Page 1

STUDIO

AIR CAITLYN PARRY / SEMESTER 1, 2016 / WINNIE CHIU


TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION PART A | CONCEPTUALISATION [5-31]

PART C | DETAILED DESIGN [83-119]

A.1.

C.1.

DESIGN CONCEPTS

C.2.

DESIGN ELEMENTS AND PROTOTYPES

C.3.

FINAL DESIGN MODEL

C.4.

LEARNING OUTCOME

A.2.

DESIGN FUTURING

Faz Pavilion King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research DESIGN COMPUTATION

MSc2 studio at Hyperbody ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion

A.3.

COMPOSITION/GENERATION

A.4.

CONCLUSION

A.5.

LEARNING OUTCOME

A.6.

ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES

B.1.

RESEARCH FIELDS

Digital Origami Hercules Monument Visitor Centre competition entry

Aqua Tower French Pavillion Private Medical Center

PART B | DESIGN CRITERIA [33-80] B.2.

CASE STUDY 1.0

B.3

CASE STUDY 2.0

B.4.

TECHNIQUE DEVLOPMENT

B.5.

TECHNIQUE : PROTOTYPES

B.6.

TECHNIQUE : PROPOSAL

B.7

LEARNING OUTCOME

B.8

ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES

Spanish Pavillion Aqua Tower

REFERENCES [120]


About me Winnie Chiu , 20

Majoring in Architecture - The University of Melbourne

I’ve been studying in The University of Melbourne for the last two years on a slow,

painful yet awarding journey towards become an architect. This is currently my third year and as the finishing line becomes closer and closer I am being faced with more and more challenges. Having participated in two studio class beforehand i have been exposed to beautiful and stunning works from my peers, impressive ideas and amazing models. As I begin to become more and more aware of how as technology around up has develops , i have noticed opportunities to learn forms of expression that are able to closely and accurately represent reality and how designed. When comparing work with my peers I have notices my old fashioned ways of hand drawings and sketches are becoming something of the past and even though I am slow on the computer design bandwagon and only beginning to learn rhino, grasshopper, revit, auto cad and adobe programs i know it will be a rewarding process and I will be able to more clearly express my designs to others. Throughout my studies I have been exposed to Rhino 3D and Revit and found that like anything else you learn takes time, experimentation, days of frustration and sleepless nights but slowly and surely I hope to master at least these two programs. I see Rhino as an asset by placing the design on a site, with people, trees, animals begins allows the image to have a story and a life. A place of interaction and exchange allowing clients to create emotions connected to a design. Another factor of Rhino 3D I am very intrigued about is 3D printing and how they can be coupled together to allow a idea to become a tangible object. I first started learning Autocad as it was the most popular program for designing floor plans but as I recently started playing with Revit I found it a much more easier program to use and since then it has claimed my loyalty. I am very interested to see what Studio Air has to offer, indeed, it will be challenging but the skills i gain with be both the trouble!


A CONCEPTUALISATION


A1

DESIGN FUTURING “Now we are numbered in billions, have extractive and material processing technologies of absolutely enourmous capacity coupled with an ecomoy of an insatiable appetite, we are now comfronting our nemesis - a defurting condition of unsustainability.” Design futuring in Fry’s Book outlines the needs for design futuring in our current world, to slow the rate of defuturing and redirect ourselves to a more sustainable, healthier future. [1]


A1.1 FAZ PAVILION FRANKFURT | ACHIM MENGES , STEFFEN REICHERT & SCHEFFLER + PARTNER | 2010

A CONCEPTUALISATION

8


Inspired by natures ability to respond to the climate Steffen Reichert, Achim Menges and Florian Krampe researched climate-responsive material that function in the absence of external energy [2] . The study attempts to understand the new concept of ‘smart’ materials that has the ability to respond to its dynamic environment. The term ‘smart’ refers to materials that can be altered in order to accommodate various levels of stress, relative humidity and temperature [4]. The FAZ pavilion based on conifer cones react to ambient humidity. The use of both fabrication parameters and material qualities allow for a direct response to humidity where it swells when exposed to a specific moisture level and contracts when moisture level falls [5]. This allows the materials to be adjusted naturally via five parameters: fibre directionality, geometry of elements, lengths-widththickness ratio and humid control. Moreover, this not only allows for sustainability but also the creation of a flexible material that is able to adapt under different environment. These parameters are adjusted via computation, tested and

