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Enhancing workflow through collaborative solutions Assessment of, and proposal to, the Association Régionale pour l’Intégration BONNAUD DOWELL William Management Général


Rapport de Stage December 2007

Š Rights reserved.

Adobe, Microsoft, Google, Google Apps, Google Docs, Windows Server, Office SharePoint Server, Microsoft Office, and other names mentioned within this report are protected by international law for their respective owners. Screenshots and other visual representations of licensed software are destined for use in this report with academic usage only. Any discussion of future products is merely speculative and subject to change.

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CONTENTS Foreword & Report Plan ....................................................................................... 5 Foreword ................................................................................................................... 5 Plan ............................................................................................................................ 7 Association RĂŠgionale pour l'IntĂŠgration ............................................................... 9 Historical background ................................................................................................ 9 Purpose and aims of ARI ............................................................................................ 9 Organisational structure .......................................................................................... 10 Financial structure & sources .................................................................................. 10 Binding legal structures ........................................................................................... 12 Internship mission and objectives carried out ...................................................... 13 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 13 Objectives ................................................................................................................ 13 Day-to-day activities ................................................................................................ 14 Analysis and subsequent work on Collaborative solutions ................................... 16 Methodology and means .................................................................................... 17 Assessing the situation ............................................................................................ 17 Researching the options .......................................................................................... 20 Outcome ............................................................................................................ 22 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 22 Analytical outcome .................................................................................................. 22 Researching the options to remedy the issues uncovered ..................................... 27 Summary of the findings.......................................................................................... 31 Summary of the Research for a solution ................................................................. 31 Recommendations & suggestions ........................................................................ 33 Microsoft Office SharePoint Server ......................................................................... 35

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The Outcome for ARI .......................................................................................... 39 Lessons learnt from the experiences ................................................................... 41 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 41 Lessons learnt .......................................................................................................... 41 Critical analysis: Problems and obstacles ............................................................. 42 Problems .................................................................................................................. 42 Obsticles .................................................................................................................. 44 Conclusion ............................................................................................................... 45 Bibliography ....................................................................................................... 46 Non-published resources ......................................................................................... 46 Online resources ...................................................................................................... 46 Printed Resources .................................................................................................... 47 Appendices / Annex ............................................................................................ 48 Butler Group report ................................................................................................. 48 Licensing and related technology requirements ..................................................... 49 Liste des Êtablissements de l’ARI............................................................................. 50

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FOREWORD & REPORT PLAN

(LE SOMMAIRE ET PLAN DU RAPPORT)

FOREWORD Towards the first quarter of the Internship with ARI, I began to feel that that the concept of a Mission de Stage, and subsequent Rapport can be broken down into several core principles: Interest, Academic coherence, professional relevance, and benefiting the organisation.

INTEREST Whenever writing a report with the aim of detailing a subject, I’ve always had a belief that the will has to go beyond the academic parameters set. Indeed, it has to go beyond the requirements of the company or organisation with which you are ‘contracted’ to. As outlined in the guidance for this, we are encouraged to behave and produce a report that is equivalent to a Consultant. The topic of this Rapport de Stage fits this mission.

ACADEMIC COHERENCE An end-of-year report, following a Masters, is presumably designed to provide evidence that the past 12 months of academic tuition has been absorbed, and the student has matured and put this into good use. A difficult balance not to regurgitate the exam papers but not to go completely off remit has to be struck. I have decided to lean towards the boundaries of interest and scope to ensure that there is no duplication of academic competence but rather take the overall theme of Management and introduce a level of organisational assessment through an architectural consultancy into the equation.

PROFESSIONAL RELEVANCE As I look forward to the professional environment within the next months, of Consultancy involving IT solutions I have ensured that this report merges this interest. It is increasingly clear that organisations of all sizes – are increasingly changing the way they work. As the years progress, as information is increasingly ‘portable’ in the digital sense, the need to have it used efficiently is of great importance.

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BENEFITING THE ORGANISATION While my original remit was restricted to attending the Association Regionale pour l’Intégration for 12 weeks over a four month period and contribute to the daily duties of financial and accounting tasks, I believe that my background and my interest could expand beyond this, and leave a more lasting purpose. Clearly, I hope that I have fulfilled the broad parameters of assisting the Finance section of ARI in Marseille. I have certainly gained from the insight in ‘real life’ accounting procedures; better appreciate the Burdon and the precise nature of accounting for all expenditure and revenues. From the annual reports to the daily monitoring of all invoices, the tasks require extraordinary diligence, without which the entire organisation would collapse and legal proceedings would commence. I will developing why I have focused on the importance of the collaboration goals later in this report, but looking from a ‘zoomed-out’ perspective, I feel that this could ultimately be of a stronger benefit to the organisation. Beyond, and in addition the 12 weeks of attendance, I have studied the issue of collaborative solutions over the past 2 months to prepare this report. It has made me more certain than at any point previously that the issue is complex, but the solutions are relatively simple to instigate, and can radically – through what seems a relatively straightforward set of software installations – change the way people work.

In summary, I felt strongly that the mission should not be as clear-cut as ‘go and throw yourself in and jump out with a report’. I’d be foolish to reason that the pedagogical motivation and aim were that simple.

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PLAN This report is a reflection of an ability to transcribe observations and concepts for change. 1.

About the Association Régionale pour l’Intégration In the first section of this Report, I’ve outlined the organisation within which I have worked. By the end of this section, it would be obvious for which they have improved the lives of many people, young and older. The historical context, the size of the structure, and the geographic dispersion of the organisation also helps to appreciate the importance of a collaborative solutions.

2.

Internship mission and objectives carried out The second chapter works on explaining the actual approach I took, from arrival to realisation that there could be something done to improve the workflow with an analysis and subsequent work on Collaborative solutions

3.

Methodology and means The methodology by which I analysis the issues with diagrams to explain the work path, and the means of research I used to find alternatives solutions are elaborated here.

4.

Outcome This area goes through, in a logical step, at all the stages of the methodology to find the exact issues, and possible solutions

5.

Recommendations & Suggestions Much as the Outcome explores the possibilities, this will focus in on a recommended solution with various other solutions explored.

6.

The outcome for Association Régionale pour l’Intégration The outcome for the organisation is this document. Whilst there is no actual installation, the options have been studied, a basic overview of the service and software are outlined, and the organisation now have the realisation that things can work differently.

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7.

Lessons learnt on the experiences The seventh chapter works on establishing the facts of the experience, both in terms of the actual Internship duration in Marseille, but also the context in which data collaboration is changing the way we work.

8.

Critical analysis : Problems and Obstacles Problems and obstacles are inevitable in any experience. I detail mine.

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ASSOCIATION REGIONALE POUR L'INTEGRATION

UNE PRESENTATION DE L’ORGANISATION ET DE SES CARACTERISTIQUES PARTICULIERES.

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND Dans les années 60, le Ministère de la « Santé Publique et de la Population » créait dans chaque région, les Centres régionaux pour l'enfance et l'adolescence inadaptées (CREAI). Il s'agissait principalement d'organiser un espace ouvert à tous les partenaires de l'action sociale en vue de favoriser leur collaboration et de créer une équipe technique compétente à la disposition du terrain et de l'administration qui venait d'être mise en place. En 1985, les Pouvoirs Public évoquent le souhait de séparer l'activité gestionnaire des autres missions des CREAI. Afin de répondre à cette demande, l’Association Régionale pour l’Intégration (ARI) est créée en région Provence Alpes Côte d’Azur.

