh water. With only a pair of frontal fins and a large and flat round tail, it never leaves the water, shyly lifting its head when it is close to the shores of lakes or riverbanks where it goes to “pasture” on aquatic vegetation, as a truly marine cow. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 213


75°30'

75°00'

N

LORETO

3°30'

74°30'

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Rio

Rio

Rio P

SAN MARTIN

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Fortuna Cantagallo Pond El Dorado Pond Ungurahui Pond

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PV5 Santa Elena

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75°30' 214 Official Guide |Northern Rainforest

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75°00'

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74°30'

Lake Puma


74°00'

73°30'

National Reserve

Pacaya Samiria

IQUITOS Santa Clara Zungarococha

Lake Quistococha Quistococha Llanchama

nay Rio Na

Anguilla

15 de Abril

San José

ALLPAHUAYO MISHANA NATIONAL RESERVE

Tamshiyacu

Río

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zo

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13 de Febrero

4°00'

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Punchana Belen San Juan

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4°30'

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74°00'

73°30'

Protected Natural 73°00' Areas | PERU 215


The National Reserve of Pacaya Samiria was configured over lands that had previously been declared reserved zones with the intention of preserving the Paiche (Arapaima gigas). Thus, in 1940, the fluvial area of the Pacaya River was declared reserved zone for the reproduction and artificial breeding of the Paiche, and its fishing was strictly forbidden in that area, without previous authorization from the Ministerio de Fomento. In 1944, its area was extended in two opportunities to include the hydrographic system of the Pacaya and Samiria Rivers. In 1968, the State decided to establish a National Reserve for the integral conservation of the natural resources in the Pacaya River basin, especially the Paiche, the Black Cayman and the Giant Otter. Finally, in 1972, the entire hydrographic system of the Samiria River was declared a Reserved Zone, which, together with the Reserved Zone of the Pacaya River, constituted the current National Reserve, created in 1982. COMMUNITIES Approximately 92,000 people live in the area of the Reserve, distributed in 208 populated centers (villages, hamlets and communities), out of which 92 communities (24,000 people) are within the area and 116 communities

The Aguaje, nutritious and tasty, deserves to widen its market. 216 Official Guide |Northern Rainforest

The Aguaje palm trees cover vast areas in the Reserve.

(68,000 people) are in the surrounding buffering zone, numbers that reflect the strong pressure there is over the area´s resources. There are seven different cultural groups: 1) The Kukama Kukamilla indigenous people, whose ancestral territory includes most of the Reserve area. 2) The Kiwcha of San Martin, who arrived to the basins of the low Huallaga and Marañon Rivers when the commercial routes were established at the time of the Colony. 3) The Shipibo Conibo, whose traditional territory is the Ucayali’s basin, constituting at least one community in the Reserve, as a result of relocation at the time of the Missions. 4) The Shiwilu (Jebero), whose traditional territory is the Paranapura basin, in the Yurimaguas Zone, and some of their descendants live in the riverside communities in the Reserve. 5) The Kacha Edze or Urarinas (Shimaco) indigenous people, whose territory is the Chambira’s basin, in the buffering zone. 6) The riverside settlers, who, in their majority, have gone through historical miscegenation processes, their social basis being indigenous. 7) The recent migrants, who have come mainly from San Martin, Yurimaguas and Pucallpa.


Most of the population is nowadays represented by indigenous organizations, such as AIDECOS, ADECOP, ACODECOSPAT and ACOINBAHM, which have a role of vital importance in the conservation of the biodiversity within the Reserve and in its buffering zone. FLORA The Reserve is a home to 965 wild plant species and 59 cultivated plant species, grouped in 559 genera and 132 families; and it provides important species which are valuable as food, medicine or firewood, or because they are used in construction and the making of handicrafts. Its value for the protection of biological diversity is clearly justified by the presence of immense extensions of “aguajales� or Aguaje forests (Mauritia flexuosa) and mixed forests with other palm trees. Among other species, there are: Oje (Ficus insipida), Quillobordon (Aspidosperma vargasii), Spanish Cedar (Cedrela odorata), Tornillo (Cedrelinga catenaeformis), Sachapona (Wettinia augusta), Tagua (Phytelephas Chonta (Attalea macrocarpa), tessmannii), Lupuna (Chorisia sp.), Moena (Ocotea sp.), Sandbox Tree (Hura crepitans), Big-leaf Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla), Sangre de Grado (Croton lechleri), Tamshi (Heteropsis sp.) and Huasai (Euterpe precatoria), all of which require special preservation measures,

The extremely slow Pale-throated Sloth (Bradypus tridactylus).

above all, endangered species like Attalea tessmannii or Celtis iguanea, in critical condition. FAUNA The vertebrate fauna of the Reserve is constituted by nearly 1,025 species, which represent 27% of the vertebrates diversity in Peru and 36% of the total registered for the Amazonia. There are important species of wild fauna considered as indicators, because their presence in certain areas is an indication of a good state of preservation, such as: Amazonian Manatee (Trichechus inunguis), Amazon River Dolphin (Inia

The White Egret (Ardea alba) is one of the largest of its genus and the one with the widest distribution.

Protected Natural Areas | PERU 217


In Pacaya Samiria there are recovery programs for the Aquatic Chelonians such as the Yellow-spotted River Turtle (Podocnemis unifilis), with local participation.

geoffrensis), Tucuxi (Sotalia fluviatilis), White-fronted Spider Monkey (Ateles belzebuth), Giant Otter (Pteronura brasiliensis), Puma (Puma concolor), South American Tapir (Tapirus terrestris), Jaguar (Panthera onca), White-lipped Peccary (Tayassu pecari), Collared Peccary (Pecari tajacu), Red Brocket (Mazama americana), Redfaced Spider Monkey (Ateles paniscus), Red Howler Monkey (Alouatta seniculus) and Humboldt's Woolly Monkey (Lagothrix lagotricha). These species underwent great pressure from hunters, who put many of them on the verge of extinction; nevertheless, healthy populations of these species in some areas of the Samiria’s basin have been reported.

The Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao), one of the most colorful Psittacidae. 218 Official Guide |Northern Rainforest

The ornithological fauna is constituted by 449 species, grouped in 288 genera and 61 families. Bird populations related to aquatic environments are very important for their abundance and for being a food resource for the population, inside and outside the Reserve. They are also great indicators of the wetlands’ state of preservation. Among them, the following stand out: Great Egret (Ardea alba), Cocoi Heron (Ardea cocoi), Rufescent Tiger Heron (Tigrisoma lineatum), Olivaceous Cormorant (Phalacrocorax brasilianus), Anhinga (Anhinga anhinga), Jabiru (Jabiru mycteria), and Roseate Spoonbill (Ajaia ajaja), being indicators of the abundance of fish. Among the reptiles, there are: Charapa Turtle (Podocnemis expansa), Yellowspotted River Turtle (Podocnemis unifilis), Six-tubercled River Turtle (Podocnemis sextuberculata), Black Cayman (Melanosuchus Niger) and Spectacled Caiman (Caiman Crocodilus). The hydrobiological resources are the most important in the Reserve, for their role in the ecological processes as much as for their economic value, being the staple food of the local population, with 269 reported species, which constitute more than 30% of the continental species of Peru. The principal species for human consumption can be categorized in two types: The large-sized ones, such


as the Paiche (Arapaima gigas) and the great Amazonian catfishes: Dorado rousseauxii), (Brachyplatystoma Barred Sorubim (Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum) and Redtail Catfish hemioliopterus). (Phractocephalus The medium and small-sized ones like Tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum), Sabalo (Brycon melanopterus), South American Silver Croaker (Plagioscion squamosissimus), Black Prochilodus (Prochilodus nigricans) and Palometa (Mylossoma duriventre), among the most appreciated. The most valued ornamental species for exportation, generally for USA, Germany, France, Japan and Taiwan markets, are: Zungaro Tigre (Tigrinus peruvianus), Silver Arawana (Osteoglossum bicirrhosum), Peacock-eye Stingray (Potamotrygon motoro) and Redtail

sector and Pahuachiro. From Iquitos, it is possible to go straight up to Bretaña, in order to enter the Pacaya River basin, in about 24 h on commercial boats. Also from Iquitos, one gets directly to Leoncio Prado, in order to enter the Samiria basin, in another 24 h on a commercial boat. From Iquitos to Lagunas (in order to enter through the Tibilo Surveillance Post, to the west tourist zone of the Reserve), the commercial boat takes about 48 h. From Tarapoto, on the other hand, it takes 3 h to get to Yurimaguas by car along a paved road. From Yurimaguas to Lagunas (to enter, as before, through Tibilo), it takes 3 h by speedboat or some 12 h by a public boat. From Pucallpa, it takes 8 h by speedboat to get to Victoria and the tourist area of Cochas de Punga, and 48 h by public boats. To Bretaña and the Pacaya basin, the latter take some 60 h. Tarapoto, Iquitos and Pucallpa have airports with regular flights to the capital. Tarapoto is also connected to the coast of Lambayeque by paved road, to Pucallpa by packed dirt road, and both have regular bus service to Lima and to other localities in the region. WEATHER

It is reckoned that there are more than 6,500 species of anurans in the world (frogs and toads).

Catfish. There are also smaller species, such as the Bleeding Heart Tetra erythrostigma) (Hyphessobrycon and a wide variety of species of the Corydoras genus.

The average annual temperature oscillates between 68 and 91 °F, with an annual precipitation between 2,000 mm and 3,000 mm. High temperatures can occur at any time during the year, but they are more frequent during the time of “vaciante” (July to September).

HOW TO GET THERE There are three main routes of access to the Reserve: From Iquitos, in Loreto; from Tarapoto, in San Martin; and from Pucallpa, in Ucayali. From Iquitos, it takes less than two hours (95 km), along a paved road, to get to the city of Nauta, port and natural entrance to the Reserve. One can also go by speedboat (in 2 h) or by public transport (in 12 h). From Nauta, (3 h by peque-peque or 1,5 h by speedboat) one gets to the tourist areas of Nauta Caño, Yanayacu Pucate, the Poza Cocha

There are fluvial tours lasting several days in Pacaya Samiria. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 219


RESTRICCIONES One can enter the Reserve only in the allowed areas, contracting the services of private agencies or local tourist service groups, as is the case of the Consorcio Rumbo a El Dorado (in Yanayacu Pucate and Cocha Dorado) or ETASCEL (Tibilo Pastococha), and always led by a guide. A Directory of such agencies, private as well as local, can be consulted at www. pacayasamiria.org The ideal time to go is during the season with less precipitation, from May to December. Entrance Fees in soles: Under 5 and above 65 years: Free. 5 to 15 years: S/3 (one day, no overnight sleep), S/30 (Short Tourist Circuit, 3 days), S/60 (Complete Tourist Circuit, 7 days). Adults: S/10 (one day, no overnight sleep), S/60 (Short Tourist Circuit, 3 days), S/120 (Complete Tourist Circuit, 7 days). ATTRACTIONS Being such a vast area, it is most recommended to take a week to go all over it. There are 8 permitted areas, for tourist use: 1) Tibilo Pastococha. 2) Pinchi - Yanayacu Grande. 3) Lower and middle Samiria. 4) Yanayacu Pucate - El Dorado. 5) Nauta Caño. 6) Yanallpa Iricahua. 7) Lower Pacaya. 8) Cochas of Punga.

There are three main circuits: 1) Traversing the basin of the YanayacuPucate, from the Veinte de Enero village, close to Nauta, up to the famous cocha El Dorado. This is the zone where the greater number of refuges and camping zones are found, along the river shore. Apart from the scenic beauty of the river and the riverside forests, it is possible to watch numerous birds, monkeys, dolphins, and even some giant otters and turtles. The El Dorado Lake is considered the heart of the Reserve and one of the places with the largest concentration of fauna. 2) In the lower and middle basin of the Samiria River, visiting the Yarina, Fortuna and Ungurahui cochas. In their shores, monkeys, macaws, parrots, and a variety of aquatic birds can be seen. Also, in San Martin de Tipishca, at the beggining of the basin, one can get along with the inhabitants of the native community of Kukama Kukamilla, who also offer several circuits to travel on foot as well as by canoes. 3) In the lower basin of the Pacaya, where cochas are abundant and the forest remains flooded most of the year, it is possible to catch sight of monkeys, parrots and macaws, among other birds, and frequently, dolphins and caimans. In the three circuits, it is possible to contract directly the services of the consortium “Rumbo al Dorado”, constituted by the

Small and large navigable rivers, such as the Marañon and the Ucayali, surround the Reserve.

220 Official Guide |Northern Rainforest


The Otorongo or Jaguar (Panthera Onca) is at ease in the dense and humid Pacaya Samiria, and is not afraid of water when it is after its prey.

communities of the Veinte de Enero, Yarina and Manco Capac, that offer high quality experiential tourism, including lodging, meals and guide services for the circuits, or do it through an authorized travel agency. NEARBY ATTRACTIONS The neighboring villages are, at the same time, ports of entrance: Nauta and Requena to the east and Lagunas to the west. Iquitos is a principal destination in the country, so it is worth spending

some days there. On the way from Iquitos to Nauta, the Zoological Park of Quistococha is found, as well as the Allpahuayo Mishana National Reserve, with outstanding attractions and special circuits. The cities of Yurimaguas and Tarapoto are an optional visit for those who come by the west. SERVICES WITHIN THE AREA The Reserve has four information centers at the Control Posts of Nauta Caño, Yanayacu, Samiria and Tibilo Pastococha. There are, also, 19 surveillance posts and 21 communal surveillance posts (PV on the map). There are, as well, 15 authorized camping zones in the 8 designated areas for tourist use, 3 refuges in the Yanayacu-Pucate basin (own by the consortium Rumbo al Dorado), two in the Community of San Martin Tipishca (local groups: Casa Lupuna and ASIENDES) and one refuge called “Casa Poza Gloria”. Fluvial circuits lasting several days, within the limits of the Reserve, are offered by companies that operate in Iquitos and Lima. CONTACT INFORMATION Administrative headquarters of the protected area: Jorge Chavez 930942, Iquitos, Tel. (065) 223 555 / (01) 968 218 453. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 221


Cordillera de Colan | National Sanctuary

"Cloud Forest" A charming and agile Common Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri sciureus), frequently seen in the Amazonia, but these days endangered, victim of the pet market.

*Facilities for tourism

NO

Location : AMAZONAS Surface Area

: 39,215.80 ha

Creation Date

: 12/09/2009

Altitude Range

: 260 - 3,500 meters

GENERAL OBJECTIVES Its mission is the preservation of the values of the Cordillera de Colan ecosystems -especially the fog forests biome- as well as significant flora and fauna, that is, endemic species and endangered fauna, of the biological corridor of the northern tropical Andes. The Sanctuary also intends to preserve the forest formations that grow in a highly uneven geomorphology and that help to protect the soils and regulate the hydrological cycle, in order to benefit the neighboring native and 222 Official Guide |Northern Rainforest

rural communities. It also intends to protect the low and middle basins of the Shushug and Chiriaco Rivers. DESCRIPTION The Cordillera de Colan or Colan Massif, also known as Macizo de La Peca, is one of the semi isolated branches of the Cordillera Oriental of the Peruvian Andes, in the so called Huancabamba Depression, the zone where the Andes change direction and from going northwestwards, they start going northeastwards. It has a sample


of Montane Forest, which, due to climatological and geomorphological conditions, belongs to the Cloud Forests or “Ceja de Selva�. Among its special ecosystems, there are some Andean highland zones, and the one called Dwarf Forest, which occurs mainly in steep hillsides and constitutes a vital habitat for some specific fauna. The high rate of endemism and the cloud forest’s capacity to generate and regulate water are some of the most important environmental values, added to the great landscape value. HISTORY The basins of the Shushug and Chiriaco Rivers are the ancestral territory of the Awajun (Aguarunas) and Huambisas indigenous people, belonging to the Jivaro ethnolinguistic group, a group who fiercely resisted the Incas and the Spaniards, and did not suffer greatly the calamities that the Rubber Fever brought to the rest of the Amazonia. They remained in relative isolation until the last century, when they became integrated to Peruvian society, and today they continue to fight in order to defend their rights over their endangered territories. The attention of scientists and conservationists was drawn to the Cordillera de Colan when the Yellowtailed Woolly Monkey (Oreonax flavicauda) was rediscovered in 1974. Subsequent studies demonstrated a rich bird biodiversity in the Colan Massif, so the area was suggested as one of the priority zones for the conservation

of biodiversity in Peru, which led to its being declared a protected natural area. In the north and northeast of the Cordillera de Colan, there are 11 Awajun native communities, which is why they created the Communal Reserve Chayu Nain, from the previous Reserved Zone. The creation of the Sanctuary has been possible with the involvement of the Aguaruna Huambisa Council. FLORA The predominant natural vegetable community is the Evergreen Dense Forest, which is constituted by a large diversity of broadleaved, evergreen and vine species, lianas, shrubs and herbs, as well as epiphytes; and which varies locally as regards density, height and the species included, according to the micro environmental conditions of the habitat or site. With respect to the structure, the most important species in these forests are: Cedrelinga catenaeformis, Inga sp., Protium sp., Virola sebifera, Theobroma cacao, Cecropia sp., Guarea kunthiana, Endlicheria sp., Pseudolmedia laevigata and Pouteria torta. The principal floral values of the area are related to endemism aspects, among which a large variety of orchids and the presence of important species as germplasm stand out. FAUNA The Sanctuary is a priority area for bird conservation in Peru and 470 species

Colan is almost always covered by fog, which favors the great biodiversity.

The Puma, the animal that has inspired the most toponyms in the Andean region -such as the nearby Pomacochas Lake-, is also considered the species with the largest number of common names, something that has to do with its wide distribution, from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego, since ancient times. Its strong jaws have done little to help him preserve that vast territory in the last 500 years. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 223


Orchid (Stanhopea nigripes).

have been registered, grouped in 50 families, being the Tyrannidae family the best represented (with 75 species), followed by the Thraupidae (with 68 species). Also, 7 species of endemic birds have been reported, such as the Long-whiskered Owlet (Xenoglaux loweryi), 2 antpittas (Grallaria carrikeri and G. ochraeifrons), the Royal Sunangel (Heliangelus regalis), the Russet-mantled Softtail (Thripophaga berlepschi) and 2 species which are new to science, an owl (Otus sp. nov.) and a flycatcher (Hemitriccus sp. nov.).

taking the paved road that goes from Olmos to Tarapoto. From Bagua, one follows a packed dirt road that carries to Nieva, arriving to the town of Chiriaco in about 4 h. From Chiriaco, one goes southwards for about 3 h, by a dirt road that connects the villages of the Chiriaco River’s basin, up to the Nayumpin community, from where one can only continue on foot. The Chiriaco River is the eastern limit of the National Sanctuary. There is also a long bridle path that starts at La Esperanza village and runs northwards -40 minutes after Pomacochas, in the same OlmosTarapoto road-, which takes to marker N° 6 of the protected area (Chaka Bridge), passing through the village of La Perla del Imaza, after a 2 days walk. Bagua can also be reached by road from Chachapoyas (120 km) or Tarapoto, which, just like Chiclayo, is connected to the Capital by air or land transport to the rest of the country. WEATHER The average temperature goes from 68 to 77 °F and the annual average precipitation is 1,350 to 4,376 mm.

Nine species of amphibians of the Leptodactylidae family and 64 mammals grouped in 24 families have been registered. Of these, 11 are endangered species: Peruvian Night Monkey (Aotus miconax), Yellow-tailed Woolly Monkey (Oreonax flavicauda), White-fronted Spider Monkey (Ateles belzebuth), Pacarana (Dinomys branickii), Spectacled Bear (Tremarctos ornatus), Giant Anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), Andean Hairy Armadillo (Chaetophractus nationi), South American Tapir (Tapirus terrestris), Hairy Long-nosed Armadillo (Dasypus pilosus), Puma (Puma concolor) and Jaguar (Panthera onca). HOW TO GET THERE Getting to the Cordillera de Colan is not an easy task. Bagua, the nearest city from where it can be accessed, is at a distance of 330 km from Chiclayo, 224 Official Guide |Northern Rainforest

A beautiful cascade, located in the native community of Nayumpin.


78°30' TUMBES PIURA

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Lag. Pomacochas

78°00'

ATTRACTIONS

CONTACT INFORMATION

In fact located in the surrounding areas, the following stand out: the San Jose Alto and El Tigre Cataracts, with a waterfall approximately 70 meters high, close to a hydrographic tunnel.

Administrative headquarters of the protected area: Pasaje Matias Rimachi 180, Bagua Grande, Amazonas, Tel. (01) 968 218 440.

The Cambiopitec Caves, the speleological complex of El Eden (Pan de Azucar and Soles), the Boca del Diablo Cave (Buenos Aires), Las Virtudes grotto, the Chonza Lake (La Peca district) and the Mano de Piedra monolith (La Palma hamlet), great for birdwatching. NEARBY ATTRACTIONS The beautiful Pamacochas Lake, to the south, and the dinosaur tracks in fossil deposit of San Julian, in Quebrada Seca (the zone of the famous Bagua’s Titanosaur and of the Baguatherium), complete the tour.

The Chiriaco River’s basin is one of the main gates to the protected area. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 225


Alto Mayo | Protected Forest

"Forests of hummingbirds and orchids" The bird fauna of the Protected Forest includes numerous hummingbird species, such as this Sapphire-spangled Emerald (Amazilia lactea). *Facilities for tourism

NO

Location : SAN MARTIN Surface Area

: 182,000 ha

Creation Date

: 07/23/1987

Altitude Range

: 700 - 4,000 meters

GENERAL OBJECTIVES Its mission is to protect the hydrographic basins, the forest vegetation, wildlife -especially endangered species- and landscape values, in order to promote tourism, recreation, education, and scientific values for research, generating benefits for the local population, their activities and their infrastructure. DESCRIPTION Alto Mayo has special geological formations, which delineate spectacular landscapes, as well as a unique biodiversity. The steep slopes of its cloud 226 Official Guide |Northern Rainforest

forests, natural sources of conservation of the basin’s hydric resources, are ideal for the preservation of wildlife and the management of its scenic and scientific values. Although its biological biodiversity is not yet well known, Alto Mayo was considered as one of the 38 priority zones for conservation in the country, due to its location to the south of the Huancabamba depression, apart from the endemism in several groups of species. The Protected Forest has been populated by native Awajun or Aguarunas since ancestral times and, nowadays, also by colonists (settlers). Since the end of the 1970s, the migratory influx intensified,


facilitated by the construction of the Marginal roadway that crosses the Protected Forest, dividing it in two. Nowadays, the excess of population and their disorganization constitute a real threat to the conservation of the Forest’s natural values. HISTORY Alto Mayo was inhabited by the Chachapoyas from 1,000 to 1,400 AD, until they were conquered by the Incas. The Alto Mayo valley has been constantly receiving crowds of immigrants, mainly of mestizo groups that have come in waves, starting at the end of the 19th century and the early 20th century with the Rubber Boom, then with the Corn boom in the decades of the 1970s and 1980s, the Coca boom in the eighties and nineties and, finally, between 1995 and 2000, with the Coffee boom. This great migratory avalanche was followed by an unfortunate process of constant intervention in primary forests. COMMUNITIES In Alto Mayo, there live 14 native Aguaruna or Awajun communities (some 4,000 inhabitants), grouped in the Federacion de Comunidades Nativas del Rio Alto Mayo (FERIAM). The large migrant population, settled along the roadway, has made the existing villages to grow and new ones have been created. There are 24 hamlets within the Protected Area (some 5,000 people) and 33 more in the buffering zone. The native communities of the Aguaruna

ethnic group, all of them located outside the protected area, have been affected by the changes in their environment and, in the course of time, have assimilated much of the foreign behavior patterns. FLORA The characteristic ecosystem is that of the Cloud Forests, which constitute approximately 70% of the area. There is a high diversity of epiphytes, among them, numerous orchid, fern and bromeliad species, such as the Angus Bromeliad (Aechmea angustifolia). To this day, 59 species of orchids have been reported, although the real number could be over 300 in the whole area. Among them, the Phragmipedium peruvianum stands out, an Alto Mayo endemic species discovered in 2002. Registers give an approximate number of 1,277 plant species, out of which 15 are new to science and 18, new to Peru. There are also areas of Dwarf Forest, where varieties of moss and large groupings of land bromeliads are abundant. FAUNA So far, 17 endemic bird species of restricted distribution and 23 world endangered species have been registered. These include the Longwhiskered Owlet (Xenoglaux loweryi), the smallest owl in the world, only 12 cm high and an inhabitant of the Dwarf Forests, and the Ochre-fronted

The area has very steep slopes covered with cloud forest.

Alto Mayo protects the nocturnal and solitary Giant Armadillo. Its voluminous body (up to 1.5 meters, including the tail) saves him from becoming a “charango” (an Andean string instrument), but also makes it impossible to protect within its carapace, like its smaller congeners do. Its curved foreclaws, of up to 20 cm, and its hundred teeth do not protect him from man, who hunts it almost to the point of extinction. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 227


meters above sea level); the almost extinct Giant Armadillo (Priodontes maximus) and the Neotropical Otter (Lontra longicaudis). HOW TO GET THERE

The newly discovered Phragmipedium peruvianum.

Antpitta (Grallaricula ochraceifrons), both not very well known. There are some 44 hummingbird species, among which the Marvelous Spatuletail (Lodiggesia mirabilis) stands out in the zone adjacent to the department of Amazonas. Also, the Andean Cock-of-the-rock (Rupicola peruvianus). The large number of predatory birds (27 species including eagles and hawks), indicates the existence of a fauna capable of sustaining so many of them. Among the mammals, the following stand out: the Yellow-tailed Woolly Monkey (Oreonax flavicauda), the largest in Peru and endemic to the montane forests of Amazonas and San Martin, rediscovered in 1974; the Spectacled Bear (Tremarctos ornatus), the Puma (Puma concolor), the Peruvian Night Monkey (Aotus miconax); the Rio Mayo Titi (Callicebus oenanthe), a rare and endemic monkey, restricted to the low land forests of Alto Mayo (from 850 to 1,000

The most direct way of accessing the protected area is the paved road Fernando Belaunde Terry, known also as the Marginal de la Selva, which crosses the area from west to east -between the Pardo de Miguel Pass and the Aguas Verdes Bridge- and goes up to Tarapoto. The closest cities are Moyobamba and Rioja and, two hours away, Tarapoto, which has an airport. WEATHER The altitudinal gradient gives a wide variety of climates with temperatures

One of the many waterfalls, Paraiso Cataract.

between 54 and 77 째F, according to altitude. The annual precipitation goes from 1,200 mm in the low parts, to more than 3,000 mm at altitudes of 1,200 meters above sea level. ATTRACTIONS

The rare Rio Mayo Titi (Calicebus oenanthe), endemic to the zone. 228 Official Guide |Northern Rainforest

Cataracts: Santa Patricia, in the Serranoyacu basin; Caida del Oso, on the pathway that goes from Aguas Verdes to El Triunfo hamlet; Venceremos, in the sub-basin of the Serranoyacu River; Sol de Oro, in the sub-basin of the Naranjillo River; and Urcochaqui, on the


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pathway that starts at the Naciente del Rio Negro hamlet. Lakes: Onercocha, which is found following a footpath from Aguas Verdes, and Siete Lagunas, following a footpath from Olleros. Caves of the oilbirds: Naciente del Rio Negro and Bellavista. The habitat of the Yellow-tailed Woolly Monkey is in Abra Patricia, Alto Nieva, Venceremos, the sub-basin of the Serranoyacu River and Alto Quitaya (Chisquilla). The Cockof-the-rock’s habitat is at Aguas Verdes, Jorge Chavez and the sub-basin of the Serranoyacu River.

Naciente Rio Negro

5°30'

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77°30'

Moyobamba and, between them, the famous Morro Calzada. Tarapoto, which offers a wide range of services for tourists . The Pomacocha Lake and the neighboring Cordillera de Colan National Sanctuary, complete the circuit. CONTACT INFORMATION Administrative headquarters of the Protected Area: Road to Posic, km 1, Rioja, Tel: (042) 558 467 / (01) 968 218 472.

The accessible Abra Patricia (2,300 meters above sea level) is excellent for birdwatching. The importance of Alto Mayo’s orchids, for their beauty and diversity, shows up in the annual Orchid Festival which takes place at Moyobamba in November. NEARBY ATTRACTIONS The neighboring cities of Rioja and

6°00'

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Naranjillo Bridge

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JUMBILLA Chisquilla

Shipasbamba

Rio M ayo

co ria

Corosha

ana s

La Cruz

Naranjos

ALTO MAYO PROTECTED FOREST

Lake Pomacochas

cu Cordille ra C iya a hu ap

o

Balsapata Rio Ch i

Rio May Naranjos Bridge

Nieva Bridge

Imaza Bridge

Pomacochas

C

Pardo de Miguel Mountain pass 2270 m

ac h

Ri o

Venceremos

N

M A R T I N

yo Ma

Yambrasbamba

tro

S A N Ri o

El Triunfo

A M A Z O N A S

o

a

Po

CORDILLERA DE COLAN NATIONAL SANCTUARY

ast

Hu

5°30'

Río

CAJAMARCA

Pedro Ruiz Gallo

Alto Mayo

Q. As

va

SAN MARTÍN

Ri o

Ni e

The gorgeous mountain range scenery of Alto Mayo. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 229


Matses | National Reserve

"Great Refuge of Life" A beautiful female specimen of the Amazonian Royal Flycatcher (Onychorhynchus coronatus), unfolding its crest, which is normally displayed during the mating dance. *Facilities for tourism

NO

Location : LORETO Surface Area

: 420,635.34 ha

Creation Date

: 08/28/2009

Altitude Range

: 150 - 250 meters

GENERAL OBJECTIVES Its objective is to contribute to the conservation of the natural resources found in the watershed area among the Galvez, Blanco and Tapiche Rivers, thus making possible for the Matses population to continue to make traditional use of them in a stable and sustainable way. DESCRIPTION Located in the Amazon plain, the Reserve presents three large landscape units: Hills, terraces and floodplains. Among the types of forests, the white sand forests 230 Official Guide |Northern Rainforest

or “Varillales�, the ones on dry land and the swamp and flood forests stand out. This protected area will facilitate the conservation of whole ecosystems and riverheads -important for the populationalong an uninterrupted binational corridor of more than 3.1 million ha that includes the Sierra del Divisor Reserved Zone in Peru and three other Protected Areas in Brazil. Matses has a complete biodiversity sample of the forests of the Peruvian Amazonia, and it has been estimated that it contains 22% of the mammals, 46% of the birds, 36% of the amphibians, 38% of the reptiles and 47% of the fish


known to live there. It also has high sociocultural and scientific values with great potential for tourism. The constitution of the National Reserve implies the recognition of a wide territory that the Matses people have used since ancestral times for hunting, fishing and collecting, and which is adjacent to their current communal territory. HISTORY San Ignacio de Los Barbudos was the first mission in the area in 1654, with a much reduced Matses population, and was soon abandoned because of the epidemics. Between the 18th and 19th centuries, they lived in relative isolation, until -due to the constant incursions of rubber gatherers in their territories- the Matses and other tribes were pushed towards the high lands of the Yavari River, where they took refuge for decades. In 1964, there was a clash between them and the UMAR2 civil and military expedition (Rural Settlement Military Unit), after which the Government ordered the bombardment of the “malocas mayorunas” (Matses houses) and the population moved further away from the river banks. In 1969, the Summer Institute of Linguistics (SIL), with its evangelizing work, went into the zone on the left bank of the Alto Yaquerana River, giving rise to the current settlements in the Galvez, Yaquerana and Yavari Rivers and

in the Chobayacu Ravine, mainly due to the creation of schools in these areas. In 1973, the Direccion Zonal Agraria de Loreto established a State Territorial Reserve in favor of the Matses or Mayoruna ethnolinguistic group, who finally managed to make the State recognize them by their self-determined name, ‘Matses´, and not by the name ‘Mayoruna’, by which people used to call them and which was somewhat derogative. Finally, in 1993, property titles for 452,735 ha in favor of the Matses Native Community were issued. FLORA In all, 1,150 species have been registered; corresponding to 416 genera of 110 families, and it is probable that 5 to 10 species have been registered that are new to science. There are extensive Varillales and enormous populations of Sacha Aguaje (Mauritia carana) and of Henriquezia, a genus which has not been registered in Peru before; the Rubiaceae family is the best represented, with 31 genera and 95 species. A group deserving special mention is the Moraceae family, with the following genera: Sorocea, Naucleopsis, Ficus, Brosimum, Perebea and Pseudolmedia. The forests have low commercial value, but, on the other hand, there is a complete range of dry land habitats in a relatively small area.

The Matses ethnic group has always inhabited this territory, which is now protected.

The Matses introduce minimum doses of a secretion (kambo or kampo) produced by the Giant Leaf Frog (Phyllomedusa bicolor) into their bloodstream, applying it over superficial burns on their skin, which they previously produce on themselves. The immediate painful effect (nausea, low pressure, and stomach aches) is gone after half an hour, and it gives way to a sharpening of the senses which lasts for a day or two; the Matses make use of it in order to go hunting. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 231


A species that is endemic to the white sand forests, the Platycarpum orinocense.

FAUNA Sixty species of mammals have been registered, corresponding to 9 orders, 23 families and 35 genera, predominantly typical of the Amazonia and of wide distribution. The sloths and armadillos are relatively common, while the anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla and Tamandua tetradactyla) are the most abundant. Of the 12 species of primates, the following stand out: Goeldi’s Marmoset (Callimico goeldii), Bald Uakari (Cacajao calvus) and Monk Saki (Pithecia monachus). Among the ungulates: the Collared Peccary (Pecari tajacu), the White-lipped Peccary (Tayassu pecari) and the South American Tapir (Tapirus terrestris). There are also: Jaguar (Panthera onca), Neotropical Otter (Lontra longicaudis), Giant Otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) and the Amazon River Dolphin (Inia geoffrensis). Among rodents and marsupials: Lowland Paca (Agouti paca), Pacarana (Dinomys branickii) and species of the Proechimys and Oryzomys genera.

Among birds, the following are found: White-chinned Sapphire (Hylocharis cyanus), Fuscous Flycatcher fuscatus), White(Cnemotricus lined Tanager (Tachyphonus rufus) and Blackish Nightjar (Caprimulgus nigrescens); also, Yellow Tyrannulet (Capsiempis flaveola), Boat-billed Flycatcher (Megarynchus pitangua) and Black-crested Antshrike (Sakesphorus canadensis). Among the ones whose sighting is considered rare, are the Northern Waterthrush (Seiurus noveboracensis) and the Gray-chested Greenlet (Hylophilus semicinereus). There are reports of 73 species of amphibians and anurans, and 34 sp of reptiles (18 lizards, 12 snakes, 2 turtles and 2 caimans), a very diverse herpetofauna. Among the snakes, it is interesting to mention the Brazil’s Lancehead (Bothrops brazili), a very rare and little known species. Two species that are new to science have been found: a Bufo (Toad), of the Margaritifer group (“Pinocchio”), and a Hyalinobatrachium (Centrolenidae family). Another interesting report is a little digger frog of the Synapturanus genus. HOW TO GET THERE From Iquitos, one can fly to Angamos, a 45 minutes flight in a light airplane. Angamos, located in the headwaters of the Yavari River, has an aerodrome and it is a kind of entrance to the Reserve. From there, navigating the Galvez River, it takes from 6 to 8 h to cross the Matses communal territory and arrive to the last village called Buen Peru. Also, from Iquitos, one can get to Requena, by public fluvial transport, which takes about 20 h (in motorship, it only takes 10 h), from where one continues on foot for 13 h more until one gets to Matanzas, at the source of the Loboyacu River. From Requena, it is also possible to sail along the Tapiche River and then continue upriver along the Blanco River, in order to get to the southern part of the Reserve. WEATHER

The peculiar Bald Uakari (Cacajao calvus), proper to the north zone of the Amazonia. 232 Official Guide |Northern Rainforest

It is hot, very rainy and humid throughout the year. The average


73°30'

Río Ucay ali

74°00'

PACAYA SAMIRIA NATIONAL RESERVE

National Reserve

N

Jenaro Herrera

5°00'

11 de agosto

Matses

Luciana

REQUENA

Huarmi Isla

Q

cu

án

cu

MATSES NATIONAL RESERVE

e

Rio

PER U AZ IL

an

a

er

Y

Puerto Alegre

ío T apiche

Santa Elena

6°00'

6°00'

o

nc

Bla

Buenas Lomas Nueva Buenas Lomas Antigua

BR

ba yac u

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aq u

lake Iberia

Rio

Rio Galvez

Ri

Iberia

A io Estiron Santa Rosa R

ich

ap oT

ñ us hi y a

5°30'

L O R E T O

5°30'

Rio

Flor de Punga

boya . Lo

lve z

U

Q.

Ga

Río

Angamos Jorge Chavez Paujil Nuevo San Juan San Jose San Remoyacu Mateo de Añushi Buen Peru Nuevo Cashishpi

m A le

cay ali

Río Tapiche

28 de Julio

LORETO

Nueva Alejandría

R

SIERRA DEL DIVISOR RESERVED ZONE

Scale km 0

10

20 74°00'

73°30'

annual precipitation ranges from 2,000 to 2,500 mm. The average annual temperature is 79 °F. ATTRACTIONS It is hot, very rainy and humid throughout the year. The average annual precipitation ranges from 2,000 to 2,500 mm. The average annual temperature is 79 °F.

UCAYALI

73°00'

NEARBY ATTRACTIONS The National Reserves of Allpahuayo Mishana and Pacaya Samiria are the logical circuit that completes a visit to Matses. There is, also, the Sierra del Divisor Reserved Zone for those who come from or go to the south. Only 12 km away from the northern limit of the Reserve, there is the Regional Conservation Area of Tamshiyacu Tahuayo. Iquitos and its numerous attractions are a must.

Masculine dance of the Matses, at the 40th anniversary of their contact with the western world.

Protected Natural Areas | PERU 233


Sierra del Divisor | Reserved Zone

"Islands in the green blanket" A “collpa” of macaws, where birds come to nourish themselves with salts and minerals necessary in their diet (geophagy). *Facilities for tourism

NO

Location : LORETO and UCAYALI Surface Area

: 1’478,311.39 ha

Creation Date

: 04/11/2006

Altitude Range

: 150 - 950 meters

GENERAL OBJECTIVES The main objective is the protection of the biological, geomorphological and cultural biodiversity of the only mountainous region within the context of the Lowland tropical rainforest. DESCRIPTION In Sierra del Divisor -located in the Amazonian plains- mountains with steep slopes, and with heights of more than 900 meters above sea level, raise abruptly, causing the continental divide from where it gets its name. The complex of cones and hills of 234 Official Guide |Northern Rainforest

volcanic origin found in the region of Contamana - Abujao - El Divisor, originate an endless number of small basins that drain their waters into the Ucayali River in Peru and the Yurua in Brazil. This last one has a series of Reserved Areas that are contiguous to Sierra del Divisor and, together, they form a biological corridor of more than 3.1 million hectares. Geologically, it constitutes one of the oldest areas in the Amazonia, with spectacular and inaccessible landscapes, presenting zones almost untouched by human activity and with a high degree of conservation. Ecosystems and


biological communities of endemic flora and fauna species and, also, species of restricted distribution are found in it, which turns it into an area of utmost importance. The Reserved Zone has quite a number of waterfalls, thermal waters and collpas (clay lick) of macaws, highly attractive and of great beauty. HISTORY The history of the whole Amazonia has important common milestones: The Spanish military and religious “reductions”, in which the natives were forced to live together and pay tributes for the education they were getting in order to leave their “uncivilized and infidel” condition behind; the taking of their territories, their children, their forest and even their lives on the part of the rubber landlords; and the constant plundering of their ancestral rights up to our days, which they still resist heroically.

forests and clusters of land bromeliads, grows in the dry mountain tops of the ancient limestone formations in the mountains of Contamana, Contaya and Jaquerana, in the northern half of the area. The other one grows in the cliffs and peaks of the ancient granite of dead volcanoes, including San Lucas Hill, in the southern half of the protected area. Both types of associations must have dozens of plant species which are unknown to science, and many of them are only found in Sierra del Divisor. Two different types of lowland tropical rainforest flora -one, growing in a younger geological formation and the other, in an older one- converge near the oriental border of the area. Inventories on the Brazilian side show that the older formation contains a great number of tree species never recorded in any other place in Peru, while the younger one has a great number of species.