manipulated to best suit the environmental conditions. The availability for facade structures to have materials that are able to directly interact with the environment rather than a series of mechanic components which also require space, obtaining a ‘smart’ material is much more efficient and sustainable. It allowed for a more direct intercommunication of the structure and environment. I find this particularly interesting as grasshopper plugins such as kangaroo physics are able to take into account such dynamic materials and generate a real life simulation, but obtaining realistic results can push people into incorporating more of these materials into even the simplest designs.

1. TONY FRY, DESIGN FUTURING: SUSTAINABILITY, ETHICS AND NEW PRACTISE’. 2009 ([N.P.]: BERG, 2009). 2. ACHIM MENGES, STEFFEN REICHERT “MATERIAL CAPABILITIES: EMBEDDED RESPONSIVENESS”. ARCHITECTURE DESIGN JOURNAL, VOLUME 82, ISSUE 2 (2012), 52-59. 3. MICHAEL HENSEL, DEFNE SUNGUROGLU, ACHIM MENGES “MATERIAL PERFORMANCE”. ARCHITECTURE DESIGN JOURNAL, VOLUME 78, ISSUE 2 (2008),35-41. 6. DAEWHA KANG, ‘TO A CURATOR OF BEAUTIFUL AND HEALTHY LIVES’, ARCHITECTURE DESIGN JOURNAL, VOLUME 85, ISSUE 4 (2015), 123-125. 7. JAN F, PRESIDENT OBAMA: “CLIMATE CHANGE IS NO LONGER SOME FAR-OFF PROBLEM. IT IS HAPPENING HERE. IT IS HAPPENING NOW.” (2015) <HTTP://MOTLEYMOOSE.


A1.2 King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Centre RIYAFH , SAUDI ARABIA | ZAHDID ARCHITECTS | 2009

A CONCEPTUALISATION

10


“In the last 650,000 years there have been seven cycles of glacial advance and retreat, with the abrupt end of the last ice age about 7,000 years ago marking the beginning of the modern climate era — and of human civilization. “ - Holly Shaftel

the soft interior but also works in response to the environmental conditions and functional requirements. It’s shell filters light into space and works alongside buffer zones that allow the hot exterior to be cooled and filtered into the interior spaces [6].

For the past centuries human impact has had a negative impact on the planet, contributing to sea level and global temperature rise, extreme events. Our innovations in technology has allowed us to harvest natural resources for our on benefits and as a result has lead to pollution, habitat lost and extinction of species. Designers and architects need to be aware that they are fundamental in building a better, cleaner future where beauty and art are not at the cost of the planet. There are two precedents would like to examine regarding design future, innovative, sustainable ways of building and design that also aims to inspire users. Firstly, King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Centre then VanDusen Botanical Garden Visitor Centre.

The design is based upon a series of atrium and courtyard structures. It’s form sculpted to shelter the interior space from southern and western sun whilst allowing the northern wind to enter whilst many courtyards are oriented to capture cool dessert wind during the night and release it in the day. This holistic consideration of form allows the space to remain useable for longer periods of the day and produces more comfortable working conditions. By offering a healthy, friendly, flexible environment it facilitates users to interact, exchange research. By also providing quiet, out door spaces and prayer rooms allows users to step out of their busy day and take a moment to contemplate, reflect and relax [6].