PURPOSE AND AIMS OF ARI PROMOTING SOCIAL INTEGRATION Régie sous la loi 1901, l'association se consacre à l'intégration des personnes handicapées et en difficulté. Son action est fondée sur le droit reconnu à tout individu de bénéficier de l'ensemble des dispositifs sociaux ouverts à tous les citoyens (éducation, formation, santé, habitat, loisirs, vie sociale). L’association gère près de 34 services et établissements répartis dans les départements des Bouches-du-Rhône, du Vaucluse et des Alpes-de-Haute-Provence. Elle participe à toutes les actions sanitaires, sociales, médico-sociales, économiques et éducatives susceptibles d'aider les personnes handicapées et en difficulté.

OPTIMISING THE MANAGEMENT Reconnue comme un outil de gestion adapté aux différents types d’établissements et de services, l’ARI permet également de fédérer toutes les structures qui souhaitent conduire des projets d'envergure, rationaliser leur gestion ou nouer des partenariats.

PROMOTING PARTNERSHIPS L'ARI est géré par un Conseil d'Administration issu de quatre collèges formés par les partenaires, les collectivités territoriales, des personnalités qualifiées et les représentants du personnel. Toutes les actions entreprises sont développées en coordination avec les

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interlocuteurs impliqués dans l'action sociale, l’Education Nationale, la Santé, le Travail. L'évaluation des projets et les actions de formation continue sont largement encouragées.

ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE HEAD OFFICE Situé dans le centre ville de Marseille, le siège est responsable de la mise en œuvre de la politique générale de l'Association. Assisté de cadres et de techniciens, il prépare les éléments de décisions pour les instances de l'association et les fait appliquer. Il assure également les liaisons sur les plans techniques et financiers avec les organismes de contrôle. Outre sa mission de contrôle, il vient en appui aux établissements pour leur fonctionnement et pour la mise en œuvre de leurs projets. Le siège est structuré en quatre services : la direction générale, la direction comptable et financière, les ressources humaines et l’informatique.

REGIONAL ESTABLISHMENTS ACCROSS THE REGION Les établissements rattachés à l’ARI ont une vocation médico-sociale par l’apport de soins spécifiques et/ou l’assistance sociale. Ces établissements regroupent trois secteurs d’intervention et accueillent des populations différentes : -

Le secteur médico-éducatif : rassemble les établissements qui assurent l’éducation des enfants et des adolescents handicapés.

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Le secteur Adultes : regroupe les Centres d’aide par le travail (CAT), et les foyers.

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Le secteur Hébergement et réinsertion sociale : accueille des personnes et familles en difficulté.

FINANCIAL STRUCTURE & SOURCES Avec un effectif d’environ 1300 salariés pour une trentaine établissements et un budget annuel de plus de 50 millions d’Euros l’ARI accueille aujourd’hui plus de 6500 personnes en situation de handicap. De ce fait, l’association se situe parmi les plus grandes organisations du secteur social de la région PACA. Le financement intervient selon les catégories d’établissements soit par la facturation de journée ou forfait soit par une dotation globale. Ceci se traduit par environ: -

160,000 journées facturées,

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-

45,000 forfaits facturés,

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13,000 journées d'hospitalisations,

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27,000 journées de CAT.

Les établissements sont financés au niveau départemental par des organismes d’Etat. Le secteur « enfants et adolescents » reçoit des financements de la part des Directions départementales sanitaires et sociales. Le secteur « adultes » est financé par les Conseils généraux des départements.

OVERVIEW OF FINANCIAL RESOURCE ORIGINS

2% 4%

Financial Resources allocated to ARI

2% 2%

ARH 12%

8%

DDASS 13 DDASS 04 DDASS 84

10%

Departement 13 Departement 04

4%

Exploitation 13 56%

Exploitation 04 Politique Associative

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BINDING LEGAL STRUCTURES Different laws have been introduced over the years, integrating and bringing together the various different regulations relating to Integration. The most significant of which are: Loi n° 75-534 du 30 juin 1975 -

d’orientation en faveur des personnes handicapées,

La loi du 10 juillet 1987 -

en faveur de l'emploi des travailleurs handicapés, Les décrets d'avril 1988 de la loi du 10 juillet 1989 dite d'orientation sur l'éducation, visent à l'organisation des établissements médico-sociaux d'éducation spéciale,

La loi du 12 juillet 1990 -

relative à la protection des personnes contre la discrimination en raison de leur état de santé ou de leur handicap,

La loi du 13 juillet 1991 -

concernant l'accessibilité des personnes handicapées,

Loi n° 98-657 du 29 juillet 1998 -

d’orientation relative à la lutte contre les exclusions,

Loi n° 2002-2 du 2 janvier 2002 -

Rénovant l’action sociale et médico-sociale. Cette loi rappelle les principes fondamentaux de l’action sociale et médico-sociale, les droits de l’usager, les devoirs des établissements et services sociaux et médicosociaux.

-

Cette loi concerne 3 séries d’enjeux : les usagers, les gestionnaires, les travailleurs sociaux et les bénévoles.

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INTERNSHIP MISSION AND OBJECTIVES CARRIED OUT

LA DEFINITION DU THEME DU STAGE, DES OBJECTIFS DU TRAVAIL EFFECTUE (POUR QUI ? POURQUOI ?)

INTRODUCTION Mme Mathieu (Chartered Accountant, and Head of Finance) was charged with responsibility, with day-to-day activities strongly supported by Hassan Abbad. Both worked in the Finance office, based within the Head Office at Rue Saint Sabastien, Marseille. Due to the nature of ARI being an Organisation rather than a commercial entity, I believed it would be of added-value to complement a previous experience in the Headquarters of Barclays Plc in London. It certainly added a more compassionate context to the working environment. People worked with dedication, some of which were Directors of the Establishments. I wished to immerse myself in this organisation, gain some better understanding of the constraints and requirements in keeping a large regional organisation running, and also see how their operational activities compared. I had been able to benefit from seeing the head office at an interview prior to starting at the organisation, and get a quick grasp of the tasks. Relatively unusually for an organisation, it was structured with the Headquarters running the administration (HR and Finance) for many local Establishments. This of note, because it meant it had the impact of making the Head Office a relatively fluid context. There was considerably physical movement of personnel to the various locations, and constant communication – email, fax or telephone – between the Head Office, from where i worked, to the offices. As a result the issues with which I elaborate on later are all the more applicable to the ARI and data collaboration.

OBJECTIVES The objectives of the Stage were two-fold: Work with the day-to-day activities in finance/ accounting, and secondly assess the needs to improve the work flow. This section aims to elaborate on both aspects of the tasks taken, but the primary focus is on the realisation and successive decision to focus on collaboration.

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DAY-TO-DAY ACTIVITIES

During my three months at ARI, several tasks were carried out. The initial aim was to improve my numerical abilities, through the tuition of M. Abbad, and become familiar with the office environment. Much of the work was either routine tasks that needed updating (loans), while others were more of a case of absorbing tasks that couldn’t have been done otherwise, due to the shortage of time (archiving, portfolio of loans). Supporting documents are not included in this report as the figures are confidential. The Annex contains the documents with the date removed.

PORTFOLIO OF SITUATION REGARDING LOAN REPAYMENTS Going through some 89 outstanding loans, spread over 35 establishments, I worked within Excel and with the help of various documents to establish the -

Correct start and end date provision, number of, and bank references.

