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1


Kh^_j`Zgb_ <hijhku ................................... 5 §1. ............................................... 5 §2. ............................................... 5 §3. ............................................... 5 §4. ............................................... 6 §5. ............................................... 6 §6. ............................................... 6 §7. ............................................... 7 §8. ............................................... 7 §9. ............................................... 8 §10. .............................................. 8 §11. .............................................. 8 §12. .............................................. 9 §13. .............................................. 9 §14. .............................................. 9 §15. .............................................. 9 §16. ............................................. 10 §17. ............................................. 10 §18. ............................................. 10 §19. ............................................. 11 §20. ............................................. 11 §21. ............................................. 11 §22. ............................................. 12 §23. ............................................. 12 §24. ............................................. 12 §26. ............................................. 13 §27. ............................................. 13 §28. ............................................. 13 §29. ............................................. 13 §30. ............................................. 14 §31. ............................................. 14 §32. ............................................. 14 §33. ............................................. 15 §34. ............................................. 15 § 35. ............................................ 15 § 36. ............................................ 16 § 37. ............................................ 16 § 38. ............................................ 16 § 39. ............................................ 16 § 40. ............................................ 17

2


ยง ยง ยง ยง ยง ยง ยง ยง ยง ยง ยง ยง ยง ยง ยง ยง ยง ยง ยง ยง ยง ยง ยง ยง ยง ยง

41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67.

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17 17 17 18 18 19 20 20 20 20 21 21 21 22 22 23 23 23 24 24 24 25 25 26 26 26

MijZ`g_gby .............................. 28 MijZ`g_gb_ MijZ`g_gb_ MijZ`g_gb_ MijZ`g_gb_ MijZ`g_gb_ MijZ`g_gb_ MijZ`g_gb_ MijZ`g_gb_ MijZ`g_gb_ MijZ`g_gb_ MijZ`g_gb_ MijZ`g_gb_ MijZ`g_gb_ MijZ`g_gb_ MijZ`g_gb_ MijZ`g_gb_ MijZ`g_gb_ MijZ`g_gb_ MijZ`g_gb_ MijZ`g_gb_

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28 28 28 28 29 30 30 31 31 32 33 33 33 34 34 34 35 36 36 37

3


MijZ`g_gb_ MijZ`g_gb_ MijZ`g_gb_ MijZ`g_gb_ MijZ`g_gb_ MijZ`g_gb_ MijZ`g_gb_ MijZ`g_gb_ MijZ`g_gb_ MijZ`g_gb_ MijZ`g_gb_ MijZ`g_gb_ MijZ`g_gb_ MijZ`g_gb_

             

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38 39 40 41 42 42 43 43 43 43 44 45 45 45

 .......................................  .......................................  .......................................  .......................................  .......................................  .......................................  .......................................  .......................................  .......................................  ......................................  ......................................  ......................................

47 47 48 48 50 53 54 55 56 57 57 58

AZ^Zgby ................................. 47 AZ^Zgb_ AZ^Zgb_ AZ^Zgb_ AZ^Zgb_ AZ^Zgb_ AZ^Zgb_ AZ^Zgb_ AZ^Zgb_ AZ^Zgb_ AZ^Zgb_ AZ^Zgb_ AZ^Zgb_

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jZ[hlZÂ&#x2039; .......................... jZ[hlZ ........................... jZ[hlZ ........................... jZ[hlZ ........................... jZ[hlZ ........................... jZ[hlZ ........................... jZ[hlZÂ&#x2039;  ......................... jZ[hlZÂ&#x2039;  ......................... jZ[hlZ ........................... jZ[hlZÂ&#x2039;  ........................

59 60 60 61 62 63 63 63 64 64

4


<hijhku ยง1.

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ยง2.

ยง3.

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5


ยง4.

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ยง5.

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ยง6.

1. L_jfhkdhikhklhblbadhe[uk ijh[dhc\ dhlhjhcbf__lkyg_[hevrh_hl\_jklb_ < wlh hl\_jklb_ \klZ\e_gZ bah]gmlZy ih^ ijyfuf m]ehf lhgdZy ljm[hqdZ \ dhlhjmx \\_^_gh g_fgh]h ih^djZr_gghc `b^dhklb H^bg [hd dhe[uaZdhiq_gLZdmkljh_gl_jfhkdhi

6


2. <havf_fl_jfhkdhib ihk\_lbfgZaZdhiq_ggmx_]hklhjhgmeZfihcgZdZeb\Zgby Fu m\b^bf qlh klhe[bd `b^dhklb i_j_f_klbeky Wlh b [m^_l hiulguf^hdZaZl_evkl\hfi_j_^Zqbwg_j]bbbaemq_gb_f 3. Emqr_ \k_]h ih]ehsZxl wg_j]bx baemq_gby l_eZ q_jgh]h p\_lZ om`_ \k_]hl_eZk a_jdZevghcih\_joghklvx 4. L_eZdhlhju_^he`guohjhrhhljZ`Zlvkheg_qgu_emqbqlh[ug_kbevghgZ]j_\Zlvky^_eZxla_jdZevgufbWlhgZijbf_jdjuevykZfhe_lh\?keb`_l_eh^he`ghohjhrhih]ehsZlv\k_iZ^Zxs__baemq_gb_lh_]h^_eZxlq_jgufWlhgZijbf_jjZaebqgu_nhlhijb_fgbdb

ยง7.

1. Dhebq_kl\hfl_iehlugZau\Z_lkywg_j]bydhlhjmxihemqZ_lbebhl^Z_l l_eh\ ijhp_kk_l_iehi_j_^Zqb 2. Dhebq_kl\hl_iehlul_f[hevr_q_f[hevr_baf_g_gb_l_fi_jZlmju 3. Ldl_eZjZaebqghcfZkkubebjZaebqgh]hkhklZ\Zijbh^bgZdh\hfbaf_g_gbbl_fi_jZlmjuihemqZxleb[hhl^ZxljZaebqgh_dhebq_kl\hl_iehlu 4. Imklv^\Zl_eZh^bgZdh\h]hkhklZ\ZghjZaebqghcfZkkubaf_gbebk\hx l_fi_jZlmjm gZ h^bgZdh\h_ dhebq_kl\h ]jZ^mkh\ Ijb wlhf [he__ ly`_eh_ l_ehihemqbleb[hhl^Zkl[hevr__dhebq_kl\hl_iehlu 5. Imklvbf_xlky^\Zl_eZjZaebqgh]hkhklZ\Zh^bgZdh\hcfZkkugZoh^ysbokyijb h^bgZdh\hc l_fi_jZlmj_ H^gh\j_f_ggh gZqg_f gZ]j_\Zlv bo \ l_q_gb_g_dhlhjh]h\j_f_gbIhke_baf_jbfl_fi_jZlmjudZ`^h]hl_eZB ohly^\Zl_eZihemqbebjZ\gh_dhebq_kl\hl_iehlubaf_g_gb_bol_fi_jZlmj jZaebqgh Wlhl hiul ihdZau\Z_l qlh dhebq_kl\h l_iehlu aZ\bkbl hl jh^Z\_s_kl\ZgZr_]hl_eZ 6. <gmlj_ggxx wg_j]bx b dhebq_kl\h l_iehlu baf_jyxl \ ^`hmeyo >`  dbeh^`hmeyo d>` d>` >`

ยง8.

1. M^_evghcl_ieh_fdhklvx\_s_kl\ZgZau\Z_lkynbabq_kdZy \_ebqbgZqbke_ggh jZ\gZy dhebq_kl\m l_iehlu dhlhjh_ gm`gh i_j_^Zlv l_em ba gZr_]h \_s_kl\ZfZkkhch^bgdbeh]jZffqlh[um\_ebqblv_]hl_fi_jZlmjmgZ ยƒK 2. M^_evgZyl_ieh_fdhklvbaf_jy_lky\

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7


§9.

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§10.

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§11.

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8


ยง12.

1. <_s_kl\h fh`_l gZoh^blvky \ l\_j^hf `b^dhf beb ]Zahh[jZaghf khklhygbb 2. GZijZdlbd_qZklhbkihevamxlkyi_j_oh^ubah^gh]hZ]j_]Zlgh]hkhklhygby\ ^jm]h_Ijbf_j ยฒieZ\e_gb_f_lZeeh\ 3. :]j_]Zlgh_khklhygb_hij_^_ey_lky^\b`_gb_fb \aZbfh^_ckl\b_ffhe_dme 4. < l\_j^uo l_eZo fhe_dmeu dhe_[exlky hdheh iheh`_gby jZ\gh\_kby < `b^dhklbfhe_dmeudhe_[exlkyhdhehiheh`_gbyjZ\gh\_kbyb bgh]^Zi_j_kdZdb\Zxl\ ^jm]h_f_klh< ]ZaZofhe_dmeu^\b`mlkyoZhlbq_kdb\aZbfh^_ckl\mxlf_`^mkh[hclhevdhijbkhm^Zj_gbyo

ยง13.

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ยง14.

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ยง15.

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9


§16.

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§17.

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§18.

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10


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§19.

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§20.

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§21.

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11


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ยง22.

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ยง23.

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ยง24.

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12


2. Dhwnnbpb_glhfihe_agh]h^_ckl\bygZau\Z_lkyhlghr_gb_ihe_aghcjZ[hlud wg_j]bbihemqZ_fhchlgZ]j_\Zl_ey 3. DI> \k_]^Z f_gvr_  ihlhfm qlh oheh^bevgbd \k_]^Z ihemqZ_l hl gZ]j_\Zl_eydZdh_eb[hl_ieh 4. K`Zlb_

ยง26.

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ยง27.

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ยง28.

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ยง29.

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13


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§30.

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§31.

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§32.

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14


7. IjbaZjy^d_ZddmfmeylhjZ_]hiheh`bl_evgucihexkkh_^bgyxlk iheh`bl_evgufihexkhfbklhqgbdZlhdZhljbpZl_evgucยฒk hljbpZl_evguf 8. :ddmfmeylhjubkihevamxlky\hfgh]bolbih\uomkljhckl\Zob fZrbgZo fh[bevguol_e_nhgZoie__jZoZ\lhfh[beyob ^Z`_ih^\h^guoeh^dZo

ยง33.

1. BklhqgbdlhdZ^Z_lwg_j]bx\k_fijb_fgbdZflhdZ 2. Ijb_fgbdZfbwe_dljbq_kdh]hlhdZy\eyxlky we_dljbq_kdZy eZfiZ we_dljbq_kdbca\hghdj_abklhjgZ]j_\Zl_evgucwe_f_gl 3. We_dljbq_kdZyp_ivkhklhblbabklhqgbdh\ lhdZ ihlj_[bl_e_c lhdZ dhlhju_ kh_^bg_gu ijh\h^Zfb >ey \dexq_gby lhdZ \ p_ib bkihevamxl jZafudZxsb_b aZfudZxsb_mkljhckl\Z 4. P_iv\ dhlhjhch[hj\Zgijh\h^gZau\ZxljZahfdgmlhcZ \dhlhjhcgb h^bgijh\h^g_jZahj\ZggZau\Z_lkyaZfdgmlhc

ยง34.

1. F_lZeewe_dljbq_kdbg_cljZe_glddjhf_hljbpZl_evguowe_dljhgh\\ g_fkh^_j`Zlky_s_b iheh`bl_evgu_bhgu 2. Ijb\hagbdgh\_gbb\ f_lZee_we_dljbq_kdh]hihey\hagbdZ_lwe_dljbq_kdbclhd 3. We_dljbq_kdbclhd\ f_lZee_ij_^klZ\ey_lkh[hcgZijZ\e_ggh_^\b`_gb_ we_dljhgh\ 4. Dh]^Z]h\hjylh kdhjhklbjZkijhkljZg_gbylhdZ\ f_lZee_bf_xl\ \b^m kdhjhklvk\_lZ

ยง 35.