The King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Centre by Zahdid Architects is a sustainable and innovative building located in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Zahdid Architects undertakes a holistic approach combining engineering and architecture together allowing their designs to work directly in response to the environment [6]. From the beginning there was an understanding that sustainability was not purely dependant on the integrated technology of the design but the structure and facade was also an essential component. The facade of the building understands a hard, structurally strong shell working in conjunction with a flexible, hexagonal, cellular structure of crystalline form, which is able to not only protect

The complex is an intricate network of routes and halls through the building, library, theatres, courtyards and by making these rooms flexible allows for more diverse use that is able to cater for a range of audiences’ of difference spaces (Irina Vinnitskaya, 2012). We mustn’t neglect to realise the importance of architecture and its ability inspire and encourage people to create and explore.

6. DAEWHA KANG, ‘TO A CURATOR OF BEAUTIFUL AND HEALTHY LIVES’, ARCHITECTURE DESIGN JOURNAL, VOLUME 85, ISSUE 4 (2015), 123-125. 7. JAN F, PRESIDENT OBAMA: “CLIMATE CHANGE IS NO LONGER SOME FAR-OFF PROBLEM. IT IS HAPPENING HERE. IT IS HAPPENING NOW.” (2015) <HTTP://MOTLEYMOOSE.


A2

DESIGN COMPUTATION We are moving towards a digital era where development of technology and fabrication techniques has allowed architects to design and construct more intricate designs with more freedom and ease. Not only has computation and softwares allow for the improvement of the the process of design but robotics are becoming an essential tool allowing complex design to not become constrained by construction [8].


A2.1 MSC2 STUDIO STUDIO AT HYPERBODY TU DELFT | NETHERLANDS | JELLE FERINGA | 2012

“INDUSTRIAL ROBOTS ARE DISTINGUISHED BY THEIR VERSATILITY. LIKE COMPUTERS, THEY ARE SUITABLE FOR A WIDE VARIETY OF TASKS BECAUSE THEY ARE ‘GENERIC’ AND THEREFORE NOT TAILORED TO ANY PARTICULAR APPLICATION.”

A CONCEPTUALISATION

14


Computer aided design has advanced over the recently years into mode of design that is able to be produced faster and more affordable. Digital modelling has overtaken more traditional ways of design allowing for three dimensional analysis that can be easily edited to create numerous iterations and ways to explore the design and its capabilities [10]. The level of detail on digital programs are magnified allowing for immense control and accuracy on even the smallest detail. The MSc2 Studio created a prototype whereby computation was used to generate a form that was designed and constructed across three weeks. The fabrication of the design was constructed the use of a hot wire cutting allowing the formation of 53 unique components with ease and precision. This use of robotics in accordance to computation allows a project that was constructed not only with impressive speed but allowed for sheer precision in each and every components. Moreover, architecture requires a high level of precision of materials and construction

that only allow for a difference of millimetres or centimetres thus allowing automated robots to become a largely, reliable tool which is able to not only enhance that quality of components but construct it with little to no errors [11]. By having tools that allow one person to control the whole design process from design, to fabrication, to assembly enables the designers to fully interact with the design. Computation and robotics allow for ease and accuracy in the production and fabrication of design. Furthermore, this shift from manual to digital has allows architects to experiment more freely with forms creating more detailed, complex designs in a matter of minutes.

8. PETER BUSBY, MAX RICHTER AND MICHAEL DRIEDGER, ‘TOWARDS A NEW RELATIONSHIP WITH NATURE’, ARCHITECTURE DESIGN JOURNAL, VOLUME 81, ISSUE 8 (2011), 96-98. 9. JELLE FERINGA, MSC2 STUDIO AT HYPERBODY TU DELFT, NETHERLANDS (2016) <HTTP://WWW.BLOCK.ARCH.ETHZ.CH/BRG/TEACHING/MSC2-STUDIO-AT-HYPERBODY-TU-DELFT> [ACCESSED ]. 10. MICHAEL BUDIG, JASON LIM AND RAFFAEL PETROVIC. “INTERGRATING ROBOTIC FABRICATION IN THE DESIGN PROCESS”. ARCHITECTURE DESIGN JOURNAL, VOLUME 84, ISSUE 3 (2014), 23-43. 11. FABIO GRAMAZIO, MATHIAS KOHLER, JAN WOLLIMANN. “AUTHORING ROBOTIC PROCESSES”. ARCHITECTURE DESIGN JOURNAL, VOLUME 84, ISSUE 3 (2014), 14-21.11. FABIO GRAMAZIO, 12. MATTHIAS HOKLER, JAN WILLMANN. ‘MADE BY ROBOTS: CHALLENGING ARCHITECTURE AT A LARGER SCALE’.ARCHITECTURE DESIGN JOURNAL, VOLUME 76, ISSUE 2 (2014), 15-20.