COMMUNITIES

FAUNA

A Territorial Reserve in favor of the native community of the Isconahua, in voluntary isolation, has been established in part of the area included in Sierra del Divisor. Their number and whereabouts are unknown, but their decision to remain excluded from any contact with modern society is respected.

According to the latest studies, the largest number of primate species in Peru is found in Sierra del Divisor (16 species). Considering the Peruvian side as well as the Brazilian side, the number of species rises to 18, which represents one of the highest registers in the world; particularly, the Bald Uakari (Cacajao calvus), the only large primate, the Brown Woolly Monkey (Lagothrix lagotricha), Venezuelan Red Howler (Alouatta seniculus), Tufted Capuchin (Cebus apella), Brown-mantled

FLORA There are two types of vegetal associations that are probably unique. The first one, which includes dwarf

Sierra del Divisor protects a forest of unique characteristics that has remained untouched by human activities.

Its special geographical location, isolated mountains unconnected to any other mountain range, gives rise to many endemic species, that is, species that only exist here. For example, there is a bird that is only found in Sierra del Divisor, the “Divisorius Bird” (Thamnophilus divisorius), also known as Acre Antshrike, name of the adjoining Brazilian region where it was registered for the first time in 2004, having being found in Peru later. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 235


Antshrike (Thamnophilus divisorious), macaws (Ara sp.) and other large parrots (Amazona spp.), herons (Ardeidae) and budgerigars (Nannopsittaca dachillae), whose typical location is Sierra del Divisor.

The mountains produce innumerable watercourses in the Reserved Zone.

Tamarin (Saguinus fuscicollis), Red-faced Spider Monkey (Ateles paniscus), Whitefronted Capuchin (Cebus albifrons), Pygmy Marmoset (Callithrix pygmaea), Titi Monkey (Callicebus sp.) and Owl Monkey (Aotus sp.). Other mammals are found, such as: South American Tapir (Tapirus terrestris), White-lipped Peccary (Tayassu pecari) and Collared Peccary (Pecari tajacu); Giant Anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), Giant Armadillo (Priodontes maximus) and, among the carnivores, Jaguar (Panthera onca), Bush Dog (Speothos venaticus), Neotropical Otter (Lontra longicaudis) and the Short-ear Dog (Atelocynus microtis). There are registers of 4 new bird species; 3 of them, only found in the heights of isolated mountains. The registers in the Brazilian side of Serra do Divisor Reserve come to 485 bird species nowadays. Some important ones are: Guans (Cracidae), important populations of Acre

Among the amphibians and reptiles, we have: Yellow-spotted River Turtle (Podocnemis unifilis), Yellow-footed Tortoise (Geochelone denticulata), Spectacled Caiman (Caiman crocodylus) and Dwarf Caiman (Paleosuchus sp.); Poison Dart Frog (Dendrobatidae), Salamander (Bolitoglossa digitigrada), endemic to Peru, and the largest species of Gecko in the Amazonia (Thecadactylus rapicauda).

Biological research in Cerro Bola, near the Shesha River.

HOW TO GET THERE From Pucallpa, it can be accessed by river, sailing the Ucayali River, then the Abujao River and then, the Shesha, upriver, but only during the rainy season, when it is navigable. Also from Pucallpa, one can go to Contamana -half an hour by plane, 6 hours by a fast boat and 12 hours by barge- and from there, take a 20 km dirt road which enters the Reserve to access the thermal waters of Aguas Calientes. Finally, from Requena, also by river, one can access the northern zone, navigating the Tapiche River. WEATHER

Marbled Treefrog (Dendropsophus marmoratus). 236 Official Guide |Northern Rainforest

It is hot and humid, with an average annual temperature of about 77 째F. Precipitation goes from 1,600 mm to 2,000 mm, distributed in a 9 to 10 months period every year.


74°00'

ca ya

li

75°00'

Rio

Tamanco

Santa Isabel

Reserved Zone

R

Sierra del Divisor

e

ich ap Ri o T

Santa Elena

R

Dos de Mayo

c lan io B

o

N

Monte Alegre

L O R E T O q

e

7°00'

pi

ch

Orellana

ana uir

Francia

Ya

R

a io T

B Rio u ncuyo

Catalina

Nueva Alejandria

Rio

a

S u ngaro

Rio Yan

R. Ucayali

cu

Rio

ay

Rio Ma qu ía

6°00'

co

Saman

7°00'

MATSES NATIONAL RESERVE

Iberia

U

n Bla io

PACAYA SAMIRIA NATIONAL Obrero RESERVE

Ana Maria

Inahuaya Pampa Hermosa

Aguas Calientes LORETO

CONTAMANA qui Pis

Monte Blanco San Pablo

Rio

Uc

UCAYALI

aya li Bello Horizonte

U C A Y A L I Nueva Requena Curimana

75°00'

Aguaytia 125 km

Lake Yarinacocha

Z IL BR A PERU

8°00'

Tiruntan

8°00'

R io

SIERRA DEL DIVISOR RESERVED ZONE

Scale km

Puerto Callao

PUCALLPA 74°00'

Campo Verde

ATTRACTIONS Sierra del Divisor has the only mountainous region east of Ucayali and Loreto, which stands out dramatically in the lowland tropical rainforest, with isolated elevations such as the Cono or Cerro Aguja, and San Lucas, which offer a wonderful view. These zones are found to the south of the Reserved Zone, which is not very accessible. To the west, 20 km away from the city of Contamana, by a dirt road, one gets to the very hot sulphurous thermal springs of Aguas Calientes. Also, there is a collpa (clay lick) of Macaws, 40 km away from Contamana by a footpath, surrounded by a great biodiversity and very close to a lovely cataract known as Llanto de la Anaconda (The weeping of the Anaconda).

0

15

30

73°00'

west, complete a very special but not so accessible circuit. CONTACT INFORMATION Administrative headquarters of the Protected Area: Av. Tupac Amaru, Mz. G, Lote 10, Pucallpa, Tel: (061) 578 992 / (01) 968 218 475.

NEARBY ATTRACTIONS The beautiful city of Contamana, the neighboring Matses National Reserve to the north, and the interesting Cordillera Azul National Park to the

The famous and special Cono, a tall, isolated hill. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 237


Cordillera Azul | National Park

"Pristine Mountains" The amazing resemblances animal mimesis can achieve are demonstrated with this “invisible” frog on the bark of the tree. *Facilities for tourism

NO

Location : LORETO, SAN MARTIN, HUANUCO & UCAYALI Surface Area

: 1´353,190.85 ha

Creation Date

: 05/21/2001

Altitude Range

: 200 - 2,400 meters

GENERAL OBJECTIVES The main objectives are the protection of a unique series of species, biological communities and geological formations, proper to the pre-montane and montane forests of the Cordillera Azul complex, as well as untouched river sources and basins; and to give support to the development of a balanced and integral management of the natural resources of the adjacent zones. DESCRIPTION The Cordillera Azul National Park protects the largest extension of untouched Highland Tropical Forest and is a home 238 Official Guide |Northern Rainforest

to animals and plants that are unique in the world, corresponding to its also unique geographical characteristics. Its pronounced altitude gradient, that goes from the Highland Tropical Forest to the Amazonian plain, houses diverse types of ecosystems that have biological wealth of global value, which have made possible the concentration of a diversity of animals and plants and, especially, of a large number of endemic species or species that are exclusive to the region. It is an excellent opportunity for protecting entire basins and large portions of forests, something that has been achieved so far. The results of few but outstanding investigations testify to that.


The State has subscribed a total management contract for 20 years with the Center for the Conservation, Research and Management of Natural Areas -CIMA Cordillera Azul- which includes the participation of the Park Management Committee, the four regional governments involved, 9 Provincial Councils and 33 Distrital Councils; apart from the population settled in the Park’s Buffer Zone (more than 252,000 people), distributed in more than 258 villages and hamlets, and more than 17 native communities. The management of such a large National Park as Cordillera Azul would not be possible without the compromise and the involvement of the local population settled in the neighboring Buffer Zone, which now enjoys the benefits generated by protecting this wildlife area. HISTORY In historical terms, there is evidence of at least two ancient cultures in the Park. In the Pauya River’s basin, there are four buildings made of stone and poles, with walls up to 4 meters high, the first buildings of such characteristics that have been found in the Peruvian Lowland tropical forest. They seem to be associated with the human migrations of the Chachapoyas from the Huallaga River, being placed on the Late Horizon (1400-1532 AD). In the basins of the Pauya and Cushabatay Rivers, there are cultural remains more than 2,000 years old, while in the vicinity of the Pisqui River, registers are more recent and of cultures strictly of Amazonian origin.

It is in 1963 when the State starts to show interest in this area and establishes the National Forest of Biavo - Cordillera Azul. Then, in 1996, the entire area was considered a priority zone for biodiversity conservation and, in 1997, it was declared Forest Area. Three years later, a group of Peruvian investigators from APECO and the Museum of Natural History of San Marcos University joined efforts with The Field Museum to make a Rapid Biological Inventory (RBI) in the Alto Pauya and Alto Pisqui, the heart of the Cordillera Azul, which reported more than 30 species that were new to science. That same year, 2000, the Reserved Zone Biavo - Cordillera Azul is established, based on the Inventory’s information, which proposed maximum protection for the zone, something that becomes a reality the following year, 2001, with the creation of the National Park. In 2008, the Peruvian State signs a contract with CIMA Cordillera Azul, so they would have total management of the protected natural area for a lapse of 20 years. COMMUNITIES There are no settlements within the Park, although some people testify that there is a group of people of the Cashibo Cacataibo indigenous ethnia (called Camano by the natives, which in their language means “naked”), who live in voluntary isolation in the southeastern part of the Park. There are several villages in the Buffer Zone. In San Martin and Huanuco, the

The emblematic profile of the Park, the Turtle Hills or Mananshahuemana.

The Cordillera Azul National Park is lavish with Palm trees, not just regarding their number -especially the Aguaje- but as to the variety of species, with more than half of the species known to live in Peru. A new species of the Euterpe genus, found during the Rapid Biological Inventory that prompted its creation (see HISTORY), is a palm tree of multiple trunks that would allow the harvesting of the “Palmito” without destroying the whole tree, since it has several terminal shoots. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 239


Lepanthes sp., Masdevallia sp., Maxillaria sp., Vanilla sp.) and cacao (Theobroma cacao), among many others. FAUNA

The scenic beauty is exceptional in the Cordillera Azul.

population includes, mainly, Andean migrants, Amazonians and mestizos. Towards the south, there are Cacataibo communities who live in communal territories and use rivers as their principal means of transportation. In the Pisqui River, in Loreto, there is Shipibo population settled along the forest territory. There is also Yine population in the lower zone of the Cushubatay River, east of the Park, and Kechwa-Lamista communities towards the northwest. FLORA Approximately 1,600 plant species have been registered, of which 12 are new to science, and a total number between 4,000 and 6,000 has been estimated for the Park. The vegetation is typical of Montane Forests, although it includes drier sectors towards the west and vegetation typical of the Amazonian plains, characterized by large trees, towards the east. It has a high diversity of palm tree species, an important alimentary resource capable of sustaining high densities of mammals and birds. Among the most characteristic species, are: Palm trees (Bactris concinna, B. gasipaes, B. maraja, B. simplicifrons), tilandsias (Tillandsia crispa), heliconias (Heliconia episcopalis, H. rostrata and H. stricta), timber species such as Big-leaf Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) and cedars (Cedrela fissilis, C. odorata); orchids (Elleanthus sp., 240 Official Guide |Northern Rainforest

The Park’s wild fauna is highly diverse: 71 species of large mammals have been registered, 10 sp of primates and 13 endangered species; as well as 516 bird species (being 800 the estimated total number), with 3 new registers for Peru, and one which is new to science: the Scarlet-banded Barbet (Capito wallacei). There are, also, 82 species of amphibians and reptiles, 8 new toad sp and a new salamander sp; and 93 fish species, of which 22 are new to Peru and more than 10 are new to science. It has characteristic species of harlequin frogs (Atelopus andinus, A. pulcher) and poison frogs (Allobates cf. marchesianus sp., A. femoralis, Dendrobates cf. lamasi, D. variabilis, Ameerega cainarachi); reptiles: Spectacled Caiman (Caiman crocodylus), Giant Ameiva (Ameiva ameiva) and Yellow-spotted Amazon River Turtle (Podocnemis unifilis). Birds are the most diverse group, some are important as tourism attractions, such as macaws and parrots (23 species of Psittacidae), large eagles (19 species of Accipitridae and 9 of Falconidae), such as the Harpy Eagle (Harpia harpyja) and the Crested Eagle (Morphnus guianensis). Game birds such as the guans (Ortalis guttata, Penelope jacquacu, Pipile cumanenses, Aburria aburri, Crax tuberosa) that have been exterminated in the Buffer Zone; and

Harlequin-like Atelopus pulcher.


Rio

76°00'

a ran Pa

p

ur

a

National Park

Yurimaguas

6°00'

Balsapuerto

Lake Cuipari

Cordillera Azul

16 0

Shucushuyacu San Juan de Shanusi Moyobamba 35 km

San Roque de Cumbaza 40

Tarapoto

Chazuta

R io

Mojarra

ab Cush

atay

Contamana

ra n a i pu

Rio C

cu

Lake Chía Tipishca

a Rio P uya

Tornillal

Campanilla

Pampa Hermosa

Rio

Boca Pauya

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47

R io B

Pururo

Cedro Sisa

a inuy

Q. C ra hambi Formaciones Vivians

Nuevo Loreto

Cuzco

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Nuevo Loreto

CAJAMARCA

Pa a uy

SAN MARTIN

Cachatigre Rio Bravo

LA LIBERTAD

M A R T I N i ste r Mi Rio

N io a

ni

Gossen

Pisqu i Rio

Alto Marona

Rio B l anco

Pucayacu 30

Alto Previsto

9°00'

Aucayacu Campo Grande

Alto Cuchara 40

Hermilio Valdizán

Túpac Yupanqui

Santa Ana Miguel Grau Tahuantinsuyo

75 San

Yamino

Alejandro

Boqueron del Padre Abad

Aguaytía Primavera

El Velo de la Novia Santa Rosa waterfall

55

Luyando Pumahuasi

TINGO MARIA Chavin de Pariarca NATIONAL PARK

20

Tantamayo

E

Pucallpa 60 km

San Antonio

H U Á N U C O

R

ON

Santa Rosa

Mariscal Cáceres

Alto Magdalena

Monzon

Curimana

Rio

La Morada

Jirca

Santa Ana

100

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Pucayacu

Las Malvinas

ua

Manteca Bridge

nzon io Mo

U C A Y A L I

Mananshahuemana Rio Ap Mountain

Nuevo Progreso

Uchiza

Alto Pisqui

uc

Santa Rosa de Shapaja

Tambo de Paja

8°00'

Nuevo Eden R

so

Shapaja

San Francisco

La Cumbre

o

D A RY

55

Tocache 40

Manco Cápac

L O R E T O

UN

S A N

Boca Noaya

BO

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BU FFE RZ

8°00'

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HUANUCO

CORDILLERA AZUL NATIONAL PARK

ya

Polvora

ANCASH

Ag ua ytí a

Polvora

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75

ZONE BOUNDAR

Y

Orellana

SIERRA DEL DIVISOR RESERVED ZONE

Q.

Juanjui

Y O U N DAR

Nuevo Dorado

Q. V

Nueva Lima Tingo de Saposoa

NE B

9°00'

7°00'

Y

Chambirillo

ZO

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Puerto Rico Shamboyacu

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San Jose de Yanayacu

Tununtunumba Waterfall Shapaja Robashca Sauce

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Shapaja Waterfall

San Jose de Sisa

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7°00'

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PACAYA SAMIRIA NATIONAL RESERVE

Navarro

Rio

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Roque

Pelejo Papaplaya

Barranquita

Topa

Tingo Maria Las Palmas 76°00'

Huanuco a 110 km

Puerto Inca

Scale km 0

10

20

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75°00'


HOW TO GET THERE

Yellow-bellied Puffing Snake (Pseustes sulphureus), during its snorting act.

endemic birds, such as the previously mentioned Scarlet-banded Barbet. Among the mammals, there are: primates (Alouatta seniculus, Ateles paniscus, Cebus albifrons, C. apella, Callicebus cupreus, Lagothrix lagotricha, Pithecia monachus, Saimiri sciureus) and felines (Herpailurus yaguarondi, Leopardus pardalis, Panthera onca, Puma concolor); the Spectacled Bear (Tremarctos ornatus), Neotropical Otter (Lontra longicaudis), Giant Otter (Pteronura brasiliensis), South American Tapir (Tapirus terrestris), Collared Peccary (Pecari tajacu), White-lipped Peccary (Tayassu pecari), Red Brocket (Mazama americana), Coati (Nasua sp.) and large rodents like the Punchana (Myoprocta sp.), Lowland Paca (Agouti paca) and Capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris).

The Park is surrounded by important towns and several of them have air services to the Capital: Huanuco, Tarapoto and Pucallpa, and from the last two, to Contamana. By land, the Fernando Belaunde Highway runs parallel to the west side of the Park, which goes from Tarapoto to Tingo Maria, connecting Picota, Bellavista, Juanjui, Tocache and Aucayacu. To the south, there is the roadway that goes from Tingo Maria to Pucallpa, passing by Aguaytia, with a detour towards the north that takes to Yamino. To the north, there is the road that goes from Tarapoto to Chazuta (2 hours), and to the northwest, the roads from Tarapoto to Tres Unidos, to Shamboyacu and Nuevo Loreto, to Nuevo Lima and Challual and, finally, the one from Tarapoto to Barranca. All these latter routes are accessible only during the dry season. By river, it is possible to access the northern part of the Park, from Tarapoto, by the Chipurana River (tributary to the Huallaga). To the east, the principal route is the Ucayali River that connects Pucallpa to Contamana, from where one enters into the area by the Pisqui or the Cushabatay Rivers. It is also possible to continue by the Ucayali River up to Orellana. WEATHER Temperate and rainy at altitudes of over 400 meters above sea level; hot and humid in the Amazonian plain. The region is subject to a pattern of

The lovely Laguna del Mundo Perdido, in a panoramic view of the northern zone of the Cordillera Azul National Park.

242 Official Guide |Northern Rainforest


communities of the Pisqui River and Laguna Azul, in the Sauce District. Neighboring cities with multiple tourist attractions, such as Tarapoto, Pucallpa and Contamana. Finally, the National Reserve of Pacaya Samiria, the Rio Abiseo National Park and the Reserved Zone of Sierra del Divisor, with which the Cordillera Azul National Park forms a gigantic conservation biological corridor. SERVICES WITHIN THE AREA The Park has 12 Control Posts on its borders or very close to them: Robashca, Mishquillaquiyo, Chambirillo, Ipururo, Cedro Sisa, Tornillal, Mojarra and Cacha Tigre, on the west flank; Santa Ana, Alto Pisqui, Boca Noaya and Boca Pauya, on the east. Caimans sunbathing in a Cocha.

In the Buffer Zone there are 6 Park Ranger Centers: In San Jose de

dry spells, from June/July to October/ November. The cold winds from the Antarctic, locally known as “friajes”, push the humid winds towards this region, which are trapped by the high mountains barrier of the Cordillera Azul; as a consequence, the northwestern part of the Park is much drier. ATTRACTIONS The following stand out: the beautiful Laguna del Mundo Perdido (Lost World Lake) in Chazuta; the Vivians formations, enormous triangular plateaus about 7 km long and 4 km wide, which in certain sectors rise up to 350 meters above the jungle; the fog forests where the Capito wallacei (a bird endemic to the Park) lives; all of these in the Cushabatay River’s basin and in the Cinco Puntos Mountains. The Mananshahuemana Hills (“turtle” in Shipibo language), and the collpa of macaws, are both along the Pisqui River. Also, the Viewpoint of Chambirillo, with spectacular views of the forests towards the east of the Park, and the highland marshes, wetlands at 1,400 meters above sea level, unique in Peru, in the source of the Pucayacu. NEARBY ATTRACTIONS The cataracts of Chambira, the cave of the Owls in Lejia, the native

A Contamana student, learning about biodiversity.

Yanayacu and Nuevo Dorado to the northeast; Nuevo Loreto, Polvora, Shapaja and Pucayacu, to the west. CONTACT INFORMATION Administrative headquarters of the Protected Area: Jr. Angel Delgado Morey 565, Partido Alto, Tarapoto, Tel: (042) 529 844 / (01) 968 218 428. CIMA: Executant of the Management Contract; mailcima@cima.org.pe

Park’s

Protected Natural Areas | PERU 243


Rio Abiseo | National Park

"The Great Pajaten" The ever enigmatic archaeological complex of the Gran Pajaten discovered in the second half of the last century. *Facilities for tourism

NO

Location : SAN MARTIN Surface Area

: 274,520 ha

Creation Date

: 08/11/1983

Altitude Range

: 350 - 4,349 meters

GENERAL OBJECTIVES The main objectives are to protect a representative sample of the cloud forest of the highland and lowland tropical rainforests, which includes zones of endemism; to preserve flora and fauna species and associations, particularly those that are in a vulnerable or endangered condition: Yellow-tailed Woolly Monkey (Oreonax flavicauda), Spectacled Bear (Tremarctos ornatus), Taruca (Hippocamelus antisensis), Jaguar (Panthera onca) and White-fronted Spyder Monkey (Ateles belzebuth); to preserve the ecological balance of the 244 Official Guide |Northern Rainforest

cloud forests in order to guarantee the hydrological stability of the basins of the Abiseo, Tumac and Montecristo Rivers; to promote and support research on the cultural and natural resources; to preserve cultural resources and the landscape’s beauty, particularly, the archaeological complex El Gran Pajaten and Los Pinchudos; to support recreation and tourism, minimizing the impact they could have on the area’s resources, and to promote the integrated rural development of the adjacent populations, based on the sustainable use of the natural and cultural resources of the zone.


DESCRIPTION The Rio Abiseo National Park is one of the protected areas of greater biological richness in Peru, apart from having archaeological remains of preColumbian occupation of incalculable value. Seven ecological zones are found, that go from the lowland tropical rainforest to the paramo at more than 4,200 meters above sea level, with unique natural surroundings that have a great landscape and ecological diversity, such as the paramo of Loricaria, the puna grassland, many lakes, ravines and rivers, isolated woods, cloud forests and forests typical of the highland tropical rainforest. Regarding its archaeological heritage, El Gran Pajaten, the most impressive monumental complex owing to its peculiar architecture, is a citadel built by the Chachapoyas before they were subdued by the Incas. The funeral complex of Los Pinchudos also stands out. Built on the narrow edge of a large cliff, its wooden idols representing naked beings are a unique example of prehistoric wooden idols found intact and placed in their original location. Other remains that have been found include Cerro Central, with around 200 buildings; Las Papayas, with nearly 100 structures, some of carved stone; the Marcial (Pajaten II) archeological site, also with more than 100 buildings, and many others, such as La Playa, Apisunchu, Alpamachay and Manachaqui.

area is unique in South America, a fact which UNESCO corroborated in 1992, when it declared it Natural and Cultural World Heritage Site, a mixed category it shares with the Machupicchu Historic Sanctuary, in the country. HISTORY Cultural remains more than 8,000 years old have been found in the National Park, which are still little known and have not been thoroughly studied. Until 1989, there were 39 registered sites, 29 in the puna grassland and 7 in the humid montane forest. Nevertheless, recent expeditions have reported new sites. The first reports of the existence of prehistoric sites in the zone now included in the Park’s area were given by a police officer, Alfonso Del Rio, in 1916, but they did not awaken interest. Augusto Weberbauer, some years later, outlines the first access route from Pataz, with a detailed description of itineraries and prehispanic roads. In 1961, a group of settlers from Pias find archaeological structures which they called Apisunchu. In 1963, a group of people from Pataz, led by their Mayor, Tomas Torrealva, find El Gran Pajaten and tell of their discovery. Gene Savoy, integrating it to the group of Chachapoyas sites he had already discovered, gives the news to the world. In 1966, Victor Pimentel and Duccio Bonavia carry out studies. In

The presence of numerous and exceptional archaeological sites within a vast forested

The Rio Abiseo National Park includes several ecological zones, from the cold Puna to the humid Cloud Forest.

In 1802, Alexander von Humboldt found the hide of a primate that was unknown to science near Chiclayo, and called it Yellow-tailed Monkey. The species does not appear again until 1925-26, but, again, they were dead samples. Finally, in 1974, the Yellow-tailed Woolly Monkey (Oreonax flavicauda) is found alive. Apparently, it is incapable of adapting itself to a transformed or deteriorated forest, so it is up to us that it does not disappear forever. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 245


FLORA

Los Pinchudos, with well-preserved carvings, in the vicinity of the Great Pajaten.

1973, Jaime Deza, archaeologist of the National University of Trujillo, and his students, Miguel Cornejo and Enrique Vergara, make the first register of La Playa, discovered by Manuel and Noe Villalobos early that year. In 1980, biologists Mariella Leo and Enrique Ortiz report Los Pinchudos and Las Papayas for the first time. That same year, the Rupa Rupa expedition, led by Federico Kauffman, gives the world the news of this finding.

Of the 1,134 plant species that have been registered, 986 correspond to the western sector, where angiosperms and pteridophytes predominate. Of the 148 on the eastern sector, where angiosperms also predominate, 37 have known medicinal properties, such as the Araceae and Moraceae. There are very large trees in the hill lands, such as the Renaco (Ficus sp.), Rubber Tree (Hevea brasiliensis) and others. Among the species of economical importance, Sangre de Grado (Croton lechleri) and Cats’s Claw (Uncaria tomentosa) stand out, and among the timber trees, the Cedar (Cedrela odorata), Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) and Tornillo (Cedrelinga catenaeformis). There are two tree species which are considered seriously endangered: Cedro Tree (Cedrela montana) and Romerillo (Prumnopitys montana). Among the plants with flowers, orchids (72 species) of the Stelis, Epidendrum

The studies of Leo and Ortiz, which proved the presence of the Yellowtailed Woolly Monkey in the area, the largest endemic primate in Peru, also served to demonstrate the enormous fauna and flora diversity richness in the basin of the Abiseo River. As a consequence of their visits, they proposed the creation of the “Gran Pajaten” National Park. The gorgeous Timon cascade.

and Masdevallia genera stand out. Other families with a significant number of species are the Melastomataceae (46 species), especially the Miconia genus, and the Solanaceae, in particular the Solanum genus. FAUNA

Osteocephalus leoniae. 246 Official Guide |Northern Rainforest

Up to this day, there are registers of 903 wild fauna species in the Park. These are distributed in 181 species of mammals, 409 of birds, 17 of reptiles, 30 of amphibians, 14 of fish and 252


77°30'

77°00'

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110

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77°30'

Scale km 0

of invertebrates. Of these, 552 species correspond to the western sector and 351 to the eastern sector of the Park. From those in the western sector, no less than 27 species are considered endemic to Peru and of restricted distribution to the Park and its surroundings, several of them being endangered ones. In the eastern sector, 18 endangered species have been reported: 11 mammals and 7 birds. In general, the reports have concentrated on areas at altitudes between 2,000 to 4,200 meters above sea level, so further studies are needed in the eastern sector in order to get real values.

8

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Tocache Tingo Maria 181 km

Chigualen Control Post on foot in 6 h, or to the Ventanas Control Post, in 3 h by car and then 8 more hours on foot. On the other hand, from Pataz, it only takes 3 h on foot to get to the Chigualen Control Post.

HOW TO GET THERE There are two principal routes in order to access the eastern and western zones of the Park. Coming from Trujillo, one gets to the western side by the dirt road that takes to Chagual in some 24 h and, from there, to Pias or Pataz, which takes two hours more in each case. From Pias, one gets to the

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The Speckled Chachalaca or Manacaracu (Ortalis guttata). Protected Natural Areas | PERU 247


according to altitude and precipitation varies from 800 mm to 2,000 mm. RESTRICCIONES Nowadays, the protected area is NOT open to the public, and entering the Park for study, research or documentation purposes is only possible with previous authorization from the Park Headquarters, SERNANP Offices or the Ministry for Culture, which has to be requested 6 days in advance. The ideal time to visit it is from May to September. The naïve Armadillo or Quirquincho, hunted for its meat all over America.

Going by the east side, the fluvial route starts at Juanjui (one hour south of Tarapoto) and goes to Huicungo, which takes 1 to 2 h and, from there, to the Churo Control Post, it takes another 2 h. From Tarapoto and Trujillo, there are daily flights to the Capital and they are also connected by land to the rest of the country by interprovincial buses. Juanjui has an airfield (1 ½ h from Lima). WEATHER The climate is warm and humid in the eastern side, with an average temperature above 64 °F. Rainfall is more than 750 mm, with a relative humidity of 90%. In the west, instead, temperature oscillates between 44 and 77 °F,

ATTRACTIONS Among the natural attractions, the following stand out: The Oros Ravine, the cataracts of El Oso, Velo de Novia, Shihui and Las Gemelas; the Abiseo, Montecristo and Tomac Rivers, and La Empedrada, La Escondida, La Colorada, Negra, Honda and Chucara Lakes. Also, the Montane, Cloud and Dwarf Forests, and the Andean and Tornillo woods; landscapes and rock formations: Pampa de Venados, the mountain massif, U shaped valleys, the cliff of Los Pinchudos and the Cueva de Los Muertos. Also, large mammals, riverside birds and abundant flora such as orchids, ferns, bromeliads and heliconias. The list of cultural attractions includes the prehispanic settlements: Gran Pajaten, La Playa, El Encanto, Las

There are numerous lakes in the High Andean zone of the Park, such as this one at 3,600 meters above sea level, known as La Empedrada.

248 Official Guide |Northern Rainforest


Papayas and Cerro Central. Ancient funerary sites such as Los Pinchudos, and other archaeological sites: Los Paredones, Pampa de Cuyes, Puerta del Monte, El Mirador, Apisunchu, Achiras, Alpamachay, Ochanache, farming terraces, irrigation channels and prehispanic roads. Also, ceremonial offering sites, outcrops that were used in prehistoric times, and cave paintings. NEARBY ATTRACTIONS In the surrounding areas we can list: in Pataz, El Churo Alto and El Churo Bajo, Cocha Farallon, Maquisapa, Blanca and Quebrada Seca Ravines; the cataracts of Cerradora and Pedrera River and the Timon and Blanca waterfalls; the Pataz, Negra and Tres Lagunas Lakes; the Dwarf Forests in Los Andes, the Inca dams and canals and the Stone of the Sun and the Moon. In Condomarca, the Activen and Sumanga cataracts, the Caraz, Cobrin, El Gallo, La Brava and Telosoy Lakes, the Huamantinga Cave and the archeological sites of Cativen, Pueblo Viejo and the Inca road. In Parcoy, El Chorro Cataract and Tres Lagunas. In Pias, La Playa and Guadalupe Rivers, the Cinturota, Pias and Baya Lakes, the Tamburco Hill and the archeological site of Yuracyacu. In Huicungo, there are El Breo Cataract, the Otorongo, Del Oso and De Los Franceses Caves, and the prehispanic site of Ochanache.

Camouflage has a purpose: to avoid being seen by predators.

Finally, in Buldibuyo, there is the Huascacocha Lake and the prehispanic site of Maquimaque. SERVICES WITHIN THE AREA Located in the Buffer Zone outside the Park, the three Control Posts are found: Chigualen and Ventanas in the western zone, and El Churo in the eastern zone. Likewise, the Huicungo Interpretation Center, adjacent to Juanjui, informs the visitor in a didactic and objective way about the natural, cultural and historical environment of the Park. Close to Pataz, the Chigualen Interpretation Center is found, a space in which to rescue and value the life and resources of one of the last natural forests of the region, a small relict of myrtles and colorful flowers such as the Chagpa and the Amaro. There is also, an Information Center in Pataz, and a Biological Station in the sector called “La Zata�, with scientific purposes. CONTACT INFORMATION Administrative Headquarters of the Protected Area: Jr. Leticia 1477-1479, Juanjui, Mariscal Caceres, Tel: (042) 545 304 / (01) 968 218 425. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 249


SERVICES Phone Area Codes: Cajamarca (076), Amazonas (041), San Martin (042), Ucayali (061), Loreto (065) HOTELS Jaen: **Prim's; Diego Palomino 1352, T. 431039 **Mar Gris; Mariscal Castilla 342, T. 431099 *Morro Swiss; Alfredo Bastos 518, Morro Solar (Manzana 20; Lote17), T. 434612 *Filadelfia; Rodriguez de Mendoza 710, T. 301458 San Ignacio: **Gran Hotel San Ignacio; Jose Olaya 680, T. 356544; www. granhotelsanignacio.com/ *Dorado; Atahualpa 196, centro San Ignacio, T. 356257 Chachapoyas: ***Casa Vieja; Chincha Alta 569, T. 477353; www.casaviejaperu.com/ ***Puerto Pumas Pomacochas Inn; Laguna Pomacochas, carretera Marginal Km 327, T. 2425550; www.puertopalmeras.com.pe/pumas. htm ***Gran Vilaya; Ayacucho 755, T. 478154; www.hotelvilaya.com/ **Choctamal Ms Lodge; Carretera a Kuelap Km. 17, T. 478838; www.marvelousspatuletail.com/ **La Casona Monsante; Amazonas 746, T. 477702; www.lacasonamonsante.com/ **La Casona de Leymebamba; Amazonas 221, T. 830106; www. casonadeleymebamba.com/ **Valle Kuelap Hotel Inn; carretera a Leymebamba, Sector Parsul, T. 778433 Bagua: **El Eden; Chachapoyas 456, T. 215700, www.hotel-eleden.com **El Emperador; Mariano Melgar 340, La Peca, T. 471173 **Wilson; Sargento Lores 109, La Peca, T. 471134 *Los Tayos; La Verdad 530, La Peca, T. 471878 Tarapoto: ***Puerto Palmeras Tarapoto Resort; carretera Marginal Sur Km 3,5, T. 524260; www.puertopalmeras.com.pe/palmeras.htm ***Rio Shilcayo; Las Flores 224, Shilcayo, T. 522225; www.rioshilcayo.com/ **Cielo; San Martin 334, T. 521012; www.hotelcielo.net/ **Cumbaza; Jimenez Pimentel 610, T. 524402; www.hotelcumbaza.com **Sol de la Selva; Pedro de Urzua 161, T. 524817; www.hostalsoldeselva.com/ **Nilas; Moyobamba 173, T. 527331; www.hotelnilas.com/ presentacion.html Moyobamba: ***Puerto Mirador; Sucre s/n, T. 562050; www.hotelpuertomirador. com/ **Marcoantonio; Pedro Canga 488, T. 562319; www.hotelmarcoantonio.com/ **Celis; Callao 845, T. 562457 Rioja: **El Gran Bombonaje Rioja Hotel; Faustino Maldonado 515, T. 558013; www. granbombonaje.com.pe/ **Continental; Cajamarca Sur 287, T. 556141 Juanjui: **Capricornio; Eduardo Peña Meza 1185, T. 545056; www.hostalcapricornioeirl.com/index.htm Sauce: *Puerto Azul; Ribera de la Laguna Azul, T. 830060; www.turismopuertoazul.com/ Iquitos: ***Heliconia Amazon River Lodge; margen izquierda rio Amazonas, a 80 Km Yanamono, T. 231983; www.amazonriverexpeditions.com/ heliconia.htm ***Ceiba Tops; margen izquierda rio Amazonas, a 40 Km, T. 252526; www.explorama. com.pe/html/albergues.htm ***Explorama Lodges; rio Bajo Amazonas a 80 Km, Las Palmeras, T. 252526; www.explorama.com.pe/spanish/exploramalodge.html ***Amazon Rainforest Lodge; quebrada Gen, rio Momon, T. 4455620; www.amazon-lodge.com/home.html ***Sinchicuy Lodge; quebrada Sinchicuy, rio Amazonas a 26 Km Pamacari, T. 2417576; www.paseosamazonicos.com/sinchicuy1.html ***El Dorado Plaza Hotel & Business; Napo 254, T. 222555; www.grupo-dorado.com/dorado_plaza_hotel. htm ***Pacaya Samiria Amazon Lodge; orillas rio Marañon, 190 Km, National Reserve Pacaya Samiria, T. 225769; www.pacayasamiria.com.pe/espanol.asp ***Victoria Regia; Ricardo Palma 252, T. 231983; www.victoriaregiahotel.com/ ***Amazon Lodge & Safaris; rio Yanayacu s/n, margen derecha, T. 251078; www.amazonlodgesafaris.com/ **Acosta; Huallaga 254, T. 231761 **Ambassador; Pevas 260, T. 231618; www.paseosamazonicos.com/hotel_ambassador.htm Nauta: *Iran Uka; Manuel PacayaMarañon s/n, T. 411095 *Hospedaje Nauta; Marañon 232, T. 411047 Yurimaguas: ***Puerto Pericos Yurimaguas Inn; San Miguel 820, malecon Paranapura, T. 353464; www.puertopalmeras.com.pe *Hospedaje Yurimaguas; Yurimaguas 649, T. 528569 Contamana: *Bar Hospedaje Bigotes; Haya de La Torre Manzana-B; Lote-21, T. 301010 *Residencial El Sol; Buenaventura Marquez 118, T. 502703 *Venecia; Brasil 103, Frente al Campo Ferial, T. 551031 RESTAURANTS Jaen: El Refugio; Mariano Melgar s/n, T. 802766 Polleria Saborelly; Mesones Muro s/n, T. 731217 Recreo Turistico Las Palmeras; El Bosque s/n, T. 731063 El Marañon; Santa Rosa 248, T. 674455 San Ignacio: El Tundal; San Ignacio 140, T. 301419 Chapita Refillo; Elias Aguirre 202, La Coita, T. 793796 Chachapoyas: Bar Restaurante Turistico Chacha; Grau 545, T. 477107 El Encuentro; Amazonas 1070, T. 478568 La Estancia; Amazonas 861, T. 478432 Las Chozas de Marlisa; Ayacucho 1139, T. 477118 Puma Urco; Dos de Mayo 728, T. 503891 Bar Campestre Mikuy Peru; Blas Valera 1191, T. 9990721 Bagua: Camino Real; Heroes del Cenepa 1248, T. 771845 La Casita; Heroes del Cenepa 1191, T. 771331 Bar Recreo Los Portales; Chachapoyas 1391, T. 774443 Tarapoto: La Patarashca; Lamas 261, T. 523899; www. lapatarashca.com/ Rincon Sureño; Augusto B. Leguia 458, T. 522785 Chifa Tai Pai; Leoncio Prado 250, T. 524393 Moyobamba: La Olla de Barro; Pedro Canga383, T. 563450; www.laolladebarro. Com/es/index.php Los Candiles; Plateros 323, T. 235430 Calido; Tullumayo 746, T. 233769 Rioja: Copacabana; San Martin 865, Rioja, T. 558233 Chifa Tai Pai; Rioja 252, T. 524393 Juanjui: Cebicheria 250 Official Guide |Northern Rainforest