1. L_ieh\h_^_ckl\b_lhdZfh`ghgZ[ex^Zlvijh^_eZ\ke_^mxsbchiulGZ^h`_e_agmxbebgbd_ebgh\mxijh\hehdmijbkh_^bgblvd ihexkZfbklhqgbdZlhdZKimklyg_dhlhjh_\j_fyfh`ghaZf_lblvqlhijh\hehdZgZ]j__lky 2. Obfbq_kdh_ ^_ckl\b_ lhdZ fh`gh gZ[ex^Zlv gZ ke_^mxs_f hiul_ GZ^h we_dljh^uih^dexq_ggu_d ihexkZfbklhqgbdZhimklblv\ jZkl\hjgZijbf_jf_^gh]hdmihjhkZ &X624 Kimklyg_dhlhjh_\j_fyfh`ghaZf_lblvqlh gZh^ghfbawe_dljh^h\\u^_eblky\_s_kl\hยฒ\ gZr_fkemqZ_f_^v &X  3. L_ieh\h_ ^_ckl\b_ lhdZ bkihevamxl \ we_dljbq_kdbo eZfiZo we_dljhieblZob l^Obfbq_kdh_^_ckl\b_lhdZbkihevamxl^eyihemq_gbyqbkluo f_lZeeh\\ ]Zev\Zgbq_kdbowe_f_glZoZddmfmeylhjZob l^ 4. FZ]gblgh_^_ckl\b_ lhdZ fh`gh gZ[ex^Zlv gZ ke_^mxs_f hiul_ GZ^h \aylv]\ha^vgZfhlZlvgZg_]hf_^gucijh\h^ihdjulucbaheypb_cZ dhgpu ijh\h^Z kh_^bgblv k ihexkZfb bklhqgbdZ lhdZ L_i_jv _keb ]\ha^v ih^g_klbd f_edbf`_e_agufij_^f_lZflhfh`ghaZf_lblvqlhhg[m^_l ijbly]b\Zlvbo 5. MklZgh\dZbah[jZ`_ggZygZjbkmgd_mq_[gbdZkhklhblbabklhqgbdZ lhdZf_^gh]hijh\h^Zihdjulh]hbaheypb_cdexqZb ]\ha^y=\ha^vk gZfhlZgghc gZ g_]h ijh\hehdhc ijb aZfdgmlhf dexq_ ij_^klZ\ey_l kh[hc fZ]gbl hg kihkh[_g ijbly]b\Zlv jZaebqgu_ `_e_agu_ ij_^f_lu ?keb `_

15


ihke_dexqjZahfdgmlvlh]\ha^vq_j_ag_dhlhjh_\j_fyjZafZ]gblblkyl_ ihl_jy_lkihkh[ghklvijbly]b\Zlvf_lZeebq_kdb_ij_^f_lu 6. GZ jbkmgd_  mq_[gbdZ bah[jZ`_gZ jZfdZ gZ dhlhjmx gZfhlZgh g_kdhevdh \bldh\ f_^ghc ijh\hehdb dhgpu dhlhjhc ih^kh_^bg_gu q_j_a dexq d ihexkZf bklhqgbdZ lhdZ LZd dZd dexq aZfdgml lh \ jZfd_ l_q_l lhdghk g_ckZfhcgbq_]hg_ijhbkoh^bl?keb`_l_i_jvwlmjZfdmihf_klblvf_`^mihexkZfbfZ]gblZlhhgZklZg_lih\hjZqb\ZlvkyLZdbfh[jZahffugZhiul_ijhgZ[ex^Zeb\aZbfh^_ckl\b_jZfdbk lhdhfb fZ]gblhf 7. < mkljhckl\_]Zev\Zghf_ljZbkihevamxlfZ]gblgh_^_ckl\b_lhdZ

ยง 36.

1. AZ gZijZ\e_gb_ lhdZ ijbgbfZxl gZijZ\e_gb_ ^\b`_gby iheh`bl_evgh aZjy`_gguoqZklbp 2. AZ gZijZ\e_gb_ lhdZ ijbgylh kqblZlv gZijZ\e_gb_ hl iheh`bl_evgh]h ihexkZbklhqgbdZlhdZd hljbpZl_evghfm 3. >Z

ยง 37.

1. Bgl_gkb\ghklv ^_ckl\bc we_dljbq_kdh]h lhdZ aZ\bkbl hl aZjy^Z ijhl_dZxs_]hihp_ib\ _^bgbpm\j_f_gbl_hlkbeulhdZ 2. AZjy^hfijhl_dZxsbfq_j_aihi_j_qgh_k_q_gb_ijh\h^gbdZ\ _^bgbpm \j_f_gb 3. KbeZ lhdZ I hij_^_ey_lky hlghr_gb_f we_dljbq_kdh]h aZjy^Z q ijhl_dr_]hq_j_ak_q_gb_ijh\h^gbdZdh\j_f_gb_]hijhl_dZgbyt: I = q/t. 4. AZ_^bgbpmkbeulhdZijbgbfZxlkbemlhdZijbdhlhjhchlj_adbiZjZee_evguoijh\h^gbdh\^ebghcfjZkiheh`_gguogZjZkklhygbbf ^jm] hl^jm]Z\aZbfh^_ckl\mxlk kbehcโ‹…10โ€“7 GWlm_^bgbpmkbeulhdZgZau\ZxlZfi_jhfb h[hagZqZxlยฉ:ยช 5. f: :fd: :d: : 6. q = It.

ยง 38.

1. Ijb[hj^eybaf_j_gbykbeulhdZgZau\Z_lkyZfi_jf_ljhf 2. QZs_ \k_]h \ eZ[hjZlhjbyo bkihevamxl Zfi_jf_lju kh rdZehc ijh]jZ^mbjh\Zgghc\ fbeebZfi_jZo f: Zfi_jZo :  3. < p_ivZfi_jf_ljke_^m_l\dexqZlvihke_^h\Zl_evghk mq_lhfiheyjghklbijb[hjZ

ยง 39.

1. Hiul^hdZau\ZxsbcqlhjZ[hlZlhdZaZ\bkblg_lhevdhhlkbeulhdZgh b hlgZijy`_gbykhklhbl\ ke_^mxs_f;_jmlky^\ZbklhqgbdZlhdZk jZaebqgufgZijy`_gb_f?kebl_i_jvd gbfihhq_j_^ghih^dexqblveZfihqdmlhfum\b^bfqlhhgZijbh^bgZdh\hckbe_lhdZ[m^_l]hj_lv\ h^ghf kemqZ_yjq_

16


2. We_dljbq_kdh_ gZijy`_gb_ hij_^_ey_lky dZd jZ[hlZ lhdZ kh\_jrZ_fZy we_dljbq_kdbf ihe_f ijb i_j_f_s_gbb _^bgbqgh]h iheh`bl_evgh]h aZjy^ZGZijy`_gb_U jZ\ghhlghr_gbxjZ[hlulhdZ: gZ^Zgghfhlj_ad_d aZjy^mqijhl_dZxs_fmihwlhfmhlj_admU = A/q.

ยง 40.

1. AZ_^bgbpmgZijy`_gby \hevl ijbgbfZxllZdh_gZijy`_gb_ijbdhlhjhf jZ[hlZ ih i_j_f_s_gbx _^bgbqgh]h iheh`bl_evgh]h aZjy^Z jZ\gZ  >`< >`De 2. Kh]eZkgh lZ[ebp_  mq_[gbdZ gZijy`_gb_ \ hk\_lbl_evghc k_lb jZ\gh beb< 3. Kh]eZkgh lZ[ebp_  mq_[gbdZ gZijy`_gb_ gZ ihexkZo kmoh]h we_f_glZ jZ\gh<Z gZihexkZodbkehlgh]hZddmfmeylhjZยฒ< 4. f< <d< <

ยง 41.

1. Ijb[hj^eybaf_j_gbywe_dljbq_kdh]hgZijy`_gbygZau\Z_lky\hevlf_ljhf 2. < p_iv \hevlf_lj ke_^m_l \dexqZlv iZjZee_evgh k mq_lhf iheyjghklb ijb[hjZ 3. >eylh]hqlh[ubaf_jblvgZijy`_gb_gZ ihexkZobklhqgbdZlhdZ\hevlf_ljih^dexqZxlg_ihkj_^kl\_gghd bklhqgbdmlhdZk mq_lhfiheyjghklb 4. KbeZ lhdZ ijhoh^ys_]h q_j_a \hevlf_lj ^he`gZ [ulv fZeZ ih kjZ\g_gbxk kbehclhdZ\ p_ib

ยง 42.

1. GZ^h kh[jZlv p_iv khklhysmx ba bklhqgbdZ lhdZ Zfi_jf_ljZ ijh\h^gbdZยฒkibjZebbagbd_ebgh\hcijh\hehdbdexqZb iZjZee_evghih^dexq_ggh]hd ijh\h^gbdm\hevlf_ljZKo_fZlZdhcp_ibbah[jZ`_gZgZjbkmgd_  [  mq_[gbdZ Ijb aZfudZgbb dexqZ hlf_qZ_f ihdZaZgby gZijy`_gby gZ\hevlf_lj_b kbeulhdZgZZfi_jf_lj_AZl_fm\_ebqb\Z_fgZijy`_gb_\ p_ib\ ^\ZjZaZih^dexq_gb_fd i_j\hfm bklhqgbdm lhdZ lhqgh lZdh]h`_ bklhqgbdZ Ijb wlhf fu aZf_qZ_f m\_ebq_gb_ kbeu lhdZ \ ^\Z jZaZ ?keb fu m\_ebqbf gZijy`_gb_ \ljh_ lh b kbeZ lhdZ m\_ebqblky lZd`_ LZdbf h[jZahffukgyebaZ\bkbfhklvkbeulhdZhlgZijy`_gby 2. KbeZlhdZ\ ijh\h^gbd_ijyfhijhihjpbhgZevgZgZijy`_gbxgZdhgpZo wlh]hijh\h^gbdZ 3. =jZnbdaZ\bkbfhklbkbeulhdZhlgZijy`_gbybf__l\b^ijyfhcijhihjpbhgZevghklbยฒijyfhcijhoh^ys_cq_j_agZqZehdhhj^bgZlHghljZ`Z_l lhlnZdlqlh\hkdhevdh jZa fu m\_ebqbf gZijy`_gb_ gZ dhgpZo ijh\h^gbdZ\hklhevdh`_jZam\_ebqblkykbeZlhdZ\ ijh\h^gbd_

ยง 43.