-

Location and corroboration of outstanding payment amounts.

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Calculation of Capital payments over the previous 12 months, 1- 5 years, and beyond 5 years where applicable.

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Corroboration of the conditions of Guarantee of the loan, often unclear or inconsistent.

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Conversion from French Franc into Euro for all payment details where applicable

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Searching within archives for missing loan documentation

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Contacting the banks and other loan providers for duplicate information.

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Presentation of all data in a presentable printed format

INVOICES Invoices are sent directly to the ARI finance bureau in Marseille and, after payment, the documents are copied, prepared and placed into folders. After three years, these are transferred to the Archive.

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COMPTE DE RESULTATS Working for the Expert du CCE, a colleague and I resumed into Excel documents, various data, financial and accounting, for each of the establishments (Bilan, compete de resultat, effectif, activité de l’établissement), comparing 2003’s data with 2007. Data for 2006 was also added.

BFR – BESOIN DE FOND DE ROULEMENT For investments, I worked on the financial analysis (Fond de roulement, Besoin en fond de roulement), for each of the Establishments, using Excel.

ORANGE MOBILE Filtered through each of the invoices for Orange Mobile phone calls for all the phones ARI possess, and ensured they were digitally scanned, and redistributed to the appropriate establishment

EDF EXPENDITURE CHART Working over past bills, I produced an Excel document with the costs indicated, price per KW, and projected costs over the next year.

RENOVATION WORK Along with a colleague, I produced a folder containing details of the major renovation and construction works at the Head Quarters. This required classification by work (Architect, Electrical etc) and a verification that the figures presented tallied with the subcontracting and the invoices on the system as well as the previously-set budget.

TRAINING FORM Working in Excel, I, along with a fellow intern, produced a “Plan de Formation” for employees

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ANALYSIS AND SUBSEQUENT WORK ON COLLABORATIVE SOLUTIONS What become apparent within a few weeks of working through the daily accounting tasks was that I was becoming increasingly perplexed by the nature of the file sharing. On many occasion, final revisions, where being lost and confused. Different versions of the files were being located on different systems. At one point we found ourselves with files scattered on: 

Hard drive of the Desktop PC

Laptop PC

USB Storage key

Shared network drive (Location A)

Shared drive (Location B)

Email (off-site) & Email (onsite)

Archives, on paper, without electronic versions.

This provokes many issues, including legal ones relating to Data protection of information on digital storage. Furthermore as the organisation is involved in the provision of healthcare, respective legislation further beholds the responsibility of the keepers of the data. I felt that I should focus on analysing the exact situation and then research an alternative method of behaving with these files, and it soon become apparent that the route cause was actually trying to collaborate with many people over one document. Some sort of document collaboration software was surely available. And I spent the majority of my time at the end of the internship, and following months outlining the situations, and then looking at the issue. Once this was completed, I looked at the options for solutions. This report details this.

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METHODOLOGY AND MEANS

LA MÉTHODE UTILISÉE ET LES MOYENS MIS EN OEUVRE.

ASSESSING THE SITUATION During this project, the key factor has been to assess the situation at ARI. Indeed, this is what instinctively alerted me to the thought that there perhaps exists a better method. This section outlines the steps I took to make the casual observations into a methodological assessment It is a fair suggestion to remark that such observation is relatively straightforward, but in order for the proposal to be constructive with evidence, the approach has to be systematic and documented. This process also ensures that any rational for the current system is considered with due care and diligence, rather than assumptions from a previous experience overriding the true needs and desires of the organisation.

The observations are as follows:

DOCUMENTARY FILE AND LOCATION EVIDENCE -

File locations By looking at where files were stored, it would perhaps be suggested that it is selfevident that a more concise arrangement could be constructed should there be multilocations. That said, the rationale for local, system-based or other location fixed documents, current polities on where the documents would be held

-

Clarity of document versions (meta-data; time, data; edited/create by) Evidence of clarity regarding document versions (time, date; size; edited by; created by) are all important factors when considering the Document Collaboration issue. Where multiple identities have been working on a single document, and these documents have an ambiguous history with regards to any of the meta-data (listed above) the evidence would suggest a need for a more reliable approach.

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-

Evidence of systematic naming or folder approach Such evidence would suggest that there is an attempt to structure the current systems, and this should be given due attention. However, this could further unearth the difficulty of the currently data policy, if attempts to do so are found to be inconsistent

LISTENING -

Learning curve to file storage and collaboration features Through discussions with recent recruits and interns, an idea of whether the file issues and collaborate solutions was an issue sole to me. This is of key importance as this gives the best sense of the immediate situation, confronted by a replacement person in case of absence or new employment. For Auditors, new and temporary staff the situation should be learnt once, and then replicable in a systemic fashion.

PERSONAL EXPERIENCE -

Difficulties encountered with storage Already discussed in the overview of this report, the situation I found myself in – as a new comer, technically competent, is an indicator. Where I had difficulties, and why over the 3 months should be noted. How I attempted to resolve, within the time permitted, too. Outstanding issues. All approaches to assessing the situation as accurately as possible, and ultimately to best find a solution.

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Document collaboration Interlinked into the issue of file storage is the issue of file sharing. Similar to above, the issue of the reliability of the current system is an important factor.

RISKS PERTAINING TO THE EXISTING SYSTEM -

Data protection The work being carried out relates to the Financing of the ARI. This is sensitive data, and subject to auditing, Tax inspections, and internal inspections should there be any untoward activity.

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-

Healthcare related files As Association RÊgionale pour l’Integration is in existent to provide medical support, al l the information at the organisation is covered under Medical Data laws. This restricts the disposal of files during the life time and 10 years after, each patient. This effectively constrains ARI to permanent archiving of records.

Evidence that politics currently in place regarding the storage of files is appropriate to this level of data-security for inspection and archive is imperative.

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RESEARCHING THE OPTIONS Once the assessment was carried out above, a need to research the options which best fit the issues, by resolving them.

PRINTED PUBLICATIONS -

Software resources from an Administrator’s perspective I posses various technical publications on products from Microsoft. Reading through these, and understanding the product offerings is important

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Software resources from a user’s perspective With other publications as well as those above, the importance of reading through the proposal from a user’s perspective is paramount. The aim is to find a product that is relatively simple to operate. It must not require a technical background and does not obstruct the aim of the ARI.

ONLINE RESOURCES -

Online resources have proven to be limited only by the time allocated to the interest. Through the vast resources the internet has to offer, an assessment of the scale of products’ uses across industry and the way it has changed the way companies record and work through documents is undoubtedly a good place to look.

Furthermore, in any modern research the internet provides a repository for reports by professional Think Tanks, Companies, and Stock Market researchers, who present their findings publically in reports.

That noted, it is important to be vigilant on the authority of such documents, as the internet is a source, when not careful, of unmonitored and untested authority.

EXTERNAL EXPERTISE AND KNOWLEDGE -

From contacts from, and materials used, in previous employment Although difficult to use without causing legal headaches, the option to return to previous employment and request permission for any material that could be useful is an avenue worth exploring.

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-

Researching ideas from Information technology experiences Relevant IT knowledge gained through experiences, whether formal or not, could make sense in this perspective. Classified as Research, as it originates from knowledge gained, and applicable to the task. Having worked for Microsoft as a voluntary pre-release tester for the past years 5 years and continuing to do so gives context to the reports propositions. In this report, this information while tacit rather than absolute.