Leo Ross; 2 de Mayo 460. T. 545170 Iquitos: Cebicheria La Chacra; Fanning 272, Maynas, T. 236476; www.delaselvasusabor.net Royal Inn Casino Hotel; Elias Aguirre 793, esquina con Ucayali, T. 223018; www.royalinncorp.com/Hotel/index.html El Nuevo Meson; malecon Maldonado 153, T. 231857; www. restaurantelmeson.com Gran Maloca; Sargento Lores 170, T. 233126 Huasai; Fitzcarrald 131, T. 242222 Sabor a Fiesta Restaurant; esquina Condaime con Nauta, T. 233298 Regal Bar And Restaurant; altos de la Casa de Hierro El Estadero Restaurante Turistico; Carretera Iquitos-Nauta Km 25 Nauta: Cebicheria Maricielo; Alfonso Ugarte 214, El Arenal, T. 411350 El Gran Ipirawira; Nauta L 14, Punchana, T. 795284; www.elgranipirawira.com/ Al Carbon Grill Steak; Condamine 115, T. 223292 Yurimaguas: Snack Karaoke Polleria Bohemio; Tte. Cesar Lopez 713, Piso 1, Cercado, T. 352154 Cebicheria "El Rey"; Marañon 305, T. 352586 Recreo Turistico Oasis; Libertad 1501, T. 351375 Contamana: Cebicheria Amazonas; Amazonas 407 Cebicheria Francis; Jose Olaya s/n TOURISM/TRAVEL AGENCIES Chachapoyas: Kuelap & Adventure; Tupac Amaru 141, T. 478956; www.kuelapadventure.com Chacha Expedition; Ortiz Arrieta 532, T. 478861; www.chachapoyasexpedition.com Amazon Tours; Ortiz Arrieta 520, T. 478294; www.kuelapchachapoyas.com/ Cloudforest Expeditions; Puno 368, T. 478296/477610 Kuelap Peru; Santo Domingo 432, T. 478078 Revash Tours; Grau 517, T. 477391 Issturix; Amazonas 921, T. 478271 Lobitos Tours; Santa Ana 1162, T. 477193 Vilaya Tours; Grau 624, T. 477506 Turismo Explorer; Amazonas 869/Ayacucho 920, T. 478162 Bagua: Servi Tours Amazon; Mariano Melgar 318, La Peca, T. 771144 Tarapoto: Quiquiriqui Tours; Jimenez Pimentel 314, T. 524016; www.quiquiriquitours.com Selva Tours Viajeros; Sofia Delgado 284, T. 531972; www.selvatoursviajeros. com Aguilatur; San Pablo de la Cruz 122, T. 530247 Fomentours; San Martin 148, T. 522257 Cumbaza; Jimenez Pimentel 607, T. 532353/525152 My Friend; Alegria Arias de Morey 224, T. 532020 Ava Tours; Cabo Leveau 329, T. 522675 Moyobamba: Selva Mayo; Callao 320, T. 794354; www. selvamayoperu.com Rupa Rupa Tours; San Martin 425, T. 561191 Planeta Travel; Serafin Filomeno 493, T. 561374/561374 Tingana Magic; Reyes Guerra 422, T. 561436/561436; www.tinganaperu.com Selene Tours; Serafin Filomeno 150, T. 794594/794594 Rioja: Tours El Bombonaje; Almirante Grau 545, T. 558056/558056; www.riojaperu.com Juanjui: Renee Tours; Triunfo 1250, Mariscal Caceres, T. 801495 Iquitos: Paseos Amazonicos Ambassador; Pevas 246, T. 231618; www.paseosamazonicos.com Cumaceba Amazonia Tours; Putumayo 184, T. 232229; www.cumaceba.com/home.htm Amazon Explorama Lodges; La Marina 340, T. 252526; www.explorama.com.pe/spanish/ Amazon Tours & Cruises; Requena 336, T. 231611 Domiruth Travel Service; Napo 272, T. 243403, T. www.go2peru. com/partners/domiruth.htm Great Amazon Safari and Trading; Putumayo 437/439, T. 234099; www. greatamazonsafari.com Pacaya Samiria Amazon Lodge; Raimondi 378, T. 234128; www.pacayasamiria. com.pe Nauta: El Gran Ipirawira; Nauta L 14, Punchana, T. 795284 Yurimaguas: Kumpanama; Jauregui 934, T. 502472; www.kumpanama.com/ Linsan Travel Tours; Mariscal Castilla 912, T. 351000 Lopez Vega Wagner; Tte. Cesar Lopez Rojas 408, Alto Amazonas Contamana: Luciana Tours; Samuel Barsesath 104, T. 551505 Ayahuasca Tours; Haya de La Torre s/n, T. 551326 EMERGENCIES Health: Jaen: Hospital General Jaen; Hospital s/n, Jaen, T. 731268/ 733048 Hospital General San Javier; Daniel A. Carrion s/n, Bellavista Chachapoyas: Hospital de Chachapoyas; El Triunfo s/n, T. 777016/778253 Bagua: Hospital de Apoyo Gustavo Lanatta Lujan de Bagua; Los Heroes del Cenepa 980, T. 771159 Tarapoto: Hospital II Tarapoto Integrado; Angel Delgado cuadra 3, Partido Alto, T. 522071 Moyobamba: Hospital I Moyobamba Integrado; Grau s/n, T. 522071 Rioja: Hospital Integrado I Rioja, Essalud; Venecia s/n, T. 558081/558441 Juanjui: Hospital Integrado Juanjui, Essalud; Arica 4, T. 545151 Iquitos: Hospital Regional de Loreto “Felipe Santiago Arriola Iglesias”; 28 Julio s/n, Punchana, T. 251882/252733 Hospital de Apoyo de Iquitos; Cornejo Portugal 1710, T. 264710/264731 Yurimaguas: Hospital de Apoyo “Santa Gema” de Yurimaguas; Progreso 305, T. 351338/352135 Police: Jaen: Jefatura Policial de Jaen; Mesones Muro 109, T. 433571 Comisaria de Jaen; Mesones Muro 109, T. 431505 San Ignacio: Comisaria de San Ignacio; San Ignacio cuadra 1, T. 356009 Chachapoyas: Comisaria de Chachapoyas; Amazonas 1120, T. 477017 Bagua: Comisaria de Bagua; Heroes del Cenepa 1700, T. 97509667/471551 Comisaria Bagua Grande; Chachapoyas 2318, T. 474450 Tarapoto: Comisaria del Aeropuerto; Aeropuerto de Tarapoto, T. 522278 Comisaria de Mujeres; Chapaja cuadra 1, T. 527895 Moyobamba: Comisaria de Moyobamba; Pedro Cangas 298, T. 562141/562072 Rioja: Comisaria de Rioja; Libertad s/n, T. 558017 Juanjui: Protected Natural Areas | PERU 251


Comisaria de Juanjui; La Merced 324, T. 545018 Sauce: Comisaria de Sauce; Leticia cuadra 7, T. 830062 Iquitos: Comisaria del Aeropuerto; Quiñones Km 6, San Juan Bautista, T. 97513216 Comisaria 9 de Octubre; Tahuantinsuyo/Progreso, T.97513213 Comisaria de Belen; Seis, cuadra 3, T. 7513214 Nauta: Comisaria Nauta; Manuel Pacaya Bardales, T. 411170 Contamana: Comisaria de Contamana; Manuel E. Rojas 315, T. 551089 OF INTEREST Jaen: Museo Regional "Hermogenes Mejia Solf" del Instituto Superior tecnologico; 2 km. al S.O. de Jaen, T. 434118 Chachapoyas: Centro de Interpretacion y Complejo Arqueologico de Kuelap; Leymebamba, T. 477045 Muestrario Museografico del Instituto Nacional de Cultura; Ayacucho 675, T. 777045 Museo Arqueologico "Gilberto Tenorio Ruiz"; Ayacucho 904, T. 477045 Centro de informacion Turistica; Dir. Regional de Comercio Exterior y Turismo, Triunfo 852-A, T. 778355 Servicio de Informacion al Turista de PromPeru, T. 2249355 Correos; Grau 561, T. 777019 Tarapoto: Museo Etnico de Lamas; Lima cdra. 5 s/n Centro de informacion turistica; Oficina Zonal de Comercio Exterior y Turismo, Angel Delgado cuadra 1, T. 522567 Correo; San Martin 482, T. 522021 Moyobamba: Museo Departamental de Moyobamba / Museo Regional de San Martin; Oscar R. Benavides 380, T. 562281 Centro de informacion turistica; Dir. Regional de Comercio Exterior y Turismo, San Martin 301, T. 562043 Servicio de Informacion al Turista de PromPeru, T. 2249355 Iquitos: Herbarium Amazonense (AMAZ); Esquina de Pevas con Nanay, T. 222649 Museo Amazonico, T. 231072 Buque Museo Ex BAP America Museo de Suelos; Universidad Nacional Amazonica, Putumayo 361, T. 235351 Museo Mirador de Quistococha; Parque de Quistococha Museo Municipal; Tawara 333 Museo Regional Amazonico; Malecon Tarapaca 386 Centro de Informacion Turistica; Aeropuerto Francisco Secada Vigneta, T. 260251 Correos; Arica 402. T. 223812/234091 TRANSPORTE By Buses: Movil Tours; Nueva Cajamarca, San Luis con Libertad 510, T. 805169 Civa; San Juan de la Libertad 956, T. 778048, Chachapoyas/ Terminal terrestre, T. 562436, Moyobamba/ Salaverry 840, Morales, T. 525496, Tarapoto; www.civa.com.pe Empresa de Transportes Expreso Huamanga S.A.; Miguel Grau s/n, 2da. Cuadra (Terminal), Moyobamba/ Humberto Pinedo 100, T. 527272, Tarapoto Empresa Transportes Zelada; Chachapoyas, T. 478066 By Air: Lan; Prospero 232, Iquitos/ Ramirez Hurtado 183, Tarapoto; www.lan.com Star Peru; Napo 260, T. 236208/234173/235146, Iquitos/ Jauregui 641, T. 352241, Yurimaguas/ San Pablo de la Cruz 100, T. 528765, Tarapoto; www.starperu.com/ Airports: Tarapoto: Aeropuerto FAP “Guillermo del Castillo Paredes”, Jimenez Pimenta s/n., T. 522278 Aeropuerto “Juan Simons Vela”, Rioja: Teobaldo Lopez y Raimondi s/n., T. 558434 Juanjui: Aeropuerto Juanjui, Mariscal Castilla cuadra 14, T. 545023/ 545632 Tocache: Aerodromo Tocache, Belaunde s/n, Villa Mercedes Iquitos: Aeropuerto Internacional “Coronel FAP Francisco Secada Vignetta”, Abelardo Quiñones km 6, T. 260147/260151 By River: Los principales puertos fluviales desde donde parten embarcaciones a Iquitos son Pucallpa (rio Ucayali), Yurimaguas (rio Huallaga) y Santa Rosa, ubicado cerca de la frontera con Colombia, desde donde se puede acceder a Leticia.

White-bellied Woodstar(Chaetocercusmulsant) 252 Official Guide |Northern Rainforest


Central Rainforest

1. Tingo Maria NP 2. El Sira CR 3. Yanesha CR 4. Yanachaga Chemillen NP 5. San Matias San Carlos PF 6. Alto Purus NP

7. Purus CR 8. Pampa Hermosa NS 9. Pui Pui PF 10. Otishi NP 11. Ashaninka CR 12. Machiguenga CR

1

2

3 4 8

9

7

5 10 11

6 12


Tingo Maria | National Park

"Sleeping Beauty" A healthy Band-bellied Owl chick (Pulsatrix melanota) grows protected in Tingo Maria. *Facilities for tourism

YES

Location : HUANUCO Surface Area

: 4,777.8 ha

Creation Date

: 05/14/1965

Altitude Range

: 650 - 1,808 meters

GENERAL OBJECTIVES The Park’s main objectives are to protect the mountain range known as La Bella Durmiente (The Sleeping Beauty), the Cueva de Las Lechuzas (the Cave of the Owls) system of caves and the colony of oilbirds (Steatornis caripensis) that live in them; to protect the highland tropical rainforest ecosystems and their flora and fauna; to protect vulnerable and endangered species, as well as river sources and ravines, for the benefit of the local population. Finally, to preserve the scenic beauty of its mountains. DESCRIPTION La Bella Durmiente Mountains make 254 Official Guide |Central Rainforest

up almost the whole of the Park’s area, which shows a precipitous and uneven topography -with the exception of some small terraces- with numerous ravines, waterfalls and springs. The Tingo Maria National Park, the second Park to be created in the country, is covered by a very humid, rainy and cloudy forest, typical of the Highland Tropical Rainforest. The vegetation is quite dense in the higher zones, with shrubs loaded with mosses, lichens, bromeliads and other epiphytes that cover the rocky outcrops. As one descends, the forest becomes taller, there are giant ferns and, associated with them, orchids. In the low hillsides, the forest grows even taller and very large trees are quite common. The


systems of caverns -or caves, as they are locally called- are more noticeable in this zone and, due to their special microclimatic conditions, they work as refuges for certain bird species, chiropterans and arthropods. It is also important to mention that these forests play a fundamental role in the regulation of the hydrological cycle of 6 micro-basins, those of the Monzon, Tres de Mayo, Santa, Colorado, Oro and Bella Rivers, all of them tributaries to the Huallaga River, which delimits the eastern boundary of the Park. Due to its relatively easy access and its closeness to the city of Tingo Maria, as well as to the road axis of the Carretera Central and the Fernando Belaunde Highway, the Tingo Maria National Park has turned out to be an excellent center for environmental education and for the promotion of the area’s wildlife and landscape values, as it receives an increasing number of visitors every year, mainly national tourists. HISTORY The northern, central zone of the Peruvian Amazonia has always been a grey area, belatedly influenced by the Inca expansionist movements, the routes of the Spanish colonizers and the large religious reductions which characterized other areas. The Franciscans, who finally managed to enter the region in the 17th century, founded the city of San Antonio de Tingo Maria and the San Felipe de Los Chunchos Tingaleses Parish. During Republican times, the zone first belonged to the Department of Loreto,

then, it became part of Junin, later on, of San Martin and, finally, it became part of Huanuco, which gives a clear idea of its frontier condition. Its official foundation took place in 1938, in which engineer Enrique Pimentel had an outstanding role. In those years, an active governmental expansion policy, which would characterize the coming decades, was started: The highland tropical rainforest came to be considered a source of agricultural land and of raw materials for the export market, such as leather and fine timber, and also, as a strategic gateway to the vast Amazonian plains. Tingo Maria, one of the first cities to be founded under this influx, soon became an outpost and an occupation axis. In this context and under the influence of the conservation trend that was just appearing timidly in the world, the first precedents of the Park’s creation take place. In 1940, when legislating the parcelling out, 4 plots are reserved by decree for the future creation of the Park, including the Cueva de Las Pavas, but, in the end, this one remained outside the Park’s boundaries. A decade later, an area including the Cueva de Las Lechuzas is declared National Reserve. In 1963, the Forest Law is promulgated, which incorporates the National Park category for the first time, giving support for the creation of the first National Parks in the country, among them, the Tingo Maria National Park, in 1965. Nevertheless, the creation of the area did not define its limits or extension, but only

The Huallaga River, the Park’s eastern boundary, flows placidly.

The system of caverns known as Cueva de Las Lechuzas, houses a singular ecosystem of which the Oilbird (Steatornis caripensis) is the key species. There is a colony of rare and endemic arthropods that feed, directly or indirectly, from the seeds brought by the oilbirds and from their stool. Arachnids, coleopteran, chilopoda, diplopods, crustaceans, fungi and bacteria prosper mixed up on this energy base provided by these singular birds. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 255


(Cinchona pubescens) and Surinam Bulletwood (Manilkara surinamensis). The most abundant orchids are of the Phragmipedium genus, one of which (P. besseae) is classified as endangered.

Frail Mandarin Orchid (Phragmipedium caudatum).

pointed out that two natural formations were included: The Sleeping Beauty Mountains and the cavern complex known as Cueva de Las Lechuzas. Its boundaries and definite extension were delimited only recently, in 2000.

Among the species that are important as food for the fauna are the palm trees and the fruits of the Huasai (Euterpe precatoria), highly appreciated by oilbirds, which are found in a vulnerable condition due to tree felling to obtain the Palmito. Also important: Ungurahui (Oenocarpus bataua), Starnut Palm (Astrocaryum huicungo), Huacrapona (Iriartea deltoidea), Yarina (Phytelephas macrocarpa) and different species of palmiches (Geonoma spp.). Among the ornamental species, the “platanillos” of the Heliconia genus, of beautiful and colorful red and yellow inflorescences, stand out, as well as countless shrub ferns. Tree ferns (Cyathea spp.) stand out in the cloud forests.

FLORA The most abundant species in the Park are the Cumala Blanca (Virola calophylla), Requia Blanca (Guarea sylvatica), Moena Negra (Nectandra cuspidata), Sapotillo (Quararibea achrocalyx), Red Cumala (Iryanthera laevis), Tulpay (Clarisia racemosa), Bari (Callophylum brasiliense), Copal (Protium opacum), Palta Moena (Persea grandis), Yacushapana (Buchenavia viridiflora) and Yellow Moena (Nectandra grandis). Among the currently rare species in the highland tropical rainforest, these have been reported: Spanish Cedar (Cedrela odorata), Quinine Bark (Cinchona officinalis), Red Cinchona

Demerara Falls Tree Frog (Hypsiboas cinerascens). 256 Official Guide |Central Rainforest

Oilbirds have their habitat inside the Park’s caves.

FAUNA Part of the fauna typical of the Peruvian Tropical Yunga is found living in the Park. Among the mammals that have been observed, there are: Black Agouti (Dasyprocta fuliginosa), Green Acouchi (Myoprocta pratti), Ringtailed Coati (Nasua nasua), Spotted Paca (Aguti paca), Pacarana (Dynomis branickii), Common Opossum (Didelphis marsupialis), Red Mouse Opossum (Marmosa rubra), Kinkajou (Potos flavus), Nine-banded Armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus), Southern Naked-tailed Armadillo (Cabassous unicinctus), Sloth (Bradypus sp.), Northern Amazon Red Squirrel (Sciurus igniventris), Southern Tamandua (Tamandua tetradactyla),


76°00'

Coto Mono Mountain

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Las Lechuzas Cave

Tingo Maria

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Monzon Bridge

National Park

ua l

9°20'

TINGO MARIA

Rio Monzon

Bella Be ll a

Mantencion

Aguaytia 94 km

Viewpoint Jacintillo Sulphurous Waters of Jacintillo

BUFFER ZONE BOUNDARY

1.8

Bella Durmiente

La Alcantarilla 0.8

Santa Carmen Waterfall

TINGO MARIA NATIONAL PARK

Bella Alta

Quezada Las Pavas Cave

La Quinceañera Waterfall

4.5

Rio

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Río ga alla Hu

H U A N U C O

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Tres de Mayo

Scale km PASCO

Tambillo Grande

Gloria Pata Waterfall

4

Gray Spiny Mouse (Nectomys spinosus), and different monkey species, such as: Pygmy Marmoset (Callithrix pygmaea), Gray-bellied Night Monkey (Aotus lemurinus) and Red-faced Spyder Monkey (Ateles paniscus). In the western part of the Park, evidence has been found of: Collared Peccary (Pecari tajacu), Bush Dog (Speothos venaticus), Red Brocket (Mazama americana) and Ocelot (leopardus pardalis), as well as traces of jaguars (Panthera onca). The following birds can be easily sighted: Salvin's Curassow (Crax salvini), Spix´s Guan (Penelope jacquacu), Little Chachalaca (Ortalis motmot), Ivorybilled Aracari (Pteroglossus flavirostris) and some hummingbird and parrot species. The Andean Cock-of-the-rock (Rupicola peruviana) can be observed in the caves close to the waterfalls in the western sector of the Park. Also, couples of small White-eyed Parraket (Aratinga leucophthalmus) and Blue-headed Parrot (Pionus menstruus) live in the entrance walls of the Cueva de Las Lechuzas.

76°00'

Tambillo Grande Bridge

Velo de Las Ninfas Waterfall

Huanuco 100 km

HOW TO GET THERE The city of Tingo Maria -in front of the Park, across the Huallaga River- is connected to Lima by the Carretera Central (540 km). This same road connects it with Huanuco (120 km away), Pasco and Junin. Pucallpa, Juanjui and Tarapoto can also be accessed by land. From Tingo Maria, there is a dirt road (a 25 minutes’ drive) and frequent

The popular Praying Mantis awaiting its prey. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 257

9°25'

Rio

1.1

9°25'

HUANUCO

1.5

Sol Naciente Waterfall


S/6 (three days). Adults: S/10 (one day), S/20 (three days). ATTRACTIONS

Part of the infrastructure that facilitates the visit to the caves.

and inexpensive public bus service to the Cueva de Las Lechuzas. WEATHER The average annual temperature is 76 °F; the average annual relative humidity is 80% and annual average precipitation is 3,300 mm. RESTRICTIONS The Park is open to visitors throughout the year, although the rainy season goes from October to April. Entrance Fees in soles: Under 5 and above 65 years: Free. 5 to 15 years: S/3 (one day),

Among the Park’s principal landscape attractions, there is the sight of this singular mountain profile –a dormant woman- worthy of the name La Bella Durmiente (The Sleeping Beauty). The most visited attraction is the Cueva de Las Lechuzas, located at 6.5 km from Tingo Maria, at the northwest end of the Park. It is a large complex with 5 different connected caves, the outer one being the most visited. Water filtering through the calcareous rock has formed a considerable number of stalactites and stalagmites of capricious forms. The oilbirds, their winged and nocturnal inhabitants, can be seen at dusk when they go out to drink from the sulfurous water of the Jacintillo. Rio Perdido (Lost River) is the name which the Santa River takes when it disappears into the depths of The Sleeping Beauty and comes out again through a place known as El Tragadero, nowadays turned into a typical jungle resort -between June and September. Visitors arrive to bathe in their tranquil and clear waters, after visiting the caves, which are nearby. There are two ways of access to El Tragadero: a walk of about 4.5 hours along a footpath that starts at the Huanuco-Tingo Maria road and goes towards Tres de Mayo; or from the Cueva de Las Lechuzas, to cross the

Visible from the city of Tingo Maria, The Sleeping Beauty is a central figure in many myths and legends among the local people.

258 Official Guide |Central Rainforest


Bella River on foot and then climb up along a steep footpath for 3 hours in all. The Quinceañera cataract is at 3.5 km from Tingo Maria by a footpath, close to Perez Bridge. Because of its clear waters, tradition considers it “the hair”

NEARBY ATTRACTIONS The city of Tingo Maria, of course, and there the Botanical Garden, with its large collection of Amazonian tropical flora. The lookout point and the sulfurous waters of Jacintillo, a little before the Monzon Bridge, frequented by the local population. The Breeding Center of the Universidad Agraria de la Selva and the Herpetological Garden in Castillo Grande, 15 minutes away from Tingo Maria. The Los Milagros Lake, located 30 minutes away from Tingo Maria, on the road to Aucayacu; the Cueva de Las Pavas, 15 minutes away from Tingo Maria; the Velo de Las Ninfas and the Santa Carmen waterfalls, 25 min and 10 min away respectively from Tingo Maria, all of them on the eastern side of the road to Huanuco. SERVICES WITHIN THE AREA

The two falls of the Gloriapata waterfall, on the southern part of the Park.

There is a signaled tourist footpath to the Cueva de Las Lechuzas, and a

of the Sleeping Beauty. The Gloriapata waterfall is found in the southern zone of the Park, at some 2 km (a 35 minutes’ walk) from the HuanucoTingo Maria road, taking a signaled detour on the road to Tres de Mayo. The Sol Naciente waterfall is found on another detour on the same road, at 3.5 km from the road, a 2 hours walk.

The entrance to the Cueva de Las Lechuzas, the main attraction.

Control Post and Ticket Office at the entrance to the circuit. There is also an all-purpose Control Post at Tres de Mayo, located at the southern end of the Park, 14 km away from Tingo Maria on the road to Huanuco. CONTACT INFORMATION Administrative headquarters of the protected area: Jr. Elias Mabama 290, Tupac Amaru, Tingo Maria. Tel: (062) 563 559 / (01) 968 218 421. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 259


El Sira | Communal Reserve

"A Mountain Range in the Amazonian Plains" A gorgeous Roseate Spoonbill (Ajaja ajaja), the only one of its genus in America, perches in the highest branches of the trees. *Facilities for tourism

NO

Location : UCAYALI, PASCO & HUANUCO Surface Area

: 616,413.41 ha

Creation Date

: 06/23/2001

Altitude Range

: 130 - 2,250 meters

GENERAL OBJECTIVES The main objective is to protect the biological diversity for the benefit of the neighboring native communities, whose population belongs to the Ashaninka, Asheninka, Yanesha and Shipibo-Conibo ethnical groups. Additionally, to protect the riverheads of the basins of the El Sira Mountains, ensuring the stability of the soils and preservation of the water. DESCRIPTION El Sira, the easternmost mountain range of the Peruvian Central Andes, extends from south to north for more than 200 260 Official Guide |Central Rainforest

km, as a high peninsula rising above the Amazonian plain, flanked by the Ucayali River to the east, and the Pachitea and Pichis Rivers to the west, both of which meet at the south of Pucallpa. This geographical singularity, in turn, creates numerous microclimates, which are generally very humid because the steep mountains capture and retain humidity from the lowland tropical rainforest as a huge sponge. Likewise, its relative isolation and difficult access have preserved the old growth, where important endemism is found. In its different altitude zones, environments representative of both highland and lowland tropical rainforest


are found, which support a large diversity of wild flora and fauna. There are, also, other ecosystems like the flooded low lands and other aquatic habitats, as well as a zone of vast scrubfields known as “El Gran Pajonal”. As in all the communal reserves, the local settlers are in charge of the protected area’s management, under the supervision of the State, having rights and duties determined by common law. Approximately 30,000 people live in the Reserve’s zone of influence, and there are 70 native communities organized in the ECOSIRA association, who coordinate the management of this immense area and its natural resources with SERNANP; a great challenge for conservation. HISTORY In the seventies, a document of the Universidad Nacional Agraria de La Molina proposing the creation of a protected area in this zone stroke a chord among the native communities settled in the flanks of the Reserve, who were striving for the creation of communal reserves and for the title deeds of their territories at the time. For almost two decades their plea did not prosper, until, some years after the creation of the first Communal Reserve (Yanesha) in 1988, an extensive report was produced, financed by the Indigenous Affairs Task Group, stating the bases for the creation of El Sira Communal Reserve and demonstrating that its characteristics -isolation and no deterioration- were seriously endangered by the increasing population and the extraction of natural

resources. Together with the scientific community, they finally achieved its declaration in 2001. In 2010, along with the nearby Yanachaga Chemillen National Park, the Yanesha Communal Reserve and the San Matias San Carlos Protected Forest, El Sira became part of the OxapampaAshaninka-Yanesha Biosphere Reserve, the fourth of its kind in the country. COMMUNITIES Four ethnical groups are in charge of the Communal Reserve, each with its own world view: The Ashaninka communities, in the valleys of the Pichis and Pachitea Rivers, in El Gran Pajonal sector and in the zone of the Upper Ucayali River, with its variant Asheninka; the Yanesha communities, dwelling in the Pachitea sector; these three communities of the Arawak linguistic family, and the Shipibo-Conibo communities, of the Pano linguistic family, in the zone of the Lower Ucayali River. The communities of colonists, with customs and ways of life they have brought from other habitats, are all over the zone. FLORA Some 190 species have been collected in the area and, among them, 8 are endangered, like the Spanish Cedar (Cedrela odorata), Big-leaf Mahogany (Swietenia machrophylla), Bulletwood (Manilkara bidentata), Kapok Tree

A chain of mountains over the humid rainforest creates a unique habitat.

A bird that is not found in any other place in the world, the Southern Horned Curassow, lives in the El Sira Mountains. It was registered for the first time in 1969 and, then, it was not seen anymore. It was already considered extinct, when it reappeared in 2005. It belongs to the Cracidae family, like the famous White-winged Guan and, because it is bush meat, indiscriminate hunting can lead to its extinction. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 261


Pacarana (Dinomys branickii), Giant Otter (Pteronura brasiliensis), South American Tapir (Tapirus terrestris), Amazon River Dolphin (Inia geoffrensis), Amazonian Manatee (Trichechus inunguis), Bush Dog (Speothos venaticus), Whitefronted Spider Monkey (Ateles belzebuth), Jaguar (Panthera onca) and Neotropical Otter (Lontra longicaudis).

The Asai Palm (Euterpe oleracea), plant of edible fruits.

(Ceiba pentandra), Ishpingo (Amburana cearensis) and Rosewood Tree (Aniba rosaeodora). In the higher parts, the forest composition presents trees of slender trunk and small canopies, and an abundance of epiphytes: bromeliads, ferns, orchids, piperaceae, lichens and mosses; while, in the lower parts, the trees are taller and stronger, with diameters of more than 1.5 meters, in the branches of which lives a varied vegetal community made up of bromeliads, ferns, orchids and anthuriums, among others. There are 44 registered orchid species.

Additionally, 203 bird species have been registered, the Passeriformes standing out with 63 species. El Sira is one of the bird endemism areas in the planet (Peruvian East Andean Foothills). Among the most representative endemic bird species, there is the Southern Horned Curassow (Pauxi unicornis koepckeae), a Guan sub-species that only lives in El Sira Mountains. Likewise, the Sira Tanager (Tangara phillipsi) and the Koepcke's Hermit (Phaetornis koepckeae). Furthermore, some 105 reptile species have been reported: worm lizards, saurians and, especially, snakes. Also, 68 amphibian species, basically, toads and frogs of the Hylidae and Leptodactylidae families. Finally, 111 species of bony fish have been reported, being the Characiformes the most diverse. HOW TO GET THERE

FAUNA Out of the total number of mammals present in the Reserve, 54 are of special importance for being listed in the endangered categories, such as: Giant Armadillo (Priodontes maximus),

If one goes by land, one can get to Pucallpa, via Huanuco and Tingo Maria, by paved road, and then take the detours that go to Puerto Inca or Tornavista. One can also get to Puerto Bermudez through Tarma, on the Carretera

The beautiful Onkawo Lake, within the Communal Reserve.

262 Official Guide |Central Rainforest


75°00'

Masisea Honoria

San Alejandro

100

Pa ch ite a

Lake Chioa

Iparia Rio

PUERTO INCA

li aya Uc

H U A N U C O

Sheshea Rio UCAYALI

Codo del Pozuzo

220

R io

El Sira

Rio

9°00'

Tingo Maria 95 km

Communal Reserve

Tournavista

50

AGUAYTIA

N

Lake Inuria

25

HUANUCO

o uz

Poz

Yuyapichis

10°00'

Lake Cuca

Pozuzo 81

PASCO

EL SIRA COMMUNAL RESERVE

Puerto Mairo

Santa Rosa

YANESHA COMMUNAL RESERVE

10°00'

Rio Aguay tia

Pucallpa 50 km Progreso

JUNIN

Bolognesi Iscozacin

P A S C O

Huancabamba

U C A Y A L I Lake Onkawo

Ne

cay ali

U

va ti

SAN MATIAS SAN CARLOS PROTECTED FOREST

Ri o

Ri o

OXAPAMPA

Puerto Bermudez

Chontabamba 21 Villa Rica Pueblo Libre Santo Domingo 59 San Luis de Shuaro Pichanaki Tarma Mazamari Perene

ATALAYA

49

11°00'

80 km

LA MERCED

75 km

Central, or to Atalaya via Satipo. From Atalaya, there are several dirt roads to access El Gran Pajonal. If one goes by river, the Ucayali River is the main way, east of the Reserve, with flowing traffic. By air, apart from Pucallpa, that has daily flights to the capital, Puerto Bermudez, Atalaya, Oventeni, Puerto Inca and Tornavista have airstrips. WEATHER

Rio

Ur ub

amb a

Scale km 74°00'

0

15

30

of the New Universal Pact is found. Some tourist routes that are to be implemented will require a one week trip, such as the one to the Onkawo Lake. CONTACT INFORMATION Administrative headquarters of the protected area: Av. Tupac amaru, Mz. G, Lote 10, Pucallpa, Tel: (061) 578 992 / (01) 968 218 465.

The average temperature varies from 76 to 78 °F. ATTRACTIONS There are several lookouts, such as the ones at Nueva Union, San Alejandro and Ampine, that can be accessed after long but interesting hikes. There are others in the Fernando Sthall sector, in Amaquiria and, finally, the Puerto Sira lookout in the Pachitea sector. At half a day walk from the latter, the interesting Royal Temple of the Israelites

Yanesha Dance in the Puerto Libre Native Community. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 263

11°00'

YANACHAGA - CHEMILLEN NATIONAL PARK


Yanesha | Communal Reserve

"Ancestral territory" The Spectacled Bear (Tremarctos ornatus), the only bear species in South America, is frequently found in the eastern watersheds of the Andes. *Facilities for tourism

NO

Location : PASCO Surface Area

: 34,744.70 ha

Creation Date

: 04/28/1988

Altitude Range

: 400 - 1,450 meters

GENERAL OBJECTIVES Its objectives are to guarantee the supply of wild resources for the Yanesha native communities, attenuating external pressure within their territories (of which they are the title holders), securing their participation in conservation and propitiating the improvement of their life conditions; to protect the sources of the rivers and ravines that are tributaries to the Palcazu River on its left bank; and to serve as a Buffer Zone to the Yanachaga Chemillen National Park. DESCRIPTION It was the first reserve of its kind to be established in the country. It is located east of the Yanachaga Chemillen National Park and is adjacent to it, sharing a large part of its natural values. It is considered a priority zone for the conservation of the biological diversity of Peru and, together with the above mentioned 264 Official Guide |Central Rainforest

Park, the San Matias San Carlos Protected Forest and the El Sira Communal Reserve, constitutes the Oxapampa-YaneshaAshaninka Biosphere Reserve. THE COMMUNITIES The Yanesha, the westernmost group of the great Arawak family, had always lived in this area, with a significant population and a welldeveloped agriculture, until the arrival of the Europeans and the plagues that decimated the region, adopting then a pattern of isolated settlements. The Reserve is established for the conservation of the wild fauna for the exclusive benefit of the ten neighboring communities: San Pedro de Pichanaz, Santa Rosa de Pichanaz, Loma Linda Laguna, Shiringamazu, Alto Iscozacin, Siete de Junio, Nueva Esperanza, Alto Lagarto, Santa Rosa de Chuchurras and Buenos Aires.


Puerto Mairo

N

Communal Reserve

Santa Rosa

10°00'

Puerto Esmeralda

BUFFER ZON

Agua Blanca

E BOUN DARY

zu

Puerto Inca 115 km

Prusia Bridge

P A S C O

Tunqui

Villa America

Iscozacin La Esperanza

54

Mucniz Waterfall

YANESHA COMMUNAL RESERVE

Puerto Bermúdez 5

Raya

YANACHAGA CHEMILLEN NATIONAL PARK

Alvariño

Huancabamba

HUANUCO

Yanajanca Navarra

PASCO

San Roque

Milagro

Scale km 16

Milagro Bridge

San Alberto Chacos

Alto Tambomaria Churumazu

El Tigre Waterfall

Pusapno La Merced 39 km

Bella Esperanza

SAN MATIAS SAN CARLOS PROTECTED FOREST

Alto Peru

Llamaquizu Bridge

Mayan

110

Palma Centro Bocaz

OXAPAMPA

Chontabamba

Cerro de Pasco

8

Paraizu Acazazu

Rio Pescado Villa Maria

Rio Cacaz u

JUNIN

Zupizu

27

LIMA

0

oP ic h i s

Ri

Rio S a

Pozuzo

Ri o P a l c a

nta C ruz

Yanesha

Puellas Yuncullmas

Chivis Bridge

Yesu Waterfall El Leon Waterfall

Villa Rica

El Encanto Waterfall

Alto Yurinariki

Lake Oconal

75°00'

BIODIVERSITY

ATTRACTIONS

The Jaguar (Panthera onca), the Giant Otter (Pteronura brasiliensis), the Whitelipped Peccary (Tayassu pecari), the forest stands of Spanish Cedar (Cedrela odorata), among others, are protected in the area. It is estimated that there are between 2,400 and 2,800 flora species, including a large diversity of non-flowering (algae, mushrooms, mosses and ferns) and flowering species (herbs, twining plants, lianas, shrubs, trees, epiphytes and parasites), defining complex habitats.

The designated zone for tourism is the one adjacent to the Iscozacin River, because it is the route to the Paujil Biological Station (in the Yanachaga Chemillen National Park); other attractions are the Collpas, the Mucniz Cataract and an ancient road close to it. CONTACT INFORMATION Administrative headquarters of the protected area: Jr. Pozuzo, cdra. 3, n/n, Oxapampa, Tel: (01) 968 218 464.

Three reported orders of insects stand out: Lepidoptera (Papilionoidea and Hesperiidae), Coleopteran (Staphylinidae) and Hymenoptera (Formicidae); 14 species of amphibians, 14 reptile species, 69 bird species and 53 species of mammals, among others. HOW TO GET THERE The Carretera Central goes paved from Lima to La Merced; then, a dirt road takes you to Iscozacin, which is 9 hours away from Villa Rica. The Reserve is reached going upstream by the Iscozacin River for 3 to 7 hours.

The Yanesha ethnical group has kept its ancestral customs and rites. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 265


Yanachaga Chemillen | National Park

“Black Forest” The emblematic Tunki or Andean Cock-of-the-rock (Rupicola peruviana), characteristic of the whole Peruvian highland tropical rainforest. *Facilities for tourism

Location

: PASCO

Surface Area

: 122,000 ha

Creation Date

: 08/29/1986

Altitude Range

: 460 - 3,643 meters

GENERAL OBJECTIVES The Park’s objectives are the preservation of ecosystems with a great diversity of wild fauna and flora, some of which are seriously endangered, as the Giant Otter (Pteronura brasiliensis), and many others that are in an undetermined or vulnerable condition; to contribute to the protection of the basins of the Yanachaga Mountains, ensuring the stability of the soils and the quantity and quality of the water provision for human settlements and agricultural development; to promote recreational activities and tourism in the protected area. DESCRIPTION The Yanachaga Chemillen National Park 266 Official Guide |Central Rainforest

YES

extends over the Yanachaga Mountains, toward the central and oriental region of the Peruvian Andes, which are particularly high in relation to other mountain ranges that surround them. The pronounced altitudinal gradient, added to its climatic diversity, generates a high variety of ecological formations in a relatively small geographical area, with a consequent high biological diversity. In general, its topography is quite uneven, with a predominance of rocky and steep slopes covered by forests, and overthrust faults can be observed on both the east and west sides of the Palcazu River. Mountains covered with forests and carved by profound canyons dominate the Park’s landscape:


Yanachaga and Chemillen mean “black mound” and “burnt hill”, in Quechua and Yanesha language respectively, in probable allusion to the density of its forest. Additionally, the Park preserves the important headwaters of the Palcazu, Huancabamba and Pozuzo Rivers HISTORY The Yanesha ethnical group has inhabited the Selva Central since pre-Hispanic times, although human presence was almost nonexistent in the specific area the Park now occupies. Their oral traditions and worldview are closely connected to both slopes of the Cordillera de Los Andes since pre-Inca times. The proximity between the Andean people and the Yaneshas generated an interrelationship that could explain to some extent why they showed less aggressiveness than other Amazonian tribes, faced with the Spanish conquest attempts during the 16th and 17th centuries. In the Selva Central, the first missionary incursions, Franciscan, were directed from Huanuco. One of those missions was the one at Huancabamba, which covered an area inside of which the Park is found today. The successful uprising of Juan Santos Atahualpa put a brake to this advance in the middle of the 18th century and no white man dared to venture in this region for more than a century, until, already in Republican times, interest to turn it into a production zone to supply Tarma and Pasco rises. In this context, the settlement of San Ramon was founded, the first one in the Selva Central and, in 1846, the Government auctioned the “uncultivated lands of the Huancabamba Mountains”, which would

become La Descubridora Ranch, part of the current territory of what now is the Park. Next, the State decides to propitiate European colonization as a factor for national development and gives plots of land to small farmers of Austro-German origin and, in this way, Pozuzo was founded in 1859, La Merced in 1869 and, much later, in 1915, Villa Rica. The first master plan of the Protected Area began to be developed a year before its creation, in 1985. In 1987, Pro Naturaleza (a local NGO) began a project to support the Park’s management in coordination with The Nature Conservancy (TNC), which has continued working uninterruptedly up to this day. In 1991, the Park was included in the TNC’s Program “Parques en Peligro”, an initiative focused on protected natural areas in Latin America and the Caribbean. In 2010, the Oxapampa-AshaninkaYanesha Biosphere Reserve was created, the fourth one in Peru, and the Yanachaga Chemillen National Park was included. FLORA More than 2,000 species of flora have been registered in the Park, represented by a large number of moss, fern and orchid species. Among the species of higher economic value is the Ulcumano (Prumnopitys harmsiana and P. montana), Puna Ulcumano (Podocarpus oleifolius and P. magnifolius), Chaquiro or Diablo Fuerte (Retrophyllum rospigliosi), Cedar (Cedrela odorata, C. montana and C. lilloi), Andean Walnut (Juglans neotropica), Moena

Numerous bodies of water, fog and profuse vegetation cover the heights of Yanachaga.