1. GZ^h kh[jZlv p_iv khklhysmx ba bklhqgbdZ lhdZ Zfi_jf_ljZ ijh\h^gbdZ dexqZ b iZjZee_evgh ih^dexq_ggh]h d ijh\h^gbdm \hevlf_ljZ Ijb aZfudZgbb dexqZ hlf_qZ_f ihdZaZgby gZijy`_gby gZ \hevlf_lj_ b kbeu

17


lhdZgZZfi_jf_lj_AZl_faZf_gy_fbkihevam_fucijh\h^gbdgZ^jm]hcb aZf_qZ_f qlh kbeZ lhdZ baf_gy_lky ijb g_baf_gghf gZijy`_gbb gZ ijh\h^gbd_Wlh^hdZau\Z_lqlhkbeZlhdZ\ p_ibaZ\bkblhlk\hckl\ijh\h^gbdZ²_]hkhijhlb\e_gby 2. AZ_^bgbpmkhijhlb\e_gbyijbgbfZxllZdh_khijhlb\e_gb_ijbdhlhjhf gZijy`_gb_gZdhgpZoijh\h^gbdZjZ\gh<Z kbeZlhdZ\ g_f²:?^bgbpmkhijhlb\e_gbygZau\Zxlhfhf Hf Hf <: 3. fHf HfdHf HfFHf Hf 4. IjbqbgZkhijhlb\e_gbykhklhbl\ lhfqlhwe_dljhgu\aZbfh^_ckl\mxlk bhgZfbdjbklZeebq_kdhcj_r_ldbb ijb wlhfaZf_^ey_lky bo mihjy^hq_ggh_^\b`_gb_

§ 44.

1. KbemlhdZgZijy`_gb_b khijhlb\e_gb_ 2. Kh[bjZxlp_ivkhklhysmxbabklhqgbdZlhdZZfi_jf_ljZkhijhlb\e_gbydexqZb iZjZee_evghih^dexq_ggh]h d khijhlb\e_gbx \hevlf_ljZ < wlm `_ p_iv ihhq_j_^gh \dexqZxlky ijh\h^gbdb k jZaebqgufb khijhlb\e_gbyfb Ijb g_baf_gghf gZijy`_gbb baf_jyxl kbem lhdZ \ jZaebqguo ijh\h^gbdZo DZd ihdZau\Z_l hiul hgZ hdZau\Z_lky h[jZlgh ijhihjpbhgZevghckhijhlb\e_gbxijh\h^gbdZ 3. KbeZlhdZ\ ijh\h^gbd_h[jZlghijhihjpbhgZevgZ_]hkhijhlb\e_gbx 4. KbeZ lhdZ I \ mqZkld_ p_ib ijyfh ijhihjpbhgZevgZ gZijy`_gbx U gZ dhgpZowlh]hmqZkldZb h[jZlghijhihjpbhgZevgZ_]hkhijhlb\e_gbxR. 5. I =

U ]^_I ²kbeZlhdZ\ mqZkld_p_ibU ²gZijy`_gb_gZdhgpZowlhR

]hmqZkldZR ²khijhlb\e_gb_mqZkldZ 6. U = IR. 7. R =

U . I

§ 45.

1. Khijhlb\e_gb_ijh\h^gbdZijyfhijhihjpbhgZevgh_]h^ebg_b h[jZlgh ijhihjpbhgZevgh_]hiehsZ^bihi_j_qgh]hk_q_gby 2. GZ^hkh[jZlvp_ivbah[jZ`_ggmxgZjbkmgd_mq_[gbdZBaf_jyykbem lhdZI \ ijh\h^gbd_b gZijy`_gb_U gZ_]hdhgpZofh`ghgZclbkhijhlb\e_gb_R ihnhjfme_R =

U . AZ\bkbfhklvkhijhlb\e_gbyijh\h^gbdZhl_]h I

^ebgu gZoh^blky ke_^mxsbf h[jZahf ;_jmlky ^\Z ijh\h^gbdZ ba]hlh\e_ggu_ ba h^gh]h fZl_jbZeZ k jZ\gufb iehsZ^yfb ihi_j_qgh]h k_q_gby ghk jZaebqgufb^ebgZfbHgbihhq_j_^gh\dexqZxlky\ p_ivb ih\ur_ijb\_^_gghc nhjfme_ \uqbkey_lky khijhlb\e_gb_ ^ey dZ`^h]h ba gbo HdZau\Z_lkyqlh[he__^ebggucijh\h^gbdbf__l[hevr__khijhlb\e_gb_ ?kebfu\havf_fijh\h^gbdh\k lZdbfbk\hckl\Zfb[hevr_lhfh`_faZf_lblvqlh_]hkhijhlb\e_gb_ijyfhijhihjpbhgZevgh_]h^ebg_

18


AZ\bkbfhklvkhijhlb\e_gbyijh\h^gbdZhliehsZ^bihi_j_qgh]hk_q_gbygZoh^blkyZgZeh]bqgufh[jZahfgh\ wlhfkemqZ_[_jmlky^\Zijh\h^gbdZba]hlh\e_ggu_ ba h^gh]h fZl_jbZeZ k jZ\gufb ^ebgZfb gh k jZaebqgufb iehsZ^yfb ihi_j_qgh]h k_q_gby HdZau\Z_lky qlh [hevr__ khijhlb\e_gb_ bf__lijh\h^gbdk f_gvr_ciehsZ^vxihi_j_qgh]hk_q_gbyKhijhlb\e_gb_ ijh\h^gbdZh[jZlghijhihjpbhgZevgh_]hiehsZ^bihi_j_qgh]hk_q_gby AZ\bkbfhklvkhijhlb\e_gbyijh\h^gbdZhljh^Z\_s_kl\Zbadhlhjh]hhgba]hlh\e_ggZoh^blkylZd`_dZdb \jZg__jZkkfhlj_gguokemqZyoLhevdh\ wlhf kemqZ_ke_^m_l[jZlv^\Zijh\h^gbdZk jZ\gufb^ebgZfbb kjZ\gufbiehsZ^yfbihi_j_qgh]hk_q_gbyghba]hlh\e_ggu_bajZaebqguofZl_jbZeh\ 3. M^_evgufkhijhlb\e_gb_fijh\h^gbdZgZau\Z_lkykhijhlb\e_gb_dhlhjufh[eZ^Z_l^Zggucijh\h^gbd^ebghc f b iehsZ^vx ihi_j_qgh]h k_q_gbyf2. 4. R = !

l ]^_R ²khijhlb\e_gb_ijh\h^gbdZĎ Â˛_]hm^_evgh_khijhS

lb\e_gb_l ²_]h^ebgZS ²iehsZ^v_]hihi_j_qgh]hk_q_gby 5. ?^bgbp_c m^_evgh]h khijhlb\e_gby ijh\h^gbdZ y\ey_lky bebHfâ&#x2039;&#x2026;fQZklhm^h[ghihevah\Zlvky

 Ă&#x203A;Ăš â&#x2039;&#x2026; ÚÚ  . 1Ăš

1 Hf â&#x2039;&#x2026; 1 f 2 1f

6. QZs_\k_]hgZijZdlbd_bkihevamxlijh\h^gbdbba]hlh\e_ggu_baZexfbgbyf_^b`_e_aZb l^

§ 47.

1. J_hklZlij_^gZagZq_g^eyj_]mebjh\ZgbykbeulhdZ\ we_dljbq_kdhcp_ib 2. Iheamgdh\ucj_hklZl jbkmghdmq_[gbdZ mkljh_gke_^mxsbfh[jZahf GZ d_jZfbq_kdbc pbebg^j gZfhlZgZ ijh\hehdZ ihdjulZy lhgdbf keh_f g_ ijh\h^ys_clhdhdZebguij_^gZagZq_gghc^eybaheypbb\bldh\^jm]hl^jm]ZGZ^h[fhldhcjZkiheZ]Z_lkyf_lZeebq_kdbckl_j`_gvihdhlhjhfmfh`_l i_j_f_sZlvky iheamghd dZkZxsbcky k\hbfb dhglZdlZfb \bldh\ h[fhldb Ijb ^\b`_gbb iheamgdZ kehc hdZebgu ih^ _]h dhglZdlZfb klbjZ_lky b lhd ijhl_dZ_l hl \bldh\ ijh\hehdb d iheamgdm Z q_j_a g_]h \ kl_j`_gv LZdbf h[jZahfijbi_j_f_s_gbbiheamgdZih\bldZf fu m\_ebqb\Z_fbeb mf_gvrZ_f^ebgmgZfhlZgghcijh\hehdbIjbwlhfbaf_gy_lkykhijhlb\e_gb_p_ib Z ke_^h\Zl_evgh b kbeZ lhdZ \ g_c Iheamgdh\uc j_hklZl \dexqZ_lky \ p_ivijbihfhsbaZ`bfh\b  kfjbkmghdmq_[gbdZ  3. >eylh]hqlh[uj_hklZlZfijb^Zlvm^h[gmxb dhfiZdlgmxnhjfm 4. >eykhijhlb\e_gbyj_hklZlZb gZb[hevr_]h^himklbfh]hagZq_gbykbeu lhdZ

5.

19


§ 48.

1. Kh_^bg_gb_ ijh\h^gbdh\ gZau\Z_lky ihke_^h\Zl_evguf _keb dhg_p h^gh]h ijh\h^gbdZ kh_^bgy_lky k gZqZehf ^jm]h]h Ko_fZ ihke_^h\Zl_evgh]h kh_^bg_gby ^\mo ijh\h^gbdh\ihdZaZgZgZjbkmgd_ 2. KbeZlhdZ

3. H[s__ khijhlb\e_gb_ p_ib ijb ihke_^h\Zl_evghf kh_^bg_gbb gZoh^blkydZdkmffZkhijhlb\e_gbchl^_evguoijh\h^gbdh\R = = R1 + R2 + ... + RN. 4. GZijy`_gb_mqZkldZp_ibkhklhys_]hbaihke_^h\Zl_evghkh_^bg_gguo ijh\h^gbdh\ gZoh^blky dZd kmffZ gZijy`_gbc gZ dZ`^hf bagboU = U1 + U2 + ... + UN.

§ 49.

1. Kh_^bg_gb_ ijh\h^gbdh\ gZau\Z_lky iZ< : jZee_evguf _keb \k_ \oh^ysb_ \ g_]h ijh\h^gbdbh^gbfk\hbfdhgphfijbkh_^bgyxlky d h^ghc lhqd_ p_ib : Z \lhjuf dhgphf d ^jm]hc lhqd_ < Ko_fZ iZjZee_evgh]h kh_^bg_gby^\moijh\h^gbdh\ihdZaZgZgZjbkmgd_ 2. GZijy`_gb_ 3. KbeZlhdZ\ p_ib ^h __ jZa\_l\e_gby gZoh^blkydZdkmffZkbelhdh\\ hl^_evguo\_l\yojZa\_l\e_gbyI = I1+I2+...+IN. 4. Mf_gvrZ_lky 5. IZjZee_evgh_ 6. b <

§ 50.

1. We_dljbq_kdh_gZijy`_gb_gZmqZkld_p_ibjZ\ghjZ[hl_dhlhjZykh\_jrZ_lkyijbi_j_f_s_gbbihwlhfmmqZkldm_^bgbqgh]hiheh`bl_evgh]haZjy^Z 2. A = Uq]^_: ²jZ[hlZU ²gZijy`_gb_q ²we_dljbq_kdbcaZjy^ 3. A = UIt]^_: ²jZ[hlZlhdZU ²gZijy`_gb_I ²kbeZlhdZt ²\j_fy \ l_q_gb_dhlhjh]hkh\_jrZeZkvjZ[hlZ 4. <hevlf_ljZfi_jf_ljb k_dmg^hf_j

§ 51.