A2.2 ICD/ITKE RESEARCH PAVILION INSTITUTE OF STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING AND STRUCTURAL DESIGN , UNIVERSITY OF STUTTGART | 2011.

A CONCEPTUALISATION

16


The ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion, 2011 is a project collaborated between the Institute for Computational Design and Institute of Building Structures and Structural Design. Bionics becomes the theme where inspiration was nature and its natural structure. In particular they were interesting the morphological principles of the plate skeleton of echinoids because of it’s adaptive qualities where computer generative design enable the construction of this pavilion[13]. The teams of endeavouring to discover a material that would enable lightweight and flexible structure. Thus, through experimentation the materials of plywood sheets with a thickness of just 6.5 millimetre was selected [14]. This , along with it’s geometry allowed the thin, elastic and flexible members to be obtain the intended quality using a simple repetition of a singular, basic material. Computation took on a critical

component of this design where the design was analysed via form finding, digital stimulations, computer numeric machine control. This integration of computation into the design allow the incorporation of robotics allowing design to be more precise and accurate. The members of the pavilion was laser cut into 850 different geometries and over 100,000 finger joints allowing the ease of fabrication [15]. The prevailing of computation enables the analysis of the relationship between performance, materials and form prior construction. By being able to explore the interaction of structural forces, environmental affects and materials allows for not only more precision of the final product and stability but also allows designers to push the thresholds of materials and discover it’s performance capabilities to create a structure that effectively utilise materials.

13. ACHIM MENGES AND TOBIAS SCHWINN. “MANUFACTURING RECIPROCITIES”. ARCHITECTURE DESIGN JOURNAL, VOLUME 82, ISSUE 2 (2012), 119-125” 14. ACHIM MENGES. “MATERIAL COMPUTATION: HIGHER INTEGRATION MORPHOGENETIC DESIGN”. ARCHITECTURE DESIGN JOURNAL, VOLUME 82, ISSUE 2 (2012), 14-21. 15. ACHIM MENGES, ICD/ITKE RESEARCH PAVILION 2011 (2011) <HTTP://ICD.UNI-STUTTGART.DE/?P=6553> [ACCESSED 17 MARCH 2016].


A3

COMPUTATION / GENERATION The shift from composition to generation allows for architecture to be based towards performance - Structural , constructional, economic, environmental parameters rather than aesthetics. It aim is to produce a type of design that is enhances the efficiency of produces designs with similar patterns [16].


DIGITAL ORIGAMI SYDNEY | CHRIS BOSSE | 2007

13

“IN URBAN TERMS, THE SMALLEST HOMES, THE SPACES THEY CREATE, THE ENERGY THEY USE, THE HEAT AND MOISTURE THEY ABSORB, MULTIPLY INTO A BIGGER ORGANISATIONAL SYSTEM, WHOSE SUSTAINABILTY DEPENDS ON THEIR INTELLIGENCE” 18 A CONCEPTUALISATION

20


This transition into digital technology has allowed for a system that integrates human intelligence and creativity. The designers involvement into the design with parametric control, associated geometry, generative iterations, algorithmic expression and component based modelling [17]. This process enables a bottom up approach. Design is created and contained by sets of parameters that govern the interaction of components and inform the final design and as a result can produce interesting forms.