The Yanachaga Mountain is considered one of the Pleistocene Refuges, that is, one of the zones that preserved their forests when -in a relatively recent geological period that lasted hundreds of thousands of years- most of the current Amazonian Forests were occupied by herbaceous ecosystems, due to severe climatic changes. The theory of the Pleistocene Refuges explains why some Amazonian Forests are so especially biodiverse. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 267


The Podocarpus trees reach incredible heights in the Park.

(Aniba spp., Endlicheria spp., Ocotea spp.) and Cumalas (Virola spp., Otoba sp., Iryanthera spp.). There is a great variety of ornamental plants represented by the heliconias (Heliconia spp.), begonias (Begonia spp.) and numerous species and genera of the Araceae family, as well as a number of ferns and mosses of the Cloud Forest. There are also other vegetal associations apparently less known, like the forest stands of Clusia-Weinmannia, the cliff forests and the ravine forests. The collection of humidity in high altitude areas stands out. This is possible because of the incredible quantity of mosses, that constitute an enormous sponge in the whole forest and, thus, the zone becomes very important for the fauna, that can get forage, hunt and have their burrows there. FAUNA It is constituted by species that are typical of the zone, such as: Capybara (Hidrochaeris hidrochaheris), Spectacled

Caiman (Caiman crocodilus), Cuvier's Dwarf Caiman (Paleosuchus palpebrosus), Jaguar (Panthera onca), Puma (Puma concolor), Humboldt's Woolly Monkey (Lagothrix lagotricha), Sabalo (Brycon sp.), Corvina (Salminus affinis), Lowland Paca (Agouti paca) and Common Agouti (Dasyprocta sp.). Among the more conspicuous mammals are the Spectacled Bear (Tremarctos ornatus), Pacarana (Dinomys branickii), Pudu (Pudu mephistophiles), Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) and Yaguarundi (Herpailurus yagouaroundi). Some Puna fauna inhabit the Park, such as: Amazonian Brown Brocket (Mazama nemorivaga), Culpeo (Lycalopex culpaeus) and the Andean Hog-nosed Skunk (Conepatus rex), among others. The bird fauna constitutes the group with the largest number of reported species, with 527 species. The Blackmandibled Toucan (Ramphastos ambiguus), the Andean Cock-of-the-rock (Rupicola peruviana), the Blue-crowned Motmot (Momotus momota) and the Guan (Penelope sp.) stand out, among many others. Among the 49 registered mammal species, rodents and bats stand out for their number. In an inventory that was developed in 2008, 44 reptile species, 71 amphibian sp, 52 fish sp, 306 butterfly sp and 383 moth sp were registered. HOW TO GET THERE By land, the paved Carretera Central goes up to Oxapampa (some 9 hours). From there, one can continue towards Pozuzo, crossing the northern zone of the Park and arriving to the Huampal sector. Also,

The caimans, such as this Paleosuchus trigonatus, in spite of their invulnerable appearance, are endangered by the worst predators of all: human beings.

268 Official Guide |Central Rainforest


Puerto Mairo

N

National Park

Santa Rosa

BUFFER ZON

Agua Blanca

E BOUN DARY

zu

Puerto Inca 115 km

oP ic h i s

Ri

Rio S a

Pozuzo

Yanachaga Chemillen

Ri o P a l c a

nta C ruz

10°00'

Puerto Esmeralda

Prusia Bridge

P A S C O Tunqui Huampal Cañon de Huancabamba

Villa America

Iscozacin

54

Quebrada Honda Waterfall

La Esperanza

YANESHA COMMUNAL RESERVE

Puerto Bermudez

Biological station Paujil Colpa Lobo

5

Raya

YANACHAGA CHEMILLEN NATIONAL PARK

Alvariño

Huancabamba

HUANUCO

Yanajanca Navarra

PASCO

Milagro

Scale km 16

Milagro Bridge

San Alberto Chacos

Alto Tambomaria Churumazu El Tigre Waterfall

a dirt road for 4WD starts at Oxapampa towards San Alberto (from there, one has to continue on foot to El Cedro Refuge) and another to San Daniel Lake. In order to get to the Paujil sector, one has to follow the route to Iscozacin (9 h from Villa Rica) and, from there, go by river, which takes from 3 to 7 hours more, depending on how high the river is, up to the Paujil Biological Station.

Villa Rica

Bella Esperanza

SAN MATIAS SAN CARLOS PROTECTED FOREST

Alto Perú

Pusapno La Merced 39 km

110

Palma Centro Bocaz

OXAPAMPA

Llamaquizu Bridge

Mayan

8

San Roque

Chontabamba

Cerro de Pasco

0

Paraizu Acazazu

Rio Pescado Villa María Yesú Waterfall

Rio Cacaz u

JUNIN

Zupizu

27

LIMA

Puellas Yuncullmas

Chivis Bridge

El León Waterfall El Encanto Waterfall

Alto Yurinariki

Lake Oconal

75°00'

RESTRICTIONS The most recommendable time of the year to visit is from May to October, when the rains dwindle, because the rain turns the roads unusable. Entrance Fees in soles: Under 5 and above 65 years: Free. 5 to 15 years: S/3 (one day), S/6 (three days). Adults: S/10 (one day), S/20 (three days).

WEATHER There are two quite marked climates at the Park: One, humid and warm, with mean temperatures between 73 and 79 °F and average annual rainfall between 2,000 and 6,000 mm, in the valleys of Pozuzo, Palcazu and Pichis. The other, humid and semi-warm, with an average temperature between 55 and 68 °F and average annual precipitation from 1,500 to 2,500 mm in Oxapampa, in the Yanachaga, San Carlos and San Matias Mountain Ranges and in the districts of Villa Rica, Huancabamba and Chontabamba.

The tiny Emerald-bellied (Eriocnemis alinae).

Puffleg

Protected Natural Areas | PERU 269


The beautiful suspension bridge at Quebrada Honda.

ATTRACTIONS The principal attractions are distributed in four areas designated for tourism: 1) The Canyon of Huancabamba, formed by its homonymous river when it turns towards Pozuzo. It is located in the northern part of the Park and it comprehends both sides of the road that goes from Huancabamba to Pozuzo, which runs along the Canyon for 17 km, between the Tunki River and the Quebrada Honda or Huampal. In Huampal there is a control post of the Park, a rustic lookout for the Andean Cock-of-the-rock, a suspension bridge and two tourist footpaths: the Camino de Colonos and the Robin Foster Interpretive Path. The landscape beauty of the Yanachaga Mountains, the orchids

and the Quebrada Honda cataract stand out. 2) San Daniel, framed by the wild zones of the headwaters of the San Daniel and Grapanazu Ravines, at 3,600 meters above sea level, with a spring typically associated with the humid scrubland. The cloud forest, the San Daniel Lake, and the dwarf forest stand out. 3) San Alberto and the Esperanza pass, also surrounded by the wildlife zone of the headwaters of the San Alberto River. Its natural attractions are the large patches of Ulcumano and Diablo Fuerte Pine trees, the Spectacled Bear and the cloud forests. 4) Paujil, located in the eastern zone of Ozuz, is an entrance door to the Park through the Iscozacin River, between the Paujil River and the Venado Ravine. Here, you will find the Biological Station and two tourist tracks, one that takes you to the Paujil lookout and the other that takes you to the Lobo Collpa and continues, crossing the Pescado Ravine, up to the Luna Llena Lake. Its natural attractions are the transition forests, the hill forests and the beginning of the hydrological system of piedmont. Camping in the tourist areas is allowed, with previous authorization. NEARBY ATTRACTIONS Apart from the neighboring San Matias San Carlos Protected Forest and the adjacent Yanesha Communal Reserve, there are lots of places to visit outside the limits of the Park: In Oxapampa, there is

The lovely Luna Llena Lake, one of the attractions of the Paujil tourist zone.

270 Official Guide |Central Rainforest


the Yanesha native communities, coffee and cattle farms, the El Oconal Lake and the cataracts El Leon and El Encanto are found. In Huancabamba, the snowcapped Huagurucho, the “Sal si puedes” lookout and the Rayantambo, Torrebamba, Anana and Cueva Blanca waterfalls.

The Huancabamba Canyon is easily accessed by the road that runs parallel to it.

the Church of Santa Rosa, the Tyrolese style houses, the Rio Tigre Waterfall, the Mision de Quillaza Church and the Los Colonos Museum. In Chontabamba, the sugarcane factory of El Huarapo, the Tunki Cave, the house of the founder of Oxapampa, Enrique Bottger Treu, the lookout on the way to Pusapno and the Floralp Milk Factory. In Pozuzo, there is the Austro-German colony “The Prussian Valley”, the Emperador Guillermo I suspension bridge, the Schafferer Museum and the typical Tyrolese houses, clothes and gastronomy. In Villa Rica,

In Palcazu, there are the Iscozacin and Palcazu navigable rivers and the Yanesha communities (with their music, dances, handicrafts and typical food). Finally, in Puerto Bermudez, there are the Aguachine, San Juan and El Vaporcito cataracts; the Neguachi, Aguachine, Chiviz and Azupizu navigable rivers; the Neguachi Canyon, the Parata Lake, the Cuevas del Tigre, the Onkaoki Lake and the petroglyphs of Aguachine.

The Paujil Biological Station, in the eastern zone of the Park.

SERVICES WITHIN THE AREA In Oxapampa, in the San Alberto sector, El Cedro Lodge is found, used mainly by the personnel of the protected area and scientific researchers. In Pozuzo, there is the Control Post of Huampal, open to the public and with a lodging capacity for 6 people, apart from the suspension bridge and a lookout to watch the Cock-of-the-rock. In Iscozacin, the Paujil Biological Station is found which can lodge 24 people, mainly for researchers. CONTACT INFORMATION Administrative headquarters of the protected area: Jr. Pozuzo, cdra. 3, n/n, Oxapampa, Tel: (063) 462 544 / (01) 968 218 426. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 271


San Matias San Carlos | Protected Forest

"Millenary Habitat" The colorful Amazon Kingfisher (Chloroceryle amazona), frequently seen in ravines and small creeks, where it feeds exclusively on fish, thus its thick and strong beak. *Facilities for tourism

NO

Location : PASCO Surface Area

: 145,818 ha

Creation Date

: 03/20/1987

Altitude Range

: 300 - 2,250 meters

GENERAL OBJECTIVES Its objectives are to protect the forest as a regulating factor of the hydrological and climatic cycle, avoiding the sedimentation of rivers and preserving the quality and quantity of water at the lower parts; to conserve the soils and watercourses, as well as to protect the roads, settlements and farming lands; to promote the development of economic activities that will benefit the Ashaninka and Yanesha native communities, as well as the colonists, settled in the zone. DESCRIPTION The eastern basin of the Palcazu River, in its different altitudinal ecological zones, presents impressive vegetation, that varies from the exuberant high forest to the dense forest, with abundant ferns, bromeliads, lichens, epiphytes, orchids and ericaceous. There are aquatic environments that are interrelated with the woods and, in consequence, the fauna 272 Official Guide |Central Rainforest

is highly diverse. Unaltered forests have been preserved and they house important endemic species of national interest. HISTORY The evangelization of the Ashaninka ethnical group in the Perene zone dates back to the 17th century. After countless and unfortunate results due to the natives reluctance and the wide spread epidemics, the founding of the Convent of Ocopa brought some stability, and up to 45 missions had been established in the Selva Central by 1742, the year of the uprising of Jose Santos Atahualpa. Then, the “civilized” attack forces had to wait for a century and for the establishment of the Republic in order to return to the zone, this time, militarized. Finally, it would all end up in the crossfire of the “internal war”. BIODIVERSITY There is little information about its


75°00'

N

Puerto Inca 60 km

Puerto Mairo Santa Rosa

Lorencillo

BU F

nta C ru

Agua Blanca a z u

ONE BO UND RZ A RY FE

Prusia Bridge

Tunqui

Villa America

Miraflores

Protected Forest

San Matias San Carlos

oP ic h i s

Ri

Rio S a

z

Pozuzo

San Jose de Santariani

Ri o P a l c

10°00'

Puerto Esmeralda

Ciudad Constitucion V Etapa

Iscozacin

HUANUCO

P A S C O

ANCASH

54

La Esperanza

YANESHA COMMUNAL RESERVE

PASCO

Raya

5

Lanturachi

Huancabamba 27

San Alberto

Lobon Chacos Alto Churumazu Yesu Waterfall Tambomaría Llamaquizu Bridge

Milagro

Rio Caca z

u

Chontabamba

Cerro de Pasco

Alvariño Ri 110

Aguachini R io Bella Esperanza N

o

Ne va ti

az

Puellas Yuncullmas

Platanillo

Miritiriani

Chivis Bridge El León Waterfall El Encanto Waterfall

El Tigre Waterfall

LIMA

Acoya

Joaquin Capelo

i arete g u

Yanajanca Navarra Tingo de Huancabamba Ri o Paraizu Palma Centro Bocaz Acazazu Mallapampa Zupizu Quebrada Alto Peru Cerveza San Roque OXAPAMPA Rio Pescado z Po

o uz

JUNIN

Puerto Bermudez

YANACHAGA CHEMILLEN NATIONAL PARK

Camisea

SAN MATIAS SAN CARLOS PROTECTED FOREST

San Roque de Shimaki Tsonkirito Alto Yurinariki Santa Rosa de Naciente Cuviriani Santo Domingo de Kokari Camonashari Sanchirio Palomar Waterfall Matibamba Valle La Florida Paucartambo Los Angeles de Ubiriki Nazarategui Alto Velo de la Novia Bridge Waterfall San Pedro Union San Fernando Puente Capelo de Autiki Casaveche Scale km Miraflores de Kivinaki Rio Seco San Luis La Olada Cavern Pichanaki Casavache de Shuaro Casa Blanca Los Ángeles 0 5 10 Satipo 50 km 75°00' La Merced 15 km Santa Rosa Reiter Bridge Perené Milagro Bridge

Pusapno

Villa Rica

8

biological diversity, but we can mention: Big-leaf Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla), Spanish Cedar (Cedrela odorata), Tornillo (Cedrelinga catenaeformis), Peruvian Walnut (Juglans neotropica) and Cats’s Claw (Uncaria tomentosa). Among the representative mammal species, we have: the Spectacled Bear (Tremarctos ornatus), South American Tapir (Tapirus terrestris), Jaguar (Panthera onca), Collared Peccary (Pecari tajacu), White-lipped Peccary (Tayassu pecari), Red Brocket (Mazama americana) and Humboldt's Woolly Monkey (Lagothrix lagotricha). Among the birds, the following stand out: Andean Cock-of-the-rock (Rupicola peruviana), Harpy Eagle (Harpia harpyja), Crested Eagle (Morphnus guianensis) and Razor-billed Curassow (Mitu tuberosa).

ATTRACTIONS The Cerveza Ravine presents three cascades which at the end of their course form a shallow pond; it is located on the dirt road that goes to Puerto Bermudez, 2 hours away from Villa Rica. CONTACT INFORMATION Administrative headquarters of the protected area: Jr. Miguel Grau 224, Pichanaki, Chanchamayo, Te: (01) 968 218 471.

HOW TO GET THERE The Carretera Central is paved up to San Ramon and Satipo (both, also connected by air to the Capital). In order to get to the northern zone, the dirt roads that go, one, to Iscozacin (west) and another, to Puerto Bermudez (east), cross the area at the central zone.

The protected thick forest in the Iscozacin sector. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 273


Alto Purus | National Park

"The Giant of Preservation " A Tayra (Eira barbara), a restless, curious and lonely hunter, is used to climbing trees. *Facilities for tourism

NO

Location : UCAYALI & MADRE DE DIOS Surface Area

: 2’510,694.41 ha

Creation Date

: 11/20/2004

Altitude Range

: 200 - 500 meters

GENERAL OBJECTIVES

DESCRIPTION

The Park’s objectives are to preserve a representative area of the Tropical Moist Forest and its transitional life zones, the evolutionary processes that develop in them, and endangered and endemic fauna and flora species, such as the Giant Otter (Pteronura brasiliensis), Charapa Turtle (Podocnemis expansa), Harpy Eagle (Harpia harpyja) and Blueheaded Macaw (Primolius couloni). Likewise, a diversity of wild flora species, with important populations of Big-leaf Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) and Spanish Cedar (Cedrela odorata) and numerous species that are important for the industry or as medicine and food.

The Alto Purus National Park is the largest protected natural area in the country, with a territory equivalent to the Department of La Libertad. It includes, mainly, the basin of the Purus River and its tributaries, the Cujar, Curiuja and Curanja Rivers, in the region of Ucayali; the headwaters of the Yaco, Chandless, Acre and Tahuamanu Rivers in the eastern zone; and the sources of Las Piedras and Lidia Rivers in the southern zone. The Purus River, with an approximate length of 483 km in the Peruvian side and a maximum width of 100 meters, presents numerous small meanders and lentic environments consisting of small

274 Official Guide |Central Rainforest


“cochas” (lakes) and “tipishcas”. The area presents two major landscapes: The alluvial plain, constituted by deposits of material carried by the rivers and settled in their banks, with an abundance of sand; and the hill landscape, mainly made up of clay sediments of the continental Tertiary, having a complex topography, quite uneven, eroded and with heights of less than 100 meters in relation to the local base. Since this basin’s source does not come from the Andes, there could be special ecosystems within the Park, with different structures and soils from the rest of the Amazonia, which have not been sufficiently studied yet. Alto Purus is one of the priority zones for preservation in Peru, due to its colossal area and the great number of unaltered tropical forests that are found in it. The Park guarantees the protection of numerous species that are endangered in other zones and of the ancestral territories of numerous neighboring native communities, as well as of some native groups that live in voluntary isolation within the Park. COMMUNITIES The indigenous population of the Province of Purus is settled in 42 native communities, and 23 of them hold property deeds. The ethnic groups that live there -belonging to two large linguistic families, Pano and Arawak-, listed according to their population from the largest to the smallest, are: Cashinahua, Sharanahua, Culina, Mastanahua, Ashaninka, Arahuaca and Piro. These groups still preserve their different rites, customs, dances, music and clothing.

The non-native communities (Nahua, in local language) are Palestina and Puerto Esperanza. Alto Purus is surrounded by Reserves created in favor of the indigenous people living in isolation: The Territorial Reserve of Madre de Dios, to the south, in favor of the Mashco Piro and Iñapari people; to the northwest the Territorial Reserve in favor of the Murunahua people, and another Territorial Reserve in favor of the Mashco Piro and the Curanja people. In 2000, the area was declared a Reserved Zone with more than 5 million ha. Then, in 2002, it was reduced to half its original size, the area being divided between the Park and the Territorial Reserves, its area being finally defined in the final categorization in 2004. FLORA Around 2,500 species have been registered in the region, but further studies are needed due to the large diversity of the area’s flora. The largest number of listed species correspond to the ones that predominate along the northern Amazonia: Hevea (Euphorbiaceae), Spondias (Anacardiaceae), Piper (Piperaceae), Pouteria (Sapotaceae), Trichilia (Meliaceae), Calathea (Marantaceae), Ormosia sp. and Inga (Fabaceae), Brosimum sp. and Ficus (Moraceae), Iriartea sp. and Mauritia (Arecaceae), Heliconia (Musaceae) and the Giant LupunaTree (Bombacaceae). In the Wet Forests that grow on terraces subject to floods and on those that are

The great Purus River, the heart of the largest Protected Natural Area in Peru.

One of the most rare and unknown animals, the Bush Dog (Speothos venaticus), locally called “Zorro Vinagre” (Vinegar Fox) because of its reddish fur, has its home in Alto Purus. This carnivore canine of short legs and tail lives (and hunts) with its pack. Adapted to life in the marshes, it has interdigital membranes that enable it to swim and dive with great dexterity, lurking for its prey equally on land and in the water. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 275


A Red Howler Monkey (Alouatta seniculus), frequently seen at Alto Purus.

not subject to floods, live more than 20 forest species with average heights of 30 meters, such as: Capirona (Calycophyllum spruceanum), Santa Maria Hardwood (Calophyllum brasiliense), Ajos Quiro (Cordia sp.), Cumala (Iryanthera sp.), Shimbillo (Inga spp.), American Muskwood (Guarea sp.), Carahuasca (Guatteria sp.) and Uchumullaca (Trichilia sp.). The socalled Pacales are woods dominated by several species of woody bamboos, such as Paca (Guadua weberbaueri) and Marona (G. sarcocarpa, G. angustifolia). Also, the Park is probably the last refuge of extensive areas of Mahogany, which in the future could be used to recover this decimated valuable species. The Cedar, another species in decline, is also present but to a lesser extent.

of wild species that in other places are in clear decline. Among the mammal species, we have: Jaguar (Panthera onca), Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), Margay (Leopardus wiedii), Puma (Puma concolor), Neotropical Otter (Lontra longicaudis), Northern Tamandua (Tamandua mexicana), Tayra (Eira barbara), Short-eared Dog (Atelocynus microtis) and squirrels (Sciurus sp.). Other species are: Brownthroated Sloth (Bradypus variegatus), White-lipped Peccary (Tayassu pecari), Tucuxi (Sotalia fluviatilis) and Amazon River Dolphin (Inia geoffrensis). Also various genera of primates, such as Emperor Tamarin (Saguinus imperator), which is characteristic of this area, the Red-faced Spider Monkey (Ateles paniscus), Coppery Titi (Callicebus cupreus), Pygmy Marmoset (Callithrix pygmaea), White-fronted Capuchin (Cebus albifrons), and rodents such as the Pacarana (Dinomys branickii). Birds are also highly diverse, around 520 species. There is a large population of monkey eagles, such as the Harpy Eagle (Harpia harpyja); there is also the Blue-headed Macaw (Primolius couloni), the Russet-backed Oropendola (Psarocolius angustifrons), the King Vulture (Sarcoramphus papa), Jabiru (Jabiru mycteria) and Red-bellied Macaw (Ara manilata). HOW TO GET THERE

FAUNA It is quite diverse, with 916 registered species, and with healthy populations

Alto Purus is an almost inaccessible area. By air, you can fly from Pucallpa to Puerto Esperanza, capital of Purus,

The protection and release of the baby Yellow-spotted River Turtle (Podocnemis unifilis) in Purus, involves the people and creates environmental awareness in the settlers at an early age.

276 Official Guide |Central Rainforest


72°00'

N

National Park

Alto Purus

Breu Y Rio

ur úa

PURUS COMMUNAL RESERVE

PERU

Santo Tomas

Rio Curanja

vira En Rio

Bufeo

Miguel Grau

BRAZIL

Novia

10°00'

10°00'

PUERTO ESPERANZA

Santa Santa Rey Margarita Balta Gastabala Saniruja

Cocama

Monterrey

Rio La sP UCAYALI

R io T ahu ama nu ied

11°00'

11°00'

ALTO PURUS NATIONAL PARK

BRAZIL

N BUFFER Z O N E BO U

DA

rus lto Pu Rio A

PERU

a Inuy

RY

Río

U C A Y A L I

r as

JUNIN

CUSCO

MADRE DE DIOS

M A D R E

D E

D I O S

MANU NATIONAL PARK 72°00'

Rio Manu

but the service is scarce and difficult. By river, it is possible to access it from Brazil, also not a very frequent route, although there is air connection with Sena Madureira and Rio Branco. WEATHER The average annual precipitation is 1,800 mm, with the drier season between May and October. The average temperature is 77 °F and relative humidity goes from 75 to 82%.

Scale km 0

20

40

71°00'

of indigenous communities: dance, conviviality, handicrafts and more. CONTACT INFORMATION Administrative headquarters of the protected area: Av. Tupac amaru, Mz. G, Lote 10, Pucallpa, Tel: (061) 578 992 / (01) 968 218 430.

ATTRACTIONS All are situated outside the Park. There is Cultural Tourism at the communities of the Curunja River; Catfish sport fishing in the Purus River, as well as observation of riverside fauna, migratory birds and major storks. There are collpas (clay licks) of macaws and parrots in the Novia River; communal management of aquatic Chelonians, integral farms, communal management of the Paiche, culture

Remains of a precarious camp of natives in voluntary isolation. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 277


Purus | Communal Reserve

"Natural and cultural diversity" Two noisy Red Macaws (Ara macao) contrast their colorful plumage against the clear blue of the Amazonian sky. *Facilities for tourism

NO

Location : UCAYALI Surface Area

: 202,033.27 ha

Creation Date

: 11/20/2004

Altitude Range

: 250 - 400 meters

GENERAL OBJECTIVES The Reserve was created with the object of preserving the area’s biological diversity and the sustainable management of its natural resources in benefit of the local population; also, to strengthen the capacity of the local population for managing the area and taking actions conducive to the conservation of the biodiversity found within it, as well as in the adjacent settlements. The Reserve also serves as a Buffer Zone for the Alto Purus National Park, in the corresponding limit. DESCRIPTION The Communal Reserve seeks to strengthen the capacity of the local population for managing the area and taking actions conducive to the conservation of the biological diversity. The native communities are fully involved in the activities related to the management of the natural resources -also control and surveillance through a group of communal Park Rangers-, which include: 278 Official Guide |Central Rainforest

Reproduction of turtles (Podocnemis), the management of Paiche (Arapaima gigas), the collection of mahogany seeds (Swietenia macrophylla) and the reforestation of Aguaje (Mauritia flexuosa). HISTORY OF THE COMMUNITIES The violent harassment suffered by the indigenous communities at the hands of the rubber tappers brought about the displacement of several tribes and, among them, the Pano people, who migrated to this area and remained in isolation until the 1940s. In the 50s, they sought contact with the Mestizos, becoming victims of various epidemics. Puerto Esperanza, capital of the colonization in Purus, appears in the 20th century. From the 4,100 inhabitants of the Reserve, 70% are indigenous, from six native communities of the zone: Amahuaca, Mastanahua, Chaninahua, Sharanahu, Juni Kuin (Kashinahua), of the Pano linguistic family; and the Madija (Culina), of the


71°00'

N

UCAYALI

Communal Reserve

Purus MADRE DE DIOS

PUERTO ESPERANZA

Monitoring Committee Conta San José

Ethnobotanical Center

10°00'

OU ND AR

Y

Miguel Grau

BRAZIL

Santa Margarita

PERU

NE ZO ER FF BU

Santa Rey Balta

10°00'

Bufeo

R io Novia

CUSCO

Novia

B

Gastabala

Santo Tomas Saniruja

Rio Curanja

PURUS COMMUNAL RESERVE Monterrey

U C A Y A L I

R io

10

BRAZIL

ALTO PURUS NATIONAL PARK M A D R E

Scale km 0

PERU

s Puru Alto

Rio Co c

Q. Maniche

am

a

Cocama

20

Arawak family. Also, the recently settled: Ashaninka and Yine, of the Arawak family. BIODIVERSITY It is very similar to the one in Alto Purus National Park: The wet forests develop on terraces, some of which are subject to floods, and more than 20 forest species with average heights of 30 meters live in them. There are, also, the so called “Pacales”, dominated, mainly, by several species of woody bamboos, such as the Paca (Guadua weberbaueri) and the Marona (Guadua sarcocarpa, G. angustifolia). The Reserve constitutes, together with the abovementioned Park, the last refuge of extensive mahogany populations.

D E

D I O S

71°00'

ATTRACTIONS Cultural tourism in the Kashinahua communities; textiles and wood sculpture in San Bernardo; sport fishing (Catfish) and fauna and bird watching in the Purus River, such as migratory birds and major storks (Jabiru mycteria, J. americanus); sighting of Psittacidae (parrots family) in the Novia River; finally, the breeding centers of aquatic turtles and Paiche. CONTACT INFORMATION Administrative headquarters of the protected area: Av. Tupac amaru, Mz. G, Lote 10, Pucallpa, Tel: (061) 578 992 / (01) 968 218 468.

The communities hunt the most abundant game species: White-lipped Peccary (Tayassu pecari), Collared Peccary (Pecari tajacu), Lowland Paca (Agouti paca) and Red Brocket (Mazama americana). HOW TO GET THERE The Reserve is located 24 km away from Puerto Esperanza, by river.

The Native Community watches over its children, guaranteeing their territory stays alive and is preserved for them.

Protected Natural Areas | PERU 279


Pampa Hermosa | National Sanctuary

"Forests in the mountains" The Chestnut-eared Aracari (Pteroglossus castanotis), a Toucan that usually flies in line, in groups of up to 12 individuals. *Facilities for tourism

YES

Location : JUNIN Surface Area

: 11,543.74 ha

Creation Date

: 03/27/2009

Altitude Range

: 1,420 - 3,400 meters

GENERAL OBJECTIVES

DESCRIPTION

One of the Sanctuary’s objectives is to preserve a unique representative area of the remaining Montane Tropical Forests in the Selva Central, which includes high biological diversity values, as well as endemic species or species of restricted distribution and taxonomic groups relevant to science.

The Sanctuary has pre-montane and montane forests. This type of ecosystems are being strongly fragmented and threatened by migration and changes in the use of the soil in the whole country. The area of the Sanctuary is one of the few places in the tropical oriental Andes that have been little altered and, since the beginning of the 1980s, inhabitants and authorities seek its protection, for it is a key area for the crossing of fauna, as well as the conservation of the ecosystems typical of this zone.

Other objectives are to protect a unique series of species and biological communities, among which a relict community of Mountain Cedar (Cedrela lilloi) and residual populations of vertebrates stand out; to protect the headwaters of the Cascas and Ulcumayo Rivers, important tributaries to the Oxabamba River, guaranteeing the stability of the soils and the provision of good quality water for the neighboring population, in such an amount as will allow them to develop an integral and sustainable management of the natural resources. 280 Official Guide |Central Rainforest

BIODIVERSITY Its forests remain unaltered, and species that in other environments are currently very scarce are found here, such as: Mountain Cedar (Cedrela lilloi), Andean Walnut (Juglans neotropica), Congona (Brosimum sp.), Tulpay (Clarisia sp.), Romerillo (Podocarpus rospigliosii),


75°30'

75°25'

N

Rio U l cum a yo

National Sanctuary

sa Pat a

ha uis aq

aca ch

Rio Toro Q. T oro

Q. Peascarola

s

Santa Clara

Rio

Q. Con cordia

o

ua

g

flo r

JUNIN

Pedregal

Scale km 75°30'

0

2

San Ramon

Q. U

A

5

4

ay um

Jesus Maria

Tarma 60 km 75°25'

Romerillo Azuceno (Prumnopitys montana) and Quina (Landenbergia sp.); as well as numerous orchids that have not yet being studied.

and the beginning of some footpaths that enter the Sanctuary.

The Sanctuary is a refuge for wild fauna species that have disappeared in the Chanchamayo and the Perene, like the Andean Cock-of-the-rock (Rupicola peruviana). Among other birds, the sighting of the Amazonian Umbrellabird (Cephalopterus ornatus) has been reported, as well as some ornamental birds, such as the Black-mandibled Toucan (Ramphastos ambiguus), the Emerald Toucanet (Aulacorhynchus prasinus) and the Green Jay (Cyanocorax yncas). This is a recognized endemism area, especially of butterflies.

Nowadays, the sector called Los Cedros de Pampa Hermosa is offered to visitors by the Pampa Hermosa Lodge, in order to enjoy the Amazonian mountain landscape and the large cedars in the area.

ATTRACTIONS

HOW TO GET THERE The paved Carretera Central goes up to San Ramon, from where one takes a 24 km dirt road that takes to Nueva Italia. The Pampa Hermosa Lodge is the end of the route, 2 km away from Nueva Italia,

Panoramic view from the heights of the Chuquisyunca. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 281

11°10'

ar

Q.

Huacara

o

illo igr

Hu

go an Alt g o

nion

Q. T

Rio

ran

ba am

A

Q. Auvernia uvernia a Hu Rio

LIMA

Rio Genova

ab Ox

a

LA MERCED 11°05'

Nueva Italia Casca Río Mina Pichita

PASCO

11°10'

La Perla

San Juan Garibaldi ivi Ch

La Promisora

ista

11°05'

Q. San José

na V

acocha

h alacas

La Elsa Monterrico

e Q.Bu

Q. Yan

Lake Jacahuescana

Rio S

Ca

Santa Teresa

Q.

co T is

Hualhuayoc Q.

Q.

Q.

PAMPA HERMOSA NATIONAL SANCTUARY

ha p ac c

Q. Tu l

Q.

a

t Pis Rio

11°00'

Q. Me

Ma qu ip

Pampa Hermosa

mayo lcu Rio U

11°00'

J U N I N


Pui Pui | Protected Forest

"Heights and riverheads" The Pudu (Pudu mephistophiles), the smallest cervid in the country, is often seen in dense forests, like those at Pui Pui. *Facilities for tourism

NO

Location : JUNIN Surface Area

: 60,000 ha

Creation Date

: 01/31/1985

Altitude Range

: 1,700 - 4,500 meters

GENERAL OBJECTIVES Its objectives are to protect the hydrographic basins of the Tulumayo, Huatzirok, Pichanaki and Ipoki Rivers, which are born in the Pui Pui Mountains, in order to guarantee the normal supply of water for agriculture and human consumption in the valleys of Chanchamayo and Perene; to preserve the soils and to protect the roads, the villages and the agricultural lands. DESCRIPTION The area presents a mountainous landscape of uneven topography and exceptional scenic beauty, with steep slopes in almost the whole area. Its great hydrological potential is the fundamental reason for its being declared a Protected Forest. BIODIVERSITY Species of the Poaceae family predominate, with spiky leaves and 282 Official Guide |Central Rainforest

distributed in isolated groups. This is the most extensive formation and the genera are the Festuca and the Calamagrostis. Other formations are the Yareta (Azorella sp.) and the Puna Grass (Gentianella sp., Senecio spp., Valeriana sp. and Werneria nubigena). The Oconales or Peatlands (Distichia muscoides) are found in soils that are always wet, as well as woods of T’asta (Escallonia myrtilloides), Lipa (Gynoxys sp.) and bushes of Chicche (Berberis sp. and Rubus sp.), this last one with edible fruits. Species of the Lauraceae family also stand out, the Oak, Walnut and others. Among the principal wildlife species, the following have being registered: Puma (Puma concolor), Spectacled Bear (Tremarctos ornatus), Amazonian Brown Brocket (Mazama nemorivaga), Pudu (Pudu mephistophiles), South American Coati (Nasua nasua), Hairy Long-nosed Armadillo (Dasypus pilosus), Colocolo (Leopardus colocolo), Neotropical


75°00'

N

San Luis de Shuaro

Rio Seco Casa Blanca

Caverna La Olada

Reiter Bridge

11°00'

25

Pampa Camona

Santa Teresa

San Pedro Alto Totorani Totorani Santa Rosa

Pampatigre San Jose de Huatziroki

10

Villa Moreti Tirol

Jesus Maria La Solitaria Rondayacu

R¡o Negro

Conac 38

San Ignacio

Illic

Kanariaki

Pucara

San Vicente Tarma 30 km

Pui Pui

Union Shimashiro

San Ramon

Pedregal

Protected Forest

Boca Chenic Rio Chari Bajo Yavirironi Ipoquiari Union Capiri Bajo Huahuari Villa Capiri Colonia Huanca Cheni Portillo Alto

LA MERCED

PAMPA HERMOSA NATIONAL SANCTUARY Mina Pichita

Perene

Gavilan Mountain

Monterrico

a Pichanaki Miraflores San Fernando de Kivinaki Los Angeles

Villa Rica 30 km

Capelo Bridge

PUI PUI PROTECTED FOREST

Chinayacu

Marianoc

SATIPO

Bellavista Paratushiali

Petroglyphs of Paratushiali and Huanacaure

Monobamba

Santa Maria Waterfall

Pacasumayo

Mariposa Huaripampa

Gallito de las Rocas Waterfall

J U N I N Uchubamba

a um Tul Rio

Yuracmayo

yo Mancara

HUANUCO

Huanuco

Chalua

PASCO

Mucllo

LIMA

Andas

0

8

JUNIN

Cochas

Scale km 16

Huancayo 75 km

Otter (Lontra longicaudis), Kalinowski’s Agouti (Dasyprocta kalinowskii) and Long-tailed Weasel (Mustela frenata). From the bird group: Andean Goose (Chloephaga melanoptera), Yellow-billed Teal (Anas flavirostris), Mountain Caracara (Phalcoboenus megalopterus), Black-faced Ibis (Theristicus branickii), Andean Duck (Oxyura ferruginea), Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis), Puna Ibis (Plegadis ridgwayi) and Crested Duck (Anas specularioides). And, among the Amphibians, these stand out: Brown Frog (Telmatobius sp.), Chaunus spinulosus or Rhinella spinulosa and Marsupial Frog (Gastrotheca sp.).

Comas

Canchapalca 75°00'

relict woods of Lipa and Quishuar; the rural towns of Antuyo, Talhuish and Tasta, which maintain their cultural traditions, such as the growing of potato, oca, mashua and other native crops. CONTACT INFORMATION Administrative headquarters of the protected area: Av. Antonio Raymondi, Mz. A, Lote 3, 4 y 5, Urb. La Libertad, San Ramon, Tel: (064) 347 003 / (01) 968 218 470.

HOW TO GET THERE The paved Carretera Central goes up to Satipo. One can access the area by dirt roads that are in the district of Vitoc, in Chanchamayo, or in the districts of Pampahermosa and Pichanaki, in Satipo. ATTRACTIONS Among the attractions, there are the Ucumale, Pucacocha, Paracsho, Antuyo, Ancayo, Tinki and Yanacocha Lakes; the

Forests with great landscape and hydrological potential, at Pui Pui. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 283


Otishi | National Park

"The bridge in the mountain" There are thousands of species of mushrooms -such as these basidiomycetes-, which are not considered either vegetables or animals, and its use has always been surrounded by mystery. *Facilities for tourism

NO

Location : JUNIN & CUSCO Surface Area

: 305,973 ha

Creation Date

: 01/14/2003

Altitude Range

: 750 - 4,185 meters

GENERAL OBJECTIVES

DESCRIPTION

The Park’s chief objective is to protect the Vilcabamba Mountains in order to preserve the stability and integrity of the soils and the water of the basins of the Apurimac, Ene, Tambo and Urubamba Rivers.

The Park constitutes the nucleus of the protected natural areas complex in the northernmost part of the Vilcabamba Mountains, along with the Ashaninka and Machiguenga Communal Reserves that practically surround it and protect it.

Additionally, to protect the beauty of the landscape, the Park’s singular geological formations, and biological diversity, characterized by the presence of wild flora and fauna species that are endemic or of restricted distribution, among which endangered, rare, or vulnerable species are found.