1. Fhsghklv ² nbabq_kdZy \_ebqbgZ dhlhjZy hij_^_ey_l [ukljhlm kh\_jr_gbyjZ[hluHgZqbke_gghjZ\gZjZ[hl_kh\_jr_gghc\ _^bgbpm\j_f_gb 2. >eyjZkq_lZ fhsghklb J we_dljbq_kdh]hlhdZ gZ^h _]h jZ[hlm : jZa^_eblvgZ\j_fyt: P =

A . t

3. P = UI ]^_ J ² fhsghklv we_dljbq_kdh]h lhdZ U ² gZijy`_gb_ I â&#x20AC;&#x201D; kbeZlhdZ

20


4. AZ _^bgbpm fhsghklb ijbgbfZxl \Zll <l  ² wlh fhsghklv ijb dhlhjhckh\_jrZ_lkyjZ[hlZ\ >`aZk<l

1 >` . 1k

5. <l < â&#x2039;&#x2026; : 6. ]<l <ld<l <lF<l <l

§ 52.

1. FhsghklvlhdZ 2. A = Pt]^_: ²jZ[hlZlhdZJ ²fhsghklvlhdZt ²\j_fy\ l_q_gb_dhlhjh]hkh\_jrZeZkvjZ[hlZ 3. GZijZdlbd_m^h[ghihevah\Zlvkyke_^mxsbfb_^bgbpZfbjZ[hlulhdZ <lâ&#x2039;&#x2026;q >` ]<lâ&#x2039;&#x2026;q <lâ&#x2039;&#x2026;q >` d<lâ&#x2039;&#x2026;q <lâ&#x2039;&#x2026;q >`

§ 53.

1. K\h[h^gu_ aZjy^u we_dljhgu \ f_lZeeZo beb bhgu \ jZkl\hjZo khe_c dbkehl s_ehq_c  ijb i_j_f_s_gbb ih^ ^_ckl\b_f we_dljbq_kdh]h ihey \aZbfh^_ckl\mxl k bhgZfb beb ZlhfZfb \_s_kl\Z ijh\h^gbdZ b i_j_^Zxl qZklv k\h_c dbg_lbq_kdhc wg_j]bb < j_amevlZl_ wlh]h \gmlj_ggyy wg_j]by \_s_kl\Zm\_ebqb\Z_lkyZ \f_kl_k g_cb l_fi_jZlmjZ 2. Q = UIt]^_Q ²dhebq_kl\hl_iehlu\u^_ey_fh_ijh\h^gbdhfk lhdhf U ²gZijy`_gb_I ²kbeZlhdZt ²\j_fy 3. Q = UItBaaZdhgZHfZ\ujZabfgZijy`_gb_U q_j_akbemlhdZI b khijhlb\e_gb_R: U = IRIh^klZ\eyyU \ \ujZ`_gb_^eyQihemqZ_fQ = I2Rt. 4. Dhebq_kl\h l_iehlu \u^_e_ggh_ \ ijh\h^gbd_ k lhdhf jZ\gh ijhba\_^_gbxd\Z^jZlZkbeulhdZkhijhlb\e_gbyijh\h^gbdZb \j_f_gbQ = I2Rt. Knhjfmebjh\Zggh_\ur_ml\_j`^_gb_gZau\Z_lkyaZdhghf>`hmeyE_gpZ ihlhfmqlh_]hg_aZ\bkbfh^jm]hl^jm]Zhldjueb> >`hmevb WO E_gp

§ 54.

1. Mkljhckl\h eZfiu gZdZeb\Zgby ihdZaZgh gZ jbkmgd_  mq_[gbdZ KibjZevh[uqghba]hlZ\eb\Z_lkyba\hevnjZfZlZddZdm g_]h\ukhdZyl_fi_jZlmjZieZ\e_gbyKl_deygguc[ZeehgaZihegy_lky dZd ijZ\beh Zahlhf bgh]^Zbg_jlgufb]ZaZfbWlh^_eZ_lky^eylh]hqlh[uij_^hl\jZlblvbkiZj_gb_\hevnjZfZDhgpukibjZebijb\Zj_gud ^\mf ijh\h^gbdZf dhlhju_ijhoh^ylkd\havkl_deh[ZeehgZb ijbiZygud f_lZeebq_kdbfqZklyf phdhey h^gZ ijh\hehdZ d \bglh\hc gZj_ad_ Z ^jm]Zy ² d bahebjh\ZgghfmhlgZj_adbhkgh\ZgbxphdheyPhdhev eZfiu \djmqb\Z_lky\ iZljhgihkj_^kl\hfdhlhjh]heZfiZ\dexqZ_lky\ k_lv 2. Ba\hevnjZfZ 3. Qlh[uij_^hl\jZlblvbkiZj_gb_f_lZeeZk ih\_joghklbkibjZeb 4. Mkljhckl\hiZljhgZihdZaZghgZjbkmgd_mq_[gbdZ<gmlj_ggyyqZklv iZljhgZ bf__l ijm`bgysbcky dhglZdl  dZkZxsbcky hkgh\Zgby phdhey

21


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§ 55.

1. Ijh\h^Zfh]mlgZ]j_lvky^hlZdhckl_i_gb qlh ihdju\ZxsZy bo baheypby\hkieZf_gblkyb \j_amevlZl_wlh]hfh`_lkemqblvkyih`Zj 2. Dhjhldh_ aZfudZgb_ beb h^gh\j_f_ggh_ \dexq_gb_ \ k_lv fhsguo ihlj_[bl_e_clhdZ 3. < kh_^bg_gbbdhgph\mqZkldZp_ibijh\h^gbdhfkhijhlb\e_gb_dhlhjh]hfgh]hf_gvr_khijhlb\e_gbymqZkldZp_ib 4. IjbdhjhldhfaZfudZgbbkhijhlb\e_gb_p_ibj_adhmf_gvrZ_lkyZ \kbemaZdhgZHfZ  I =

 

U  kbeZlhdZj_adh\hajZklZ_l R

5. Qlh[uij_^hl\jZlblvdhjhldh_aZfudZgb_ 6. Mkljhckl\hieZ\dh]hij_^hojZgbl_eyihdZaZghgZjbkmgd_ Z  mq_[gbdZ Hkgh\ghc qZklvx ieZ\dh]h ij_^hojZgbl_ey y\ey_lky ijh\hehdZ K ba e_]dhieZ\dh]h f_lZeeZ ijhoh^ysZy \gmljb nZjnhjh\hc ijh[db I GZ ijh[d_bf__lky\bglh\Zy gZj_adZ J b p_gljZevguc dhglZdl D dhlhju_ kh_^bg_gu f_`^m kh[hc ijh\hehdhc K Ijh[dm \\bgqb\Zxl \ iZljhg dhlhjucgZoh^blky\gmljbnZjnhjh\hcdhjh[dbIjbijhl_dZgbbihijh\hehd_ K lhdZ\_ebqbgZdhlhjh]h[hevr_hij_^_e_ggh]hagZq_gbyhgZieZ\blkyb p_ivjZafudZ_lky

§ 56.

1. FZ]gblgu_ 2. <aZbfh^_ckl\b_^\moijh\h^gbdh\k lhdhfijbly]b\Zgb_f_lZeebq_kdbo ij_^f_lh\ ihklhyggufb fZ]gblZfb hldehg_gb_ fZ]gblghc klj_edb gZoh^ys_cky\hae_ijh\h^gbdZk lhdhf 3. HiulWjkl_^Z]h\hjblh lhfqlh\hdjm]ijh\h^gbdZk lhdhfkms_kl\m_l fZ]gblgh_ihe_Hgkhklhbl\ lhfqlhih^^_ckl\b_ffZ]gblgh]hiheylhdZ \ ijh\h^gbd_gZoh^ysZykyjy^hffZ]gblgZyklj_edZhldehgy_lky 4. FZ]gblgh_ihe_kms_kl\m_l\hdjm]ex[h]hijh\h^gbdZk lhdhf

22


ยง 57.

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ยง 58.

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ยง 59.

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23


ยง 60.

1. L_fqlhA_feyh[eZ^Z_lk\hbffZ]gblgufihe_f 2. K_\_jgucfZ]gblgucihexkA_febgZoh^blkygZยƒx`ghcrbjhlub ยƒ\hklhqghc^he]hluX`gucfZ]gblgucihexkA_febgZoh^blkygZยƒ k_\_jghcrbjhlub ยƒaZiZ^ghc^he]hlu 3. IjbihfhsbfZ]gblghcklj_edbdhfiZkZ 4. DjZldh\j_f_ggufb baf_g_gbyfb fZ]gblgh]h ihey A_feb \ua\Zggufb kheg_qghcZdlb\ghklvx 5. H[eZklyfbfZ]gblghcZghfZebbgZau\Zxlkyh[eZklb\ dhlhjuogZijZ\e_gb_ fZ]gblghc klj_edb ihklhyggh hldehg_gh hl gZijZ\e_gby fZ]gblghc ebgbbA_feb 6. H^gZbakZfuo[hevrbofZ]gblguoZghfZebcยฒDmjkdZyfZ]gblgZyZghfZeby;hevrb_fZ]gblgu_ZghfZebbgZ[ex^Zxlky\ l_oh[eZklyo]^_khkj_^hlhq_guh]jhfgu_aZe_`b`_e_aghcjm^u

ยง 61.

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ยง 62.

1. Emqยฒwlhebgby\^hevdhlhjhcjZkijhkljZgy_lkywg_j]byhlbklhqgbdZ k\_lZ 2. < h^ghjh^ghc kj_^_ k\_l jZkijhkljZgy_lky ijyfhebg_cgh l_ k\_lh\u_ emqby\eyxlkyijyfufbebgbyfb 3. H[jZah\Zgb_l_gbb iheml_gb 4. DZdh[jZamxlkyl_gbihdZaZghgZjbkmgd_mq_[gbdZLZddZdrZjg_ijhajZqguc lh hg g_ ijhimkdZ_l k\_l < j_amevlZl_ gZ wdjZg_ h[jZam_lky

24


l_gv ijbq_f hgZ bf__l nhjfm djm]Z H[jZah\Zgb_ l_gb y\ey_lky ^hdZaZl_evkl\hf ijyfhebg_cgh]h jZkijhkljZg_gby k\_lZ ?keb [u k\_l jZkijhkljZgyeky dZdlh bgZq_ lh gZ wdjZg_ \hafh`gh g_ gZ[ex^Zehkv [u l_gb bebl_gvbf_eZ[ubgmxnhjfm 5. JZaf_jubklhqgbdZk\_lZ^he`gu[ulvkjZ\gbfuk jZkklhygb_f^hwdjZgZ 6. DZd h[jZam_lky iheml_gv ihdZaZgh gZ jbkmgd_  mq_[gbdZ < h[eZklv iheml_gbihiZ^Z_lk\_lhlqZklbbklhqgbdZk\_lZ 7. Kheg_qgh_aZlf_gb_\hagbdZ_ldh]^ZEmgZgZoh^blkyf_`^mKhegp_fb A_fe_cEmggh_aZlf_gb_\hagbdZ_ldh]^ZA_feygZoh^blkyf_`^mEmghcb Khegp_f

§ 63.