1500 recycled cardboard forming geometric molecules all interconnected and static to its environment [17]. Parametric design is often, like coral the product of small components, repeated to form a coherent final outcome. Through these small units they were able to create a set of rules that would govern the metamorphose from a part of distinct, organic forms. This approach to design is oriented towards allowing digital technology and mathematics to form designs. This is a type of pattern-making, bottom-up, formation design that characterises parametric design.

Chris Bosse along with students from The University of Technology of Sydney constructed an installation with a series of digital modelling: parametric modelling, digital fabrication and material science [17] . Influenced by coral reef and the interaction of each small, intelligent, component has was symbolic of architecture towards it’s landscape. It was construction with

16. PETER BOOTH, STEPHEN LOO, BEYOND EQUILBRIUM: SUSTAINABLE DIGITAL DESIGN (2010) <HTTP://EPRINTS.UTASEDUAU/16384/1/52_BEYOND_EQUILIBRIUM_FINAL_PUBLISHED.PDF> [ACCESSED 17 MARCH 2016]. 17. PETER BOOTH, STEPHEN LOO, BEYOND EQUILBRIUM: SUSTAINABLE DIGITAL DESIGN (2010) <HTTP://EPRINTS.UTAS.EDUAU/16384/1/52_BEYOND_EQUILIBRIUM_FINAL_PUBLISHED.PDF> [ACCESSED 17 MARCH 2016]. 18. HANK JARZ, ‘DIGITAL ORIGAMI ‘(2010) <HTTP://WWW.ARCHDAILY.COM/93913/DIGITAL-ORIGAMI-LAVA> [ACCESSED 17 MARCH 2016]. 19. DAMIEN AISTROPE, DIGITAL ORIGAMI MASTERCLASS <HTTP://WWW.L-A-V-A.NET/PROJECTS/DIGITAL-ORIGAMI-MASTERCLASS/> [ACCESSED 14 APRIL 2016]. 20 LING-LI TSENG, CONTINUA (2014) <HTTP://WWW.LINGLITSENG.COM/CONTINUA> [ACCESSED 14 APRIL 2016].


HERCULES MONUMENT VISITOR CENTER Competition entry by Scheffler + Partner Architects and Achim Menges

A CONCEPTUALISATION

22


The Hercules Monument Visitor Centre was located in Bergpark Wilhelmshöhe, Germany. It would sit 515 meters high between a water cascade, the Kassel Wilhelmshöhe Palaceand a monument of Hercules by Fracesco Guerniero. The design intent to intensify the interaction of the interior landscape with the nature surroundings in Habichtswald to the Baroque park and monument by undulating the landscape. The method formed by Scheffler + Partner Architects and Achim Menges was to provide the site with an interior environment that is consisted of micro-milieus. To achieve this, a series of generative techniques were used which constructed a parametrically defined and restrained triangulate system with four scales of articulation [19]. This restraints took into account manufacturing and construction limitations that effected the triangular body, folded glass and steel plates. This parametric

commands was able to ensure the viability of the design in terms of the restraints and allow for a design that emerged from its very constraints. Furthermore this design is further moulded in relation to loads, orientation, spaces, circulatory and volumetric requirements. Computation here displays its versatility in controlling parameters that is able to be edited to include which enables this feedback, adjustment and optimisation. This allows for a greater degree of coherency allowing for a design rich, complex, unpredictable, undetermined that pushes the boundaries of design exploration to a new level [19].

19. MICHAEL HENSEL AND ACHIM MENGES ‘MATERIAL AND DIGITAL DESIGN SYNTHESIS’. ARCHITECTURE DESIGN JOURNAL, VOLUME 76, ISSUE 2 (200D), 88-95.


A4

CONCLUSION Part A is the introduction towards computation and the new digital era of design. Alongside computation is the formation of responsive materials and machinery that aid in the generalisation and fabrication of members and also the construction of structures. The techniques available in the softwares enable ease of manipulation, repetition and experimentation allowing for more diverse intricate designs that otherwise without computation would be difficult to achieve. In regards to my intended design approach I want to experiment on grasshopper and play with the numerous shapes and forms to create a structure that is able to emulate nature and allows a space for animals to inhabit throughout the year. I find by using this tool I will be able to be more creative and produce more iterations in order to find the ideal form. This will hopefully benefit the nature and the animals which are unable to survive through the hot seasons of Australia.