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OUTCOME

LES RÉSULTATS OBTENUS.

INTRODUCTION The outcome of the analysis and subsequent research, following the outline of the previous section, is found below. For ease-of-reading, the outcome of the analysis and research is listed with the same chronology. Prior to reading this, it is worth nothing that the results were relatively without ambiguity. On most of the points (surmised towards the end of each sub-section) proved valid. The research undertaken after leaving ARI has clearly identified that there are software tools that, when used correctly, can drastically re-structure this file storage and collaboration into a more effective and reliable mechanisms.

ANALYTICAL OUTCOME DOCUMENTARY FILE AND LOCATION EVIDENCE -

File locations

Over a particular file’s lifetime, the location of which was located in various places As an overall principle, files are generally stored on a shared network drive, but in the case of colleagues working together, the file was often duplicated onto a separate folder, either networked, or diverted onto a separate client PC. The transfer occurred either via Email, USB Memory stick or via the network. There seems no ‘hard-andfast-rule’ for such transfers.

This also brings about difficulties when considering security.

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FILE LOCATIONS AT THE ARI HEADQUARTERS.

The following tablet outlines the various locations a file (or copy / mutation) is stored. The below locations were all witness by myself during the three months. These occur during the transfer, or for the storage of, documents.

File location

Explanation

Hard drive of the Desktop PC:

-

Usually within a User’s individual profile. Not always transferrable to a separate PC even if the user logs-on to the network system.

Hard drive on temporary Laptop PC

-

Often used when mobile, or fixed office space is not available. These machines are intended for training, and used only in ‘emergency’ situations There is no data security relating to the creator the file Not set up with networking. Files are static to the system, and use profiles not fully implemented

-

USB Storage key

-

3x Shared network drives

-

Email (off-site) & Email (onsite):

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Paper

-

Used during the transfer of a file(s) from System X to System Y Sometimes file end up being updated directly ONTO the stick, and then the stick is reused, loosing data. No data protection / encryption User X has a secure area, During a transfer the file is either copied to a Shared drive area, or.. Copied to a third, inappropriate, area, for mutual convenience For temporary staff, such as interns (for which ARI regularly recruit) email is not provided Messages, containing transferred files, are distributed over the public internet, onto an email provider outside the control of ARI It can occur that, due to the complexities (and hassle) of secured areas, and nonprovisioned security settings. the Owner of File X prints the document providing a hard, but destructive, copy

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-

Clarity of document versions (meta-data; time, data, edited/created by) Although Microsoft Office Word, Excel and other programmes, record the time, author and the ‘Last Updated’ meta-data, there is ambiguity when analysing individual files for the most recent version as some files have had their “Created” date altered (when copied on a memory stick etc, the file is essentially re-born from scratch).

Where multiple identities have been working on a single document, this has been impossible to establish with the vast majority of documents analysed. In a very small number of cases (2 out of the 50+ files analysed), the comments feature has been added, providing Author identification. This is in any case not an indicator of who has access to the files or who has edited it; merely who contributed with the Comment function. In no cases was Document Mark-up in Microsoft Office Word utilised, which would provide the clear identification of the contributors. .

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Evidence of systematic naming or folder approach During my time working at ARI, it is clear that attempt to structure the folders in teh various location with names and permissions have been made. This approach has provided inconsistent at best.

The Shared drives have been divided up into project-based folders. The authority of consistency is lacking, as sub-folders, outdated materials, and naming of individual files have varied application of this.

For individually stored data (on the respective PC’, or on the individually created shared drive) the policy appears to be to the holder of the information. The same situation exists within Email applications such as Outlook where attachments could be present.

As discussed previously, the nature of the multiple locations will lead to duplicating of the files, and any naming attempts would be inconsistent unless applied throughout the list of storage locations (see table).

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LISTENING -

Learning curve to file storage and collaboration features Some discussions did reveal that there was general confusion at times about where a file would be, particularly among the newest of recruits. I was personally responsible for being unable to respond to queries.

When the file was produced by an individual from start-to-finish, there seemed little problem. Each person had their own file policy. However, as soon as collaboration was involved, as it frequently was, the issues were exemplified

Akin to the issue of a desk being cluttered with loose sheets of paper, there seemed no systemic protocol to remove this problem.

PERSONAL EXPERIENCE -

Difficulties encountered with storage Although I am computer literate, with experience working with Microsoft, have systems at home and university, the quantity of files amassed during the time at ARI – whether for me, or just passing by – become an issue.

During the work day, I would attempt to remain on the same task, but inevitably with accounting, there are various issues at any one time. There are also several people looking for information (Invoices for architects is one such example) while in the middle of filling out a record of previous EDF and Orange telephone invoices. Under such circumstances, and as somebody who is not particularly organise or adept at multi-tasking, I found that confusion arose.

I took efforts to organise my information into one central location, but a network connection wasn’t always present, and this made it more difficult. Furthermore, the nature of my role meant that much of the files were not originating with me, but forwarded by co-workers. -

Document collaboration I personally found document collaboration awkward and restraining access the true aims of the work. Files were sent by different means and located erratically. This is clearly not a personal criticism of any one person, but a systemic issue.

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Listing all the various data locations, from shared network drives to email accounts and ‘client’ system as an analysis gave me a better idea of the complexities from an architectural perspective, and further animated me to progress with this report.

From an end-user assessment of what occurs when swopping systems and sharing files, it is damning.

RISKS PERTAINING TO THE EXISTING SYSTEM -

Data protection

All systems require a log-in username and password. This authentication is relatively secure for the casual user and certainly dissuasive.

USB Memory sticks, however, are not encrypted or password protected leaving them a highly portable method of transfer of data.

Evidence those policies currently in place when taking into consideration the USB Memory storage regarding the storage of files is inappropriate to this level of datasecurity for inspection and archive is imperative.

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RESEARCHING THE OPTIONS TO REMEDY THE ISSUES UNCOVERED Using a variety of resources outlined below, I have come to find a class of software products which could suit the needs of the organisation. I had a fair inkling that the options existed, but made sure the approach was systematic, and suited to the organisation.

PUBLICATIONS AND RESOURCES ONLINE -

Initially, I had thought that separating printed publications out would provided a higher quality of reader content. However, I believe now that the internet actually contains more relevant data in certain aspects. I have therefore not distinguished between data located online and off.

-

My approach to searching a desired solution comprised of reading various articles online regarding how organisations increasingly struggle to manage information. I found the following of particular interest, and highly applicable

-

1

According to Butler Group’s influential and oft-cited report from 2006 ,

“Information workers spend up to 30% of their working day just looking for data they need to complete a task, and 15-25% of their time on non-productive, information-related activities.” They further go on to say that, as more and more organisations-of all sizes –realise the potential benefits from sharing data,

“Datamonitor estimates the size of the Content Management market to be US$1.46 billion in 2007, rising to US$1.98 billion by 2010. Butler Group estimates the Document Collaboration segment of the current market to be 40%, which is US$586 million”

Astonishing figures for a reputable report, which confirm my suspicions. They further surmise, with an indication that,

In commercial and regulated environments, control of the Document Collaboration process is essential for business wellbeing and compliance reasons, and yet many organisations

1

Butler Group (Part of DataMonitor, specialized in data solutions): Linking People, Process and Content, Published December 2006

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fail to address these issues, preferring instead to leave it up to the individual to self-regulate their actions. ARI operates within a regulated environment, not least the Finance section, where both Medical laws and financial compliance have an immediate effect on compliance.