1. Ijb[hj bah[jZ`_gguc gZ jbkmgd_  mq_[gbdZ ij_^klZ\ey_l kh[hc ^bkd gZ ih^klZ\d_ gZ dhlhjhf gZg_k_gZ djm]h\Zy rdZeZ k p_ghc ^_e_gby Â&#x192;IhdjZx^bkdZfh`ghi_j_f_sZlvbklhqgbdk\_lZAZdj_ibf\ p_glj_ ^bkdZa_jdZevgmxieZklbgdmb gZijZ\bf gZ g__ hl bklhqgbdZ imqhd k\_lZ IjbihfhsblZdh]hijb[hjZmklZgZ\eb\ZxlkyaZdhguhljZ`_gby?kebemq iZ^Z_lgZa_jdZevgmxieZklbgdmih^g_dhlhjufm]ehflhih^lZdbf`_m]ehfhghljZ`Z_lkyijbwlhfiZ^Zxsbcb hljZ`_ggucemqbe_`Zl\ h^ghc iehkdhklbk i_ji_g^bdmeyjhfijh\_^_ggufd a_jdZem\ lhqd_iZ^_gby 2. M]ehf iZ^_gby gZau\Z_lky m]he f_`^m iZ^Zxsbf emqhf b i_ji_g^bdmeyjhfijh\_^_ggufd ]jZgbp_jZa^_eZ^\mokj_^\ lhqd_iZ^_gbyemqZM]ehfhljZ`_gbygZau\Z_lkym]hef_`^mhljZ`_ggufemqhfb i_ji_g^bdmeyjhf ijh\_^_gguf d ]jZgbp_ jZa^_eZ ^\mo kj_^ \ lhqd_ iZ^_gby emqZ GZ jbkmgd_mq_[gbdZm]eZfbiZ^_gbyb hljZ`_gbykhhl\_lkl\_gghy\eyxlkyâ&#x2C6; Îą b â&#x2C6; Î˛. 3. IZ^Zxsbcb hljZ`_ggucemqbe_`Zl\ h^ghciehkdhklbk i_ji_g^bdmeyjhfijh\_^_ggufd ]jZgbp_jZa^_eZ^\mokj_^\ lhqd_iZ^_gbyemqZM]he iZ^_gbyâ&#x2C6; Îą jZ\_gm]emhljZ`_gbyâ&#x2C6; Î˛: â&#x2C6; Îą = â&#x2C6; Î˛. 4. K\hckl\hemq_cf_gylvkyf_klZfbgZau\Z_lkyh[jZlbfhklvxIZ^Zxsbc b hljZ`_ggucemqbh[eZ^Zxlwlbfk\hckl\hf

§ 64.

1. >ey ihkljh_gby bah[jZ`_gby lhqdb S \ a_jdZe_ ihkljhbf ljb emqZ SO, SO1, SO2 bkoh^ysb_ ba bklhqgbdZ S b iZ^Zxsb_ gZ a_jdZeh MN jbkmghd  mq_[gbdZ  < kbem aZdhgZ hljZ`_gby emq SO hljZ`Z_lky ih^ m]ehf Â&#x192; SO1 ² ih^ m]ehfβ1 = Îą1, SO2 ² ih^ m]ehf β2 = Îą2 ?keb ihkljhblv ijh^he`_gb_hljZ`_gguoemq_caZa_jdZehlhhgbi_j_k_dmlky\ h^ghclhqd_ S1dhlhjZyb [m^_ly\eylvkyfgbfufbah[jZ`_gb_flhqdbS. 2. IhlhfmqlhhghgZoh^blkyaZa_jdZehf 3. GZjbkmgd_mq_[gbdZihdZaZgZko_fZhiulZ^hdZau\Zxs_]hqlhjZkklhygbyhlk\_qb^hkl_deZb hl__ bah[jZ`_gby^hkl_deZjZ\gu<havf_f dmkhdiehkdh]hkl_deZb mklZgh\bf_]h\ \_jlbdZevghfiheh`_gbbgZih^klZ\d_Ih^g_k_faZ``_ggmxk\_qmgZg_dhlhjhfjZkklhygbbhlkl_deZijb wlhffu[m^_f\b^_lvbah[jZ`_gb_k\_qbIhke_wlh]h\havf_f\lhjmxlZ-

25


dmx`_k\_qmghg_aZ``_ggmxb jZkiheh`bf__ ih^jm]mxklhjhgmkl_deZI_j_f_sZy\lhjmxk\_qmgZc^_flZdh_iheh`_gb_ijbdhlhjhf\lhjZy k\_qZ[m^_ldZaZlvkyaZ``_gghcl_g_aZ``_ggZyk\_qZ[m^_lgZoh^blvky gZlhff_kl_]^_gZ[ex^Z_lkybah[jZ`_gb_aZ``_gghck\_qb?kebl_i_jv baf_jblvjZkklhygb_hlk\_qb^hkl_deZb hl__ bah[jZ`_gby^hkl_deZlh fh`ghm[_^blvkyqlhwlbjZkklhygby[m^mljZ\gu 4. Fgbfh_bah[jZ`_gb_ij_^f_lZ\ iehkdhfa_jdZe_gZoh^blkygZlZdhf`_ jZkklhygbb hl a_jdZeZ gZ dZdhf gZoh^blky kZf ij_^f_l JZaf_ju bah[jZ`_gbyij_^f_lZ\ iehkdhfa_jdZe_lZdb_`_dZdjZaf_jukZfh]hij_^f_lZ

§ 65.

1. Emqk\_lZkf_sZ_lky\e_\h jbkmghdmq_[gbdZ  2. Ba hiulZ bah[jZ`_ggh]h gZ jbkmgd_  mq_[gbdZ fh`gh kdZaZlv qlh _keb emq k\_lZ b^_l ba kj_^u hilbq_kdb f_g__ iehlghc \ [he__ iehlgmx kj_^mlhm]heij_ehfe_gby\k_]^Zf_gvr_m]eZiZ^_gbyBahiulZbah[jZ`_ggh]h gZ jbkmgd_  mq_[gbdZ \u\h^blky ke_^mxs__ khhlghr_gb_

sin . = n  l_hlghr_gb_ kbgmkZ m]eZ iZ^_gby Îą d kbgmkm m]eZ ij_ehfe_sin 

gbyγ _klv\_ebqbgZihklhyggZy^ey^\mokj_^gZau\Z_fZyhlghkbl_evguf ihdZaZl_e_fij_ehfe_gby^\mokj_^b h[hagZqZ_fZy[md\hcŠn. 3. IZ^Zxsbcb hljZ`_ggucemqbe_`Zl\ h^ghciehkdhklbk i_ji_g^bdmeyjhf ijh\_^_gguf d ]jZgbp_ jZa^_eZ ^\mo kj_^ \ lhqd_ iZ^_gby emqZ Hlghr_gb_kbgmkZm]eZiZ^_gbyι d kbgmkmm]eZij_ehfe_gbyγ _klv\_ebqbgZ ihklhyggZy^ey^\mokj_^

sin . =n. sin 

§ 66.

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§ 67.

1. Ihemq_gb_bah[jZ`_gbyij_^f_lZ 2. < aZ\bkbfhklbhllh]hgZdZdhfjZkklhygbbgZoh^blkyij_^f_lhlebgau 3. Qlh[uihkljhblvbah[jZ`_gb_ij_^f_lZgZoh^ys_]hkyf_`^mnhdmkhfb ebgahc jbkmghdmq_[gbdZ gZ^hihkljhblvoh^^\mogZb[he__ijhkluo emq_cbkoh^ysbobalhqdb:I_j\ucemq[_j_lkyiZjZee_evghhilbq_kdhc

26


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27


MijZ`g_gby MijZ`g_gb_ 

1. Juoeuckg_]kh^_j`blfgh]hihehkl_ck \ha^mohfagZqbl_]hl_iehijh\h^ghklvfZeZihwlhfmhgij_^hojZgy_lhabfu_oe_[Zhl\uf_jaZgby 2. Khkgh\u_hibedbb k\_`_\uiZ\rbckg_]kh^_j`blhq_gvfgh]hihehkl_c k \ha^mohf L_iehijh\h^ghklv \ha^moZ \_kvfZ fZeZ Z agZqbl l_iehijh\h^ghklvhibehdbebk\_`_\uiZ\r_]hkg_]ZlZd`_fZeZ

MijZ`g_gb_ 

1. Oheh^guc\ha^mobf__l[hevrmxiehlghklvq_fl_ieuc\ha^moAgZqbl hg[m^_lhimkdZlvky\gbaZ ldih^\ZekZfh_]em[hdh_f_klh\ ^hf_lhhg ²b kZfh_oheh^gh_f_klh 2. < nhjlhqdm\oh^bloheh^guc\ha^modhlhjuchimkdZ_lkyIjbwlhfijhbkoh^bli_j_f_rb\Zgb_keh_\\ha^moZb ^h\hevghjZ\ghf_jgh_gZiheg_gb_ __ k\_`bf\ha^mohfIhwlhfmnhjlhqdb^_eZxl\ \_jog_cqZklbhdgZ:gZeh]bqgh ihgylgh ihq_fm jZ^bZlhju klZ\yl m iheZ L_ieuc \ha^mo ba gbo ih^gbfZ_lkyoheh^guc\ha^modhfgZluhimkdZ_lky Z ihke_ b hg gZ]j_\Z_lky b \j_amevlZl_dhfgZlZ^h\hevghjZ\ghf_jghgZ]j_\Z_lky 3. Q_j_anhjlhqdm\ dhfgZlm\k_]^Z\hc^_lg_fgh]hoheh^gh]h\ha^moZLd _]hiehlghklv[hevr_iehlghklbl_ieh]h\ha^moZ\ dhfgZl_ihwlhfmhg[m^_lhimkdZlvkyBaaZ^bnnmabbkehb\ha^moZ[m^mli_j_f_rb\ZlvkyZ lZd `_ h[f_gb\Zlvky l_iehf ihkj_^kl\hf l_iehi_j_^Zqb LZd ijhbkoh^bl hoeZ`^_gb_dhfgZluabfhcijbhldjulhcnhjlhqd_

MijZ`g_gb_ 

1. ?keb\ha^mo\ dhfgZl_gZ]j_\Z_lkyq_j_akl_gulhfubf__f^_ehk l_iehijh\h^ghklvx _keb q_j_a hldjulh_ hdgh lh dhg\_dpb_c _keb q_j_a kl_dehlhbaemq_gb_f 2. JZkkfhljbf^\Z^hfZdjurZh^gh]hbagboihdjulZq_jgufjm[_jhb^hf Z ^jm]h]hhpbgdh\Zgghc`_klvx< `Zjdbce_lgbc^_gvaZf_lbfqlhdjurZihdjulZy`_klvxoheh^g__q_fihdjulZyjm[_jhb^hf 3. >eydhg\_dpbbbebl_iehijh\h^ghklbg_h[oh^bfh\_s_kl\h< dhkfbq_kdhf ijhkljZgkl\_ f_`^m Khegp_f b A_fe_c \Zdmmf b \ur_mdZaZggu_ ijhp_kkug_\hafh`guAgZqblwg_j]byi_j_^Z_lkybaemq_gb_f

MijZ`g_gb_ 

1. WlhagZqblqlh^eygZ]j_\Zgbyd]ZexfbgbygZÂ&#x192;K g_h[oh^bfhkhh[sblv_fmdhebq_kl\hl_iehlujZ\gh_>` 2. D >Zgh J_r_gb_ m d] Q = cmĂťt; k=540

>` Ăťt=200°C d] â&#x2039;&#x2026; °K

GZclbQ.

Q = 540

>` â&#x2039;&#x2026; d]â&#x2039;&#x2026; 200ÂşK >` d] â&#x2039;&#x2026; °K

Hl\_lQ >` d>`

28


[ >Zgh m ] d] k = 920

>` d] ⋅ °K

t1 = 20°C; t1 = 90°C GZclbQ. \ >Zgh m l d] k = 880

>` d] ⋅ °K

t1 = 10°C; t1 = 40°C GZclbQ. 3. >Zgh V e f3 ρ d]f3

>` k = 4200 d] ⋅ °K

t1 = 100°C; t2 ƒK GZclbQ.