A5

LEARNING OUTCOME My experience so far in this subject has been highly beneficial considering my initial, limited knowledge on both Rhinoceros 3D and Grasshopper. This subject I have gained the understanding of basic algorithmic commands and how to generate basic forms, structures and pattern-making. Initially designing by hand I have learnt the enormous benefits towards computation: the ability to design intricate, detailed designs, the ability to make iterations easily, the ability to edit designs and most importantly the relationship computation has to robotic fabrication. The ease of fabricating design with the ease of a few buttons and commands and the sheer comfort of the accuracy of precision of what would be formed. I find this form of designing is prevailing to become more and more common in the design practise and will become essential in my future designs. In terms of theory I have learnt to look beyond aesthetics for future design projects and consider the idea of a bottom-up design where materiality and structure form the design. To design things with an open mind and let forms and patterns determine the final outcome. I find computation would be helpful for my past design due to the ease of iteration would be a great tool for idea generation allowing me to explore more over a shorter period of time.


A6

APPENDIX ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES


DELAUNEY EDGES This iteration of delauney edges was was a play of form and the extraction and extention of the components.Almost like rocks in nature that are shifted. This form, referenced to nature acts as a cross-section of a cave creating a habitat for animals in period of rough weather. This form were produced with only a few commands and I was also able to make many iterations of the form, playing on the size and density of the rocks. It was a quick way to work these rock like structure. I also think a design like this could modelled easily through 3D printing.

MESH Using the mesh tool I was able to produce a wall with intricate folds fromed by a series of cylinder. This was an abstract representation of wall that was suitable to protect and shade users and land animals whilst also providing the same protection for birds and animals that habitat in the upper regions of the trees. I find that this list of commands allowsfor the creation of intricate and interesting patterns on surfaces This type of algorithm may be divided and laid out for laser cutting.

A CONCEPTUALISATION

30


METABALL This was playing with metaball and vectors. What this created was a series of contour lines. Made it slightly transparent and then reduced the whole object down in scale and sat each one inside the other to give it depth.

MESH These meshâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s play on textures and surfaces of round objects. I found both of these interesting in the in the ability to carve out holes and allow for a protective internal space. The texture are also emmulating leafs would be able to camouflage into the natural landscape.

CONCEPTUALISATION 31


B DESIGN CRITERIA


B1 RESEARCH FIELDS


PRECEDENTS

B DESIGN CRITERIA

36


1. AQUA TOWER BY STUDIO GANG ARCHIECTS

2. FRENCH PAVILION

3. PRIVATE MEDICAL CENTRE 3LHD ARCHITECTS

The undulating design of the Aqua Tower This pavilion was designed for the Milan This was inspired by striated limestone outcropping in the Great lakes. I was particularly drawn to this case study because of the flow and the movement the patterning created. This was patterning was interesting because from afar my eye was very drawn to the ‘void’ - spaces that are occupied by the glass but up close I was very drawn to the flow and dynamic nature of the curves. I was very interested towards the opportunities this pattern could achieve with its from the patterns and the voids.

Expo in 2015. It was constructed with a curved wooden lattice structure. The central theme for this design was to feed the planet, energy for life [2] . This design incorporated nature into many aspects of their design. The use of light weight glue-laminated larch and spruce was selected to create a strong structure that would create a landscape ceiling in which vegetation could be hung and displayed. It was fascinating to see how vegetation can be incorporated into ceiling of structures and enable efficient of space as well as being the ornamentation.

design is a rectangular, blocky structure that is characterised by horizontal bands that conceal the medical centre. The openings allow for light to enter the atriums and loggias which form semi public areas that act as relation zones. These areas are decorated with mediterranean greenery with views directed towards the sea and islands. I think play on light in relation to architecture very interesting as it allows for points of focus and thus can create hierarchy within a space illuminated and conceals particular areas. The patterning of the design and the openings allows light to shine through and highlight particular aspects such as the vegetation.