EXTERNAL EXPERTISE AND KNOWLEDGE -

From contacts from, and materials used, in previous employment It proved to be impossible to successfully attain documentation from a previous employee, despite attempts to do so, where I had done an implementation of SharePoint. This is regrettable, but highly understandable. It is also, on reflection, of limited value, as the materials were specific to an Enterprise-sized infrastructure, and of limited compatibility with ARI.

-

Researching ideas from Information technology experiences From the work I have done with Microsoft, I have built up a network of contacts. The people, and documentation has provided highly useful, and opinions valuable in the construction of a solution for ARI’s document management and collaboration.

They were all unanimous on the solutions available to me, which has been very useful, but their opinions are valid only in so much that they are contributors from a technical environment.

VENDORS -

Nextpage, Microsoft SharePoint, Filenet are all solutions that cater to better sharing in a collaborative way, centralising the filing system mentioned in various papers and sites online. The respective websites of the software developers provide more details.

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So, there we had it. The reading of the Butler Group findings gave me ammunition to feel vindicated and convinced. my assessments were not paranoid, or irrational, but very real. Backed up by countless other articles and other White Papers, and Forrester Research 23

documents , the solution seemed more evident than ever. It made sense to properly analyse what we were potentially discussing:

WHAT IS A DOCUMENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM? As we’ve established through the references of the Butler Group report, such solutions certainly exist, and document management / collaboration software solutions can be defined as such: “A document management system (DMS) is a computer system (or set of computer programs) used to track and store electronic documents and/or images of paper documents. The term has some overlap with the concepts of Content Management Systems and related to Digital Asset Management, Document imaging, Workflow systems and Records Management systems.”

4

These systems are touted as resolving many (and some additional) issues we have seen in the analytical section of this report. I have provided a tablet on the following pages which list all the most common features:

2

Forrester Research: Collaboration Trends 2006 To 2007 (Erica Driver, Christopher Mines, Elizabeth Herrell, Claire Schooley, and Eric Kim) 3 Forrester Research: Microsoft Is A Leader In The Collaboration Platforms Market. 2006: The Forrester Wave™ Vendor Summary, Q2 2006 (Erica Driver, with Connie Moore and Lucy Fossner) 4 Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Content_management_system (as at 29/11/2007)

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THE OVERALL OPTIONS OF MOST DOCUMENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

Location of the files

-

Centralised onto a server

Filing in systematic way

-

Document management systems will typically use a database to store filing information.

Retrieving the files

-

Typically, retrieval encompasses both browsing through documents and searching for specific information with search tools, or through logical web-browser interfaces.

Security / Data protection

-

Files obey digital rights management providing access to only authorized users.

Disaster Recovery

-

Systems tend to use centralised storage, which facilities off-site back-up, or internal redundancy drives

Retention

-

An organizational policy and practice that defines what information, or documents, are to be retained; for what length of time; and what point in time the information must be removed or deleted. Retention rules are usually based on organizational practice of Records Management. The system identifies the date placed and last accessed.

Archiving

-

Archiving is the removal from the active repository of documents. Usually archiving entails movement of documents, whether paper or electronic to a separate storage facility, be it an archival warehouse, or a nearline / offline storage device.

Distribution

-

Varying possibilities regarding the nature of access. Can include web-based (open to any internet access) or intranet (internal audience only).

Workflow

-

If documents need to pass from one person to another, rules for how their work should flow is controllable

Creation

-

How are documents created? This question becomes important when multiple people need to collaborate, and the logistics of version control and authoring arise.

Authentication/Approval

-

Provides needed requirements for legal submission to government and private industry that the documents are original and meet their standards for authentication?

12 products are known to me as Document management solutions. The three most well known that are compatible with ARI’s existing Microsoft infrastructure, are Documentum, Sharepoint and Filenet. IBM is also serious competitor in this space, a titan alongside Microsoft, but this relies on using Lotus and other IBM technologies, designed for the enterprise client, which makes it inappropriate for ARI.

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SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS

The Current ARI file arrangements, whether with regards to storage or sharing are as follows 1.

Going through, in retrospective logic, the negative impact on issues of virtually all scenarios of file management and collaboration are present.

2.

These are systemic, rather than occasional failings to optimise behaviour.

3.

They are unfriendly towards new recruits, temporary or permanent, and risk jeopardising the workflow should there be an unplanned departure.

4.

Security is potentially weak, though not catastrophic.

5.

There is no protection from the accidental deletion of a file from local systems, only post-recovery mechanisms if required.

SUMMARY OF THE RESEARCH FOR A SOLUTION Remedies on the current system do appear possible: 1.

Central document Storage management do exist, that can provide a friendly, accessible web-based, interface.

2.

Collaboration software that can enhance the current arrangements do exist, which would remove the risk of deletion, duplication, unauthorised access, and data loss.

3.

A solution exists that behaves within the current Microsoft Office software applications (more details in the next section).

4.

All software produced files can be stored effectively in a more effective manner than at present with regarding to multi-person work on an individual file.

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Internet

Network scanner

Server

Users

‘Teacher’

Intern Figure 1: A simplified schematic of ARI's Head Office IT infrastructure

The physical network infrastructure is already in place as can be seen above. The blue line is the network (Ethernet), and all systems are linked. The internet is available through the ARI server. The physical infrastructure visible would NOT change with any of the proposals, as the system solution is software based. Further to this, the software would be installed onto the one device – the Service. There is no additional software for each PC. This ensures technical tasks, such as maintenance and backup, are confined to the minimal of risk as well as ensuring efficiency. Whilst the physical network may not change, the behaviour of each user would change, in addition to the allocation of data on the network.

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RECOMMENDATIONS & SUGGESTIONS

LES PRECONISATIONS OU SUGGESTIONS.

My recommendations, following my 12 weeks at ARI, and subsequent weeks of research and writing this report are:

1.

The installation of a Document collaboration – or Document Management system into the headquarters of ARI.

i)

For all the many reasons detailed, this would improve the document security, back-up strategy, and simplify searching if implemented with portals and folder structures.

ii)

At this time and for the time frame between now and 5 years hence, Microsoft Office SharePoint Server would be a strong candidate for implementation

A strong advantage of the Microsoft system over any of the competition is that by definition the Microsoft Office offering is within the same family, and same company as SharePoint Sever, ARI currently used Microsoft Office on all its Personal Computers, and the tight integration and increases value to the proposition with document collaboration.

As it would be impossible to detail all the solutions from providers, I have decided to elaborate on what this solution has to offer later in this section. It is now the only solution possible. Furthermore, this report is not about offering an IT infrastructure, rather changing the way people work. If this can be done with one solution or another, this is not of core importance.

2.

Should an intranet solution not proceed, or prior to transition, an acknowledgement of the current multiple-directory issues would be prudent.

i)

Steps can be taken to address the use of USB Keys, Email, and shared disk drive without implementation of a Document collaboration suit. The recommendation, following this report, would be to centralise all storage,

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and only keep the minimum of data on individual machines. Furthermore, all individual machines should run an automated network back-up process.

ii)

All USB keys should use encryption automatically.

iii)

By re-establishing the correct owners of directories, with the correct permissions (read-only, write, administrator), with clear naming protocols, breaches of access will be reduced, files lost less frequently, and efficiency maximised.

iv)

Due to the potentially sensitive data, protective under Data Protection and Medical record laws, interns should be provided with their own email, account and hard drive login details. This would illuminate the off-site storage liability encountered during my time.