1. >Zgh m d]

>`

q = 3,4·107 d] GZclbQ.

>Zgh m ] d]

>`

q = 2,7·107 d] GZclbQ.

>Zgh ρ d]f3 V e Â-3 f3

2.

>` q = 4,6·107 d] GZclbQ.

J_r_gb_ Q = cmût = cm(t2 – t1); Q = 920

>` ⋅d]⋅(90ºK ±ºK  >` d] ⋅ °K

Hl\_lQ >`

J_r_gb_ Q = cmût = cm(t2 – t1); Q = 880

>` ⋅ d]⋅ (40ºK ±ºK  d] ⋅ °K

>` F>` Hl\_lQ F>`

J_r_gb_ Q = cmût = cm(t2 – t1); m = ρV ;Q = cρV(t2 – t1) = = 4200

>` ⋅ d]f3 ⋅ f3 × d] ⋅ °K

× (100ºK ±ºK  ⋅106 >` F>` Hl\_lQ F>`

MijZ`g_gb_ 

J_r_gb_ Q = qm;

>`

Q = 3,4·107 d] ⋅ d] ⋅108 >` Hl\_lQ = 5,1⋅108 >` J_r_gb_ Q = qm;

>`

Q = 2,7·107 d] ⋅ d] ⋅106 >` Hl\_lQ = 5,4⋅106 >`

J_r_gb_ Q = qm; m = ρV; Q = qρV;

>`

Q = 4,6·107 d] ⋅ d]f3 ⋅2⋅19-3 f3 = = 7,36⋅107 >` Hl\_lQ = 7,36⋅107 >`

29


>Zgh m l d]

J_r_gb_ Q = qm;

GZclbQ.

Hl\_lQ = 1,1â&#x2039;&#x2026;1011 >`

>`

q = 4,4¡107 d]

>Zgh Q d>` â&#x2039;&#x2026;107 >`

3.

>` q = 1,0¡107 d] GZclbm.

>`

Q = 4,4¡107 d] â&#x2039;&#x2026; d] â&#x2039;&#x2026;1011 >` J_r_gb_

Q = qm; m =

7 Q ; m = 5 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 10 >` d] q 7 >`

1,0 â&#x2039;&#x2026;10

Hl\_lQ = 1,1â&#x2039;&#x2026;1011 >`

d]

MijZ`g_gb_ 

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MijZ`g_gb_ 

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30


MijZ`g_gb_ 

1. L_fi_jZlmjZ ieZ\e_gby \ur_ m l_eZ , ld ihklhygguc mqZklhd m g_]h \ur_M^_evgZyl_iehlZieZ\e_gby[hevr_m l_eZ,,ld\j_fyieZ\e_gbym g_]h [hevr_ ihklhygguc mqZklhd ^ebgg__  L_ieh_fdhklb l_e , b ,, jZaebqguldjZaebqgum]eugZdehgZdjb\uo g_gZihklhygguomqZkldZo  2. G_lg_[m^_lldg_[m^_lijhbkoh^blvl_iehi_j_^Zqb 3. G_ba\_klgh[m^_lebe_^lZylvbeb\h^ZaZf_jaZlv?kebl_fi_jZlmjZhdjm`Zxs_]h\ha^moZhljbpZl_evgZylh\h^Z[m^_laZf_jaZlv_keb iheh`bl_evgZylhe_^lZylv 4. >Zgh m d]

>`

 Ã&#x201A;5 d] GZclbQ.

5. >Zgh m d]

>`  Ã&#x201A;5 d] t1 = 27°C t2 = 327°C

c = 140 >`

d] â&#x2039;&#x2026; °K

GZclbQ1, Q2.

J_r_gb_ Q m;

>`

Q = 3,4·105 d] â&#x2039;&#x2026; d] â&#x2039;&#x2026;106 >` Hl\_lQ = 1,36â&#x2039;&#x2026;106 >` J_r_gb_

>`

1) Q1 m; Q1 d]â&#x2039;&#x2026; 0,25·105 d] = 5·105 >` 2) Q2 = cm(t2 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; t1 m; Q2 d]â&#x2039;&#x2026; 140 >`

d] â&#x2039;&#x2026; °K 5 >` d]â&#x2039;&#x2026; 0,25·10 = 1,34·106>` d]

â&#x2039;&#x2026; (327°C â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 27°C) +

Hl\_lQ1 = 5â&#x2039;&#x2026;105 >`Q2 = 1,34â&#x2039;&#x2026;106 >`

MijZ`g_gb_ 

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31


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MijZ`g_gb_ 

1. WlhagZqblqlh^eyh[jZah\ZgbyiZjZba\h^ufZkkhcd]ijbl_fi_jZlmj_Â&#x192;&g_h[oh^bfhaZljZlblvĂ&#x201A;6>`wg_j]bb 2. Wlh agZqbl qlh ijb dhg^_gkZpbb ZffbZdZ fZkkhc  d] \u^_ey_lky 1,4¡106>`wg_j]bb 3. Baijb\_^_gguo\ lZ[ebp_\_s_kl\gZb[he__kbevghm\_ebqb\Z_lky\gmlj_ggyywg_j]bym \h^uWlhk\yaZghk l_fqlhm g__kZfZy\ukhdZyl_iehlZ iZjhh[jZah\Zgby Z agZqbl ^ey __ i_j_\h^Z \ iZj g_h[oh^bfh aZljZlblv gZb[hevrmxwg_j]bxIhaZdhgmkhojZg_gbywg_j]bbhgZi_j_c^_l\h\gmlj_ggxx 4. >Zgh J_r_gb_ m ] d] Q = Lm;

>`

L = 2,3¡106 d]

GZclbQ. 5. >Zgh m d] t1 = 0°C t2 = 100°C

>`

Q = 2,3¡106 d] â&#x2039;&#x2026; d] â&#x2039;&#x2026;105 >` Hl\_lQ = 3,45â&#x2039;&#x2026;105 >` J_r_gb_ Q = cm(t2 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; t1) + Lm;

>` â&#x2039;&#x2026;d]â&#x2039;&#x2026; ( 100°K Âą°K  d] â&#x2039;&#x2026; °K >` + 2,3¡106 d] â&#x2039;&#x2026; d] â&#x2039;&#x2026;107 >`

>` d] â&#x2039;&#x2026; °K >` L = 2,3¡106 d]

Q = 4200

>Zgh m d] t1 = 0°C t2 = 100°C

J_r_gb_ 1) Q1 = cm(t2 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; t1);

c = 4200

GZclbQ.

6.

>` d] â&#x2039;&#x2026; °K >` L = 2,3¡106 d] c = 4200

GZclbQ1, Q2.

Hl\_lQ = 1,36â&#x2039;&#x2026;107 >`

Q1 d]â&#x2039;&#x2026; 4200

>` â&#x2039;&#x2026; Â&#x192;K ÂąÂ&#x192;K  Ă&#x201A;5 >` d]°K

>` â&#x2039;&#x2026;d]â&#x2039;&#x2026; ( 100°K Âą°K  d] â&#x2039;&#x2026; °K >` + 2,3¡106 d] â&#x2039;&#x2026; d] â&#x2039;&#x2026;106 >` 2) Q2 = cm(t2 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; t1) + Lm; Q2 = 4200

Hl\_lQ1 = 8,4¡105 >`Q2 = 5,44¡105 >`

32


MijZ`g_gb_

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MijZ`g_gb_

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MijZ`g_gb_

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4. LZdZyijh\h^dZfh`_l[ulvijbf_g_gZ_kebeZfimg_h[oh^bfh\dexqZlv ^\mfyjm[bevgbdZfbgZijbf_j^\mfjZagufex^yf 5. Pbnjhchlf_q_gu^\Z]Zev\Zgbq_kdbowe_f_glZpbnjhc²we_dljbq_kdZyeZfiZpbnjhc²\udexqZl_ev

33


MijZ`g_gb_

1. f: :f: :f: :d: : 2. >Zgh I = 1,4 A t fbg F GZclbq. >Zgh I = 0,3 A t fbg F _ = 1,6â&#x2039;&#x2026;10â&#x20AC;&#x201C;19 De

3.

GZclbN.

J_r_gb_ q = It; q = 1,4 A â&#x2039;&#x2026; F De Hl\_lq De

J_r_gb_ Qlh[ugZclbqbkehwe_dljhgh\ijhr_^rboqj_aihi_j_qgh_ k_q_gb_ kibjZeb we_dljbq_kdhc eZfiu gZ^hgZclbaZjy^q b jZa^_eblv_]hgZagZq_gb_we_f_glZjgh]haZjy^Z_. q = It; q = 0,3 A â&#x2039;&#x2026; F De

N=

q 90 De ; N= = 5,6 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 10 20. e 1,6 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 10 â&#x2C6;&#x2019;19 De

Hl\_lN = 5,6â&#x2039;&#x2026;1020 we_dljhgh\

MijZ`g_gb_

1. : 2. Gm`ghwlb^\ZZfi_jf_ljZ\dexqblvh^gh\j_f_gghb ihke_^h\Zl_evgh\ p_iv?kebijbwlhfihdZaZgbyZfi_jf_ljh\[m^mlkh\iZ^ZlvlhihdZaZgby bkke_^m_fh]hZfi_jf_ljZ[m^mlijZ\bevgufb\ ijhlb\ghfkemqZ_²g_l 3. P_gZ^_e_gbyrdZeZfi_jf_ljh\bah[jZ`_gguogZjbkmgdZomq_[gbdZjZ\gZ:Bfbfh`ghbaf_jylvkbemlhdZ^h: KbeZlhdZjZ\gZ: KbeZlhdZjZ\gZ:

















4. GZ^hh^gh\j_f_ggh\dexqblvwlb^\ZZfi_jf_ljZ\ p_iv\ dhlhjhcfh`ghf_gylvkbemlhdZDZ`^ucjZabaf_gyykbemlhdZ\ p_ibgZp_gm_^bgbpu ^_e_gby lhqgh]h Zfi_jf_ljZ gm`gh gZghkblv ^_e_gby gZ _s_ g_ ijh]jZ^mbjh\ZggucZfi_jf_lj

MijZ`g_gb_

1. P_gZ^_e_gby\hevlf_ljZbah[jZ`_ggh]hgZjbkmgd_ Z mq_[gbdZjZ\gZ<

34


GZijy`_gb_jZ\gh<









GZijy`_gb_jZ\gh<









GZijy`_gb_jZ\gh<





 













2. P_gZ^_e_gbyrdZeu\hevlf_ljZbah[jZ`_ggh]hgZjbkmgd_ Z mq_[gbdZjZ\gZ<GZijy`_gb_dhlhjh_hgihdZau\Z_ljZ\ghijb[eb`_ggh<

3. V â&#x20AC;&#x201C;

+

A

MijZ`g_gb_ >Zgh U1 = 2 B I1 = 0,4 A I2 = 0,8 A

1.

GZclbU2.

J_r_gb_

KbeZlhdZ\ p_ibm\_ebqbeZkv\

I 2 0,8 A = = 2 jZaZ GZI1 0,4 A

ijy`_gb_m\_ebqb\Z_lky\hklhevdh`_jZa\hkdhevdhjZa m\_ebqb\Z_lkykbeZlhdZl_U2 = 2U1 = 2 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 2 B = 4 B. Hl\_lU2 = 4 B.

35


>Zgh U1 = 2 B I1 = 0,5 A U2 = 4 B U3 = 1 B

2.