The millenary erosion of calcareous stone by the action of water -called Karst- in an area characterized by such a varied geology and topography, has sculpted a vibrating landscape of great natural beauty: Lakes, canyons, plateaus, deep gorges and, specially, cascades, such as the almost 60 waterfalls that

284 Official Guide |Central Rainforest


are found in the Cutivireni River’s basin, as well as the gigantic natural bridge formation of Pavirontsi. The zone has the largest concentration of waterfalls in the Peruvian Amazonia. The Vilcabamba Mountains are isolated (Otishi means summit in the native language) in the midst of a tropical forest environment, and this has produced a diversity of habitats, from deep and humid ravines and Queñua forests, to high altitude scrub fields, where fauna of Andean and Amazonian origin is found, as well as much endemism. The native communities that are settled in the Communal Reserves around the Park, belonging to the Ashaninka, Machiguenga, Yine, Yami and Caquinte ethnical groups, find many of the animals they consume within the protected area, as well as a large number of plants they traditionally use as food and medicine, as well as for clothing. The Park, also, is a refuge for some groups of the Arawak linguistic family, who live in different degrees of isolation. HISTORY Since ancient times, the settlers of this region -known as the Antis in the Tahuantinsuyo- used several corridors to cross the isolated mountain range and connect the low basins on both flanks. Relatively protected by its inaccessibility during colonial times, by the end of the 19th century, the zone faced large migrations of indigenous groups, who were fleeing from the rubber tappers enslaving incursions, refused to be confined in the missions or were simply

displaced by the civil-military expansions of the colonists. This panorama only aggravated as the new century brought a new appetite for resources -timber, oil and coca plantations- so several Arawak groups took refuge in the distant sources of the rivers. As a sad epilogue, the so called “internal war” would have killed off at least 4,000 natives from the Ashaninka ethnical group. The Otishi National Park has as a precedent the National Forest of Apurimac, created in 1963, the largest of its kind at the time. In the same decade, the international community took an interest in the extreme beauty of the Vilcabamba Mountains, and it was the OEA the first to recommend the creation of the National Park of Cutivireni. This proposal was supported by the Franciscans in the 1970s and, in the 1980s, it was reinforced by the issuing of property deeds for the indigenous communities and by the success the first expedition to the natural bridge of Pavirontsi had in the media. This expedition was carried out by the Association for the Conservation of the Cutivireni Heritage in 1987. The following year, the Apurimac Reserved Zone was created with an area of 1.6 million ha. After several years of studies and a slow process of inclusion of the native communities in the decisions, in 2002, these last ones proposed the creation of two Communal Reserves and a National Park.

One observes a very dense forest at the southwestern entrance to the Otishi National Park.

The big Arboreal Chinchilla Rat was an impressive finding. It is very similar to the Abrocoma oblativa and it used to be considered extinct. It had only been registered from cranial bones found in pre-Columbian burials at Machupicchu (where it was photographed accidentally in June of 2009). Its external appearance shows that these specimens -found within the area of the Park- represent a new genus and species, described as Cuscomys ashaninka. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 285


In the open scrubfields, populations of Cloud Forest Grass Mouse (Akodon torques) and Montane Guinea Pig (Cavia tschudii) predominate. A marsupial found in the Park (Gracilinanus cf. aceramarcae) constitutes the second register of this species in Peru.

Butterflies of the Urania genus, in the Tambo River’s basin.

Among the birds, hummingbirds stand out. Some of the species are: Colibri thalassinus, Adelomyia melanogenys, Heliodoxa rubinoides, Coeligena coeligena, Coeligena violifer, Boissonneaua matthewsii, Metallura tyrianthina, Aglaiocercus kingi and Acestrura mulsant. The Andean Cock-of-the-rock (Rupicola peruviana) is considered as one of the objects of conservation of the Park. HOW TO GET THERE

FLORA Studies have registered more than 700 species. Most of them are Angiosperms; then, come the Pteridophytes (Ferns and Lycopods) and one unique species of Gymnosperm. Among the Angiosperms, orchids predominate, some genera of which are: Brachionidium, Brassia, Cryptocentrum, Dichaea, Elleanthus, Epidendrum, Lepanthes, Lockhartia, Maxillaria, Odontoglossum, Oncidium, Pachyphyllum, Pleurothallis, Scaphyglottis, Sobralia, Stelis, Trichosalpinx and Xylobium. Two new species of Bromeliads (Greigia raporum and G. vilcabambae) have been described based on these collections. The Queñua (Polylepis canoi), which makes up extensive forests at 3,500 meters above sea level stands out, as well as the Romerillo (Podocarpus oleifolius), the only Gymnosperm species that was mentioned before. The Tree Ferns belong to 6 genera: Blechnum, Cyathea, Dicksonia, Diplazium, Pteris and Sphaeropteris and are a significant component of the montane forests, due to their bearing.

The paved Carretera Central goes up to Satipo. From there, one can get to Puerto Ocopa in 2 hours, by a packed dirt road and, from there, to Cutivireni, in 8 hours by river. (To get to the natural bridge of Pavirontsi can take from 10 to 12 days on foot from Cutivireni). Satipo has air services to the Capital, as well as regular land transport. WEATHER The average annual temperature is 77 °F. The period of low water level in the rivers goes from May to October and the rainy season, from November to April.

FAUNA Among the mammals, the following stand out: the Puma (Puma concolor), Jaguar (Panthera onca), Jaguarundi (Herpailurus yaguarondi), Spectacled Bear (Tremarctos ornatus), White-fronted Spider Monkey (Ateles belzebuth), Humboldt’s Woolly Monkey (Lagothrix lagotricha), Red Howler (Alouatta seniculus), Dwarf Brocket (Mazama chunyi) and South American Tapir (Tapirus terrestris). 286 Official Guide |Central Rainforest

The fabulous Pavirontsi natural bridge (220 meters long), carved by the Cutivireni River.


74°00'

Shevoja Betania

Cana Eden Santa Cruz

N

Puerto Ocopa Gloriabamba Koari Waterfall Margen Caperucia Derecha Union Puerto Ashaninka

National Park

Otishi San Antonio de Cheni

Lurin Chincha

Puerto Rico Porotobango Ri o

Nueva Luz

E

ne

Kitepampani

Nuevo Mundo

Taini

Pichiquia

Kirigueti E ON RZ FFE BU

Mayapo Camana

Pavirontsi Natural Bridge

12°00'

12°00'

Camantavishi

ND ARY

Kochiri

Tangoshiari Parijaro

CUSCO AYACUCHO

Uru mba ba

Shiapo Waterfall Parijaro Waterfall

B

OTISHI NATIONAL PARK

JUNIN

R io

OU

J U N I N

Valle Esmeralda ASHANINKA

Timpía

COMMUNAL RESERVE

MACHIGUENGA Mainique COMMUNAL River narrows RESERVE

an

Natividad Rio A p

t aro

ur

ac ím

Scale km 0

10

20

Llochegua

Tambo 74°00'

Rio

Teresa

Sivia

Port Mayo

Al

to

Chakopishiato R

Rio M

Pic ha

Pitirinquini

Poyentimari Koribeni o tal n MEGANTONI Ma NATIONAL SANCTUARY io

C U S C O

Pichari

ATTRACTIONS The cataracts of Mancobeni, Koshiniato and Cubeja and the beautiful Maiobenti Lake, in the frontier between the Park and the Ashaninka Communal Reserve, stand out. The longest natural bridge in the world, called Pavirontsi, is found in the Park. It is crossed by the Cutivireni River, and forms an enormous tunnel of more than 67 meters height, with a mouth of more than 63 meters width and a total length of 220 meters.

Monte

73°00' Carmelo

There are several cataracts along the Cutuvireni River, of which the following stand out: Tres Saltos (80 meters high), Tsiriapo (60 m), Hectariato (300 m) and Parijaro (230 m). CONTACT INFORMATION Administrative headquarters of the protected area: Carretera Marginal Satipo - Rio Negro, Km 1.5, Satipo, Tel: (064) 545 598 / (01) 968 218 429.

The gigantic cataract of Tsiapo, natural heritage of the native communities.

Protected Natural Areas | PERU 287


Ashaninka | Communal Reserve

"Common territorial management" A colorful Green Jay (Cyanocorax yncas), cheering up the forests of the Communal Reserve. *Facilities for tourism

NO

Location : JUNIN & CUSCO Surface Area

: 184,468.38 ha

Creation Date

: 01/14/2003

Altitude Range

: 450 - 4,100 meters

GENERAL OBJECTIVES Proteger las areas que sirven de fuente de recursos biologicos y fuentes de agua para las poblaciones Ashaninka asentadas en la margen derecha de los rios Tambo, Ene y Apurimac, junto con sus bellezas escenicas y valores culturales intrinsecos. DESCRIPTION The Reserve is found bordering the northern and western part of the Otishi National Park, at the sources of the tributaries of the Apurimac, Ene and Tambo Rivers. The native communities living in the Reserve come from the Arawak linguistic family, and belong to the Ashaninka, Machiguenga and Kakinte ethnical groups, who still maintain a strong cultural connection with their ancestral territories and are involved in the conservation of their natural resources, which, in this case, are of exceptional landscape beauty. The Ashaninka constitute the largest 288 Official Guide |Central Rainforest

indigenous group in the Peruvian Amazonia. One of the most notable chapters in their history was their participation in the uprising of Santos Atahualpa in the 18th century, which kept invaders from coming into their lands for more than a century. BIODIVERSITY Among its diverse flora, the following stand out: White Floss Silk Tree (Chorisia integrifolia), Cumala (Virola sp.), Cedar (Cedrela odorata, Matisia sp.), Big-leaf Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla), Tornillo (Cedrelinga catenaeformis), Balsa Tree (Ochroma pyramidale), South American Sapote (Matisia cordata), Brazilian Firetree (Schizolobium sp.) and Balsam Tree (Myroxylon balsamum). Regarding mammals, we can mention: Short-tailed Opossum (Monodelphis spp.), Spider Monkey (Ateles sp.), Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), Jaguar (Panthera onca), South American Tapir (Tapirus terrestris), White-lipped Peccary (Tayassu


74°00'

Shevoja Betania

Cana Eden Santa Cruz

N

Port Ocopa Gloriabamba Koari Waterfall Margen Caperucia Derecha Union Puerto Ashaninka

Communal Reserve

Ashaninka San Antonio de Cheni

Lurin Chincha

Puerto Rico Ri o

Porotobango

e

Nueva Luz Kitepampani

Pichiquia

Nuevo Mundo

Taini

Kirigueti E ON RZ FFE BU

ASHANINKA COMMUNAL RESERVE

R io

JUNIN

Shiapo Waterfall Los Amigos

Mayapo

Parijaro Waterfall

12°00'

CUSCO

Camantavishi

AYACUCHO

ND ARY

Kochiri

Tangoshiari

Parijaro

Uru mba ba

B

OU

Camana

Pavirontsi Natural Bridge

12°00'

En

Los Vencedores

J U N I N

Valle Esmeralda

Natividad Rio A p

tar o

Los Pioneros

Teresa

ur

ac im

Scale km 0

10

20

Llochegua

Tambo 74°00'

Sivia

Puerto Mayo

Rio

to Al

MACHIGUENGA COMMUNAL RESERVE

Chakopishiato R

Rio M an

Timpía

OTISHI NATIONAL PARK Pic ha

Pitirinquini

Poyentimari Koribeni o tal n MEGANTONI Ma NATIONAL SANCTUARY io

C U S C O

Pichari

pecari), Collared Peccary (Pecari tajacu), Humboldt’s Woolly Monkey (Lagothrix lagotricha), Brown-mantled Tamarin (Saguinus fuscicollis), Nine-banded Armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus) and Lowland Paca (Agouti paca). Birds in the area include: White-throated Screech Owl (Otus albogularis), Citrine Warbler (Basileuterus Red-and-white Antpitta luteoviridis), (Grallaria erythroleuca), Alagoas Curassow (Mitu mitu), Spix's Guan (Penelope jaquacu), Blue-and-yellow Macaw (Ara ararauna), Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao) and Andean Cock-of-the-rock (Rupicola peruviana).

Mainique River narrows

Monte

73°00' Carmelo

and Tangoshiari. 3) Cutivireni - Quempiri: Parijaro, Mayobenti and Paveni. Among other natural attractions, there are: the cataracts of Tsiapo, Hectariato, Parijaroni, Sariteto, Tres Hermanas, Maysanteni, Patsani and Coveja; and the gigantic Pavirontsi natural bridge, which is nearby. CONTACT INFORMATION Administrative headquarters of the protected area: Carretera Marginal Rio Negro - Satipo, Km 1.5, Tel: (064) 546 425 / (01) 968 218 466.

HOW TO GET THERE From Satipo, one must travel two hours by a packed dirt road, and then, 2 to 8 hours by river. ATTRACTIONS The native communities, assisted by the Ecotribal Company, offer three circuits: 1) Ene -Urubamba: Mamiri, Tsoyeni, Mipaya, Tangoshiari, Cutivireni, Mayobenti, Patsani, Macamaria and Kotchiri. 2) Tambo - Urubamba: Poyeni, Tsoroja, Taini

Boys and girls of the Ashaninka community of Pitirinqueni, in the basin of the Apurimac River. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 289


Machiguenga | Communal Reserve

"Protecting the ancestral territory" The Capybara or Ronsoco is the largest rodent there is. Adapted to a semi-aquatic environment, it rarely goes far from the bodies of water. *Facilities for tourism

NO

Location : CUSCO Surface Area

: 218,905.63 ha

Creation Date

: 01/14/2003

Altitude Range

: 450 - 3,000 meters

GENERAL OBJECTIVES The Reserve’s objective is to guarantee the conservation of the biological and cultural diversity for the benefit of the adjacent native communities that make traditional use of its natural resources. DESCRIPTION The Reserve, because of its location, includes ecosystems large enough to protect adapted populations of uncommon species. Even though the area has been little studied, it is known that the diversity of habitats is extraordinary. The communities belong to the Arawak family, constituted by the Machiguenga (the most numerous), Ashaninka, Kakinte and Yine Yami ethnolinguistic groups. One of the groups that, historically, were more related to the Incas, they remained in relative isolation until the advent of the Rubber Fever that decimated them. Nowadays, 290 Official Guide |Central Rainforest

they are confronted with problems generated by the Camisea gas pipeline that goes across their territories and the Communal Reserve. BIODIVERSITY Regarding Ethno-Botany, 93 medicinal plants have been registered, distributed in 70 genera and 34 families, like: Ayahuasca, Chamuro, Evanaro, Inkorina, Kamua, Mamposhiari, Niameto, Oseronanpi, Pachapari, Peyo, Sangre de Grado, Shimuro and Yashivanto. Among the palm trees of the Arecaceae family, we have: Aguaje (Mauritia flexuosa), Huasai (Euterpe precatoria), Peach-palm (Bactris gasipaes), Shebon (Scheelea butyracea), Hungurahua (Oenocarpus bataua) and Yarina (Phytelephas macrocarpa). Among valuable timber species, we have: Big-leaf Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla), Cedar (Cedrela fissilis), Tornillo (Cedrelinga catenaeformis) and Ishpingo (Amburana cearensis).


73°30'

Shevoja Betania

Cana Eden Santa Cruz

N

Puerto Ocopa Gloriabamba Koari Waterfall Margen Caperucia Derecha Union Puerto Ashaninka

Communal Reserve

Machiguenga San Antonio de Cheni

Lurin Chincha

Puerto Rico Porotobango Ri o

E

Kitepampani

Nuevo Mundo

Pichiquia

Kirigueti E ON RZ FFE BU

Taini

ASHANINKA COMMUNAL RESERVE

R io

MACHIGUENGA COMMUNAL RESERVE Kochiri Tangoshiari

Parijaro

Mayapo

CUSCO

Camantavishi

AYACUCHO

ND ARY

Camana

Pavirontsi Natural Bridge

12°00'

Shiapo Waterfall Parijaro Waterfall

Uru mba ba

OU

B

JUNIN

12°00'

Nueva Luz

Paquiria

ne

J U N I N

Valle Esmeralda

Timpía

Rio A p ac ím

10

P ic ha io

Teresa

ur

Scale km 0

R

Natividad

a ro

20

Llochegua

Tambo 73°30'

Sivia

Puerto Mayo

Chakopishiato R

Rio Ma nt

OTISHI NATIONAL PARK

Al to

Pitirinquini

Poyentimari Koribeni o tal n MEGANTONI Ma NATIONAL SANCTUARY io

C U S C O

Pichari

Among the fauna for human consumption, there are: South American Tapir (Tapirus terrestris), Brocket Deer (Mazama sp.), White-lipped Peccary (Tayassu pecari), Collared Peccary (Pecari tajacu) and Lowland Paca (Cuniculus paca); Tinamou (Tinamus sp.), Piping Guan (Pipile sp.), Spix's Guan (Penelope jacquacu) and Razorbilled Curassow (Mitu tuberosa); Redbellied Pacu (Piaractus brachypomus), Jau (Zungaro zungaro), Barred Sorubim (Pseudoplastystoma fasciatum), Sabalo (Brycon erythroptera) and Ocellate River Stingray (Potamotrygon motoro). Also, Spectacled Caiman (Caiman sclerops) and Yellow-spotted River Turtle (Podocnemis unifilis); Mollusks and Crustaceans (snails, crabs and shrimps).

Mainique River narrows

Monte

73°00' Carmelo

ATTRACTIONS Well preserved forests, navigable rivers and visits to the traditional native communities. The control and surveillance Post of Paquiria is located in the Nueva Luz Native Community. CONTACT INFORMATION Administrative headquarter of the protected area: Jr. Puno, n/n, R-4, Quillabamba, Tel: (01) 968 218 467.

HOW TO GET THERE From Quillabamba, there are 220 km of packed dirt road to Ivochote, and from there, some 8 hours by the Urubamba River in order to arrive at the Paquiria Control Post. From that point, one still has to travel for a day by the tributary rivers.

A native Yine girl in the Miaria Native Community. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 291


SERVICES Phone Area Codes: Huanuco (062), Ucayali (061), Pasco (063), JUNIN (064), Cusco (084) HOTELS Tingo Maria: **La Gran Muralla; Raimondi 277, T. 562934; www.hotel-lagranmuralla.com/ **Oro Verde; Iquitos s/n, cuadra 10, T. 561144; www.hotel-oroverde.com **Chontaplaya Albergue; carretera Central s/n, Km 107, Tingo Maria, Huanuco; www.chontaplaya.com/ **Villa Jennifer; carretera Castillo Grande Km 3,4, Sector Monterrico, T. 794714; www. villajennifer.com/nosotros.htm Pucallpa: ***Grand Hotel Mercedes; Raimondi 610, T. 575120; www.grandhotelmercedes.com **Inambu; Centenario 271, T. 575234 **Luz de Luna; San Martin 283, T. 571206; www.hotelluzdelunaeirl.com/ **Rio Hotel; San Martin 475, T. 571280; www.riohotelcasino.com.pe/ **Sol de Oriente; Malecon Yarinacocha s/n, T. 596072; www.soldelorientehoteles.com **La Maloka Ecologico; Malecon de Yarinacocha s/n, T. 566900 **Los Gavilanes; Ipuatia 370, T. 597255; www.losgavilaneshotel.com.pe/ spanish/ **Arequipa; Progreso 573, Pucallpa, T. 571348; www.hostal-arequipa.com/ Oxapampa: **Albergue Tur Frau Carolina Egg, San Martin s/n Cercado, T. 4362331, www.bungalowsfraucarolinaegg.com/ Villa Rica: **San Marcos; Leopoldo Krause 603, Villa Rica, T. 465131 **Villa Hermoza; Pardo 1079, T. 227407 *Tambo Hotel; Pasco 233, T. 233221 Pozuzo: **Tierra Verde Lodge; Guacamayo s/n, Urb. Pozuzo, carretera Principal, T. 5330274; www.tierrerdepozuzo.com/ **Prusia; Cristobal Johan s/n, Prusia, T. 811381/9710806; www.hellopasco.com/hostal_prusia/index.html **Tirol; Alemania s/n, Prusia, Pozuzo; www.pozuzo.de/cas/index.htm La Merced: ***Fundo San Jose Eco Lodge; Fundo San Jose, Circunvalacion s/n, Pampa del Carmen, La Merced, T. 531816, www. fundosanjose.com.pe/ Chanchamayo: **El Refugio; El Ejercito 490, El Refugio, T. 331082; www.hotelelrefugio.com.pe/ **Bungalows Rio Grande Inn; Victor Villachica 1237, T. 332193; www.riogrande-bungalow.com/ San Ramon: ***Presidente Selva; Carretera Marginal s/n, Chunchuyacu, T. 531686; www.hoteles-del-centro.com/chcsp14.htm **Bungalows Rio Grande Inn; Victor Villachica 1237, San Ramon, T. 332193, www.riogrande-bungalow.com/ *Cerro Verde; carretera Marginal Km 98, Salsipuedes, San Ramon, T. 768746 Tarma: **Hacienda La Florida Hospedaje Ecologico; 6 km desde Tarma, caminos a Acobamba, T. 341041; www.haciendalaflorida.com/ **Los Portales; Ramon Castilla 512, T. 321411; www. hoteleslosportales.com/ *Aruba; Moquegua 452, T. 322057; www.tarma.info/aruba.html Satipo: **Azul; Augusto B. Leguia 380, T. 545057 *El Palmero; Manuel Prado 228, T. 545020 *Villa Jardin; Carretera Marginal 227, T. 509137 RESTAURANTS Tingo Maria: Marco Antonio; Monzon 368, T. 562201 Nueva York; Alameda Peru 553, T. 562406 El Palafito; Cueva de las Pavas Km 8 Pucallpa: Golf Restaurante; Huascar 545, T. 574632 Los Rosales de Pucallpa; Mariscal Caceres 389, T. 571246; www.losrosalesrestaurant.com/ El Portal; Independencia 510, T. 571771 Kitty; Tarapaca 1062, T. 574764 Heladeria Fuente de Soda Ces't Si Bon; Independencia 560, T. 590578 Cebicheria Brandon; Libertad 440, T. 593745 Kassandra; Malecon Yarina, esquina 7 de JUNIN, T. 596367 Pollos a la Brasa y Heladeria Shulita; Saenz Pe単a 601, T. 571347; www.shulitarestaurant. com/ Oxapampa: Oasis; Bolognesi s/n, Plaza principal de Oxapampa La Delicia; Grau, Cuadra 3 El Sanguchon; Prolg. Bolognesi s/n, a media cuadra de Plaza, T. 462155 Villa Rica: Don Pedrito; Leopoldo Krausse, sexta cuadra Lily; L. Krausse, septima cuadra El Arequipe単o; L. Krausse, 751 La Cerre単ita; L. Krausse, 742 Pozuzo: Las Orquideas; Los Colonos s/n EL Tipico Pozucino; Los Colonos cuadra 9 Vicky; Los Colonos, Centro Pozuzo Chanchamayo: Chanchamayo's; San Ramon 296, T. 331182; www.hellojunin. com/chanchamayos/index.htm El Venado Tuerto; Paseo Turistico 222, Las Brisas, T. 416861 Reyna; Palca 259, T. 531780/532196 La Merced: El Mirador; Marginal km 1, T. 22200; www.hellojunin.com/elmirador/index.htm Sol Naciente; Puente Reither Km.12, T. 95818731 San Ramon: Portada del Sol; Centro Recreativo Turistico, carretera Marginal s/n, T. 331888 Selva Alegre; carretera Central Km 91, Sector Campamento Chico, T. 331792 Tarma: Lo Mejorcito de Tarma; Arequipa 501, T. 317329 Palacio Latino; Plazuela Muruhuay, T. 341115 Satipo: Laguna Blanca; carretera Marginal Km 2, T. 545825 El Mirador, carretera Marginal Km 1, T. 22200

292 Official Guide |Central Rainforest


TOURISM/TRAVEL AGENCIES Tingo Maria: Rumbos Travel Tours Ops; San Alejandro 637, T. 562446; www.ecorumbos. com/home.html Tours Tingo Maria; San Martin 113, T. 795754; www.tourstingomaria. com/ Cannes Travel; Tito Jaime 208, T. 9845152 Tropical Tours; Alameda Corpac s/n, Castillo Grande Pucallpa: Laser Viajes y Turismo Pucallpa; Raimondi 399, T. 571120; www. laserviajesyturismo.com/principal/ Amazon World; Tarapaca 980, T. 575539/579694 Weekend Tours; Huascar 601, T. 571951/579467 Miami Tours; Tarapaca 964, T. 572691 Arco Iris Travel Agency; Ucayali 720, T. 575385/572417 D.K. Tours; Arica 433, T. 591351 Alfa Viajes Y Servicios Generales; Tacna 738, T. 574722 Fayna Travel; Raimondi 671, T. 577709 Suy Suy; Tarapaca 810, T. 578223 Viajes & Turismo Abensur; Masisea Manzana A Lote 14, T. 579140 Oxapampa: Antami Tours; Las Galaxias 121, T. 462596 Ecotours; Jeguer 295, T. 806656 Yom Por Yom Pere; Thomas Schaus, T. 462716 Pozuzo: Agencia de viajes Prusia Tours; Jose Pardo 764 Ofic. 12, Miraflores; www.prusiatours.com Sumaq Peru Travel; Cantuarias 140 Ofic. 210, Miraflores, T. 99024-9264; www. sumaqperu.travel La Merced: Angel Tours; Tarma 290, T. 509534 San Ramon: Vilava Tours; Arica y Jimenez 102T. 507596 Imagheren Peru Tours, JUNIN 210, T. 531680; www.hellojunin.com/ imagheren/index.html Tarma: Max Adventure Peru; 2 de Mayo 682, Cercado, T. 323908 Perla Tours, Tarma; Moquegua 689, T. 323113 Chanchamayo: Bayoz Tours; Ancash 393, T. 531007 Imagheren Peru Tours Sac; JUNIN 210, T. 531680; www.hellojunin.com/imagheren/ index.html Vila Tours; Arica y Jimenez 102, T. 507596 Satipo: Rupicola Expeditions; R. Palma 747, T. 954486874; www.rupicola.host56.com/somos.html EMERGENCIES Health: Tingo Maria: Hospital de Apoyo de Tingo Maria; Ucayali 114, T. 562018 Pucallpa: Hospital Regional Nº 1 de Pucallpa; Agustin Cauper 285, T. 575211/575209 Hospital de Apoyo Nº 2 de Yarinacocha; Aguayija s/n, Calleria, 596188 Oxapampa: Hospital Utes Oxapampa; Enrique Bettger s/n, T. 762022 Villa Rica: Hospital de Apoyo Villa Rica de Pasco; Valentin Cueva s/n, T. 765106/754504 La Merced: Hospital General “La Merced” Chanchamayo; Tarma 140, T. 531002 Hospital de Apoyo; Tarma 140, T. 531930 Tarma: Hospital de Apoyo Felix Mayorga Soto; Pacheco 362, T. 21401/324166 Satipo: Hospital Manuel Higa Arakaki; Daniel Alcides Carrion s/n, Satipo, T. 545045 Police: Tingo Maria: Comisaria de Tingo Maria; Rupa Rupa s/n, T. 562222 Pucallpa: Comisaria Pucallpa; Independencia cuadra 3, T. 97546966 Comisaria de Yarinacocha; Yarinacocha cuadra 3, T. 97546964 Oxapampa: Comisaria de Oxapampa; Enrique Bottgen 368, T. 462217 Villa Rica: Comisaria de Villa Rica; Padre Sala 603, T. 465065 Pozuzo: Comisaria de Pozuzo; Los Colonos s/n, T. 287526 La Merced: Comisaria de La Merced; Julio Pirola s/n, T. 531142 San Ramon: Comisaria de San Ramon; Pachitea 467, T. 331222 Tarma: Comisaria de Tarma; Callao 118, T. 321921 Satipo: Comisaria de Satipo; Francisco Irazola, Ricardo Palma, T. 545125 OF INTEREST Tingo Maria: Correos; Alameda Peru 451, T. 562100 Pucallpa: Museo Regional de Ucayali-Pucallpa; Inmaculada 999, T. 572344 Centro de Informacion Turistica; Dir. Regional de Comercio Exterior y Turismo, T. 571303 Servicio de Informacion al Turista de PromPeru, T. 2249355 Oxapampa: Museo de Los Colonos"; en el distrito de Chontabamba Pozuzo: Museo Schaferrer; Los Colonos s/n La Merced: Museo Antonio Raimondi; Biblioteca Municipal, Urb. San Ambrosio Correos; Dos de Mayo s/n. T. 531174 Tarma: Correos; Callao 356. T. 321241 Satipo: Correos; Centro Civico, Foco 2, T. 231271

Protected Natural Areas | PERU 293


TRANSPORTATION By Buses: GM; 28 de Julio 535, T. 519770, Huanuco; www.geocities.com/gminternacional Bahia Continental; Hermilio Valdizan 718, T. 514673, Huanuco Expreso Molina Union; Pasco 1141, T. 236144, Pasco JUNIN; Terminal Terrestre Oficina 7 y 8, Chaupimarca, T. 421043, Pasco/ Amazonas 669, T. 321234, Tarma Cruz del Sur; Ayacucho 281, T. 235650, JUNIN; www.cruzdelsur.com.pe/ Expreso Lobato; Dos de Mayo con Arica s/n, T.531250, La Merced Expreso Nacional Cerro de Pasco; Jose Carlos Mariategui 574, T. 252822/247371, Huancayo/ Terminal Terrestre Ofic. 21, T. 723242, Cerro de Pasco Turismo Central; Ayacucho 274, T. 223128, Huancayo By Air: Lc Busre; 28 de Julio 1015, Huanuco, T. 519595; www.lcbusre.com.pe/ Lan; Tarapaca 805, Pucallpa; www.lan.com Star Peru; 7 de Junio 865; T. 590585/590586, Pucallpa; www.starperu.com/ Airports: Huanuco: Aeropuerto “Alferez FAP David Figueroa Fernandini”, carretera Huanuco - Aeropuerto km 6, T. 513066 Pucallpa: Aeropuerto Internacional “Capitan FAP David Armando Abensur Rengifo”, carretera Federico Basadre km 5,5, T. 572767

Large-billed Tern (Phaetusa simplex) 294 Official Guide |Central Rainforest

Red Howler (Alouatta seniculus)


Southern Rainforest

1 2 3 4 5

*

Megantoni NS Manu NP Amarakaeri CR Tambopata NR Bahuaja Sonene NP New Protected Natural Areas

2 1

3

4

5


Megantoni | National Sanctuary

“The bridge between the Amazonia and the Andes” The Wire-tailed Manakin (Pipra filicauda), one of the birdwatchers’ favorite bird species in the Amazonia. *Facilities for tourism

Location

: CUSCO

Surface Area

: 215,868.96 ha

Creation Date

: 08/18/2004

Altitude Range

: 400 - 3,800 meters

NO

GENERAL OBJECTIVES

DESCRIPTION

The Sanctuary’s objectives are to preserve the ecosystems that develop in the mountains of Megantoni, which have been declared intangible, in order to keep their forests and water sources (the headwaters of the Timpia and Ticumpinia Rivers) intact; to protect the biological and cultural values of the area, such as the Pongo de Mainique, a sacred place for the Machiguenga people; to protect endangered species, species that have a restricted distribution and species that are new to science, keeping intact the important corridor between the Manu National Park and the Vilcabamba complex of protected natural areas.

The Sanctuary is located in the last foothills of the Ausangate Eastern Mountain Range, the lowest, the most discontinuous, woodland area of the Central Andes, forming a kind of “Conservation Bridge” between the Manu National Park and the Machiguenga Communal Reserve. It covers a zone with a mainly hilly and mountainous topography that includes from low altitude humid and deep canyons to Puna scrubfields at about 4,000 meters above sea level, with a great variety of climates that make possible the existence of 10 different life zones. This explains, in

296 Official Guide |Southern Rainforest


part, its wide biological diversity and extraordinary scenic beauty. The focus in this landscape, and the main attraction that has seduced man since antiquity, is the Pongo de Mainique, a short and narrow canyon perforated in the mountain range by the Urubamba River, as it made its way towards the Amazonian plain. This special geographical feature is a sacred place for the Machiguenga ethnical group, who venerate it as the birthplace of their culture, the place where Tasorinchi, their deity, dwells. It is a gateway between the Andean and the Amazonian worlds and, besides, a threshold that souls cross in their voyage to the beyond. The truth is that traveling through it, contemplating the numerous cascades that fall directly on the river, as if a mysterious force had dared to disturb its natural and tranquil course, is something that cannot be done without feeling deep respect.

times. The initiative to create a protected zone came from them in the 1980s, threatened by an increasing colonization and the intention of some to dynamite “hard to go through” places of the Pongo de Mainique. In 1988, the Machiguenga Council of the Urubamba River (COMARU), the Center for the Development of the Amazonian Native (CEDIA) and the Ministry of Agriculture in Cusco worked out the design to preserve Tonkini, the sacred port of the legendary river. In 1999, the Technical File for the establishment of the Sanctuary is presented, and it is only in March 2004 that the State creates the Megantoni Reserved Zone. In record time, after consulting the population, the categorization proposal is formulated and, in August that same year, the Sanctuary is created. FLORA

There are numerous inhabitants in the vicinity of the Sanctuary, Machiguenga people as well as settlers from the Andes -mainly in the south-, and in its interior, at the upper Timpia River, there are some indigenous groups in voluntary isolation, such as the Nanty/ Kugapacori and others.

More than 1,400 species have been registered, but it is considered that there are between 3,000 and 4,000 in total, including the highland and lowland tropical forests. Orchids and ferns are exceptionally diverse plants in Megantoni; almost a fifth of the orchids found in their flowering period (20 out of 116 species) are new to science.

HISTORY

FAUNA

The Machiguenga people, together with other indigenous groups, have lived in the territories of the Urubamba River and its tributaries since ancient

Regarding birds, 378 species have been registered, among which guans,

The Urubamba River crosses the mountain range through the narrow and beautiful Pongo de Mainique.

For the native people of the Amazonia, the wild fauna is inseparable from the landscape, forming almost a single geographical unit: The Pongo de Mainique owes its name to the Machiguenga word “maeiniki”, that means “the cave of the bear”, while “Megantoni” comes from “meganto”, that is, Macaw, together with the suffix “-ni” (which they share with the Aymara language) making reference to the place where these animals live. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 297


HOW TO GET THERE From Cusco, there is a paved road to Alfamayo, and from there, a dirt road to Quillabamba (6 hours in all). From there, one goes on for another 220 km, by a dirt road (some 7 hours), up to Ivochote (end of the road to Pongo de Mainique), or up to Yavero (end of the road for that sector) in another 14 hours. From Ivochote, one goes by the Urubamba River up to the Pongo (1.5 h) and up to Timpia (4 h). One hour from Timpia, downriver, there is an aerodrome of the Camisea Project. Humboldt's Woolly Monkey (Lagothrix lagotricha) is in a vulnerable condition due to poaching.

macaws and extremely rare and local species, which are considered to be endangered, stand out: Black Tinamou (Tinamus osgoodi), Blue-headed Macaw (Propyrrhura couloni) and the famous Meganto or Military Macaw (Ara militaris), from which the Reserve takes its name. There are, also, 32 species of large and medium sized mammals, out of which 5 are endangered, such as the Spectacled Bear (Tremarctos ornatus) and the White-fronted Spider Monkey ( Ateles belzebuth), and 12 are potentially endangered, such as the Puma ( Puma concolor). Additionally, the following have been registered: 19 species of reptiles and 32 species of amphibians; of these, 12 are new to science, out of which 7 are Anurans, 4 are lizards and one, a snake.

WEATHER Hot and humid. The average annual temperature is 77 °F, for the lower parts. The average annual precipitation reaches 3,000 mm, but this also changes depending on the altitude. RESTRICTIONS The ideal time for visiting is from May to October, avoiding the rainy season, which is when the roads become almost impassable. ATTRACTIONS Among these, the following are included: Both banks of the middle course of the Urubamba River, including the impressive Pongo de Mainique, a geographical feature formed by the river as it divides the mountain range creating a narrow canyon, 3 km long and 45 meters wide, with some 30 cataracts along its way. It is an extremely beautiful place and of great significance for the Machiguenga ethnical group. The Lambarry footpath, of pre-Hispanic origin, leads to two natural and scenic outlooks that overlook the upper parts of the Pongo and give a panoramic view of the lower Urubamba (downriver from the Pongo), as well as the possibility to observe primates and macaws along the way. The petroglyphs of Pongoa or “Painted Stone” can be visited when the river is low, on the way to the Pongo. NEARBY ATTRACTIONS

To travel by boat through the Pongo, with its almost 30 waterfalls, is fascinating. 298 Official Guide |Southern Rainforest

There is a community lodging facility located at the north of the Sanctuary,


73°00' JUNIN

N

AYACUCHO

National Sanctuary

Megantoni M A D R E D E D I O S

APURIMAC

Alto Picha

12°00'

Camana

ZONE BOUNDARY BUFFER

Timpia (Mision)

Rio

Sabeti

Timpia

RESERVA COMUNAL MACHIGUENGA

Mainique River narrows

MEGANTONI NATIONAL SANCTUARY

Yoyato

Poyentimari

Rio Paucar tambo

ba

mb a

lo nta Ma Rio

12°00'

CUSCO

u Ur Rio Monte Ivochote Carmelo

Huillcapampa Penetracion Yavero

Matoriato OU B UFFER ZONE B NDARY

MANU NATIONAL PARK

Yavero Chico

C U S C O Rio Urubam b a

Kepashiato

Chahuares

Kiteni Simbeni San Antonio

Yuveni

Playa Macamango San Pedro Tunquimayo Garabito 13°00'

Maranura

Scale km 0

10

Lucma 20 73°00'

Quebrada Honda Lincompata

Chaupimayo

Echarate

Mosollacta

QUILLABAMBA

Ocobamba

Yuracmayo Ceilan MACHUPICCHU

Ipal

Santa María la Nueva Machupicchu 10 km

Chaupimayoa

Santa Teresa

the Sabeti Lodge, managed by the Timpia community, offering cultural activities with the Machiguengas and visits to the collpas of macaws in Sabeti, Kimmaroari and Megaqollpa. The trip to Megantoni allows visiting the nice city of Quillabamba and its attractions, such as Siete Tinajas. Cusco and Machupicchu are the tourist mecca of South America.

HISTORICAL SANCTUARY Plantaciones Alfamayo Urubamba 80 km

13°00'

Shimaa

Quellouno

Ccachin Calca 77 km

Lares 72°00'

SERVICES WITHIN THE AREA There is a Control and Surveillance Post in Timpia and a refuge in Yoyato. CONTACT INFORMATION Administrative headquarters of the protected area: Jr. Puno R-4, Quillabamba, Tel: (084) 281 961 / (01) 968 218 437.

The large biodiversity and the beauty of the landscape go hand in hand in the Megantoni National Sanctuary, one of the most important in the country.

Protected Natural Areas | PERU 299


Manu | National Park

“Natural World Heritage Site” The presence of the Jaguar is the sign of a well-preserved biodiversity; otherwise such a predator would not be able to survive. *Facilities for tourism

YES

Location

: CUSCO & MADRE DE DIOS

Surface Area

: 1’716,295 ha

Creation Date

: 05/29/1973 (Extended on 07/11/2002)

Altitude Range

: 200 - 3,800 meters

GENERAL OBJECTIVES The National Park’s objectives are: To protect a representative sample of its biological diversity, as well as the landscapes of the lowland tropical forest, the highland tropical forest and the Andes of Peru’s southeast; to promote tourism and contribute to its development in the Park and in its area of influence, supported by ecological and culturally compatible criteria; to promote and facilitate research, education and recreation; to contribute to the preservation of the archaeological heritage; to contribute to the recognition and protection of cultural diversity, as well as the self-determination of the 300 Official Guide |Southern Rainforest

area’s indigenous people, in accordance with the rest of the Park’s objectives; to develop an adequate management capacity that includes the participation and agreement of the different social actors involved. DESCRIPTION The National Park of Manu is one of the most important Ecoregion in the country and an area of mega diversity; in all probability, it is the protected Park with the largest biological diversity in the planet. It is one of the few territorial areas that includes, from frigid Puna zones that are found at over 4,000


meters above sea level, to rough wooded mountains that give rise to a multitude of small creeks and valleys, cloud forests of the highland tropical rainforest and, finally, the Amazonian plain. It is magnificent scenery, in which the stage machinery is a wide and complex hydrographical system. This variety of ecosystems and the fact that such a vast area has remained almost untouched by man, have allowed biological diversity to manifest in a unique and splendid way, in flora and fauna, as well as in the magnificent landscape.

source of pride but, at the same time, a great responsibility for the country.