3.

Online, hosted and low cost solutions are the future (~ 5 years)

i)

Parallel to the increasing omnipresence of the internet in terms of access, speed, and data transfer capacity, there is a significant evolution (some would argue revolution) with regards to the Software as a Service market. The era of small-to-medium size companies having to manage software on their infrastructure may be coming to a close.

ii)

Multi-billion € companies, such as Google or Adobe, as well as small, startup companies are vying with the provision of hosted solutions, which would considerably alter the cost structure, the installation requirements, for much of the same result. Removing this Burdon from an organisation like ARI could prove to be highly attractive

iii)

Google’s portfolio of online office products – such as Google Docs, Google Calc and Google Show, alongside the provision of centralised storage solutions and sharing capabilities remove the issue of document management from the equation.

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At this time, Google’s Calc application and general services are still in their relative infancy, carrying the pre-release tag “beta” on all of the services. The shift to ‘Cloud computing’ would also require extremely high reliability with ARI’s internet provision. Without access documents would be inaccessible. In time, it is planned to bring down the Google services to the desktop with synchronised file management to ensure that this is not an issue.

iv)

Given the caveats, it would be premature to attempt to migrate to this model at this time.

MICROSOFT OFFICE SHAREPOINT SERVER

Microsoft resumes the Office SharePoint (2007) Server offering in a 5

succinct text as follows:

[..] SharePoint uniquely provides a comprehensive solution for connected information work that enables business and people to transform the way they work while preserving the benefits of structured processes and existing IT investments. Specifically, Office SharePoint Server 2007 is a business productivity server optimized for the way people work, providing people with a familiar, consistent view of information, collaboration, and process; IT with a comprehensive, easily-managed and integrated platform to meet the needs of the business; and developers with an adaptive, extensible environment to build new applications. With SharePoint providing the foundation for an organizational commitment toward optimizing around the way people work, that organization is positioned to achieve a genuine transformation [...]

5

Transforming Your Business with SharePoint Products and Technologies – Evan Richman, Senior Product Manager for the software at Microsoft (April2007)

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The three main points are reflected in the product, but the SharePoint software is actually considerably richer than just providing links to documents, or letting you see who’s edited anything. I’ve selected a few of the many items and tried to put it in the context of ARI using it:

USING EXISTING IT INFRASTRUCTURE ARI currently uses Microsoft Office throughout the headquarters. In the Finance – Accounting part of the Organisation, work is frequently done in Excel, Outlook and Word. ARI currently Windows Server, so is licence for Windows Server SharePoint Services, which sits underneath Microsoft Office SharePoint Server

ONLINE OR JUST WITHIN THE ORGANISATION One of the very powerful things with SharePoint is the reality that it is also, essentially, a secured website. Access to the files is not limited to dialing in via Virtual Network connection. It can suffice to log-in. Additionally, if you are using a computer with the Office application already set up, there is no further logging in to do each time.

DOCUMENTS, WORKSPACES AND TEAM SITES All the actual storage is presented as a ‘workspace’ or a team site. A scenario where 2 interns were working on some documents with M. Abbad could lead to a special team site being set up. Everybody with access to it can see it from the “mysite” page (see later). Although apparently similar to a Shared Drive, you can see considerably more. The files are listed, with information next to them - like notices. You can see who has been given permission to look or alter them, and different versions of the file are kept in case there is a problem.

‘MY SITE’ ‘MySite’ is a sort of personalised webpage that would enable ARI employees see instantly which libraries they have access to and easy, friendly way. It also has ‘modules’ on the page which help know when things were last update, which file permissions have been granted.

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MICROSOFT OFFICE INTEGRATION It integrates with Microsoft Office applications with the ability to view or edit documents in web pages (from anywhere if authorised). Outlook can be used for accessing and synchronizing SharePoint libraries. The library will be listed in the navigation pane, and the files in it will be listed along with certain information such as author, just like an email. Even the search feature is fully integrated from outlook to searching the SharePoint server. You never need to go through the web portal if you don’t need to - the results will be displayed in Outlook itself. If you synchronise a document library in Outlook, you can make the files available offline, which can be opened and edited using World, Excel etc. When you close the file, the changes are synchronised back to the SharePoint library by Outlook. This is very useful if the computers at ARI are not always on the internet (e.g. laptops, when moving to the establishments). A copy of the file is put on your system.

INSTANT MESSENGING AND STATUS EVERYWHERE Similar to the concept of MSN Messenger, each user has a live status. The files with their name on indicates the status, and you can see it within Outlook, Word etc. If you are working on a documents with them you can see which things they have altered, or send an instead message to them wherever there is the name

WIKIS Wikis could be used at ARI for providing customized information about the organization. Anybody (with the permissions) just adds their alteration. An example could be if ARI wanted to have facts about a building construction easily available, you can add each aspect of the work (finance people could add the budgets, logistics could write down who had signed a contract, and architect contact details etc could be put down). This is how Wikipedia operates.

CALENDARS Sharing a calendar, with several layers of data to authorized readers can help you work together. The information can come from Outlook or be written in from the site. With the amount of time people work together at ARI, it is a useful tool to see who is free, and when.

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E-MAIL INTEGRATION Any time there is an update to one of the document libraries – or anything else, an automatic email can be sent with a link to it, to all those who need it. At ARI that could be a newsletter, or just a new Excel file that needs completing.

GANTT CHARTS Would help people on a set-time (interns) or projects, manage their time, with inbuilt Gantt charts!

SECURITY Everything is centralised, and the data can be more easily backed up securely. Each file can have its individual security settings. Users can either choose from Administrator, Contributor, or Reader for entire folders (libraries). All documents being read, downloaded or altered are logged, and the user’s name put next to it. ARI can choose between making any amount it fully public or restricted to just one person.

USABILITY SharePoint Server feels very much like using a Website (with links, new pages etc) (see image) which we are all now used to. When within Office, and accessing the information from within Outlook, it is virtually identical to opening up an email. The folders just show files instead of messages.

Figure 2: A typical page within the SharePoint interface

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THE OUTCOME FOR ARI

LES CONSEQUENCES POUR L’ENTREPRISE (UTILITE, DEVELOPPEMENTS POSSIBLES, ETC

I believe that I have produced a report following several months of analysis, which contains proposals that can be viably implemented and improve efficiency and reduce frustration. The consequences of this report are only limited by the desire, imagination and implementation. This report is not designed to sell a particular product, but to highlight the issues as I see them, and the possible options which could illuminate some. In the first instance, the solution would need to be discussed with all the relevant employees, to assess their needs through a consultation. This could be carried out through self-filled email questionnaires, or by discussions between the former and the latter. It may be that the proposition I have made regarding the solution, i considered overzealous and a more managed data policy may be sufficient in this instance. Whatever the outcome, it is a worthwhile policy to assess the situation. It is perhaps too worth the Information technology, Communication, and other key stake holders would need to meet and discuss the matter formally over the issues raised regarding data security, collaboration and storage. Regardless of the ‘solution’ the potential issues could be looked at. This report, for the sake of brevity, outlines the most integrated solution from Microsoft. There are alternatives at a much lower cost (under GPL Licence, and free to licence) Cost is an issue in all structures, whether a company or organisation, but with the proposals I have documented, the report is focused on the necessities of implementation of a Collaborative Solution rather X, Y or Z software solution.