GZclbI2, I3.

J_r_gb_ KbeZlhdZ\ p_ibbaf_gy_lky\hklhevdh`_jZa\hkdhevdh jZa baf_gy_lky gZijy`_gb_ < i_j\hf kemqZ_ gZijy`_gb_ m\_ebqbehkv \

U2 4 B   jZaZ Z ke_^h\Zl_evgh kbeZ = U1 2 B

lhdZlh`_m\_ebqbeZkv\ ^\ZjZaZI2 = 2I1 = 1 A. <h \lhjhf kemqZ_ gZijy`_gb_ mf_gvrbehkv \  jZaZ Z agZqbl kbeZ lhdZ lh`_ mf_gvrbeZkv \ ^\Z jZaZ

I3 =

I1 0,5 A = = 0,25 A . 2 2

Hl\_l::

MijZ`g_gb_

1.

±



$ 9

< ^Zgghf hiul_ ihkj_^kl\hf \dexq_gby \ p_iv jZaebqguo ijh\h^gbdh\ \uykgyxlqlhkbeZlhdZaZ\bkblhlkhijhlb\e_gbyijh\h^gbdZ 2. fHf HfdHf HfFHf Hf 3. >Zgh J_r_gb_ I = 0,5 A U 1B R= ; R= Hf U=1B GZclbR.

1. >Zgh U = 220 B R Hf GZclbI.

Hl\_l5 Hf

I

0,5 A

MijZ`g_gb_

J_r_gb_ KbemlhdZhij_^_ey_fihaZdhgmHfZ

I=

U 220 B : ; I= R 50 Hf

Hl\_lI = 4,4 A.

36


2. >Zgh I = 0,7 A R Hf GZclbU. 3. >Zgh U = 150 B I = 0,01 A

J_r_gb_ GZijy`_gb_U gZoh^bfbaaZdhgZHfZ U = IR; U = 0,7 A â&#x2039;&#x2026; Hf % Hl\_lU = 217 B.

J_r_gb_ Khijhlb\e_gb_R gZoh^bfbaaZdhgZHfZ

R=

U 150 B Hf dHf = I 0,01 A

GZclbR. Hl\_lR dHf 4. Khijhlb\e_gb_ijh\h^gbdZjZ\ghHf 5. < kemqZ_hiulZÂ&#x2039; gZjbkmgd_\ p_iv[m^_l\dexq_gijh\h^gbdkhijhlb\e_gb_f  Hf Z Zfi_jf_lj [m^_l ihdZau\Zlv kbem lhdZ \ p_ib jZ\gmx:< kemqZ_hiulZÂ&#x2039; gZjbkmgd_gbq_]hg_baf_gblky 6. R Hf 7. ;hevrbf khijhlb\e_gb_f h[eZ^Z_l ijh\h^gbd < Khijhlb\e_gb_ ijh\h^gbdZ: jZ\ghHfZ ijh\h^gbdZ< ²Hf

MijZ`g_gb_

1. >Zgh l1 kf f l2 f Ď 1 = Ď 2 = Ď S1 = S2 = S GZclb

R2 . R1

2. Z >Zgh l kf f S ff2 Ď = 0,028 GZclbR.

Hf â&#x2039;&#x2026; ff 2 f

[ >Zgh l kf f S ff2 Ď = 0,4

Ă&#x203A;Ăš â&#x2039;&#x2026; ÚÚ  Ăš

GZclbR.

J_r_gb_ ;he__ ^ebgguc ijh\h^ h[eZ^Z_l [hevrbf khijhlb\e_gb_fl_khijhlb\e_gb_ijh\h^Z^ebghcl2 f [hevr_khijhlb\e_gbyijh\h^Z^ebghcl1 f

R1 = !

R l l1 l 1,6 f ; R2 = ! 2 ; 2 = 2 = =8. S S R1 l1 0,2 f

Hl\_l khijhlb\e_gb_ \lhjh]h ijh\h^Z \  jZa [hevr_khijhlb\e_gbyi_j\h]h J_r_gb_

R=!

l Ă&#x203A;Ăš â&#x2039;&#x2026; ÚÚ   Ăš Hf ; R=0,028 â&#x2039;&#x2026; Ăš S  ÚÚ 

Hl\_lR Hf J_r_gb_

R=!

l Ă&#x203A;Ăš â&#x2039;&#x2026; ÚÚ  Ăš Hf ; R = 0,4 â&#x2039;&#x2026; Ăš S  ÚÚ 

Hl\_lR Hf

37


\ >Zgh l kf f S kf2 ff2 Ď = 0,5

R=!

Hf â&#x2039;&#x2026; ff 2 f

GZclbR. 3. >Zgh l f S ff2 Ď = 1,1

J_r_gb_

l Ă&#x203A;Ăš â&#x2039;&#x2026; ÚÚ   Ăš Hf ; R = 0,5 â&#x2039;&#x2026; Ăš S  ÚÚ 

Hl\_lR Hf

J_r_gb_

Ă&#x203A;Ăš â&#x2039;&#x2026; ÚÚ  Ăš

KbemlhdZgZoh^bfihaZdhgmHfZ I = lb\e_gb_ihnhjfme_ R = !

U = 220 B R = 1,1

I=

U Z khijhR

l . S

Ă&#x203A;Ăš â&#x2039;&#x2026; ÚÚ   Ăš Hf â&#x2039;&#x2026; Ăš  ÚÚ 

220 B â&#x2030;&#x2C6; : 151,25 Hf

GZclbI. Hl\_lI â&#x2030;&#x2C6; 1,5 A. 4. >Zgh J_r_gb_ GZijy`_gb_gZc^_fihaZdhgmHfZU = IRZ khl ff f S ff2 l ijhlb\e_gb_ihnhjfme_ R = ! . 2 Hf â&#x2039;&#x2026; ff S Ď = 0,1 

f

I f: : GZclbU.

R = 0,1

Ă&#x203A;Ăš â&#x2039;&#x2026; ÚÚ  Ăš Hf â&#x2039;&#x2026; Ăš  ÚÚ 

U = 0,25 Aâ&#x2039;&#x2026;Hfâ&#x2030;&#x2C6; < Hl\_lU <

MijZ`g_gb_

1. >_ckl\b_ j_hklZlZ hkgh\Zgh gZ kf_g_ ijh\h^gbdh\ \ p_ib ihkj_^kl\hf i_j_dexqZl_ey 2. HfQlh[ukhijhlb\e_gb_m\_ebqblv_s_gZHfgZ^hi_j_dexqZl_evmklZgh\blv\ kZfh_djZcg__ijZ\h_iheh`_gb_ 3.

38


4. >Zgh R Hf S ff2

J_r_gb_

Ă&#x203A;Ăš â&#x2039;&#x2026; ÚÚ  Ăš GZclbl. Ď = 0,4

1. >Zgh R1 Hf R2 Hf I = 0,2 A GZclbU1, U2, U.

2. GZ^hn =

3. >Zgh U = 220 B n=2

R=!

l RS 20 Hf â&#x2039;&#x2026; 3 ff 2 ; l= ;l= = 150 f . ! S Hf â&#x2039;&#x2026; ff 2 0,4 f

Hl\_ll f

MijZ`g_gb_

J_r_gb_ GZijy`_gb_gZdZ`^hfbaijh\h^gbdh\gZc^_fbaaZdhgZHfZU1 = IR1; U1 = 0,2 A â&#x2039;&#x2026; Hf < U2 = IR2; U2 = 0,2 A â&#x2039;&#x2026; Hf < H[s__ gZijy`_gb_ ijb ihke_^h\Zl_evghf kh_^bg_gbb ijh\h^gbdh\gZc^_fihnhjfme_ U = U1 + U2; U = 0,8 B + 1,2 B = 2 B. Hl\_lU1 = 0,8 B, U2 = 1,2 B, U = 2 B.

3000 eZfi\dexqblvihke_^h\Zl_evgh\ p_iv 50

GZclbU1, U2. 4.

J_r_gb_ GZdZ`^hcbaeZfi[m^_lh^bgZdh\h_gZijy`_gb_ U  % ; U1 = U2 = NU1 = U; U1 = U2 = = 110 B.  n Hl\_lU1 = U2 = 110 B. Âą

5

>Zgh U=6B R1 Hf R2 Hf R3 Hf

8

5



5

J_r_gb_ H[s__khijhlb\e_gb_\ p_ibgZc^_fihnhjfme_ R = R1 + R2 + R3; R HfHfHf Hf KbemlhdZ\ p_ibgZc^_fihaZdhgmHfZ

I=

U 6B ; I = â&#x2030;&#x2C6; : R 18,5 Hf

39


GZclbI, U1, U2, U3.

1. >Zgh R1 Hf R2 Hf U = 12 B

GZijy`_gb_ gZ dhgpZo dZ`^h]h ba ihlj_[bl_e_c gZc^_fbaaZdhgZHfZ U1 = IR1; U1 = 0,324 A â&#x2039;&#x2026; Hfâ&#x2030;&#x2C6; 4,4 B; U2 = IR2; U2 = 0,324 A â&#x2039;&#x2026; Hfâ&#x2030;&#x2C6; 1 B; U3 = IR3; U3 = 0,324 A â&#x2039;&#x2026; Hfâ&#x2030;&#x2C6; 0,6 B. Hl\_l,â&#x2030;&#x2C6; 0,324 A, U1 â&#x2030;&#x2C6; 4,4 B, U2 â&#x2030;&#x2C6; 1 B, U3 â&#x2030;&#x2C6; 0,6 B.

MijZ`g_gb_

J_r_gb_ KbemlhdZ\ dZ`^hfijh\h^gbd_gZc^_fihaZdhgmHfZ

12 B U : ; I1 = 10 Hf R1 12 B U I2 = : ; I2 = 15 Hf R2 I1 =

KbeZlhdZ^hjZa\_l\e_gbygZoh^blkyihnhjfme_ I = I1 + I2; I = 1,2 A + 0,8 A = 2 A. GZclbI1, I2, I. Hl\_lI1 = 1,2 A, I2 = 0,8 A, I = 2 A. 2. >eylh]hqlh[ugZdZ`^hf[ulh\hfijb[hj_[uehh^bgZdh\h_gZijy`_gb_jZ\gh_< 3. >Zgh J_r_gb_ Kbem lhdZ gZ dZ`^hf ba ihlj_[bl_e_ gZc^_f ih R1 Hf aZdhgmHfZ R2 Hf R3 Hf 24 B U I1 = : ; I1 = U = 24 B

20 Hf R1 24 B U I2 = : ; I2 = 40 Hf R2 24 B U I3 = : ; I3 = 24 Hf R3

H[smxkbemlhdZgZc^_fihnhjfme_ I = I1 + I2 + I3; I = 1,2 A + 0,6 A + 1 A = 2,8 A. H[s__khijhlb\e_gb_gZc^_fbaaZdhgZHfZ GZclbI1, I2, I3, I, R.