The Manu tropical forests are considered among the most intact ones, where ecological and evolutionary processes take place without man’s intervention, although this does not prevent it from also having an enormous cultural richness, represented by the current indigenous communities that have different degrees of contact with the exterior world, and a highly interesting archaeological heritage, not yet revealed in all its magnitude.

The Inca presence in the area, highly probable and mentioned in the Chronicles of the early days of the Conquest, has been confirmed to a certain extent by recent findings of several buildings in the zone of Mameria, which have not yet been sufficiently studied.

Since 1977, the Park holds the status of Biosphere Reserve, given by UNESCO, and it is surrounded by the Territorial Reserve of the Kugapakori and Nahua native people, the Megantoni National Sanctuary and the Amarakaeri Communal Reserve; territories that, together with those of the Mapacho River basin, expect to be integrated to the Biosphere Reserve of Manu. This immense Park, full of life, was declared a Natural World Heritage Site in 1987 and, together with Machupicchu, is one of our main symbols before the world, a

HISTORY The history of this immense region -inseparable from the myth of Paititi, the famous Lost City- is still jealously guarded by its impregnable geography. After the Pusharo petroglyphs were discovered in 1921 -which were considered to be a map that would confirm its existence-, various expeditions of different caliber have inspected the area without positive results.

In Colonial times, only two expeditions would have managed to reach the higher zone of Madre de Dios in 1567. It was only in 1861 that Colonel Faustino Maldonado navigated along the Madre de Dios River, starting at Paucartambo, and meeting a tragic end in the Beni River (Bolivia). Fitzcarrald, Lord of the Rubber in the south, baptized the area of confluence of this river with the Tambopata River as Puerto Maldonado, in his honor. Fitzcarrald, in turn, managed to go through the impassable Manu zone in 1890, discovering a 9 km crossing between the basins of the Ucayali and the Madre de Dios Rivers, called Isthmus

The rainforest’s rivers are like veins nurturing the immense organism that is the Amazonia.

The Giant Otter is the largest and most endangered otter in the world, and one of its largest populations is protected in Manu. Adapted to a semi-aquatic life, they can close their ears when they dive. They are graceful and have velvetlike coats –the main reason why they are hunted. They are, also, very territorial and tend to rely on the group (from 5 to 8 individuals) to defend themselves, using up to nine different vocalizations to communicate among them. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 301


A great aura of mystery still surrounds everything related to the Pusharo petroglyphs found inside the Park.

of Fitzcarrald since then. Luckily, the extraction of rubber, with its disastrous consequences, was more in the area of the Madre de Dios River, south of its confluence with the Manu River and far away from the current Park. In 1940, a forced landing in the Manu River, near the Pinquen River, reported an ignored village that did not figure in the maps; its oldest member had come from Brazil at the beginning of 1900, in search of rubber. Celestino Kalinowski, a Peruvian biologist and son of a famous Polish naturalist that had arrived in Peru in 1887, traversed a large part of the Peruvian Amazonia. Nevertheless, what he observed in the

zone of the Manu prompted him to urgently ask the Peruvian government to consider the area a National Park. Thus, in 1967, together with Major Ian Grimwood, an English naturalist, he returned to the zone of the Manu to show him the evidence of his proposal. A year later, with the results of the expedition and a formal proposal, the Peruvian government declared the entire basin of the Manu a Reserved Zone, forbidding hunting and the commercialization of wood. In 1973, the Reserve was raised to the category of National Park; in 1977, it was declared a Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO and, 10 years later, a Natural World Heritage Site. THE COMMUNITIES

The rural communities of the Andean zone of Manu, during the Pachamama ritual. 302 Official Guide |Southern Rainforest

A large part of the Manu National Park is indigenous territory. The Yora, MashkoPiro, Matsiguenka (or Machiguenga), Harakmbut, Wachipaeri and Yine people inhabit among the rivers and forests of this jungle since ancestral times, organized in native communities, clans and itinerant groups. Two native communities are recognized within the area, the Tayakome and the Yomibato, both in the upper zone of the Manu River. There is a farmers’ association known as Callanga to the southwest of the Park. There are also an undetermined number of indigenous communities living in isolation, within the Park as much as in the northwestern area adjacent to the Park.


72°00'

Rio

UCAYALI JUNIN

PURUS COMMUNAL RESERVE

Cura nja

N

National Park

Manu

AYACUCHO CUSCO

Rio ni lja ba Ca

Cocana Rio

urus oP Alt Rio

APURÍMAC

Rio

Ya c o

U C A Y A L I

ALTO PURÚS NATIONAL PARK 11°00'

11°00'

Rio Cujar

R io S epa hua

Rio Las Piedr as

M A D R E

Ri

Sh Rio

R i o de

M

Ri o los Am i

R

C u mer

io

Rio

Salvador Pond

Pan a

Rio S

Providencia

Rio Taperach i

Rio Pinq

u ercill o

ue Pinq

Pusanga

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C

R io

Qurqurpampa

C U S C O

eD i

Ma dr

R

Rio Alt o

Wagquecha

Acjanaco

nco Bla io

ve Chili Rio ul R io Az

Río

Quincemil 72

Quico

za

Rio

Ma

32

do

Puerto Maldonado 245 km

Q.

Colquepata

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AMARAKAERI COMMUNAL RESERVE Qu Rio eros

Rio Co

a

lanco Ri o B

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19

ANTA

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PAUCARTAMBO

Chincheros Pisac

Itahuania

Atalaya

Challabamba

URUBAMBA 21 CALCA

d

SALVACION

P i l c op at a

Tres Cruces

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MACHUPICCHU HISTORICAL SANCTUARY Maras

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MANU NATIONAL PARK

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Protected Natural Areas | PERU 303

Sicuani 95 km

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lipped Peccary (Tayassu pecari), Collared Peccary (Pecari tajacu), Red Brocket (Mazama americana), White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus peruvianus), Giant Otter (Pteronura brasiliensis), Capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris); large primates, such as: Red Howler Monkey (Alouatta seniculus), Red-faced Spider Monkey (Ateles paniscus), Humboldt's Woolly Monkey (Lagothrix lagotricha), White-fronted Capuchin (Cebus albifrons) and Tufted Capuchin (Cebus apella).

Lianas are like bridges for the fauna passing through the trees.

FLORA The Park’s flora is numerous and important, with registers of at least 162 families, 1,191 genera and 4,385 identified species. In just one hectare, 250 varieties of trees were found. One of the most outstanding ecosystems is the Aguajal forests. The Aguajales are homogeneous associations regarding their floral and physiognomic characteristics, where the Aguaje (Mauritia flexuosa) and the Huasai (Euterpe precatoria) are the dominant species, developing in almost permanently flooded areas, especially on the right bank of the Manu River. The following also stand out: Spanish Cedar (Cedrela odorata), Cetico (Cecropia sp.), Balsa Tree (Ochroma sp.), Tornillo (Cedrelinga catenaeformis), Brazil Nut (Bertholletia excelsa), Lupuna (Chorisia sp.) and Rubber Tree (Hevea brasiliensis). FAUNA The Park is particularly rich in wild fauna species. Regarding mammals, 160 species have been registered, as well as more than 1,000 bird species (mainly residents), around 140 species of amphibians, 50 species of serpents, 40 sp. of lizards, 6 sp. of turtles, 3 sp. of alligators and 210 species of fish. Among the large mammals, we have: Jaguar (Panthera onca), Jaguarundi (Herpailurus yagouaroundi), South American Tapir (Tapirus terrestris), White304 Official Guide |Southern Rainforest

The initial estimated number of insects in the Park has been reconsidered; some 30 million instead of the 8 or 10 initially calculated. More than 1,300 butterfly species have been registered, as well as 136 dragonfly species, at least 300 ant species (in just one tree, more than 40 ant species were found), and more than 650 species of beetles. HOW TO GET THERE The Andean southwestern zone of the Park is accessed by the packed dirt road which connects Cusco with Paucartambo (120 km) and, from

Thorns prevent animals from climbing to devour the tender leaves of the tree.

there, by Challabamba, up to the Abra de Acjanaco, (27 km more and some 4 hours in all), where the Control Post and the Tres Cruces Refuge are located. In order to get to the lower basin of the Manu, one has to follow this road for an additional 88 km (another 3 hours), up to the village of Atalaya. From there, one continues by river, by the Alto Madre de Dios River for another 6 hours (126 km)


Dozens, even hundreds of birds gather together in the largest Macaw’s collpas, a spectacle for the eyes…and ears.

up to Boca Manu and, then, by the Manu River until one gets to the Control Post of El Limonal and gets registered, and then one goes to one of the various lodgings (Romero Refuge, one hour later, Manu Lodge, which is 3 hours away, or the campsites of Otorongo and Salvador, 5 hours away).

RESTRICTIONS

It is also possible to fly from Cusco to Boca Manu (a 40 minutes flight on a light airplane) and then go by river as indicated before. In order to get to the zone of the Pusharo petroglyphs, one takes the same road, but carries on up to Santa Cruz (at km 250), between Atalaya and Shintuya, and from there, in small boats, plying through the Palotoa River (6 more hours).

The visit to the native communities is restricted to authorizations issued by the natives themselves. The roads are usually closed from December to April, due to landslides caused by the rain.

WEATHER Climatic conditions in the Park are highly variable. Generally, very wet, rainfall varies according to altitude: The highlands in the south with 1,500 up to 2,000 mm annually; these numbers increase at the middle sector from 3,000 to 3,500 mm, reaching its highest point at the northwest sector with more than 8,000 mm of rainfall per year. During the dry season, from May to September, rainfall dwindles and the temperature drops. The thermal regime is also quite variable: The Amazonian zone is warm, with an average annual temperature of 78 °F, and the Andean zone goes from cold to semi frigid with an annual media of 46 °F.

Tourism in the Park is restricted to certain established areas and only takes place through travel agencies or authorized tour operators, the list of which can be consulted at www.sernanp.gob.pe

Entrance Fees in soles: Andean Zone - Acjanaco: Under 5 and above 65 years: Free. 5 to 15 years: S/3 (one day), Adults: S/10 (one day); S/5 for any additional day. Pusharo Historical Zone: S/50 Nuevos soles (five days). Manu River: S/75 (one day), S/150 (five days) (it does not include lodging fees).

The rare Monk Saki (Pithecia monachus). Protected Natural Areas | PERU 305


Amazonian plains are exuberant as few other places in the world, and five zones have been destined for visiting, where the highest diversity of flora and fauna are especially concentrated and can be easily observed: Salvador, Otorongo, Juarez (these three are cochas or lakes), Pakitza and Limonal.

There is presence of natives in Manu, with different degrees of contact with the outside world.

ATTRACTIONS The Tres Cruces lookout point, at the extreme south of the Park, from where most spectacular sunrises can be observed, at more than 3, 600 meters above the Amazonian plain, unobstructed up to the faraway horizon. An optical phenomenon may be seen -especially between May and August, when the sky is limpid- that makes the sun appear to rise twice in one sunrise. Likewise, at all times this natural lookout offers two opposite and extraordinary panoramic views: the uneven mountain ranges towards the south, and the impenetrable cloud forest towards the north. Besides, there is a signaled trekking path, approximately 7 km long (3 hours), that starts at the Control Post of Acjanaco and goes up to the Pillahuata farm. In the lower basin of the Manu River, the

In Salvador, there are 4 trekking circuits, less than one kilometer long: Huangana, Lobo, Maquisapa and Trompetero. Huangana is the most frequented. There are another 4 circuits: Ceiba, Cacao, Shapaja and Chihuahuaco, of similar extension except the last one that is almost 2 km long. There is also a somewhat demanding tourist track, for those who are more adventurous, 6.5 km long, connecting the Otorongo and Salvador Cochas. Finally, in Pakitza, there are two footpaths that are not as demanding as the latter: Collpa and Ca単a Brava, both with more than 3 km each. Horseshoe-shaped lakes or cochas stand out in this region: old river sections that were separated from the river when it changed its main course, and where species that have disappeared in other ecosystems can be sighted, such as the Giant Otter and the Black Caiman. Another attraction is the forests on both banks of the Manu River, where not only a great variety of flora can be observed, but a large number of associated fauna, as well. What should not be missed while visiting the area are the collpas (clay lick), where numerous

Getting to know the Amazonian jungle is a dream caressed by visitors of the whole world that comes true in a magnificent way in Manu.

306 Official Guide |Southern Rainforest


species of fauna come together and are very visible. The Aguajales also make the concentration of typical fauna possible, such as the Macaws. NEARBY ATTRACTIONS The road between Acjanaco and Pilcopata has a unique landscape that keeps changing as one descends from the cold Puna and the abrupt mountains covered with fog and forests, down to the Amazonian plain. In the lowland tropical rainforest zone adjacent to the Park, along the Madre de Dios River, several enterprises offer their tourist services, among which the Manu Wildlife Center stands out, which includes 48 km of circuits specialized in fauna sighting. The local people also offer services and tourist circuits, such as the one in the cocha Isla de los Valles, the native community of Shipeteari or the one of Palotoa, in the Pusharo zone. Paucartambo, a colonial city along the route to the Park, is even more attractive during the festivities of the Virgin of Carmen in July. Puerto Maldonado and the Protected Natural Areas of Tambopata and Bahuaja Sonene, are the perfect complement for a super nature tour. Cusco and Machupicchu do not need introduction. SERVICES WITHIN THE AREA The Park has one of the most renowned

One of the piers used for watching the fauna (Salvador Cocha).

research centers for the tropics, the Biological Station of Cocha Cashu. In the Manu’s lower basin, there are five camping areas (4 in the Salvador Cocha and one in the Otorongo Cocha), 3 lookout piers (2 in Salvador and 1 in Otorongo), 3 lodges under concession (Manu Lodge in Juarez Cocha, Casa Matsiguenka in Salvador Cocha and Romero Refuge in the sector of Romero-Limonal), a metallic tower 18 meters high in Otorongo Cocha, and an elevated footpath on a platform in the Limonal sector. Also, there is the Interpretation Center at El Limonal Surveillance Post, and another in Villa Salvacion. In the Andean zone, there is the refuge and lookout point of Tres Cruces. There are 8 Surveillance Posts in Acjanaco, Qurqurpampa (these two in High Andean area), Santa Cruz, Tono, Pusanga, Limonal, Pakitza and the Salvacion technical post. CONTACT INFORMATION Administrative headquarters of the protected area: Av. Cinco, Los Chachacomos, F2-4, Larapa Grande, San Jeronimo, Cusco, Tel: (084) 274 509 / (01) 968 218 422. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 307


Amarakaeri | Communal Reserve

“Preserving natural life� The Hoatzin (Opisthocomus hoazin), a bird of exotic but beautiful appearance. Fortunately for her, its meat is not palatable to man. *Facilities for tourism

YES

Location : MADRE DE DIOS Surface Area

: 402,335.62 ha

Creation Date

: 05/09/2002

Altitude Range

: 300 - 2,700 meters

GENERAL OBJECTIVES The objective for the creation of the Amarakaeri Communal Reserve is to contribute to the protection of the basins of the Madre de Dios and Colorado Rivers, assuring the stability of the soils and forests, preserving the quantity and quality of the water, the ecological equilibrium and an adequate environment for the development of the Harakmbut native communities. DESCRIPTION Amarakaeri, one of the largest communal reserves in the country, has 308 Official Guide |Southern Rainforest

a large physiographic diversity made up of terraces, hills and mountains, at different levels of highland and lowland tropical rainforest, with a great variety of ecosystems and microclimates, which, in turn, are a refuge for a large number of fauna and flora species, many of them in danger of extinction. The Amazonian region of Madre de Dios is the home of several indigenous communities that are unique in their cultural diversity, beliefs, social organization, and social and political systems of their own. The Harakmbut, Yine and Matsiguenka ethnic communities live in the Reserve and in its zone of influence. They are the


managers, direct beneficiaries and guardians of the conservation of this important protected area.

ensure the traditional use of the natural resources of these lands, according to the patterns of their worldview.

HISTORY

THE COMMUNITIES

Since ancient times, the indigenous people moved about in these lands, the (elastic) limits of which were historically defined by a management of the biological diversity within the area, with highly complex patterns of production and consumption. The Harakmbut are native to the rivers of the Manu province, while the Yine migrated to the zone in times of the Rubber Fever (1900). Many of them came from the Lower Urubamba as guides for Fitzcarrald when crossing the isthmus. The Matsiguenka are even more recent migrants, and come from the Urubamba River’s basin and from the area of the Marahoe, Maestron, Piñi Piñi and Mameria Rivers.

The Harakmbut (a term that means “people, family and humanity”) belong to the ethno linguistic Harakmbut family, with a language of their own: Harakmbut hate. At present, its population is about 1,600 people, subdivided into groups that have their own cultural traits (dialect, dress and, in the past, body painting) and are known by the nicknames the other groups give them: Amarakaeri -the most numerous group-, Watipaeri, Arasaeri, Pokiriere, Toyeri, Sapiteri and Kisambaeri or Amaiweri.

The Communal Reserve of Amarakaeri was created over the territorial scope where the Amarakaeri and Sapiteri linguistic groups develop their subsistence activities, at the headwaters of the Madre de Dios River (Eori) and its tributaries on its right bank up to their sources. It is a territory rich in gold, timber-yielding and non-timber-yielding resources and a large biodiversity, that have attracted foreign exploitation for decades now. The necessity to establish the Communal Reserve was originally put forward by initiative of the Harakmbut communities in the “Rimanacuy” of Pucallpa 1986, to

The Matsiguenka ethnic group (also Matsiguenga or Machiguenga, which means “people”) belongs to the Arawak linguistic family. Today, they are about 12,000 people, living mainly in the Urubamba district, and are known as “the ones that use a red Cushma (robe)”, while those from the Madre de Dios region are called “those of the white Cushma”. The Yine people also belong to the Arawak linguistic family (known for a long time as Piros) and call themselves Yine, which means “human being”. The Yine -that are about 3,000 people- live in the native communities of Diamante and Isla de los Valles, and in the Belgica native community.

The worldview of the people native to the rainforest is interwoven with the invisible world that transcends the physical.

Plants, animals, people and natural phenomena, each have a spirit, according to the Harakmbut. The strongest of them all is Wachipay, who governs nature. The spirits of the forests are the Dumberi, strong and dangerous; the ones of the rivers are the Wuawueri, soft and even benefactors. The wise man or Wuayorokeri, in shamanic trance, knows the meaning of dreams and theProtected power ofNatural animalsAreas and plants. | PERU 309


trigonatus). Among the endangered birds, the following have been reported: Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao), Military Macaw (Ara militaris), Harpy Eagle (Harpya harpyja), Razor-billed Curassow (Mitu tuberosa) and Blue-throated Piping Guan (Pipile cumanensis). HOW TO GET THERE

The gigantic leaf of the Victoria Amazonica, also known as Victoria Regia.

FLORA Among the endangered flora species are: the Spanish Cedar (Cedrela odorata), Big-leaf Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla), Tree Fern (Cyathea caracasana), Sangre de Grado (Croton lechleri), Kapok Tree (Ceiba pentandra) and Ficus (Ficus sp.). FAUNA Among the endangered mammals are found: the Spectacled Bear (Tremarctos ornatus), Giant Otter (Pteronura brasiliensis), Humboldt's Woolly Monkey (Lagothrix lagotricha), South American Tapir (Tapirus terrestris), Puma (Puma concolor) and Jaguar (Panthera onca). Among the endangered reptiles we have: Andean Lancehead (Bothrops andianus), Black Caiman (Melanosuchus niger), Yellow-spotted River Turtle (Podocnemis unifilis) and Smooth-fronted Caiman (Paleosuchus

By land, one can access the northwestern part of the area following the road that connects Cusco with Paucartambo, up to Shintuya (9 hours), which is 7 km away from the area. By air, it is possible to get to the aerodrome of the Diamante native community, and then, by the river, up to Shintuya (8 to 10 h). Also, by river, one can go from Boca Colorado to Boca Isiriwe (3 to 4 h), which is 17 km away from the Reserve. WEATHER Temperatures go from 73 up to 83 °F in the higher parts, and from 77 up to 100 °F in the lowlands. Average annual precipitation is 2,480 mm in Kosñipata and 3,810 mm in Shintuya. The average annual humidity is about 90%. RESTRICTIONS The tour operator is the multicommunal enterprise Wanamei, with offices in Cusco and Puerto Maldonado, being the only operator that takes tourists into the area, between the months of June and September. ATTRACTIONS

There are more than 3,400 species of butterflies (21% of the world’s total) in Peru. 310 Official Guide |Southern Rainforest

Actually in the buffer zone of the Reserve, there are the following natural attractions: A) High Zone: Oilbird caves, Leks of the Andean Cock-of-the-rock, canyons of the Quebrada Paujil. B) Middle Zone: Thermal waters, cascades and natural oil wells at Tambo Weuk, Loro Muyuna collpa, collpa of tapirs at Tambo Senke, collpa of macaws and parrots and collpa of mammals at Colorado River, collpa of mammals at Aguas Negras and collpa of mammals at Yanayaco. C) Low Zone: Collpas of mammals at Boca Isiriwe, Boca Isiriwe Cocha and Tapir Paujil collpa. In this zone, there


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are lodges that offer rooms, communal lodging, food, transportation and guide services, especially in the communities of Shintuya, Shipetiare, San Jose and Diamante. Since the Reserve shares a buffer zone with the Manu National Park, it would be a good idea to visit it as well. Puerto Maldonado and its adjacent protected natural areas complement the interesting visit to Amarakaeri.

0

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CONTACT INFORMATION Administrative headquarters of the protected area: Jr. Gonzalez Prada 1154, Puerto Maldonado, Tel: (082) 571 505 / (01) 968 218 573. Empresa multicomunal Wanamei: Villa San Blas A-2, Cusco, Tel: (084) 791 406 / (01) 984 754 708. www.ecoturismowanamei.com

The Great Egret (Ardea Alba) hunts in the bodies of water using its beak and long neck as a harpoon.

Protected Natural Areas | PERU 311


Tambopata | National Reserve

“The forest that brims with life” Life bursts forth from every corner in Tambopata, a spectacle within the reach of the visitor who decides to enjoy the experience. *Facilities for tourism

YES

Location : MADRE DE DIOS Surface Area

: 274,690 ha

Creation Date

: 09/04/2000

Altitude Range

: 450 - 600 meters

GENERAL OBJECTIVES The Tambopata National Reserve was created in order to protect the flora, the fauna and the ecological processes of a sample area of the tropical wet forest. Also, to generate processes of preservation with the population within the area of the Reserve, with the object of using the resources in a sustainable way –like Brazil Nut treesand the landscape, for recreation. Finally, another objective is to contribute to the sustainable development of the region and the country, based on the knowledge of the biological diversity 312 Official Guide |Southern Rainforest

and the management of the diverse renewable natural resources. DESCRIPTION The Tambopata River basin has one of the highest biodiversity rates in the world. It has a great multiplicity of habitats and, consequently, abundant species, so much that a large part of the Peruvian biological diversity can be found in it. The Tambopata National Reserve is located in the middle and lower zones of this basin, close to the city of Puerto Maldonado, and among its most common ecosystems are the Aguajales,


the Swamps, the Pacales and the riverside forests, the physical characteristics of which allow the local population to make use of the natural resources. The Reserve is adjacent to the Bahuaja Sonene National Park, which surrounds it completely on the south, and together with it, they constitute a very important protection unit for the country, a fact that is increased by the connectivity they have with the other protected natural areas of the Department (the Amarakaeri Communal Reserve and the Alto Purus and Manu National Parks) and those of the neighboring Bolivia, belonging all of them to the proposed Vilcabamba Amboro biological corridor. The Reserve has habitats, mainly aquatic, that are used as resting places by more than 40 species of transcontinental migratory birds. Important species considered to be endangered are protected in Tambopata, like the Giant Otter, as well as endemic amphibian, bird and mammal species, and even trees, like the Brazil nut. The Reserve offers the tourist a privileged destination for the observation of biodiversity, especially fauna, in its two most important attractions: the cochas and the collpas. Among the first, the Sandoval Lake stands out and, among the second, the Colorado collpa; the largest one known in the country. The following native communities are found in the adjacent buffer zone: Palma Real, Sonene and Infierno, belonging to the Ese’ Eja ethno linguistic group, and the Kotsimba native community, from the Puquirieri ethno linguistic group. These communities are getting more involved in the increasing development

related to tourism, and they see the Reserve as an opportunity to improve their living conditions, while preserving the link with their ancestral territory. HISTORY The presence of human beings in the Reserve’s current area dates from 3,000 or 4,000 thousand years ago, in successive occupations, with one in particular, in the 15th century, by the Incas, the characteristics and consequences of which are unknown, but which undoubtedly introduced ethnic and cultural variations. The Spaniard invasion, although it penetrated in the zone, had little influence on its development until the beginnings of the 20th century, when the rubber businessmen murdered and recruited natives, or relocated large groups from other places in the Amazonia, by force, in order to enslave them. Pressed by these invasive incursions that were followed by the ones of timber merchants, hunters, Brazil Nut merchants and miners, the native communities were forced to flee to less accessible zones, migrating, dispersing and regrouping a thousand times. Only in the decade of 1970, with the creation and legalization of the native communities, did they cease to be threatened in an extreme way. Nevertheless, the aggressive colonization promoted by the State, and the migrations the successive gold fevers produced in the 1940s and 1980s (that continues up to our days), facilitated by the building of the highway from Cusco

The Tambopata River, main axis of the Reserve, from where all routes depart.

The Harpy Eagle is the most powerful bird of prey in the continent. In Tambopata, it finds an ideal place to build its gigantic nests of almost 2 meters diameter on top of the tall Brazil Nut trees, at 25 meters above the ground. With its enormous claws and its peculiar forked crest that contributes to its already threatening and robust appearance, it hunts arboreal mammals, among which porcupines, monkeys and sloths are found. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 313


later, the Tambopata National Reserve was created and the Bahuaja Sonene National Park enlarged. Even though there was a good degree of participation of the State, the conservation organizations and the local settlers, the process of creation motivated some mistrust in the native communities, who were afraid their traditional access to natural resources would be cut back. In time, they have begun to understand that the Reserve may be their only alternative to preserve it. FLORA There are different types of vegetation in the Reserve: The Aguajales (Mauritia flexuosa), the Pacales, the terrace forests and the gallery forests grow in the sedimentation plains. According Numerous nearby native communities still preserve their traditional ways.

to Puerto Maldonado in the 1960s, and the Interoceanic highway in the present, have brought about that 50% of the region’s inhabitants have been born elsewhere, and the other half, in their majority, are sons or daughters of migrants. This tendency that far from decreasing, is on the increase, represents a serious threat to the Reserve’s conservation objectives and, needless to say, the displacement of the native population, due to the extractive and absolutely unsustainable character that feeds it. In 1990, the Tambopata Candamo Reserved Zone is established, from which,

The composite eyes of the Dragonfly allow it to see almost 360° around

to the type of forest, 17 vegetal associations have been identified, and a total of 1,255 plant species. Among the ones that have commercial importance, are the Big-leaf Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla), the Spanish Cedar (Cedrela odorata), Tornillo (Cedrelinga catenaeformis), Kapok Tree (Ceiba spp., Chorisia sp.), Baru Tree (Dipteryx alata), Quina (Cinchona spp.), Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) and Panama Rubber tree (Castilla elastica). One study found 150 types of trees in only one hectare, giving a clear idea of the large biodiversity found in the entire protected area. The undergrowth, dark and humid, houses a large biodiversity. 314 Official Guide |Southern Rainforest

The Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) grows in terraces that are not prone


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to flooding in the Amazonian lowland tropical rainforest. In Peru, it grows exclusively in the eastern strip of the Department of Madre de Dios, covering 2.5 million hectares (30% of its entire area), and is the most important non timber commercial species that has great impact in the local economy. It is a valuable part of the habitat of numerous species of mammals for it is a source of food, as well as the nesting grounds for birds of prey. FAUNA Investigations carried out in Tambopata reveal that there are more than 632 bird species, 1,200 species of butterflies, 103 sp of amphibians, 180 fish species, 169 sp of mammals and 103 sp of reptiles. The Reserve offers healthy habitats for the recovery and protection of endangered species like the Giant Otter (Pteronura brasiliensis), Neotropical Otter (Lontra longicaudis) and felines like Jaguarundi (Herpailurus yagouaroundi), Puma (Puma concolor), Jaguar (Panthera

The Red Howler Monkey (Alouatta seniculus) is often seen in large groups.

onca), Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) and Margay (Leopardus wiedii). Among the species of primates, there are the Redfaced Spider Monkey (Ateles paniscus), Brown-mantled Tamarin (Saguinus fuscicollis), Emperor Tamarin (Saguinus imperator), Red Howler Monkey (Alouatta seniculus), Black-headed Night Protected Natural Areas | PERU 315

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The Colorado Collpa, the largest known collpa in the whole Peruvian Amazonia, is found in Tambopata.

Monkey (Aotus nigriceps), Humboldt's Woolly Monkey (Lagothrix lagotricha), Black-capped Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri boliviensis), Common Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri sciureus), White-fronted Capuchin (Cebus albifrons) and Tufted Capuchin (Cebus apella). Other species of mammals that stand out among the wild fauna are: South American Tapir (Tapirus terrestris), Whitelipped Peccary (Tayassu pecari), Collared Peccary (Pecari tajacu), Red Brocket (Mazama americana), Amazonian Brown Brocket (Mazama nemorivaga), Hoffmann's Two-toed Sloth (Choloepus hoffmanni) and the Brown-throated Sloth (Bradypus variegatus). As regards the bird species, there are: Harpy Eagle (Harpya harpyja), associated to Brazil Nut tree extensions, Crested Eaegle (Morphnus guianensis), Razorbilled Curassow (Mitu tuberosa), Horned Curassow (Pauxi unicornis) and Wattled

Curassow (Crax globulosa). Almost all the Macaw species that live in Peru are found in the Reserve: the Blue-and-yellow Macaw (Ara ararauna), the endemic Blue-headed Macaw (Ara couloni), the Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao), the Military Macaw (Ara militaris), the Red-andgreen Macaw (Ara chloroptera), the Red-shouldered Macaw (Ara nobilis), the Red-bellied Macaw (Orthopsittaca manilata), the Chestnut-fronted Macaw (Ara severa) and many other psittacidae like the Uchpa Parrot (Ara sp.). Another common species are reptiles: Emerald Tree Boa (Corallus caninus), Parrotsnake (Bothrops bilineatus), Boa Constrictor (Boa constrictor) and Shushupe (Lachesis muta). These are also commonly seen: the Black Caiman (Melanosuchus niger), Spectacled Caiman (Caiman crocodilus) and Yellowspotted River Turtle (Podocnemis unifilis). There is, as well, a great variety of fish, used for local and commercial consumption; among them: Black Prochilodus (Prochilodus nigricans), Piracatinga (Calophysus macropterus), Goeldi's Pimelodid (Brachyplatystoma filamentosum), Yahuarachi (Potamorrhyna latior), Zungaro (Brachyplatystoma flavicans) and Red-bellied Pacu (Piaractus brachipomus). Among the noncommercial fish are Sabalo (Brycon spp.), la Liza (Schizodon fasciatus) and the Catfish (Pimelodus sp.). HOW TO GET THERE

A pair of giant otters (Pteronura brasiliensis) feeding on a small caiman. 316 Official Guide |Southern Rainforest

The Reserve is located (in the Sandoval Lake sector) only 40 minutes away from Puerto Maldonado. Due to its


remoteness, the best access route to the city is by air. There are daily flights from Lima or Cusco (90 and 30 minutes respectively). If you wish to make the trip a part of the experience, the land route from Cusco -the Interoceanic Highway, now totally paved- offers extraordinary landscapes along its 10 hour route. The same can be said of the highway from Juliaca to San Gaban that meets the Interoceanic at the Inambari River. Another equally interesting route is from Boca Manu to Puerto Maldonado, 30 h by boat in the Madre de Dios River. And for the thrill seekers, it is possible to navigate the Tambopata River in 6 to 9 days, rafting, starting at Putina Punco in the High Mountain Forest of Puno.

the drier season, from April to October. Entrance fees: From Sandoval Lake to Collpa Chuncho: S/30 for the day and S/65 for 5 days. From Collpa Chuncho to Collpa Colorado: S/100 for 5 days. From Alto Tambopata to Arequipa River: S/30 for two days. From Alto Tambopata to Collpa Colorado: S/150 for seven days.

WEATHER The average annual temperature is 78 °F, fluctuating between 50 and 100 °F. The cold spells are due to the ‘friajes’, Antarctic winds that enter the Amazonia, mainly, in June and July. The average annual rainfall is between 1,600 and 2,400 mm. The rainy season goes from October to April.

The Emperor Tamarin (Saguinus imperator), with its imposing mustache.

RESTRICTIONS The visit is restricted to certain areas and it is possible to go all year round, although it is advisable to visit during

The beautiful plumage of the King Vulture (Sarcoramphus papa).

ATTRACTIONS The most visited tourist destination is Sandoval Lake, in the Madre de Dios River’s basin. It is a 127 hectares lovely and crystal clear lake, surrounded by palm trees full of macaws, only 30 minutes by river from Puerto Maldonado. In order to get there, one follows a 3 km footpath from the jetty, that includes a visit to the Interpretation Center, and along of which a great variety of flora and fauna species can be observed. A large family of giant otters inhabits its waters, and they can be seen hunting and grooming themselves on tree trunks. Recreational boats are available for rent from local people or from the lodges for the enjoyment of the Lake. There is, also, an observation tower from which one can get a panoramic view of the area. Upstream the Tambopata River basin, there are other important lakes: Cocococha, 2 h away from Puerto Maldonado; giant otters are seen here as well. Sachavacayoc, 45 min further away than Cocococha, by river, and then, 1 hour Protected Natural Areas | PERU 317


River, the El Gato Ravine is found with its waterfall and, quite close by, the Baltimorillo rapids, which add excitement to the journey.

Tambopata offers the visitors interesting ‘canopy walks’.

along a footpath, has a camping area to spend the night. There, the sounds of the jungle, that include the noisy Howler Monkey and numerous birds, transport the visitor to that magical side, full of life, of the rainforest. From Sachavacayoc, a 30 min. footpath leads to the Condenado Lakes (one and two), the name of which (Doomed Lakes) seems to correspond to the fact that they are disappearing, since they are one of the oldest cochas in the region. Following the Tambopata

The characteristic attractions at Tambopata are the collpas, places where animals go in order to eat certain type of nutrients found in the clayey soils of the jungle. Those found in the gullies at the banks of the rivers overflow with birds (macaws, falcons and parrots), that throng in large numbers in a spectacular celebration of color and sound, mostly between 5:30 to 9:00 am. The inland collpas are frequented by mammals such as the Collared Peccary, the Whitelipped Peccary and the South American Tapir, that go during the night, instead. Chuncho collpa is located on the left bank of the Tambopata River, 4 h by river from the Condenado Lakes; and the Colorado collpa, an hour and a half further on. This last one is considered the largest known collpa in the entire Peruvian Amazonia. There are collpas, as well, in the La Torre sector: There is a collpa of mammals, only 15 min away by the La Torre River and, then, a 10 min footpath, which is visited by Collared and White-lipped peccaries and deer. A collpa of small parrots is found at only 5 min from the Control Post, with hundreds of small parrots at sunrise. Finally, 3 h away from the La Torre Control

The beautiful Sandoval Lake concentrates the largest tourist offer of the Reserve, nearby Puerto Maldonado.

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of the rainforest, is a forced destination when visiting Tambopata. The Bahuaja Sonene National Park could finish up a more specialized visit, for investigation or study. SERVICES WITHIN THE AREA

The Tambopata River is one of the principal tributaries of the Madre de Dios River.

Post is Caticocha Lake that offers the opportunity to observe caimans closely, among other species.

The Reserve has an Interpretation Center located on the way to the Sandoval Lake and eight control posts at: Azul, La Torre, Malinowski, Jorge Chavez, Huisene, San Antonio, Briolo and Sandoval. The following are also found: a hideout/observation point at the Cocococha Lake; camping zones at the Chuncho and Colorado collpas; a camping zone and a pier at the Sachavacayoc Lake; an observation tower and a pier at the Sandoval Lake, and piers at the Condenado Lakes and at the La Torre Control Post.

CLOSEBY ATTRACTIONS Close to the Ese’ Eja village in Infierno, it is possible to visit some places that have cultural importance for them, like Tres Chimbadas Lake, or the Ñape Ethnobotanical Center, where one can learn about their healing rituals. In the Madre de Dios’ basin, 45 min away from Puerto Maldonado, the fun Island of the Monkeys is found. The city of Puerto Maldonado, the most densely populated in the southern part

An elevated path in the vicinity of the Sandoval Lake.

There are also four private companies that offer lodging inside the protected area: Sandoval Lake Lodge and Hospedaje Mejia; the first one, magnificent and the second, more rural, both in the vicinity of the Sandoval Lake; the pioneer Explorer’s Inn and the famous Tambopata Research Center, for those who want to deepen their Amazonian experience. CONTACT INFORMATION Administrative headquarters of the protected area: Jr. San Martin G-1, Fonavi, Puerto Maldonado, Tel: (082) 573 278 / (01) 968 218 457. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 319


Bahuaja Sonene | National Park

"A Forest with unique characteristics" Nine out of every 10 animals in the planet are insects, and for every human being there is, there are millions of them. In fact, it is “their” planet. *Facilities for tourism

YES

Location : PUNO & MADRE DE DIOS Surface Area

: 1’091,416 ha

Creation Date

: 07/17/1996 (Extended on 09/04/2000)

Altitude Range

: 200 - 2,450 meters

GENERAL OBJECTIVES The National Park’s objectives are to preserve an assortment of habitats that shelter a great diversity of flora and fauna, represented by elements of both, the Northern and the Southern Amazonia; to protect unique elements in Peru, like the wet tropical savannah, a habitat for species such as the Marsh Deer and the Maned Wolf, and the formations of the Candamo valley; to preserve the traditional cultural processes of the Ese’ Eja culture, an ethnic community native to the area and linked by ancestral ties to the territory of the Bahuaja Sonene National Park; finally, to contribute to the sustainable development of the regions 320 Official Guide |Southern Rainforest

of Madre de Dios and Puno, as well as of the rest of the country. DESCRIPTION The Bahuaja Sonene National Park is located in the Wet Forest of the southwestern Amazonia Ecoregion and has habitats typical of this forest and of the Pre-montane Tropical Wet Forest. There are lakes or “cochas” in the area -formed by meanders that were cut off from the rivers-, palm tree swamps and areas that are subject to seasonal floods. One of the most outstanding habitats is the Pampas del Heath, which motivated the creation of a Sanctuary in 1983, for its


preservation. It is one of the less known ecosystems, with characteristics that are unique in the country, housing endemic fauna like the Marsh Deer or the Maned Wolf. It is a vast prairie covered by grasses that have up to 2 meters height, with small groupings of palm trees that turn into islands when the pampas get completely flooded between December and April. They constitute, as well, the southern limit of the tropical forests of the continent, which from this point onwards, are transformed into the vast Beni savannahs. The Park covers an area that is the ancestral territory of the Ese’ Eja ethnic community, belonging to the Tacana linguistic family, who today are concentrated in the communal property areas of Infierno, Palma Real and Sonene, adjacent to the Park. A fourth neighboring native community, Kotsimba, belongs to the Pukirieri ethnic group, of the Harakmbut family. The Bahuaja Sonene Park is the link that connects Peru’s protected natural areas with those of Bolivia (it is adjacent to the Madidi National Park) in the proposed Vilcabamba Amboro Conservation Corridor, one of the most promising initiatives in the world to promote the sustainable development of a vast region (300,000 km²) with a very high biological and cultural diversity. HISTORY The traditions of the Ese’ Eja people tell their ancestors lived at the headwaters of the Tambopata, Heath, Madidi and Beni

Rivers (these last two in what is currently Bolivia), and specialists estimate this settlement dates back to 3,000 - 4,000 years ago. Little is known about their past, but it can be said with relative certainty that trade always took place between the indigenous people from the jungle region and the Andean and High-Andean inhabitants. There were sporadically or seasonal settlements of the latter in highland tropical rainforest areas, where they went in pursuit of gold, of places in which to grow coca and for hunting (in particular, birds, as is deduced from the early chronicles describing thousands of stores with color feathers used in the making of clothing for the nobility in Inca Cusco). Several Inca roads that lead to the edge of the jungle confirm this. The important presence of elements proper to the jungle in the sacred iconography of numerous cultures of the Central Andes further reinforces this fact. During colonial times, the invasion of the Ese’ Eja territory was intermittent and never in the same proportions as the one that took place during the Republican era, when the violence the rubber fever brought annihilated a large part of the indigenous population and enslaved those who could not escape. From then on, the history of the region’s Amazonian ethnic communities has been one of continuous loss of territory, only softened by the zone’s remoteness and the fact that it was always difficult to access, until everything changed: The only route connecting Puerto Maldonado with the rest of the country was through

The Tambopata River rises at almost 4,000 meters above sea level and navigating it is a unique experience.