Furthermore, as with anything in information technology the current product solution will evolve considerably in the months and years to come Microsoft Windows Server 2008 will be released within the next 6 months, and the Microsoft Office SharePoint Server product within the next 2-3 years will be upgraded too. It should be noted that this area of software development is accelerating faster than others too. With the evolution of the online software services industry as high speed internet connectivity becomes more wide-spread, Google and others will increasingly provide

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professional services which are comparable to the Out-of-box solutions we currently purchase and host ourselves. But whatever the evolution of the software, Serviceware, or indeed, the price of storage, the need for organisations to commit to solutions which enhance the workflow to ensure that people can collaborate with ease – wherever they are physically located –the issues will be similar For the ARI Finance Department and Human resources Department, both situated in the Head Office in Marseille, the changes made to document management and collaboration could revolutionise the way they access and share data.

Security

• Control who can access the files • Control who can do what with files (Contributor, Reader or Administrator ) • Easier to manage the back-up of files in one server.

Efficiency

• Reduce email inbox size through reduction of attachments • Less time lost searching through shared drives, or individual PCs.

Compliance

• Easy to locate files for regulatory reporting, inspections etc. • With one central location showing who has accessed files and when

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LESSONS LEARNT FROM THE EXPERIENCES

(LES PRINCIPAUX ENSEIGNEMENTS RETIRES SUR LE PLAN PERSONNEL)

INTRODUCTION Over the past 6 months, I have been able to benefit from hands on experience of a not-forprofit organisation. I had had work experience of working in a large corporate environment in London for an internship, and while the work is not dissimilar, the environment feels considerably different. From a socio observation, it would be fair to consider a direct contrast in attitude to the individual between the two finance structures. A study on the different cultures of organisational perception would be an interesting avenue to pursue if it has not already been written. It has taught me a lot on a personal level about how I react to working in an environment where the hierarchy, while present, doesn’t feel forced upon the employees. The nature of the workflow – sharing documents and information on a continuous basis renders any zealous power of authority compromised, though respected.

LESSONS LEARNT From an Accounting perspective, I know now, more than ever, that my competences are not in the numerical language of Accounting. It is something I have long suspected, but with the experience proven adequately! Despite this numerical failure, I have left the organization with a sense of loss – a truly good sign. I believe that they looked after me well, and I will miss their supportive tuition. That said, the support was not over prescribed, as is always a danger. How others can react, and then how to research effectively, and then delivery a report, on paper, and then as a presentation. In this section, I have decided to outline, subsection by subsection the personal outcome of this for me. From the technical knowledge to the consultant style approach. I have grown as a character, learnt my weaknesses and feel more confidence of the skills i do Have. This is what the role of an internship is ultimately all about.

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CRITICAL ANALYSIS: PROBLEMS AND OBSTACLES

(UNE ANALYSE CRITIQUE : PROBLEMES, OBSTACLES)

It is fair to report that during the internship, I was faced with some problems and obstacles. In this section I detail them.

PROBLEMS Problems can vary from a dislike of the company or organisation that you work for, through to logistical issues of doing the work on time, and to completion. I am grateful for the former not being an issue at all and the latter has just been possible. Many problems come from a failing within one’s self. I am certainly not immune from them:

TAKING A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH -

Accounting work On arrival at ARI, my task for the upcoming three months was to provide assistance to the team of accountants. Because of the nature of the work, it was easy to not be systematic with the tasks they presented me with. More should have been written down, with deadlines, and projects compartmentalised to make this more feasible.

-

Collaboration work With regards to the Data filing / Collaboration, this was not my initial task, but was a requirement for ARI, and something I felt that i could contribute to. I recognise now that more planning towards the issues of the intranet should have occurred, rather than observation – turned-project.

-

Once he internship completed: After the Internship was completed, I wrote the report. This has taken considerably longer than initially thought, due to other commitments. The project would have benefited from more time spent at ARI looking at the IT infrastructure, and financial resources available to it, in addition to the 3 months internship.

CLOSED ENVIRONMENT -

Lack of attention to the work flow outside of the Head office. Due to the ongoing accounting work, throughout the internship, it never become possible to leave the premises of the Head offices of the organisation. It would have

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been beneficial to the objectives of the Report with regards to deploying collaboration solutions the ‘local’ level, and for my own personal interest, to explore the other establishments.

CANNOT PREDICT THE FUTURE -

This report does not address in detail the issue of training. We are on the precipice of a huge change in which the software industry behaves and proposes products. As discussed in the Recommendations & Suggestions section, the internet is opening up new doors. The change from self-hosting relatively large scale IT infrastructure and software will cease all but for a tiny fraction. The complexity is on estimating on when this balance will tip away frm the traditional infrastructure model Google is investing billions, so too is Microsoft in an attempt to stave off its historical market share. The barrier for now is the reliability of the internet and the trust we, as a society, hold in companies storing our sensitive data. The pretence of this with regards to the Report is the possibility that a recommendation is being made for the very short term future. As at today, on a balanced probability, I feel that the transition will take approximately 5 years – beyond the tradition business IT infrastructure (3-5 years) which would make the investment worthwhile.

TRAINING -

This report does not address in detail the issue of training. The reality is that a strong aspect of the viability of the installation of any intranetbased Collaboration software will depend on the availability of training. From an economic point of view, the solution is scalable to the wider usage points (of the 13+ centres) only if resources are allocated for this training.

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Although ARI employees are well versed in training provision, and this occurred during my time with the organisation, time will need to be accorded to produce the necessary knowledge of how to access the best benefits of the work. Alternatively a model of “Peer to Peer” training – from those who are more comfortable to those who are less so, could be attempted. This however is also timeconstrained within the reality of a busy Organisation.

OBSTICLES DIFFICULTY IN ACCESSING THE IT PERSONNEL (PART TIME) -

Licensing arrangements and future plans.

Due to the nature of the task evolving into an essentially-IT based solution, it was regrettable that I was unable to better organise my time with key IT personnel after leaving the Internship premises in September.

This would have given me a stronger idea of the IT infrastructure software (Server types etc), and licensing arrangements currently in place with Microsoft.

This said, it should be noted that this is a Management-focused report, which aims to address a need to revise workflow. This is not an IT Consultant report with concrete ‘best-decision ’indicators for the definite solution. I have provided a solution, within a context of future developments, and other solutions currently available.

TIME CONSTRAINTS: -

Although three months initially feels like ample time to carry out an investigation and subsequent weeks considerable for writing a report, the Intern is a ‘speck’ in an office environment. The other persons are not merely working for you, but carrying out the necessary duties that their job involves.

-

Furthermore, during the internship and subsequently, I have not solely been charged with the internship, but also searching for longer term employment, and other commitments. This is a relatively disjointed mythology when attempting to focus on a single project, but also a reflection of real-life challenges in the workplace, where simultaneous tasks are being carried out. Time management is a critical learning curve.

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LACK OF INITIAL CLEAR MISSION. -

The ‘Intranet’ (or more correctly, Collaborative Solution) was a reaction of work given rather than the initial core focus of the internship. Whilst this may be seen as an obstacle, I believe that this works in overall favour, as it enabled the discovery of issues, and the provocation, through self-initiation, of change.