R=

U 24 B ; R= â&#x2030;&#x2C6; Hf 2,8 A I

Hl\_lI1 = 1,2 A, I2 = 0,6 A, I3 = 1 A, I = 2,8 A, R â&#x2030;&#x2C6; â&#x2030;&#x2C6; Hf 4. Ihlhfmqlh\ i_j\hfkemqZ_m\_ebqb\Z_lky^ebgZijh\h^gbdZ\h\lhjhf kemqZ_m\_ebqb\Z_lkyiehsZ^vihi_j_qgh]hk_q_gby

40


5. >Zgh R1 Hf R2 Hf R3 Hf R4 Hf Ia = 1 A

J_r_gb_ KbeZ lhdZ \ lj_lv_f ijh\h^gbd_ jZ\gZ ihdZaZgbyfZfi_jf_ljZI3 = Ia   $ GZijy`_gb_ gZ lj_lv_fijh\h^gbd_gZc^_fbaaZdhgZHfZ U3 = I3R3 = 1 A â&#x2039;&#x2026; Hf < GZijy`_gb_ gZ \lhjhf ijh\h^gbd_ jZ\gh gZijy`_gbx gZ lj_lv_f lZd dZd hgb kh_^bg_gu iZjZee_evgh^jm]k ^jm]hfU2 = U3 = 12 B. KbemlhdZ\h\lhjhfijh\h^gbd_gZc^_fihaZdhgmHfZ I 2 =

GZclbUBC, I1, I2, I3, I4.

U 2 12 B :KbeulhdZ\ = R2 6 Hf

i_j\hfb q_l\_jlhfijh\h^gbd_h^bgZdh\u I1 = I4 = I2 + I3; I1 = I4 = 2 A + 1 A = 3 A. GZijy`_gb_f_`^mlhqdZfb< bK UBC = U2 + U3 = 12 B Hl\_lUBC = 12 B; I1 = 3 A; I2 = 2 A; I3 = 1 A, I4 = 3 A.

MijZ`g_gb_

1. >Zgh t fbg k I = 0,5 A; U = 12 B GZclbA. 2. >Zgh U = 3,5 B R Hf t fbg k GZclbA. 3. >Zgh R1 = R2 Hf U = 4,5 B

J_r_gb_ A = UIt; A = 12 B â&#x2039;&#x2026; 0,5 A â&#x2039;&#x2026; F >` d>` Hl\_l$ d>` J_r_gb_

A = UIt; I =

U 3,5 B : ; I = R 14 Hf

A = 3,5 Bâ&#x2039;&#x2026;0,25 Aâ&#x2039;&#x2026;F >` Hl\_lA >`

J_r_gb_ Ijbihke_^h\Zl_evghfkh_^bg_gbb A1 = UI1t; I1 =

U . 2R1

A2 = UI2t; I 2 =

A I U 2U = Hlkx^Z 2 = 2 = 4 . R1 / 2 R1 A1 I1

IjbiZjZee_evghfkh_^bg_gbb

GZclb

:2 . :1

Hl\_l

A2 =4. A1 41


MijZ`g_gb_ 1. >Zgh J_r_gb_ U = 127 B P = UI; P = 127 B â&#x2039;&#x2026; $ %l I = 0,6 A GZclbP. Hl\_lJ <l 2. >Zgh J_r_gb_ U = 220 B P = UI; P = 220 B â&#x2039;&#x2026; $ %l I=3A GZclbP. Hl\_lJ <l 3. >Zgh J_r_gb_ t q k A = Pt; J1 d<l <l A1 <lâ&#x2039;&#x2026;k >` d>` J2 <l :2 <lâ&#x2039;&#x2026;k >` d>` J3 d<l <l :3 <lâ&#x2039;&#x2026;k >` F>` GZclb:1, :2, :3. Hl\_l:1 d>`:2 d>`:3 F>` 4. >Zggh_aZ^Zgb_ijh^_eZcl_kZfhklhyl_evgh

MijZ`g_gb_

1. >Zgh J_r_gb_ J d<l A = Pt; A d<lâ&#x2039;&#x2026; q d<lâ&#x2039;&#x2026;q t q GZclb:. Hl\_l: d<lâ&#x2039;&#x2026;q 2. >Zgh J_r_gb_ J1 = J2 <l A = P1t + P2t + P3t + P4t = 2P1t + 2P3t; J3 = J4 <l t = 30t1; t = 30 â&#x2039;&#x2026; q q t1 q : = 2 â&#x2039;&#x2026; d<lâ&#x2039;&#x2026; q â&#x2039;&#x2026; d<lâ&#x2039;&#x2026; q d<lâ&#x2039;&#x2026;q GZclb:. Hl\_l: d<lâ&#x2039;&#x2026;q 3. >Zgh J_r_gb_ U = 220 B A = 30â&#x2039;&#x2026;(4P1t1 + P2t2 + P3t3 + P4t4); P1 <l d<l A = 30 â&#x2039;&#x2026; (4 â&#x2039;&#x2026; d<lâ&#x2039;&#x2026; q d<lâ&#x2039;&#x2026; q  t1 q d<lâ&#x2039;&#x2026; q d<lâ&#x2039;&#x2026; q  d<lâ&#x2039;&#x2026;q J2 <l d<l t2 q J3 <l d<l t3 q J4 <l d<l t4 q GZclb:. Hl\_l: d<lâ&#x2039;&#x2026;q

42


MijZ`g_gb_ 1. >Zgh J_r_gb_ Dhebq_kl\hl_iehluQ gZc^_fihaZdhgm>`hmey t fbg k E_gpZQ = I2Rt. R Hf I=5A Q = (5 A)2 â&#x2039;&#x2026; Hfâ&#x2039;&#x2026; F >` GZclbA. Hl\_lQ >` d>` 2. >eylh]hqlh[uij_^hl\jZlblvjZafudZgb_p_ib 3. GZijy`_gb_ gZ kibjZeb agZqbl_evgh [hevr_ gZijy`_gby jZkij_^_ey_fh]hf_`^mijh\h^ZfbKibjZevjZkdZey_lkyZ ijh\h^Z ihqlb g_ gZ]j_\Zxlkyihlhfmqlhkhijhlb\e_gb_kibjZeb\hfgh]hjZa[hevr_khijhlb\e_gbyijh\h^h\WlZjZagbpZ^hklb]Z_lkyaZkq_lbkihevah\Zgby^eykibjZeb ijh\h^gbdh\ k m^_evguf khijhlb\e_gb_f fgh]h [hevrbf m^_evgh]h khijhlb\e_gbyijh\h^h\ 4. < [hevr_ckl_i_gbgZ]j__lkygbd_ebgh\Zyijh\hehdZldm g__m^_evgh_ khijhlb\e_gb_[hevr_q_fm f_^ghcb klZevghcijh\hehd

MijZ`g_gb_

1. GZ^h\dexqblv\ p_ivj_hklZl 2. Ihf_gylvihexkubklhqgbdZlhdZ 3. M\_ebqblvqbkeh\bldh\\ we_dljhfZ]gbl_b \klZ\blv`_e_aguck_j^_qgbd 4. Baf_g_gb_f kbeu lhdZ qbkeZ \bldh\ \ we_dljhfZ]gbl_ b \klZ\e_gb_f \ugbfZgb_f`_e_agh]hk_j^_qgbdZ

MijZ`g_gb_

1. Ijh`_dlhjk\_qZa\_a^uh]hgvKhegp_fhegby 2. ?keb [u k\_l jZkijhkljZgyeky g_ ijyfhebg_cgh lh nhjfu iheml_g_c [ueb[ubgu_bebl_g_cb iheml_g_c\h\k_[ug_[ueh 3. Q_eh\_dgZoh^ysbcky\ h[eZklbl_gbijbkheg_qghfaZlf_gbbg_\b^bl KhegpZ lZd dZd EmgZ aZdju\Z_l _]h iheghklvx Q_eh\_d gZoh^ysbcky \ h[eZklbiheml_gbijbkheg_qghfaZlf_gbb\b^bllhevdhqZklvKhegpZlZd dZdEmgZaZdju\Z_l_]hg_iheghklvx

MijZ`g_gb_

1.

45°

45°

2. 0°.

43


3.

4.

MijZ`g_gb_

1. >hdZ`_fjZ\_gkl\hâ&#x2C6;&#x2020;SOO1 b â&#x2C6;&#x2020;S1OO1Z wlh[m^_lhagZqZlv qlh jZkklhygb_hla_jdZeZ^hlhqdbb jZkklhygb_hla_jdZeZ^hbah[jZ`_gbylhqdbjZ\gu â&#x2C6;&#x2020;SOO1 jZ\_g â&#x2C6;&#x2020;S1OO1 lZd dZd â&#x2C6; SO1O = â&#x2C6; S1O1O = 90° â&#x20AC;&#x201C; α1, â&#x2C6; SOO1 = â&#x2C6; S1OO1 = 90°, OO1 ²h[sZyklhjhgZ 2. Ijbgpbi^_ckl\byhkgh\ZggZhljZ`_gbbhla_jdZeZK\_lh\hcemqhljZ`Zykvhli_j\h]ha_jdZeZihiZ^Z_lgZ\lhjh_Z aZl_f²\ ]eZaq_eh\_dZ 3. >_ckl\b_ ijb[hjZ bah[jZ`_ggh]h gZ jbkmgd_  hkgh\Zgh gZ hljZ`_gbb k\_lZ hl a_jdZe Wlhl ijb[hj fh`_l [ulv bkihevah\Zg ^ey ijhkfhljZ f_klghklbaZ\ukhdbfij_iylkl\b_f 4. M]hedh\uchljZ`Zl_evihkljh_ggucgZlj_oiehkdboa_jdZeZo

44


MijZ`g_gb_ 1. 0°. 2. Ijb ihkljh_gbb ij_ehfe_ggh]h emqZ \ dZ`^hf kemqZ_ mqblu\Zcl_ qlh kl_deh²kj_^Zhilbq_kdb[he__iehlgZyq_f\ha^mo 3. BaaZij_ehfe_gbyk\_lZ 4.

5.

1)

2)

3)

MijZ`g_gb_

1. Hilbq_kdZykbeZebgaujZkiheh`_gghcgZjbkmgd_ [ ke_\Z[hevr_ 2. >Zgh J_r_gb_ D ±^ilj 1 1 F = ;F = ±f GZclbF.

â&#x2C6;&#x2019; 1,6 ^ilj

Hl\_lF ±fk ihfhsvxlZdhcebgau^_ckl\bl_evgh_bah[jZ`_gb_ihemqblvg_evay

D

MijZ`g_gb_

1. Bah[jZ`_gb_ ij_^f_lZ y\ey_lky ^_ckl\bl_evguf i_j_\_jgmluf _]h jZaf_jukoh^guk jZaf_jZfbkZfh]hij_^f_lZ

2F

F

F

2F

45


2.

F

3.

F

F

4. Ihf_j_ijh^\b`_gbyij_^f_lZhllhqdbF d lhqd_F _]hbah[jZ`_gb_ m\_ebqb\Z_lkyb m^Zey_lkyhlebgauIjbwlhfbah[jZ`_gb_ij_^f_lZy\ey_lky mf_gvr_gguf ^_ckl\bl_evguf i_j_\_jgmluf Ijb ijh^\b`_gbb ij_^f_lZhllhqdbF d lhqd_F _]hbah[jZ`_gb_m\_ebqb\Z_lkyb m^Zey_lky hl ebgau Ijb wlhf bah[jZ`_gb_ y\ey_lky m\_ebq_gguf ^_ckl\bl_evguf i_j_\_jgmlufIjbijh^\b`_gbbij_^f_lZhllhqdbF d p_gljmhilbq_kdhc hkb _]h bah[jZ`_gb_ mf_gvrZ_lky b ijb[eb`Z_lky d ebga_ Ijb wlhf bah[jZ`_gb_ij_^f_lZy\ey_lkym\_ebq_gguffgbfufijyfuf

46


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Физика 8кл_Перышкин_2001_Ответы и решения  

Физика 8кл_Перышкин_2001_Ответы и решения

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