The Maned Wolf is the largest Canid in the Continent and the one with the most peculiar appearance, without a doubt. Adapted to the plains that are subject to floods, it hunts small rodents and birds, standing up on its long hind legs, which, as stilts, allow him to watch over the tall grasses. Unlike the rest of American carnivores, it moves the legs on the same side simultaneously, which gives it an even more ungainly aspect. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 321


San Gaban route, exerting great pressure on the protected natural area and the native population that ends up displaced. The creation of the Park starts in 1977, when the Tambopata Reserved Zone

The colorful Tetragastris panamensis.

a long and difficult bridle path that went by El Astillero (at the confluence of the Tambopata and Tavara Rivers), ascended to the high Puno Plateau and met the railway between Cuzco and Puno. In the 1940s, air service starts to reach Quincemil and Puerto Maldonado and, as a result of this, the road from Cusco was built from 1965 to 1968, and the old pedestrian route was abandoned. Nevertheless, the migration of Andean settlers to the higher valleys of the Inambari and Tambopata Rivers, following an ancient pattern of simultaneous control of different altitudinal ecological zones, increased at a very rapid pace in the second half of the 20th century, encouraged by the rising price of coffee. This movement of people was spurred on by the State’s colonizing policy and by the construction of another access highway between Sandia and San Juan del Oro, which in our days has given rise to the new Interoceanic highway on the Macusani -

The slow snails, a part of the Amazonian people’s diet.

is established in the Tambopata and La Torre Rivers confluence area. In 1983, the Pampas del Heath Sanctuary is created, in the area between the Palma Real and Heath Rivers. In 1990, the Tambopata Candamo Reserved Zone is created, covering the area from the Cusco - Puerto Maldonado road to the highest parts of the Inambari and Tambopata River’s basins. As a result of the collaborative process of regional planning of the area, in 1996, the Bahuaja Sonene National Park is established –using the Ese’ Eja names for the Tambopata and Heath Rivers-, including the whole Pampas del Heath Sanctuary and a part of the Tambopata Candamo Reserved Zone. Finally, in the year 2000, after the areas under lease were returned to the State by the oil companies in the area, the Park extends its territory from 537,000 hectares to its present size. FLORA

A Wattled Jacana (Jacana jacana) walks supported by the aquatic vegetation. 322 Official Guide |Southern Rainforest

The National Park protects the only zone of wet tropical savannah Peru has, where palm trees like the Aguaje (Mauritia flexuosa) are abundant, forming islands over the dozens of


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grass species that grow in the swampy plains and a haven to highly specialized fauna. In areas like the hilly basin of the Candamo River, besides palm trees, one finds Rubber Tree (Hevea guianensis) and Tornillo (Cedrelinga catenaeformis). Higher up in the mountains, there are dwarf woods consisting of shrubs and small trees from the Clusiaceae, Rubiaceae and Myrsinaceae families. On the other hand, the basin of the Tavara River presents a predominance of the Bignoniaceae family, typical of the forests of the Amazonian plain. Finally, in the Tambopata River’s basin, located in the heart of the Park, old-growth forests loaded with climbing plants in their trunks and canopy compete with two very abundant bamboo species. This high diversity of vegetal communities in all the areas of the Park also includes several economically important forest species, like the Spanish cedar (Cedrela odorata), Big-leaf Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) and Brazil Nut (Bertholletia excelsa); palm trees

Curva Alegre

like Pona (Iriartea ventricosa), Huasai (Euterpe sp.) and Hungurahui (Jessenia bataua), and trees of large diameter like Ficus, Guarea, and Guatteria. FAUNA Recent studies at Bahuaja Sonene have reported more than 600 bird species -378

The popular Black-capped Capuchin (Cebus apella). Protected Natural Areas | PERU 323

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tridactyla), the Giant Armadillo (Priodontes maximus), the Red-faced Spider Monkey (Ateles paniscus) and the jaguar (Pantera onca).

The Savannah, an ecosystem that gets flooded during the rainy season, creating islets of Palm trees.

Among reptiles and amphibians, 100 species were found, having among their most outstanding representatives the gigantic Black Caiman (Melanosuchus niger), the Green Anaconda (Eunectes murinus) and the Yellow-spotted River Turtle (Podocnemis unifilis), apart from 5 endemic species of frogs belonging to the Hylidae, Dendrobatidae and Leptodactylidae families. Finally, 232 species of fish and the record number of 1,200 species of butterflies were found. HOW TO GET THERE

of them in the Heath River sector- among which the following stand out: 7 species of macaws, the Roseate Spoonbill (Ajaia ajaja), the King Vulture (Sarcoramphus papa) and the fabulous predator, the Harpy Eagle (Harpya harpyja). Also, 174 species of mammals have been reported, which include three rare species of wild dogs (Speothos venaticus, Cerdocyon thous and Atelocynus microtis), the endangered Giant Otter (Pteronura brasiliensis), the Marsh Deer (Blastocerus dichotomus) and the unique Maned Wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus); these last two species are characteristic of the Heath’s pampas and do not exist in any other part of the country. There are, as well, species in a vulnerable condition, like the Giant Anteater (Myrmecophaga

The Interoceanic Highway coming from Puno goes by Macusani and San Gaban, and then joins the Interoceanic Highway that comes from Cusco (400 km in all), arriving to Puerto Maldonado 220 km later. From San Gaban to La Oroya there are 20 km. There are paved roads from Sandia (260 km from Puno) up to Putina Punco (120 km) and, from there, to Pampa Grande (20 km), also, to Massiapo (80 km) and, from there, to Pampa Yanamayo (22 km). From Puno, you can also reach Limbani (220 km). The fluvial route (rafting) goes by the Tambopata River from Putina Punco, in Puno, arriving at Puerto Maldonado and also crossing the Tambopata

An aerial view of the gorgeous meanders of the Heath River, in the Peruvian-Bolivian border.

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National Reserve. From Puerto Pardo, at the border with Bolivia, 6 h away from Puerto Maldonado navigating along the Madre de Dios River, you can enter the Heath River and travel upstream. There are connecting flights from Cusco and Lima to Puerto Maldonado.

also, the Heath Collpa, 7 h away from Puerto Maldonado, navigating along the Madre de Dios and the Heath Rivers: a spectacle of multicolored macaws, parrots, parakeets and mammals like the capybaras.

WEATHER Hot and humid with an average temperature of 86 °F, fluctuating between 50 and 100 °F. The “friajes” (cold spells) -Antarctic winds that occasionally enter the area- produce low temperatures between the months of June and July. Rainfall goes from December to March, covering the pampas with water and creating a large swamp. RESTRICTIONS To navigate the Tambopata River in canoe or kayak one need to get a permit given by the Park’s authorities, after the payment of an entrance fee of S/150 soles per person (for seven days), in addition to always having a guide who is specialized in rafting.

Canoeing in the Tambopata can also be a placid experience.

ATTRACTIONS

NEARBY ATTRACTIONS

The main attraction at the moment, and where adventure tourism (rafting) is allowed between June and September, is the Alto Tambopata River. Along the route, tourists camp on its beaches, from where the great biodiversity of the place can be appreciated. There is,

Those who take the route to Putina Punco can enjoy the Consuelo Lake, the cave of the oilbirds and the San Ignacio Collpa there. In the high lands of Puno, there are roads of great scenic value, like the one from Limbani to Punto Cuatro and those from San Gaban to Chaspa or to Yahuarmayo. It would also be possible to do rafting in the lower Inambari River, from San Gaban to Puente Inambari, at its confluence with the Marcapata River. The Tambopata National Reserve is a twin destination, and a must, when visiting the Bahuaja Sonene National Park. SERVICES WITHIN THE AREA There are Control Posts in Putina Punco and San Gaban. CONTACT INFORMATION Administrative headquarters of the protected area: Pasaje Dos de febrero 154, Puno, Tel: (051) 363 960 / (01) 968 218 427. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 325


SERVICES Phone Area Codes: Cusco (084), Madre de Dios (082) HOTELS Manu: ***Manu Wildlife Center; National Park del Manu, T. 4402022; www.manu-wildlifecenter.com/ ***Pantiacolla Lodge; National Park del Manu, T. 238323; www.pantiacolla.com Puerto Maldonado y alrededores: ***Don Carlos; Leon Velarde 1271, T. 571029/571323; www.hotelesdoncarlos.com/doncarlosptomaldthehotel.htm ***Anaconda Lodge; 6 km del centro de Puerto Maldonado, T. 982611039; www.anacondajunglelodge.com/sp/lodge.htm ***Cayman Lodge Amazonie; Arequipa 655, T. 571970; www.cayman-lodge-amazonie.com/ espanol/index.html ***Inkaterra Reserva Amazonica; km. 15, Madre de Dios, T. 572283/572988; www.inkaterra.com/en/reserva-amazonica ***Albergue Sandoval Lake Lodge; Bayaco Sandoval s/n, Lago Sandoval, www.tambopata.com/sandoval_lake_lodge_es.html ***Explorers Inn Lodge Hotel; rio Tambopata, La Torre, T. 572078; www.explorersinn.com/esp/index.php ***Cayman Lodge Amazonie; margen izquierda rio Tambopata, Sachavacayoc, T. 571970 ***Libertador Tambopata Lodge; rio Tambopata Km. 78, Quebrada Callocunca, comunidad de Condenados, T. 571726; www.tambopatalodge.com/ ***Wasai Lodge & Expeditions; margen izquierdo rio Tambopata, T. 572290, www.wasai.com/ ***Wasai Maldonado; Guillermo Billinghurst cuadra 2, a orillas del rio Tambopata, T. 572290; www.tambopata.com/wasai_maldonado_eco_lodge_ es.html ***Posada Amazonas; comunidad de Infierno, rio Tambopata/***Refugio Amazonas; adyacente a la National Reserve Tambopata/***Tambopata Research Center; entre la National Reserve Tambopata y el National Park Bahuaja Sonene; www.perunature.com/es/lodges Quillabamba: **Don Carlos; Libertad 556, T. 281150; www.hostaldoncarlosquillabamba. com **Quillabamba; Miguel Grau 590, T. 281369; www.hostalquillabamba.com/ **Lira; La Convencion 294, T. 281324 RESTAURANTS Manu: Africa Night; Barrio Esperanza H-9, Ag. Villa Salvacion Alarcon Mora Walter; Puerto s/n, Boca Colorado Caballero Hilares Julia; Italia s/n, Boca Colorado Puerto Maldonado: Peùa Restaurante Turistico La Balsa; Circunvalacion s/n, Pueblo Viejo, T. 791020 Cebicheria El Califa; Piura 266, T. 571119 Carnebrava Grill &Bar; Arequipa 297, Plaza de Armas, T. 571364 Karambola; Arequipa 162, T. 982741682; www.hellomadrededios.com/karambola_rest&disco/ El Hornito; Daniel A. Carrion 271, T. 572082; www.hellomadrededios.com/el_hornito/ Don Carlos; Leon Velarde 1271, T. 571029; www.hotelesdoncarlos.com/ Imperio Insetur; Jaime Troncoso 293, T. 573545 La Balsa; Circunvalacion, Puerto viejo, T. 98275220 Quillabamba: Quinta Polleria El Sabor de Zulemita; Sambaray H 8, Urb. 7 de Junio, T. 787108 Santa Maria; Barrio Inmaculada, s/n, T. 771753 Nicol´s; Espinar 352, T. 798253 TOURISM/TRAVEL AGENCIES Manu: Inka Natura Travel; Ricardo Palma J1, Urba. Santa Monica, Cuzco, T. 255255; www. inkanatura.net/ Sody Travel Agency; Urb. Santa Rosa U-6, San Sebastian, Cusco, T. 273943; www.soditravel.com/eccusco01.htm Manu Nature Tours; Pardo 1046, Cusco, T. 252721, www.manuperu.com/ Glacial Travel Viajes y Turismo; Portal Comercio 129, Ofic. 06, Cusco, T. 227266; www.glacialtravel.com Puerto Maldonado: Ceiva Tour; Leon Velarde 420, T. 573567 Tropical Nature Tours & Travel; 2 de Mayo 287, T. 571582 Tambopata Tours; Leon Velarde 171, T. 571320 Phuyo Tours; Belen 494, T. 264107; www.phuyotour.com/ Pantiacolla Tours; Calle Saphi 554, Cusco, T. 238323; www.bookingbox.org/pantiacolla/ espanol.html Manu Nature Tours; Boca Manu s/n, T. 252721; www.manuperu.com/ Inkanatura Selva; San Martin 755, T. 571037; www.inkanatura.net/inkanatura.htm Sergetur Colpa Travel; Leon Velarde 411, T. 573698 Tropical Nature; Dos de Mayo 287, T. 571582; www.tropicalnaturetravel.com/travel/peru/tambopata.shtml Expediciones Vilca; Fonavi G-1, T. 244751; www.manuvilcaperu.com Sas Travel Peru; Ancash esquina con 2 de Mayo 250, T. 572227; www.sastravelperu.com/ Las Piedras Amazon Tours; Los Cedros Manzana B; Lote 17; T. 573655; www.laspiedrasamazontour.com/

326 Official Guide | Southern Rainforest


EMERGENCIES Health: Puerto Maldonado: Hospital Santa Rosa de Puerto Maldonado; Cajamarca 171, Tambopata, T. 571046/571019 Hospital San Martin de Porres; Mocopata s/n, Iberia Tahuamanu Quillabamba: Hospital General de Quillabamba; General Gamarra s/n, T.282918/281282 Police: Madre de Dios: Comisaria de Tambopata; 2 de Mayo cuadra 16, T. 572342 Quillabamba: Comisaria de Quillabamba; Libertad 429 Santa Ana, T. 281143 OF INTEREST Puerto Maldonado: Museo Etnoecologico; Leon Velarde 206, T. 572135 Direccion Regional de Comercio Exterior y Turismo; Urb. Fonavi, F20, Pasaje 12 de septiembre, T. 57116 Correos; Leon Velarde 675, T. 571088

TRANSPORTE By Buses: Transportes Sabor a Selva; Amazonas 521, Urb. Amazonas, T. 571221, Puerto Maldonado Tahuamanu; Piura cuadra 9 s/n, Barrio Lindo, Tambopata Trans Oceanica de Iberia; San Sebastian Benedett s/n, Tacna 320, T. 574273, Iberia, Tahuamanu Mi Nuevo Peru; Piura 749, T. 574235, Puerto Maldonado By Air: Lan; Leon Velarde 503, Puerto Maldonado; www.lan.com Star Peru: Leon Velarde 151, Puerto Maldonado, T. 9827074; www.starperu.com/ Airports: Puerto Maldonado: Aeropuerto Internacional Padre Jose Aldamiz, Carretera La Pastora-La Joya km 7., T. 571533/ 571531/571532

Orange-cheeked Parrot (Pyriliabarrabandi)

Protected Natural Areas | PERU 327


New Protected Natural Areas | 03 Communal Reserves, 01 Wildlife Refuge and 08 Reserved Zones

"Conserving the future" A lovely exemplar of Meriania speciosa (Melastomaceae), which is abundant in the Cordillera de Colan. *Facilities for tourism: 7/11/12

YES

Protected Area

Location

Creation Date

Area (ha)

1.Chayu Nain CR

: AMAZONAS

12/09/2009

23,597.76

2.Airo Pai CR

: LORETO

10/25/2012

247,887.59

3.Huimeki CR

: LORETO

10/25/2012

141,234.46

4. Bosques Nublados de Udima WR

: CAJAMARCA

05/10/2013

12,183.20

5. Rio Nieva RZ

: AMAZONAS

10/01/2010

36,348.30

6. Lomas de Ancon RZ

: LIMA

10/06/2010

10,962.14

7. Bosque de Zarate RZ

: LIMA

10/13/2010

545.75

8. Illescas RZ

: PIURA

12/16/2010

37,452.58

9. Reserva Paisajistica Cerro : PUNO Khapia RZ

05/31/2011

18,313.79

10. Yaguas RZ

: LORETO

07/25/2011

868,927.57

11. Ancon RZ

: LIMA

12. Laguna Huacachina RZ : ICA

07/21/2011

2,193.01

06/06/2012

2,458.25

TOTAL

1’402,104.40

The following Protected Natural Areas are not included in the Spanish Official Guide, of which this guide is a translation. In the present chapter, we present a synopsis of their objectives and general characteristics, as well as a map of their areas and their location in the country. 328 Official Guide |New Protected Natural Areas


COMMUNAL RESERVES CHAYU NAIN This Communal Reserve was created when the Cordillera de Colan National Sanctuary was categorized and it became detached from its territory in its entirety. Its objective is to conserve the values of the biological diversity of the Cordillera de Colan, especially the fog forests biome –endemic and endangered flora and fauna- in benefit of the neighboring native communities and with their participation in its management. The Reserve comprises sample areas of the yungas of the north of Peru, in their three altitudinal zones: pre-montane, low montane and montane. This zone is a priority area for conservation with a high capacity for generating and regulating water of the fog forests. Its creation has been possible thanks to the collaboration of the Awajun native communities, through the Aguaruna Huambisa Council. AIRO PAI / HUIMEKI The creation of these two Communal Reserves took place when the Gueppi National Park was categorized. Their entire areas became detached from its territory. Their objectives are to conserve the different biological and cultural representative samples; the tropical moist forest and its transitional life zones; and the sacred and culturally important places of the Secoyas –in the case of Airo Pai- and of the Kichwas, Huitotos and mestizo settlements in the Peruvian-Colombian frontier zone –in the case of Huimeki-, all this with the participation of the communities, thus allowing the natural and cultural processes to continue to develop adequately. WILDLIFE REFUGE BOSQUES NUBLADOS DE UDIMA The Refuge was created with the object of conserving the relict montane fog forests of the western watershed of the Peruvian Andes and their associated ecosystems, the dry forest and the jalca. Also, to conserve the great biological diversity found in it: endemic, rare and endangered species; as well as the archaeological-cultural heritage existent within the area. The peaceful Amazonian rivers concentrate biodiversity in the Huikemi Communal Reserve.

Protected Natural Areas | PERU 329


In general, at the fog forests of the north, where the Udima Fog Forests are located, studies report more than 1,100 species in 487 genera and 147 families, which represent 6% of the flora in the country. Palm trees, as well as tree ferns are conspicuous elements in the montane forest. Part of the area, the area called Alto Valle del Zaña, has been identified as an Important Area for the Conservation of Birds (IBA), due to the presence of the Wattled Guan (Aburria aburri), the Bearded Guan (Penelope barbata), the Little Woodstar (Chaetocercus bombus), the Greyheaded Antbird (Myrmeciza griseiceps) and the Rufous-necked Foliage-gleaner (Syndactyla ruficollis), among other species. Fog forests are found mainly between 2,000 and 3,000 meters above sea level. The average annual temperature varies depending on the altitude (71 °F at an altitude of 500 meters and 46 °F at an altitude of 3,000 meters). The Area presents conditions for nature tourism, birdwatching, archaeological and live culture tourism. Among the archaeological sites of the Zaña River’s basin, the complex of Poroporo stands out. RESERVED ZONES RIO NIEVA The objectives of its creation are the protection of the Nieva River’s basin in order to guarantee the environmental services derived in favor of the nearby settlements; the protection of the biodiversity and the ecosystems of the Peruvian Yungas, mainly of the endemic and endangered flora and fauna species, and to strengthen the connectivity between the Natural Protected Areas of the region for the creation of a conservation corridor. Rio Nieva Reserved Zone is perpetually covered by fog and constant humidity is the key element for the working of the ecosystem. The principal flora values in the area are 19 endemic species, among them: Oreopanax mathewssi, Chusquea dombeyana, Polylepis multijuga; and 21 endangered species, like: Myrcianthes discolor (CR), Coryanthes macrocorys (VU), Masdevallia hymenantha (EN). Regarding fauna, the area possesses a great number of endemic and endangered species, umbrella species of great importance, like: Yellow-tailed Woolly Monkey (Oreonax flavicauda), Peruvian Night Monkey (Aotus miconax), both of which have very restricted geographic distribution, Spectacled Bear (Tremarctos ornatus), White-fronted Capuchin (Cebus albifrons), Nine-banded Armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus) and White-fronted Spider Monkey (Ateles belzebuth). The Endangered Neotropical Otter (Lontra longicaudis), solitary hunter in the rivers of the Airo Pai Communal Reserve.

330 Official Guide |New Protected Natural Areas


N

80°

03 Communal Reserves, 01Wildlife Refuge 70° & 08 Reserved Zones

75°

NEW PROTECTED NATURAL AREAS

HUIMEKI CR AIRO PAI CR

YAGUAS RZ

RIO NIEVA RZ

CHAYU NAIN CR

ILLESCAS RZ

10°

10°

BOSQUES NUBLADOS DE UDIMA WR

LOMAS DE ANCÓN RZ ANCON RZ LIMA

BOSQUE DE ZARATE RZ

Pa ci

LAGUNA DE HUACACHINA RZ

fic

15°

ea

15°

Oc n RESERVA PAISAJISTICA CERRO KHAPIA RZ

20°

20°

AT L A N T I C OCEAN

PERU

PACIFIC OCEAN

SOUTH AMERICA

Scale km

Protected Natural Areas | PERU 331 0

80°

75°

40

80

70°


The Long-whiskered Owlet (Xenoglaux loweryi), a species that is frequently sighted in Chayu Nain Communal Reserve.

LOMAS DE ANCON This protected area was created with the object of protecting a representative sample area of the desert and fog oasis of the Peruvian coast, as well as to conserve the wild flora and fauna of the area, promoting scientific research in the interbasin spaces in the coast, and encouraging its use for recreation, tourism and education for the inhabitants of the north of Lima. There are zones in the Peruvian coast in which the fog oasis ecosystem is found, which develops by influence of the fogs and winter drizzle that, with the vegetation, create a cool and humid environment, where animal and vegetal life become dependent on it. This has produced the development of interactions and dependencies between species, many of them rare and unique, which is why their conservation is most important. The area has flora diversity in which herbs and bushes predominate, some of which are adapted to survive during period of the year when water is scarce. The importance of the area’s flora lies principally in the presence of some endangered species, among them: Begonia octopetala (EN), Carica candicans (CR), Senecio smithianus (CR), Weberbauerella raimondiana (CR), Weberbauerella brongniartioides (CR) and Palaua camanensis (EN). BOSQUE DE ZARATE Its creation aims at conserving a representative portion of the dry fog forests of the western watershed of the Andes, which is a home to an important diversity of wild flora and fauna species. It also intends to promote scientific research that may serve as a basis for the conservation of the forest, and to encourage recreation, tourism and environmental education, in benefit of the population. The hydrological system of the Forest of Zarate Reserved Zone constitutes a significant source of water for the adjacent settlements as well as those within the area, so they can develop agriculture and livestock. It constitutes a sort of natural relict, one of the few forests that remains in the central zone, made up of a diversity of ecological zones that give rise to a variety of vegetal communities of the western watersheds of the Central zone of Peru. Its altitudinal gradient goes from 1,850 to 3,600 meters above sea level, and it has different climates and a great biodiversity, among it, several trees that are endemic to the zone, like Barnadesia blakeana and Myrcianthes quinqueloba. 332 Official Guide |New Protected Natural Areas


Additionally, the Forest of Zarate belongs to an Important Area for Bird Conservation –IBA, which, together with other resources of the area, strengthens even more a development of values for research, tourism and environmental education, as well as an essential genetic potential. The best time of the year to visit it is between April and June, when the mountain looks green and its ravines are carrying water. ILLESCAS Its objectives are to conserve a sample area of the desert landscape of the coast of Peru, its vegetal formations and its wild fauna diversity; to guarantee the conservation of the natural attractions of the coast, for sustainable tourism and recreation, and to contribute to sustainable development, environmental education and the welfare of the population of the coastal regions. Illescas presents several vegetal formations that make up special habitats adapted to extreme aridity and humidity conditions that are characteristic of Peru’s coastal desert, in the Desert of Sechura Ecoregion; it is an important refuge for endangered endemic wild species, especially, ornithological fauna. Some species are important because they stabilize the displacement of the masses of sand in the zone with dunes: Capparis scabrida and C. avicenniifolia; also, Sesuvium portulacastrum, Distichlis spicata and Cryptocarpus pyriformis. It is common to find the endemic Alternanthera peruviana species in the Sechura Desert. Two kinds of fauna can be identified in the Illescas Reserved Zone: marine and continental. The marine diversity present in the area supports traditional fishing that takes place all along the coast; small cetaceans are commonly seen approaching the shore and there are reports of the sighting of humpback whales. Regarding the continental fauna, this is made up of 6 families of mammals and 10 families of reptiles, among them, the Gekkonidae, with 4 species, of which the Phyllodactylus clinatus is endemic of the Illescas Peninsula. Additionally, there are 15 families of birds, of which some are endangered: Phytotoma raymondii, Vultur gryphus, Pelecanus thagus, Phalacrocorax bouganvilli, P. gaimardi, Sula variegata and Progne murphyi. Singular species and restricted-range species are also present: Sechuran Fox (Lycalopex sechurae), Gerbil Leaf-eared Mouse (Phyllotis gerbillus), Desert Lancehead (Bothrops roedingeri), Slender-billed Finch (Xenospingus concolor) and others, like Raimondi's Yellow Finch (Sicalis raimondii). The Udima Fog Forest is found in the western watershed of the Peruvian Andes

Protected Natural Areas | PERU 333


RESERVA PAISAJISTICA CERRO KHAPIA The Reserve was created in order to conserve the biological, cultural, landscape and ecosystems diversity values, in a harmonious relationship between the economic activities of the population and the natural resources, promoting the sustainable development of the zone, which constitutes a sample of the biodiversity of the Peruvian high Andean plateau. The high Khapia mountain, standing solitary more than a thousand meters over Lake Titicaca, dividing it in two and supporting the Copacabana Peninsula, is an ancestral place of worship for the Aymara people, a tradition that continues up to this day. Threatened by some mining projects that intended to exploit it, something that was considered a desecration, the neighboring towns demanded its establishment as an area protected by the State. The landscape it offers from its interesting summit confirms and recognizes the worth of such a status. YAGUAS Its objective is to protect and conserve the biological communities, the geological formations and the ecological processes of the basins of the Yaguas and Cotuhe Rivers, contributing to the welfare of the local population. The Reserved Zone is located in the lower part of the Putumayo River’s basin, in Loreto, and it has the perfect ecological conditions for a wide variety of flora and fauna species, and it gives environmental services to 11 native communities settled along the Putumayo River and 2 in the Yaguas River (belonging to the Kichwa, Bora, Ticuna, Huitoto and Yagua ethnic groups), who exploit the natural resources in a sustainable way. Yaguas still conserves and protects tropical forests that are intact and regulate the hydrological cycles of the two above mentioned basins. Thanks to its creation, a continuous biological corridor of forests has been established that facilitates the genetic flow in the Putumayo River’s basin, from the Amayacu National Parks (Colombia) and Gueppi-Sekime (Peru), up to the Cuyabeno Fauna Production Reserve (Ecuador). Regarding its flora, 9 species that are new to science have been registered, apart from healthy populations of important timber-yielding species, like Tornillo, Marupa, Catahua, Pashaca and Lupuna, among others. In these last years, new species have been discovered, 8 fish species, 2 species of amphibians and 1 bird species of the Herpsilochmus genus, which still has not been described. The area also officially protects and conserves species that have some degree of threat, like The absence of human presence allows the lobos de mar to seek refuge in the shore, in Illescas Point.

334 Official Guide |New Protected Natural Areas


Another day spent in the conservation of biodiversity says good-bye on the Nieva River.

the Giant Otter, Giant Anteater, Yellow-tailed Woolly Monkey, Spectacled Caiman and Yellow-footed Tortoise, among others. ANCON Its objective is to conserve the biological, cultural and landscape diversity of the marine-coastal ecosystems that are part of the ecosystem associated to the Humboldt Peruvian Current belonging to the Temperate South Oriental Pacific biogeographical province and to the great desert of the Peruvian coast ecosystem; it also aims at promoting the sustainable use of the natural resources of the area, thus contributing to the welfare of the local population and of their future generations. The Ancon Reserved Zone includes, in part, the Antonio Raimondi National Ecological Park that represents 79% of the total area, while the remaining 21% is constituted by the Bay of Ancon. The swell is more stable in the Bay, and the temperature is slightly higher compared to the surrounding waters. These factors contribute to make the zone particularly important for the reproductive processes of the aquatic coastal fauna. In the continental part, where the Quebradilla, Los Inocentes, Rio Seco and Gamo Ravines are found, vegetation is very scarce. LAGUNA HUACACHINA The Reserved Zone was created in order to conserve the biological, cultural and landscape diversity of the zone, which is part of the special ecosystem of the Pacific Desert Ecoregion and the Subtropical Desiccated Desert life zone; it also seeks to promote the sustainable use of the natural resources of the area, thus contributing to the welfare of the local population and of their future generations. The Reserve belongs to the Pacific Desert Ecoregion and presents characteristics proper to the Subtropical Desiccated Life Zone, with average temperatures between 62° and 86 °F and no rainfall. It is a lake system, the initial structure of which was made up of five lakes that were negatively affected by urban expansion, the demand of water resource for agriculture, the population’s direct water consumption and other human activities developed within the area. Of all the lakes included in the Reserved Zone, Huacachina, from the Quechua “huaccac” meaning “woman cry”, is, historically and culturally, one of the most representative. There is a greater presence of birds in Lake Huacachina, and 26 species have been registered, distributed in five habitats, while in the San Pedro Oasis, a zone adjacent to this protected natural area, 57 species have been discovered, grouped in 31 ornithological families. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 335


336

Sapo Cornudo (Rhinellaceratophrys)


Conservation Areas


Conservation Areas | Regional and Private Areas

"Conservation is everybody’s task" The conservation area of chaparri was the first area to be established in the private protected natural areas system in 2001.

Number of Areas

: 15 regional areas and 62 private areas

Creation Date

: 2001 – 2013

Total RCA Area

: 2’405,558.82 ha

Total PCA Area

: 256,477.03 ha

OBJECTIVES OF THE CONSERVATION AREAS The Regional Conservation Areas, complementary to the National System of Protected Natural Areas, are spaces established by regional or local governments with the object of satisfying needs and interests of regional or local character. These areas are part of the Nation’s Heritage, areas of direct use, and their establishment respects acquired property rights, which have to be compatible with their character of national patrimony. Regional governments are in charge of their administration, in coordination with the councils, local populated centers, rural or native communities living in the area, and private and public institutions that participate in their management and development. They are established by Supreme Decree, approved by the Cabinet. The Private Conservation Areas are pieces of land that are privately owned and that because of their environmental, biological, landscape or other similar characteristics complement the coverage of SINANPE, contributing to the conservation of the biological diversity and increasing the offer for scientific research and education, as well as the opportunities for the development of specialized tourism. They may be established in part of the lot of land or in the whole of it, at the request of the owner. They are recognized by a Ministry 338 Official Guide |Conservation Areas


Resolution from the Ministry of the Environment, in order to conserve the biological diversity, and this recognition is given for a minimum of 10 years, renewable at the request of the owner. DESCRIPTION OF RCA Cordillera Escalera San Martin, 2005 – 149,870 ha It conserves and protects the natural resources and the biological diversity of the fragile ecosystems found in the Cordillera Escalera, ensuring the continuity of the biological processes in the area’s ecosystems. Humedales de Ventanilla Callao, 2006 – 275.45 ha It conserves a representative sample of the wetlands present in the Pacific Sub-tropical Desert Ecoregion, including the associated values and fragile ecosystems that constitute the habitat of migratory and resident bird fauna, as well as other local flora and fauna species. Albufera de Medio Mundo Lima, 2007 – 687.71 ha It conserves the biodiversity of the wetlands ecosystem, since it exerts an important influence on other similar ones located in the coast of Peru and its surroundings, promoting the sustainable use and protection of the wetlands and their resources. Comunal Tamshiyacu Tahuayo Loreto, 2009 – 420,080.25 ha It conserves the mountain forests and the forests subject to floods of the Tahuayo River, the Tamshiyacu and the Blanco Ravines, guaranteeing the sustainable use of wild flora and fauna resources by the local populations applying sustainable practices, promoting the local development and the development of Loreto in general. Vilacota Maure Tacna, 2009 – 124,313.18 ha It conserves the natural and cultural resources as well as the biological diversity of the Andean ecosystem of Tacna, ensuring the continuity of the ecological processes by means of an integrated and participatory management. It conserves and protects Darwin's Rhea (Rhea pennata) populations, apart from protecting the soils and the vegetation as regulators of the hydrological cycle in the Maure River’s basin, in order to guarantee the provision of water and other environment services in benefit of the population involved. Imiria Ucayali, 2010 – 135,737.52 ha It conserves representative areas of the Amazonian Wetlands ecosystem, which characterize the Imiria and Chauya Lakes, both of wonderful scenic beauty; it is also a natural refuge for endangered species and a source of subsistence for the native communities and mestizo hamlets. Activities are promoted for the sustainable use of resources, research and development of ecotourism in benefit of the native Shipibo and Conibo communities and other hamlets located on the shores of the lakes. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 339


80°

N AT L A N T I C OCEAN

PERU

PACIFIC OCEAN

SOUTH AMERICA

4 5

5 8

6 7 8

9

15

16 17

14

13

19

21

11 4

12 23

20 24

22

18

25 26

29 28

31

10° 15°

10

7

Private conservation 01. Selva Botanica 02. Herman Dantas 03. Amazon Natural Park 04. Bosque Seco Amotape 05. Bosques de Neblina y Paramos de Samanga 06. Gotas de Agua I 07. Gotas de Agua II 08. Copallin 09. Hierba Buena – Allpayacu 10. Abra Patricia-Alto Nieva 11. Juningue 12. Bosque de Palmeras de la Comunidad Campesina Taulia Molinopampa 13. Tilacancha 14. San Antonio 15. Berlin 16. La Huerta del Chaparri 17. Chaparri 18. Bosque Natural El Cañoncillo 19. Huaylla Belen – Colcamar 20. Huiquilla 21. Milpuj - La Heredad 22. Los Chilchos 23. Tambo Ilusion 24. Pucunucho 25. Larga Vista I 26. Larga Vista II 27. Panguana 28. San Marcos 29. Microcuenca de Paria 30. Pacllon 31. Llamac 32. Jirishanca 33. Huayllapa 34. Sagrada Familia 35. Refugio K'erenda Homet 36. Bahuaja 37. Tutusima 38. Habana Rural Inn 39. Inotawa-2 40. Inotawa-1 340 Official Guide

9

6

32

30 33 11

12

LIMA

41. Nuevo Amanecer 42. Bosque Benjamin II 43. Bosque Benjamin I 44. El Gato 45. Camino Verde Baltimore 46. San Juan Bautista 47. Boa Wadack Dari 48. Japu - Bosque Ukumari Llaqta 49. Bosque Nublado 50. Pillco Grande - Bosque de Pumataki 51. Pampacorral 52. Hatun Queuña – Quishuarani Ccollana 53. Sele Tecse-Lares Ayllu 54. Mantanay 55. Choquechaca 56. Qosqoccahuarina 57. Abra Malaga 58. Abra Malaga Thastayoc - Royal Cinclodes 59. Lomas de Atiquipa 60. Uchumiri 61. Huamanmarca-Ochuro-Tumpullo 62. Checca 63. Taypipiña 80°


70°

Regional and private areas

75°

Conservation areas

2

1 1 2

3

3

01. Ampiyacu Apayacu 02. Alto Nanay- Pintuyacu Chambira 03. Comunal Tamshiyacu Tahuayo 04. Cordillera Escalera 05. Angostura-Faical 06. Bosques Secos Salitral - Huarmaca "Sector Norte" 07. Bosques Secos Salitral - Huarmaca "Sector Sur" 08. Bosque Huacrupe-La Calera 09. Bosque Moyan-Palacio 10. Imiria 11. Albúferas de Medio Mundo 12. Humedales de Ventanilla 13. Huaytapallana 14. Choquequirao 15. Bosque de Puya Raymondi – Titankayocc 16. Vilacota Maure

B R A Z I L

10 27

10°

Regional conservation areas

34

13 35

56

53

50

39 38

52

57

49

14

15

47

51 54

58

46

37

36

45

40

44

41

43

48

42

15°

55

60 61

59

62

P

75°

A

C

I F

63

16 I C

O

C

E

escala gráfica km

A

N

0

40

80

Protected Natural Areas | PERU 341 70°


Choquequirao Cusco, 2010 – 103,814.39 ha Its aim is to conserve the biological diversity and the ecosystems related to the Montane Humid Forests, the Dry Seasonal Forests and the native forests where numerous endemic flora and fauna species live, such as Spectacled Bear, Condor and Puma; also, to conserve hydrological and cultural resources, as well as the continuity of the landscape between the Historical Sanctuary of Machupicchu and the National Sanctuary of Ampay; the snow-capped Qoriwayrachina, Sacsarayoc, Abuela and Padrayoc, and the western slope of the Salkantay. Bosque de Puya Raimondi – Titankayocc Ayacucho, 2010 – 6,272.39 ha The importance of the Puya Raimondi Forest - Titankayocc lies in the fact that it has the largest concentration of the Puya Raimondi (Puya raimondii) population in Peru, even exceeding the Puya population in the well known forests of the Huascaran National Park. Important endangered species have been identified in the Puya forests, which are representative of the central Highlands: Vicuña, Taruca, Condor, Andean Mountain Cat and Giant Hummingbird, among others. The area constitutes the retention and regulation hydrological center for the micro-basin of the Vischongo River. It is a refuge center for important vegetable species: Tara, Nogal, K’olle, Queñoa, among others. Ampiyacu Apayacu Loreto, 2010 – 434,129.54 ha Its objective is to conserve and protect the Amazonian lowland tropical rainforest ecosystems between the basins of the Ampiyacu and the Apayacu Rivers, allowing access to the natural resources and the sustainable management of the wild flora and fauna, promoting and improving the quality of life for the local population, as well as the environmental services, Numerous high andean wetlands are protected in the high sierras of tacna.