CONCLUSION Overall, I believe the proposal i have forward in this report will assist the ARI. This report aims to provoke a discussion between IT, Communication and Finance personnel at ARI rather than dictate a single solution. With this aim, I am delighted to present this report to the organisation, and thank the employees for their tuition, support and friendship over the time working with them.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Throughout this report, I have relied on knowledge which brings together many different origins

NON-PUBLISHED RESOURCES Barclays Plc, London - Internal documentation on collaboration Microsoft testing - Pre-released software for Server and office product documentation

ONLINE RESOURCES All online resources remained accessible as at 5 December 2007 Public access: http://microsoft.com/office/sharepoint, http://microsoft.com/windowsserver http://microsoft.com/smallbusiness/online/collaborationsoftware/sharepoint/articles/7_reasons_to_use_sharepoint_for_document_collabor ation.mspx Google Inc.(Online documents – including Documents, Tables, Show) http://Google.com/apps http://documents.google.com http://Blog.google.com Adobe Inc. (Buzzword, online Word Processing) http://labs.Adobe.com http://Buzzword.com Mater In New Media: - http://www.masternewmedia.org/online_collaboration/documentcollaboration/Google-Docs-explained-in-simple-words-by-Lee-Lefever20070919.htm

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PRINTED RESOURCES

-

The 2007 Microsoft Office System Insider Out. Author: J. Pierce. Publisher: Microsoft

-

Forrester Research: Collaboration Trends 2006 To 2007 (Erica Driver, Christopher Mines, Elizabeth Herrell, Claire Schooley, and Eric Kim)

-

Forrester Research: Microsoft Is A Leader In The Collaboration Platforms Market.2006: The Forrester Wave™ Vendor Summary, Q2 2006 (Erica Driver, with Connie Moore and Lucy Fossner)

-

Microsoft Office SharePoint Server 2007 Administrator’s Companion. Author: B English. Publisher: Microsoft Press

-

Microsoft SharePoint 2007 for Dummies. Author: Vanessa L. Williams Publisher: Wiley Publishing Inc.

-

Amélioration d’un système d’information par l’implantation d’un site internet et d’un intranet. Mémoire, written for ARI by Cécile RIGARD. September 2004

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APPENDICES / ANNEX

BUTLER GROUP REPORT Key points, relevant to ARI: -

Information workers spend up to 30% of their working day just looking for data they need to complete a task, and 15-25% of their time on non-productive, informationrelated activities.

-

Interest in on-line collaboration solutions has clearly accelerated since the terrorist attacks on New York and London, and this has resulted in a plethora of new products on the market and a new eagerness from established vendors.

-

Wikis and blogs are here to stay, and so Butler Group believes that document authoring and collaboration tools must integrate fully with these new paradigms.

-

Business Process Management (BPM) and workflow are important enablers of more formal Document Collaboration processes, and have the potential to dramatically improve operational efficiency and compliance. Moreover, these facilities can help bring together the otherwise separate worlds of process and content.

-

Compliance increasingly dictates that every aspect of the lifecycle of a document is fully audited and this takes on additional significance in collaborative environments.

-

In commercial and regulated environments, control of the Document Collaboration process is essential for business wellbeing and compliance reasons, and yet many organisations fail to address these issues, preferring instead to leave it up to the individual to self-regulate their actions.

-

Datamonitor estimates the size of the Content Management market to be US$1.46 (€0.99 billion) in 2007, rising to US$1.98 billion (€1.35 billion) by 2010. Butler Group estimates the Document Collaboration segment of the current market to be 40%, which is US$586 million (€400 million).

-

The evolution of Software as a Service (SaaS) and on-line solutions, such as Google Docs & Spreadsheets will make the World Wide Web an increasingly important environment for Document Collaboration. Extracts taken from Document Collaboration: Linking People, Process and Content .Published December 2006 by the Butler Group.

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LICENSING AND RELATED TECHNOLOGY REQUIREMENTS (..for the Microsoft Office SharePoint proposal) NOTE: Due to ARI being an ‘Association’, under Chartable status, there is no obvious ‘price’ to be advised on for the proposal. It depends entirely on life-time of the solution, date of implementation, and current arrangements with Microsoft. It is possible that there would be no additional cost with this installation. Microsoft Windows Server technology is an ‘enabling technology’ – similar to requiring Windows to run Office on a desktop PC. This is a pre-requisite to installing Microsoft Office SharePoint Service. Core Technologies: Offering Microsoft Office SharePoint Server 2007, Server License

Functionality Connect people, process, and information using the new Office SharePoint Server 2007.

Microsoft Office SharePoint Server 2007 Client Access License (CAL), Standard Edition

This client access license allows you to access the core capabilities of Office SharePoint Servers to meet your information management needs.

License Information This license is required to run Office SharePoint Server 2007 in client/server mode. You should use this license with the requisite number of Client Access Licenses (CALs) appropriate for your organizational needs. You can acquire these licenses through Open Licensing, Select Licensing, and Enterprise Agreements. This license is also part of the Core CAL suite and Enterprise CAL suite.

Enabling technologies: Offering Microsoft Windows Server operating system

Microsoft Windows SharePoint Services 3.0 Microsoft SQL Server

Functionality Office SharePoint Server, all editions, and Office Forms Server require Windows Server 2003 Standard Edition, Windows Server 2003 Enterprise Edition, or Windows Server 2003 Compute Cluster Edition. Component of Windows Server that is required for using Office SharePoint Server. Office SharePoint Server 2007 uses a back-end database server: SQL Server 2000 SP4 or higher

License Information Consult Windows Server purchasing options for more information on How to Buy Windows Server.

Consult Windows Server purchasing options for more information on How to Buy Windows Server Consult Microsoft SQL Server purchasing options for more information

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LISTE DES ETABLISSEMENTS DE L’ARI

Instituts de Rééducation (IR)

IR les Bastides IR les Etoiles IR Sanderval IR les Joncquiers IR le Calavon

Marseille Marseille Marseille Isle-sur-la-Sorgue Saint Martin-de-Castillon

13 13 13 84 84

Marseille Pertuis

13 84

Instituts Médico-Educatifs (IME)

IME Mont-Riant IME Pertuis

Etablissements pour Enfants et Adolescents Polyhandicapés (EEAP)

EEAP Germaine Chapuis EEAP Les Calanques

Belcodène Marseille

13 13

Manosque la ciotat Orange

04 13 84

Manosque Aix en provence La ciotat Marseille Marseille Marseille Marseille Marseille Marseille Pertuis

04 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 84

Revest du Bion Belcodene Marseille Rognac Revest du Bion Marseille

04 13 13 13 04 13

La Ciotat Marseille Marseille

13 13 13

Centres d'Action Médico-sociale Précoce (CAMSP)

CAMSP de Manosque CAMSP de la Ciotat CAMSP D'Orange Centres Médico-Psycho-Pédagogiques (CMPP)

CMPP de Manosque CMPP Universitaire d'Aix CMPP de la Ciotat CMPP Belle de Mai CMPP Gilbert de voisin CMPP Paradis CMPP Plombières CMPP République CMPP Saint Just CMPP Pertuis Secteurs Adultes

Centre d'Habitat REGAIN Résidence Poinso-Chapuis Relais de la Valbarelle Foyer les Bories CAT la Haute Lèbre CAT le Bessonnière Hôpitaux

Hôpital de jour de la ciotat Hôpital Henri Gastaut Hôpital de jour Plombières

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Enhancing workflow through collaborative solutions