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Bucolic landscape at el cañoncillo natural forest private reserve, in la libertad.

offering conditions for research, environmental education, recreation and the development of sustainable tourism. Alto Nanay Pintoyacu Chambira Loreto, 2011 – 954,635.48 ha Its aim is to conserve and protect fragile ecosystems such as forests on white sands, forests subject to floods, forests of black waters, and highland forests of the high basins of the Nanay, Pintuyacu and Chambira Rivers, guaranteeing the provision of environmental services and the sustainable use of wild flora and fauna resources in benefit of the local population, promoting local and regional development. Angostura Faical Tumbes, 2011 – 8,794.50 ha Its objective is to conserve and increase the area of the Equatorial Dry Forest ecosystem, nowadays protected by the Cerros de Amotape National Park, guaranteeing the use of wild flora and fauna in benefit of the local population by means of sustainable management practices, and also protecting endemic wild fauna species of the Tumbes region and its scenic beauty. Bosque Huacrupe – La Calera Lambayeque, 2011 – 7,272.27 ha Its aim is to conserve a representative area of Savannah or Plain Dry Forest in the Department of Lambayeque, especially of the Algarroba - Sapote association, guaranteeing the use of flora and fauna resources for the local population, by means of sustainable practices; also, to manage two vegetal associations characteristic of the Dry Forest, Algarroba/Sapote and Hualtaco/ Palo Santo, together with the local population; to conserve the habitat and the populations of endangered fauna species, such as Vultur gryphus, Puma concolor, Eptesicus innoxius, Boa constrictor ortonii and Bothrops barnetti; to promote research of the biological diversity, environmental education and nature tourism in Lambayeque. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 343


Bosque Moyan – Palacio Lambayeque, 2011 – 8,457.76 The establishment of the Regional Conservation Area aims at conserving populations of White-winged Guan (Penelope albipennis) and a representative area of the Dry Hill and Mountain Forests of the Department of Lambayeque, guaranteeing its use for the local population by means of sustainable practices; as well as the habitat and populations of the southern distribution of the White-winged Guan, and the habitats and populations of endangered fauna species, such as Puma concolor, Syndactyla ruficollis, Hylocryptus erythrocephalus, Boa constrictor ortonii and Polychrus femoralis. Huaytapallana Junin, 2011 – 22,406.52 ha The establishment of the Regional Conservation Area has the following objectives: to conserve the biological and landscape diversity found in it, guaranteeing the appropriate use of its hydrological resources in benefit of the local population; to conserve and restore the scrubfields, puna grass, high altitude wetlands, and lakes ecosystems, as well as the snow ecosystem of the snow-capped peaks of the Huaytapallana; to promote sustainable productive practices like sustainable tourism; to strengthen the capacities of the Regional Government and the local actors for the management of the area and to develop environmental education and research, as well as the access to information on the management of the Huaytapallana Regional Conservation Area. Bosques Secos de Salitral – Huarmaca Piura, 2011 – 28,811.86 ha The populations of the White-winged Guan (Penelope albipennis) and a representative area of the dry hill and mountain forests of the Department of Piura are conserved here, guaranteeing the use of the flora and fauna resources by means of sustainable practices.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PCA Chaparri Lambayeque, 2001 – 34,412 ha It preserves a sample of dry forest habitat and develops conservation programs for the maintenance of the ecological processes and of the local wild flora and fauna species that are endemic and/or endangered. Bosque Natural El Cañoncillo La Libertad, 2004 – 1,310.9 ha It ensures the continuity of the ecological and evolutionary processes within the area of the forest, preventing the extinction of wild flora and fauna species, especially the Algarroba.

344 Official Guide |Conservation Areas


Pacllon Ancash, 2005 –12,896.56 ha It conserves the biological diversity of the Huayhuash Mountains, which includes flora, fauna, habitats and ecosystems, in order to guarantee the balance and the continuity of the natural cycles and processes, at the time it promotes the rational use of the natural resources, aiming at the sustainable development of the local population. Huayllapa Lima, 2004 – 21,106.57 ha It protects representative samples of the biological diversity of the Huayhuash Mountains, which include important endemic and endangered flora and fauna components, and promotes the conservation of its natural resources and the sustainable and integral development of the local population and its area of influence. Sagrada Familia Pasco, 2006 – 75.8 ha It protects the wild flora and fauna of the area, maintaining its current quality and composition. Huiquilla Amazonas, 2006 – 1,140.54 ha It guarantees the conservation of the numerous flora and fauna species -some of them endemic-, the purity of its water resources, and prevents the depredation of the numerous archaeological sites found within it. San Antonio Amazonas, 2007 – 357.39 ha It conserves and protects the last mountain forests close to the city of Chachapoyas, which have an important role in the hydrological cycle of the region. It conserves and protects the habitat of the Marvellous Spatuletail (Loddigesia mirabilis) and conserves part of the dry forests of Utcubamba.

White-winged Swallow (Tachycineta albiventers), often perched on logs along the rivers in the Amazon

Protected Natural Areas | PERU 345


Abra Malaga Cusco, 2007 - 1,053 ha It preserves and conserves life and the water, soil, flora and fauna resources, as well as the landscape. Jirishanca Huanuco, 2007 – 12,172.91 ha It conserves the landscape and the wild flora and fauna resources with the intention of achieving the economic and cultural development of the population. Abra Patricia – Alto Nieva Amazonas, 2007 – 1,415.74 ha It contributes to the conservation and protection of the mountain forests of the Abra Patricia- Alto Nieva sector, the habitat of numerous endangered and endemic species. Bosque Nublado Cusco, 2008 – 3,353.88 ha It protects the Bosque Nublado area and its high biological diversity. Huamanmarca – Ochuro – Tumpullo Arequipa, 2008 – 15,669 ha It preserves the biological, cultural and landscape diversity values, which mainly include the native Polylepis forests and the wetlands ecosystems, in a harmonious relationship between the population’s economic activities and the natural resources, promoting the human development of the indigenous communities. Abra Malaga Thastayoc – Royal Cinclodes Cusco, 2009 – 70.64 ha It preserves and conserves the biological diversity and the ecological processes that exist in the Polylepis forest at Abra Malaga Thastayoc; it is the only habitat in which a diversity of flora and fauna are preserved, including many endemic birds and, among them, three species in danger of extinction: the Ash-breasted Tit-Tyrant (Anairetes alpinus), the White-browed Tit-Spinetail (Leptasthenura xenothorax) and the Royal Cinclodes (Cinclodes aricomae). Hatun Queuña – Quishuarani Ccollana Cusco, 2009 – 234.88 ha It conserves, preserves and restores the high Andean Polylepis forests of the Vilcanota River’s basin, since these have multiple environmental functions and constitute refuges for the biological diversity, having a high offer of landscape sceneries for scientific, mystic and adventure tourism; moreover, they are the only habitat of three endangered birds: the Ash-breasted TitTyrant (Anairetes alpinus), the White-browed Tit-Spinetail (Leptasthenura xenothorax) and the Royal Cinclodes (Cinclodes aricomae). 346 Official Guide |Conservation Areas


Llamac Ancash, 2009 – 6,037.85 ha It conserves natural elements and components representative of the biological diversity of the Huayhuash Mountains within the area of the Rural Community of Llamac, which includes flora, endemic and endangered fauna, as well as habitats and ecosystems; it seeks to promote the special use of natural resources aiming at the sustainable development of the local population. Uchumiri Arequipa, 2009 – 10,253 ha It conserves elements of biological, cultural and landscape diversity that include mainly Polylepis native forests and wetlands associated to snow covered zones ecosystems, in a harmonious relationship between the economic activities of the population and the natural resources, promoting the human development of the people in the communities. Sele Tecse – Lares Ayllu Cusco, 2010 – 974.22 ha It aims at the conservation and sustainable use of natural resources and local biodiversity in benefit of the development of the Lares Ayllu Talana Rural Community, through the implementation of actions that help to minimize and/or eliminate any disturbance of the habitat and refuge of the wild flora and fauna typical of the Andean Polylepis forests, and for the management of the Community’s natural resources. Mantanay Cusco, 2010 – 365.57 ha Its aim is to conserve, preserve and restore the high Andean flora and fauna species, among which the Polylepis forests stand out greatly, the only source of life for four endangered birds: Anairetes alpinus (EN), Leptasthenura xenothorax (EN), Cinclodes aricomae (CR) and Oreomanes fraseri. Choquechaca Cusco, 2010 – 2,076.54 ha Its aim is to conserve the high Andean natural resources, giving opportunities for sustainable development in benefit of the Ollanta Rural Community, implementing actions that allow mitigating any disturbance or alteration of the habitat and refuge of the wild flora and fauna proper to the high Andean forests. Tambo Ilusion San Martin, 2010 – 14.29 ha The area’s objectives are to conserve and recover the biological diversity and the water resources, and the reforestation of native species, in such a way that these lead to the forest’s recovery; also, to promote experiential ecotourism and environmental education experiences. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 347


Wildlife is the main beneficiary in conservation areas located in the jungle, both private and regional

Tilacancha Amazonas, 2010 – 6,800.48 ha Its aim is to conserve the higher parts of the Tilacancha and Cruzhuayco sub-basins, the scrub fields (Jalca), the montane forests and the area’s biological diversity, contributing to the appropriate functioning of the subbasins’ hydrographical systems and to the integral management of the Yuyac-Osmal basin, in such a way that environmental goods and services are guaranteed for the sustainable development of the community, the district and the region. Habana Rural Inn Madre de Dios, 2010 – 27.79 ha Its aim is to favor the continuity of the ecological processes in the ecosystems of the Bajo Tambopata sector, contributing to diminish the pressure exerted on the Tambopata National Reserve by the population of Puerto Maldonado and of the Loero and Jorge Chavez sectors of the Buffer Zone of the PNA, for the use of its wild fauna resources. Refugio K'erenda Homet Madre de Dios, 2010 – 35.40 ha It favors the continuity of the ecological processes in the ecosystems of the Isuyama - Bajo Tambopata sector, contributing to diminish the pressure exerted on the Tambopata National Reserve by the population of Puerto Maldonado and of the Loero and Jorge Chavez sectors of the PNA’s Buffer Zone. Bahuaja Madre de Dios, 2010 – 5.57 ha It favors the continuity of the ecological processes in the ecosystems of the Isuyama - Bajo Tambopata sector, contributing to diminish the pressure exerted on the Tambopata National Reserve by the population of Puerto Maldonado and of the Loero and Jorge Chavez sectors of the PNA’s Buffer 348 Official Guide |Conservation Areas


Zone; it also favors the recovery of the forest in the area that was used for agriculture and the management of natural resources in a sustainable way, by means of conservation and ecotourism activities. Tutusima Madre de Dios, 2010 – 5.43 ha It favors the continuity of the ecological processes in the Isuyama - Bajo Tambopata sector, contributing to diminish the pressure exerted on the Tambopata National Reserve by the population of Puerto Maldonado and of the Loero and Jorge Chavez sectors in the PNA’s Buffer Zone; to manage natural resources and the areas subject to floods in the Tutusima ecosystems in sustainable ways, in order to promote conservation and ecotourism activities. Bosque Seco Amotape Tumbes, 2010 – 123.30 ha Its aim is to conserve a representative area of tropical dry forest and its endemic and endangered species, very close to the point where this forest meets the Tropical Pacific Sea. It also seeks to develop tourism, involving the nearby communities and preparing the nearby population in matters of conservation of the tropical dry forest. Selva Botanica Loreto, 2010 – 170.46 ha Its aim is to guarantee the total and suitable maintenance of all the existing flora and fauna diversity in the area, as well as the continuity of the ecological processes, product of the interaction between animals, plants and their environment, that may lead to the sustainable development of the local settlements adjacent to the area. Herman Dantas Loreto, 2010 – 49.07 ha Its aim is to guarantee the total and appropriate maintenance of all the wild flora and fauna diversity in the area, as well as the continuity of the ecological processes. Also, to generate knowledge, as a product of the interaction with the environment, by means of basic and scientific research within the conservation area and that may lead to the sustainable development of the area and of the adjacent local settlements. Juningue San Martin 2011 – 39.12 ha Its aim is to conserve the native species, the biological communities and natural wild life refuges existent in the proposed area, with emphasis in the valuable wild flora and fauna species that are most affected by the anthropic pressure, in order to contribute with the conservation of the San Martin region; it also aims at promoting the creation of collective consciousness by different means, especially, in situ training, in order for the population to revalue the importance of the Amazonian tropical forests. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 349


Pampacorral Cusco, 2011 – 767.56 ha It conserves and protects the ecosystems of the high part of the hydrographical system associated to the Puya Raimondi, as well as protects from illegal felling and burning of Puya Raimondi and Polylepis of the Pampacorral rural community. It also protects the associated cultural resources and the wild flora and fauna species, as well as environmental services and offers conditions for research, environmental education, recreation and the development of sustainable tourism. Qosqoccahuarina Cusco, 2011 – 1,827 ha Its aim is to conserve the snow-capped mountains, and the grasslands and Polylepis native forests found in the highest part of the Patacancha’s micro-basin in the rural community of Ruira Sordomayo, as well as the water sources for human consumption and agricultural use, the soils, the wild life and the landscape of the area. Hierba Buena – Allpayacu Amazonas, 2011 – 2,282.12 ha Its aim is to guarantee the conservation of the habitat of numerous wild flora and fauna species, as well as the water resources of the Corosha rural community and other nearby settlements, and to develop research projects, to create environmental awareness about the Natural Heritage and to promote the development of ecotourism. San Marcos Huanuco, 2011 – 985.99 ha Its aim is to conserve and protect the headwaters at the rural community of San Marcos, as well as the Pailapozo Lake, the main water source for the Umari valley; also, to protect the soils, the wild life and other cultural values associated to the area. The Fog Oasis, a unique phenomenon that makes desert areas of the Peruvian coast in a huge garden, has received attention in some Conservation Areas

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Giant hummingbird (Patagona gigas) resting on a Sampedro cactus (Echinopsis peruviana) in the highlands

Copallin Amazonas, 2011 – 11,549.21 ha Its aim is to conserve important ecological values, as well as wild flora and fauna species of the montane forests and high Andean scrub fields of the Yunga zone in Peru and, also, to protect the sources that generate environmental services and to contribute to the protection of the Cordillera de Colan National Sanctuary. Amazon Natural Park Loreto, 2011 – 62.66 ha Its aim is to conserve important and endemic wild flora and fauna species, as well as the scenic beauty of the Tropical Moist Forest and promote the sustainable use of it by means of ecotourism and interpretation. Milpuj – La Heredad Amazonas, 2011 - 16.57 ha Its aim is to conserve important ecological values, as well as wild flora and fauna species of the forest and dry scrublands of the Utcubamba River’s middle basin. Lomas de Atiquipa Arequipa, 2011 – 19,028.02 ha Its aim is to conserve important ecological values of the coastal fog oasis ecosystems, as well as associated cultural resources and wild flora and fauna species like the Arrayan de las Lomas. It also seeks to maintain and Protected Natural Areas | PERU 351


better the production of water coming from fog and to offer conditions for research, environmental education, recreation and the development of sustainable tourism. Huaylla Belen – Colcamar Amazonas, 2011 – 6,338.42 ha Its aim is to conserve important ecological values and wild flora and fauna species of the montane tropical forests in the valleys and headwaters of the Huaylla Belen’s basin and in the headwaters of the Congon and Rumayacu Rivers’ basins, as well as to protect endangered species like the Spectacled Bear, the Big Hairy Armadillo, the Marvellous Spatuletail, the Tucan Montano and the Quina Tree. La huerta del Chaparri Lambayeque, 2011 – 100 ha It conserves important ecological values, as well as wild flora and fauna species of the dry forest in the area. Pillco Grande – Bosque de Pumataki Cusco, 2011 – 271.62 ha It conserves important ecological values and processes, as well as wild flora and fauna species of the Pumataki forest. Panguana Huanuco, 2011 – 135.60 ha It conserves important ecological values, as well as wild flora and fauna species of the primary rainforest of the zone. Japu – bosque Ukumari Llaqta Cusco, 2011 – 18,695.75 ha Its aim is to conserve the ecological, flora, fauna, environmental, scientific, educational, and tourist values that make the area important, so it may contribute to the connectivity and ecological functionality between the Manu National Park and the Amarakaeri Communal Reserve. Microcuenca de Paria Ancash, 2011 – 767.34 ha Its aim is to conserve ecological, flora, fauna, environmental, scientific, educational, and tourist values that make the area important, so it may also contribute to the connectivity and continuity of the ecological processes between the NPAs of national character. Inotawa – 2 Madre de Dios, 2012 – 15.59 ha Its aim is to conserve important ecological values, as well as flora and fauna species typical of the sub-tropical moist forest (plains), as well as wild fauna species in vulnerable or endangered condition. 352 Official Guide |Conservation Areas


Inotawa – 1 Madre de Dios, 2012 – 58.92 ha Its aim is to conserve important ecological values, as well as flora and fauna species proper to the sub-tropical moist forest (plains), as well as wild fauna species in vulnerable or endangered situation. San Juan Bautista Madre de Dios, 2012 – 23.14 ha Its aim is to conserve important ecological values and wild flora of great size, as the Shihuahuaco and the Shiringa, as well as wild fauna species. Boa Wadack Dari Madre de Dios, 2012 – 22.88 ha Its aim is to conserve important ecological values, wild flora species such as the Pacal formation, land forests, flora species described as vulnerable species like the Spanish Cedar, endangered or vulnerable wild fauna species like the Neotropical Otter, monkeys like the White-fronted Spider Monkey, Mountain Tapir, Giant Anteater and Jaguar, among others. Nuevo amanecer Madre de Dios, 2012 – 28.38 ha Its aim is to conserve important ecological values and wild flora species representative of the sub-tropical moist forests, where 45 species have been registered, as well as 58 genera and 33 families, mainly Moraceae and Fabaceae, and, also, 224 bird species.

Many private conservation areas are communal lands and the natives themselves are its managers

Protected Natural Areas | PERU 353


Taypipiña Puno, 2012 – 651.19 ha It conserves important ecological values, as well as wild flora and fauna species of the high Andean Puna, promoting sustainable development in the area. Checca Puno, 2012 – 560 ha It conserves important ecological values, as well as wild flora and fauna species of the high Andean Peruvian Puna. El gato Madre de Dios, 2012 – 45 ha Its aim is to conserve ecological values and wild flora and fauna species of the Ecoregion of the Moist Forests of the Peruvian southwestern Amazonia. Bosque Benjamin 1 Madre de Dios, 2012 – 28.41 ha Its aim is to conserve ecological values and wild flora and fauna species of the Ecoregion of the Moist Forests of the Peruvian southwestern Amazonia. Bosque de palmeras Tauliamolinopampa

de

la

comunidad

campesina

Amazonas, 2012 – 10,920.84 ha It conserves important ecological values, as well as wild flora and fauna species of the Peruvian Yungas in the Department of Amazonas. Gotas de agua – 2 Cajamarca, 2012 – 7.5 ha It conserves important ecological values and protects the tropical seasonally dry forests of the Marañon-Chinchipe. Gotas de agua – 1 Cajamarca, 2012 – 3 ha It conserves important ecological values and protects the tropical seasonally dry forests of Marañon-Chinchipe. Los Chilchos Amazonas, 2012 – 46,000 ha It conserves important ecological values and wild flora and fauna species of the Peruvian Yungas.

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Camino verde Baltimore Madre de Dios, 2012 – 21.07 ha It conserves ecological values and wild flora and fauna species of the Ecoregion of Moist Forests of the Peruvian Amazonia. Larga vista – 1 San Martin, 2013 – 22.32 ha It conserves important ecological values and wild flora and fauna species of the Ecoregion of the Moist Forests of the Ucayali. Larga vista – 2 San Martin, 2013 – 22.50 ha It conserves ecological values and wild flora and fauna species of the Ecoregion of the Moist Forests of the Ucayali. Pucunucho San Martin, 2013 – 23.50 ha It conserves ecological values and wild flora and fauna species of the Ecoregion of Ucayali’s Moist Forests. Berlin Amazonas, 2013 – 59 ha Its aim is to conserve ecological, flora, fauna, environmental, scientific, educational, and tourist values that give it importance, so it will contribute to the conservation of wild flora and fauna species of the Peruvian Yungas. Bosques de neblina y Paramos de Samanga Piura, 2013 – 2,888.03 ha Its aim is to conserve a representative area of the fog forests and moorland ecosystems of the Andes in the north of Peru. Regarding its flora, the Fog Forests and Samanga Moors present 217 species, distributed in 19 families. Bosque Benjamin 2 Madre de Dios 2013 - 29 ha Preserves ecoregion values of the South Western Amazon rainforest and represents a sample of sub tropical rainforest on the banks of low terraces along the Tambopata River; with enormous potential for parrot clay lick, in plants for orchids of various species, as in wildlife such as primates.

Protected Natural Areas | PERU 355


The Earth Since the beginning, global change has been the predominant factor that establishes the conditions of life in our planet. The olden idea of a solid Earth in which life evolved incidentally and independently is obsolete. We live in a dynamic and interactive planet with continents and oceans that are formed and destroyed, with radical climate changes that go from ice eras to greenhouse eras and with extraordinary fluctuations of the sea level that affect ecosystems. Ecosystems are complex networks of life, relatively fragile from the context of the human point of view, and that is the reason for man’s justifiable and recent preoccupation with its conservation, because he has recognized that his chaotic need for progress damages these ecosystems. Seen from the geological context, on the contrary, these ecosystems are very strong and cohesive, since they have undoubtedly lasted millions of years before they disappeared or evolved, being the causes for these changes ones of greater and uncontrollable magnitude, either of tectonic or planetary nature. The crust of the Earth’s surface geology, by itself, is not a factor that determines the ecological richness or diversity of a region; latitude and climate are also contributing factors; thus, we see rocks of similar age and characteristics forming the surface of totally different ecosystems, some of which are protected natural areas today. For example, from the geological context, the Amazonian ecosystem has been established for more than seven million years, since the time a system of rivers coming from the Andes was completely formed to feed the great Amazon. Miocene records from western Amazonia contain very diverse fauna in sediments of red layers similar to the ones that are deposited nowadays: mollusks, ostracods, turtles, crocodiles and fish, as well as land mammals. The significant wealth of species found is ascribed to the combination of humid and tepid climates and to a heterogeneous edaphic stratum. All living beings and organisms have had to adapt to change or simply disappear. The human race is not an exception; it must adapt or die, since in the centuries to come it will face problems of great magnitude. Many of them are already in sight: we know that the global population doubles every fifty years and, simultaneously, many species become extinct. There is a probability -in this century- of a significant rise in the global temperature and in the level of the oceans. The risk of a comet or asteroid impacting us will always exist and, just as these spatial bodies probably brought life with them to the planet, in the same way, they could catapult catastrophic global changes. There is little doubt that we are entering a glacial era the next millennium, or maybe earlier. If it is true that, in geological terms, our existence lasts barely an instant -thus, the probability of a catastrophic occurrence is a matter of chance-, in our time scale, we have the great responsibility to take care of our habitat, to make use of our resources responsibly and to distribute the wealth equitably.

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…and the evolution of life Evolution of life

0,01

Period

0.0118

Neogene

5,2 23

Mammals diversify

35 a 65

Paleogene 65.5

Jurassic 213

First dinosaurs

248

First reptiles

199.5

Triassic

Mesozoic

Cretaceous 145.5

First mammals

Era

Cenozoic

Human species Evolution of hominids

Age (millions of years)

251

Permian

286 299

Carboniferous 359 408

Devonian 416

First plants on land

Silurian

438 443.5

Paleozoic

Large forests appear

Ordovician 488.5

First fish

Cambrian

510 542

First single-celled life

2 500

3 500

2 500

Archean

Precambrian

Proterozoic First algae and bacteria

Protected Natural Areas | PERU 357


Links Institutions: www.acca.org.pe/ www.actualidadambiental.pe/ www.apeco.org.pe/ cdc.lamolina.edu.pe www.cima.org.pe/ www.conservacionprivada.org/ www.ecoanperu.org/ www.guardaparquesdelperu.org/ www.iiap.org.pe/ www.imarpe.pe/ www.inei.gob.pe/ www.inia.gob.pe/ www.ign.gob.pe/web_espanol/IGN/Pre_normalizacion_NNGG/peru100000.htm www.minam.gob.pe/ museohn.unmsm.edu.pe/ peru.panda.org/ www.parkswatch.org/main.php?l=spa&p=country&p2=per www.profonanpe.org.pe/ www.pronaturaleza.org/ www.ramsar.org/ www.renacal.org.pe/ www.sernanp.gob.pe/ www.spda.org.pe/ www.turismoperu.info/

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Wild flora and fauna biodiversity: animalesyplantasdeperu.blogspot.com/ www.avesdelima.com/ www.birdlife.org/datazone/ebas/index.html?action=EbaHTMFindResults. asp&INam=&Reg=-2&Cty=166 www.birdlife.org/datazone/sites/index.html?action=SitHTMFindResults. asp&INam=&Cty=166&z=1 www.birdingperu.com www.incaspiza.blogspot.com www.perubirdingroutes.com www.americanbirdconservancy.com botany.si.edu/projects/cpd/samap.htm fm2.fieldmuseum.org/plantguides/rcg_intro.asp?lang=esp fm2.fieldmuseum.org/plantguides/rcg_intro.asp?zone=tropical&guidetype=animal www.iucnredlist.org/ www.natureserve.org/aboutUs/latinamerica/pubs/Especies_Endemicas_2007.pdf www.natureserve.org/infonatura/ www.peruecologico.com.pe/ sacha.org/ sisbib.unmsm.edu.pe/BVRevistas/biologia/v13n2/contenido.htm www.tropicos.org/

Ecoregions and ecosystems: www.biodiversityhotspots.org/xp/Hotspots/andes/Pages/default.aspx cdc.lamolina.edu.pe/Descargas/comunidades_vegetales/cuenca_amazonica_ peru_bolivia.html

Protected Natural Areas | PERU 359


www.comunidadandina.org/public/libro_92.htm www.granperu.com/birdregions.htm www.peruecologico.com.pe/lib_c3_t03.htm www.nationalgeographic.com/wildworld/profiles/terrestrial/nt/nt0118.html www.nationalgeographic.com/wildworld/profiles/terrestrial/nt/nt0153.html www.nationalgeographic.com/wildworld/profiles/terrestrial/nt/nt0223.html www.nationalgeographic.com/wildworld/profiles/terrestrial/nt/nt0174.html www.nationalgeographic.com/wildworld/profiles/terrestrial/nt/nt0232.html www.nationalgeographic.com/wildworld/profiles/terrestrial/nt/nt1004.html www.nationalgeographic.com/wildworld/profiles/terrestrial/nt/nt0105.html www.nationalgeographic.com/wildworld/profiles/terrestrial/nt/nt1429.html www.nationalgeographic.com/wildworld/profiles/terrestrial/nt/nt0156.html www.worldwildlife.org/wildworld/profiles/terrestrial/nt/nt1003_full.html www.worldwildlife.org/wildworld/profiles/terrestrial/nt/nt0163_full.html www.worldwildlife.org/wildworld/profiles/terrestrial/nt/nt0142_full.html ramsar.wetlands.org/Database/Searchforsites/tabid/765/language/en-US/ Default.aspx

Protected natural areas and buffer zones: www.actualidadambiental.pe/?p=4307 www.areasprotegidasperu.com/sinanpe.htm www.caf.com/attach/9/default/InformeparaelCongresoPeru.pdf cdc.lamolina.edu.pe/Descargas/anp/anp_informe_nacional.html

360 Official Guide


Links cdc.lamolina.edu.pe/Descargas/anp/biblioteca_guardaparque.htm www.spda.org.pe/portal/_data/spda/publicacion/20060829111038_.pdf www.renacal.org.pe/portal/node/100 www.zonasdeamortiguamiento.org/

Biological inventaries and ecoregional evaluations: www.conservation.org/Documents/RAP_Reports/RAP33_Pastaza_EcuadorPeru_Jul-1999.pdf www.conservation.org/Documents/R AP_Repor ts/R AP12_Cordillera_ Vilcabamba_Peru_Jun-2001.pdf www.conservation.org/Documents/RAP_Reports/RAP07_Cordillera_Condor_ Ecuador-Peru_Jan-1997.pdf www.conservation.org/Documents/R AP_Reports/R AP06_Tambopata_ Candamo_Peru_Nov-1994.pdf www.conservation.org/Documents/R AP_Reports/R AP24_3sites_PeruBolivia_1992-1997.pdf www.ducks.org/Conservation/International/2451/InventariodeHumedalesdela RegNeotropPDF.html fm2.fieldmuseum.org/rbi/results.asp nationalzoo.si.edu/ConservationAndScience/MAB/documents/SIMAB7.pdf

Legislation: www.legislacionanp.org.pe/ www.spda.org.pe/portal/_data/spda/publicacion/20090923174832_.pdf

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Créditos fotográficos Los fotógrafos se ordenan alfabéticamente. Las fotos se definen con un número de página y una letra (A, B o C) que describe su ubicación en la misma. Se ordenan por columnas, la izquierda antes que la derecha y luego de arriba hacia abajo. En el caso de las fotos de propiedad del SERNANP (ordenadas por orden de aparición), las siglas corresponden a los archivos del área en la cual está situada la foto. Los números entre paréntesis corresponden a fotos que se repiten dentro del libro. LUIS ALFARO 35C, 189, 216, 242 BETSY ALVA 226 JOSÉ ÁLVAREZ 203A/B, 204B, 206A, 207 FERNANDO ANGULO 41A APECO: MICHELL LEÓN 191B, 249, 256, 270, 271A, 272A, 274, 290 ROBYN APPLETON 42A ASOCIACIÓN GATO ANDINO BOLIVIA: E. DELGADO/D. BERNA/L. VILLALBA 167B ÚRSULA BEHR 34 ANTONIO BRACK 28B, 40, 41B, 45B, 48B, 50, 62, 80A, 81A, 94, 148, 209B, 212A/B, 228B, 267A KOKY CASTAÑEDA 123B CEDIA 229 CONSERVACIÓN INTERNACIONAL: ALEJANDRO BALAGUER 282B, 283 ANDRÉ BARTSCHI 187B, 304, 320B HAROLDO CASTRO 4-5, 200, 305 LOUISE EMMONS 281B MATÍAS ESPINOSA 147 RICARDO ESPINOSA 1, 14-15, 16-17, 32A, 69A, 70B, 71, 72, 73, 77A, 78A/B, 83A, 90A, 104, 106, 107B, 108B, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 117, 118, 122B, 132, 139B, 142B, 146, 155A, 156A, 157, 159A, 175B, 176B, 181, 184, 252A, 328 FIELD MUSEUM: ÁLVARO DEL CAMPO 12-13, 186, 187A, 188A/B, 192, 195B, 227A, 228A, 234, 236A, 238A, 239A/B, 325 MARIO PARIONA 192B, 199 EDUARDO HERRÁN 10-11, 77B, 166 RAINER HOSTNIG 160B, 298A, 300A/B GUILLERMO KNELL 227B, 231A/B MAPUCHE PRODUCCIONES: JORGE CAMILO VALENZUELA 309A, 310B/C, 311, 312B, 315A, 318B JORGE MARTEL 124A LUIS MENDOZA 85A ALEXANDER MORE 28A, 33, 36, 37A, 38A ÓSCAR MUJICA 293A/B, 294A/B MUSEO NACIONAL SICÁN 46B PERENCO PERÚ LIMITED 190 HEINZ PLENGE 26, 27B, 29, 31A/B, 35A, 37B, 38B, 39, 43, 46A, 49B, 64A/B, 67B, 76 (4A), 95, 101B, 114, 130B, 150, 156B, 162 (4B), 163A, 164A, 198, 205, 206B, 215A, 219B, 222, 224A, 240, 241B, 244B, 278, 292, 297A/B, 301A, 302A, 306A, 309B, 316, 317B, 326 PROMPERU: JOSÉ ÁLVAREZ 323 ALEJANDRO BALAGUER 32B, 302B MAGALI DEL SOLAR 151B JORGE ESQUIROZ 151A, 154A LUIS GAMERO 63B, 129B, 261 RENZO GIRALDO 161, 163B DOMINGO GIRIBALDI 180A WALTER HUPIU 24B MAYU MOHANNA 83B PILAR OLIVARES 169 HEINZ PLENGE 170, 208, 307 JAMES POSSO 168B FLOR RUÍZ 218 CARLOS SALA 124B, 175A JORGE SARMIENTO 155B WALTER SILVERA 160A, 330 ANÍBAL SOLIMANO 119A ALEJANDRO TELLO 133B MICHAEL TWEDDLE 75, 312A RENZO UCCELLI 127 CHRISTIAN QUISPE 20, 54, 295, 306B ROBERTO ROJAS 84 FERNANDO RUBIO 235B JOAQUÍN RUBIO 67A, 80B, 82B, 125A, 142A, 143A, 149 SERNANP: SNLMT 21A/B, 22A/B, 23 RNT 27A PNCA 30, 35B LETICIA VÁSQUEZ 42B CATALINO CASTILLO 58A DILMAR CLAROS 58B, 59 MÁXIMO ALIAGA 58C JOSÉ LARICO 88 BENNY ALEGRE 89A SNTN 97A, 98A/C, 99 AQUILES QUISPE 100 PNC 101A ADRIÁN SÁNCHEZ 102A/B ZRCHB 107A, 108A JHONNY ORTEGA 122A FEDERICO MURRUGARRA 123A, 179A CÉSAR GARCÍA 128, 134B ROLANDO URIBE 130A, 133A RONALD MEDRANO 131 ELIO ZEVALLOS 134A VÍCTOR ROJAS 135, 136, 137 MADELEINE OBANDO 139A, 141 RPNYC 140A RICARDO ICAZA 158, 159B STIVE MARTHANS 164B RPSCC 167A, 168A MARIANO MAVILA 171B ARTURO CORNEJO 172B MOISÉS QUISPE 173A RNSAB 173B RNT 176A/C, 178A DAVID ARANÍBAR 178B, 180B GLORIA ROJAS 191A RNAM 204A CÉSAR BARTRA 219A, 220A/B, 221 RAMIRO GALOC 223A, 224C, 225, 268 HÉCTOR VELA 224B CARLO TAPIA 242B PNRA 242C RIBET CORALOIE 243 LUGO SAAVEDRA 244A ANILÚ TECCO 245 JESÚS ZAMALLOA 251A AQUILES QUISPE 252B/C, 253, 254B, 255A/B OFELIA LLERENA 254A RCES 257A/B, 258B P. PÉREZ 258A, 259 STEFANO MAZZOTTI 262, 265 PNYCH 263A/B, 264A/B, 266A/B, 267B BPSMSC 269 FLORIÁN GOLDENBERG (WWF) 272B CHRIS FAGAN (ROUND RIVER) 273 MARTINA GRANZ (WWF) 275 DARÍO FLORES 277 JOSÉ RÍOS 279 CARLOS BARRIENTOS 280, 281A, 282A RCA 284, 285 CARLOS ARÉVALO 287 PNM 298B, 303 CARLOS FLORES 305A PNBS 317A, 318A, 319, 321 EDWAR VELASQUES 318C ROSARIO BARRERA 320A DIEGO SHOOBRIDGE 61, 115, 194 SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTE/CCES 193 NANCY STONE 235A, 238B ALEJANDRO TABINI 56, 57B, 60A, 63A, 65, 66A/B, 81B, 82A, 202, 214B, 308, 313A/B ALEJANDRO TELLO 5A, 19, 25A, 44, 45A, 48A, 49A, 55, 60B, 68, 69B, 70A, 85B, 86A/B, 87, 89B, 90B, 91, 138, 140B, 154B, 171A, 172A, 185, 201, 214A, 215B, 230, 232A/B/C, 233, 250, 260, 276, 286, 291 RENZO UCCELLI 24A, 57A, 125B, 126 PEDRO VÁSQUEZ 105 CÉSAR VEGA 6-7, 8-9, 25B, 119B, 129A, 143B, 165, 179B, 195A, 196A/B, 197, 209A, 213A/B, 217, 301B, 310A, 314A/B, 315B JORGE WATANABE 236B WILDLIFE CONSERVATION SOCIETY BOLIVIA 223B ROB WILLIAMS Carátula, 296 (5B), 174 WWF: ANDRÉ BARTSCHI (WWF - CANON) 241A YURI HOOKER 96, 98B DAVID LAWSON (WWF – UK) 271B JUAN PRATGINESTOS (WWF - CANON) 97B LUIS YUPANQUI 251B 362 Official Guide


Acknowledgements SERNANP wishes to extend its gratitude to all the people and Institutions that made the publication of this guide possible, particularly: To the managers, forest rangers and personnel of the Protected Natural Areas, who carry out demanding work in places that are usually adverse and away from every comfort in favor of the country. To the staff of the central office in Lima, especially to Mariela Huacchillo, Marina Rosales, Madeleine Obando and Jacqueline Ramirez, who were actively involved in the preparation of the text and the coordination among the different actors. Also, to Silvia Quispe, Sandra Tapia, Gino Germana, Ricardo Castro, Rosario Barrera, Channy Barrios, Benjamin Lau, Jans Huayca, Ricardo Icaza, Marcos Pastor and Maria Luisa del Rio. To translators Francisco Molina and Ines Cook, and to Robert & Daisy Kunstaetter for their kind review. To columnists and contributors Carlos Monge, Luis Antonio Tovar, Jose Soto and Carmen Miranda. To Alejandro Tello for his revision of bird names and identification of bird fauna and to Lily Rodriguez for the same work in regard to amphibians. To Cesar Astuhuaman for his revision of History texts. We are deeply thankful to all those who contributed to the revision of the taxonomy at the Museum of Natural History of the San Marcos University, especially to Dr. Betty Millan, Head of the Department of Gymnosperms and Monocotyledons, specialist Caroll Landauro Sanabria, and Biologist Elena Vivar of the Department of Mastozoology. Our deepest appreciation to Dr. Victor Morales, Coordinator of the Master’s in Ecology and Environmental Management Program at the Faculty of Biological Sciences, of the Ricardo Palma University; to Yuri Hooker, from the Marine Biology Laboratory, Department of Biological and Physiological Sciences, of the Cayetano Heredia University; to Luis Alban Contreras, Director of Nature and Culture International; to Kember Mejia, Director of the Biodiversity Program at IIAP, and to Jose Alvarez, Researcher at IIAP, for also helping to revise the taxonomy. We want to express our gratitude to Rocio Molina at Antalis, Cesar Perea at Akme, Jose Barreda and Maria Luisa Mori at Geo Graphos, Carlos Thompson and Mary Reymundo at Khameleon World, Pedro Rodriguez and Wendy Saavedra at ASES, Comunicacion Integral, Lucero Quispe and Fernando Lopez at PROMPERU, Pedro Vasquez from the CDC of La Molina University, Silvia Sanchez from APECO, and Dani, Lelis & Jorge Rivera from CEDIA, for their unfailing support, also to Martha Giraldo. We are indebted to PROMPERU, Heinz Plenge, Alejandro Tabini and Antonio Brack for many of the excellent photographs, and especially to the Institutions that made their archives available to us, like Sican National Museum, Field Museum, APECO, Conservation International, Mapuche Producciones, CEDIA, Perenco Peru, The Smithsonian Institution and WWF. We would also like to thank the numerous specialists, photographers and friends who generously afforded us their photos, as Jose Alvarez, Alexander More, Rainer Hostnig, Oscar Mujica, Christian Quispe, Nancy Stone, Jorge Watanabe, Guillermo Knell, Diego Shoobridge, Eduardo Herran, Pedro Vasquez, Fernando Angulo, Matias Espinosa, Betsy Alva, Jorge Martel, Luis Mendoza, Roberto Rojas, Koky Castaùeda, Ursula Behr and Fernando Rubio. We would also like to express our special thanks to researchers Louise Emmons and Robyn Appleton for their photos. Worthy of particular mention is the cover photo by Rob Williams and the collaboration of our neighbors from Bolivia at Wildlife Conservation Society and the Asociacion Gato Andino. Finally, and not less important, we gratefully acknowledge the positive financial intermediation of PROFONANPE and the support of the German cooperation, through KfW. Protected Natural Areas | PERU 363


Protected Natural Areas Libro  
Protected Natural Areas Libro  
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