1. MARY WARREN, ‘AQUA TOWER / STUDIO GANG ARCHITECTS’, (2012) , IN <HTTP://WWW.FLICKRIVER.COM/PHOTOS/LALOBAMFW/7646578786/> [ACCESSED ]. 2. IAIN MASTERTON, VIEW OF SPANISH PAVILION AT WORLD EXPO 2005 AT AICHI IN JAPAN (2005) <HTTP://IAINMASTERTON.PHOTOSHELTER.COM/IMAGE/I00004D7HQ0Z9FTO> [ACCESSED 9 APRIL 2016]. 3. SEBASTIAN JORDANA, ‘3LHD TO DESIGN PRIVATE MEDICAL CENTER IN CROATIA’, (2009), IN <HTTP://WWW.ARCHDAILY.COM/16828/3LHD-TO-DESIGN-PRIVATE-MEDICAL-CENTER-IN-CROATIA> [ACCESSED ]. 4. HTTP://FRENCHFOODINTHEUS.ORG/WP-CONTENT/UPLOADS/2015/05/IMAGE_20141219_26773046.JPG


B2 CASE STUDY 1.0


SPANISH PAVILLION World Expo in Aichi | Japan | 2005

B DESIGN CRITERIA

40


AQUA TOWER - REVERSE ENGINEERING

The Foreign Office Architects’ Spanish Pavilion (2005) , Aichi, Japan was one out of sixty-five pavilions that countries or groups were constructed for the world expo. The Spanish Pavilion drew on cultural references to the hybridisation of Jewish-Christian cultures and Islamic influences. Thus, they brought to the design decorative elements from their culture, lattices and traceries allowing for a design that allowed for openness and light [4]. The design consists of a basic hexagonal grid that contains the repetition of six irregular hexagonal shapes that are coded to specific colour, that are never repeated and allows for a pattern that constantly varies in it’s form and colour. These six colour are selected in reference to the Spanish flag with colours of the national flag, red and yellow [4].

[1] ITERATION - HEXAGON GRID This was the initial input and formed the basic layout of the design, by altering the grids to radial, square, rectangular essentially changed the individual components to triangles, squares and rectangles. [2] ITERATION - INTERNAL POINTS The series internal points nodes can be adjusted to manipulate the shapes formed by the hexagonal grid. By altering the input numbers ‘x’ and ‘y’ changes the angles of the point. The initial given range of numbers were between -1 to 1. Firstly, I changing the ‘x’ slider and then the ‘y’. I noted that the higher the number the more extreme the angle would become. I later changed the range to -10 to 10 to test the extremes. I notices that just altering one slider to an extreme would drastically distort it , creating really sharp points. [3&4] ITERATION - ITEM LIST INPUT The panels that are connected into the items list index inputs are responsible for the presence and absence of particular cells or points. By changing the cell inputs allows me to cull and essentially alter the pattern. The initial list for cells was six. I began playing with different singular numbers, then two numbers, then testing three . The next input into another set of item lists consists of twenty-four points, i playing with the patterning of the points and explore all the viable options. [5&6] ITERATION - SPACING EXPRESSION This next series of iterations consists of two expression that are linked to the ‘x’ and ‘y-axis’ that controls the spacing both horizontally and vertically. It uses Pythagoras theorem to determine the spacing of the arrays. [7] ITERATION `RANGE The range component determines the size of the patterning. By altering this component adjusts the location of the extrusions. [8] ITERATION IMAGE SAMPLER The image sampler determines the areas to be culled. The initial image had concentrated clusters on certain components of the grid, by selecting different images I was able to play with the patterning and also the density of the components to be culled.

B DESIGN CRITERIA

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DESIGN PROCESS

[A] HEXAGONAL GRID

[B] DECOMPOSE AND VECTORIZE

[C] MULTIPLY IN X AND Y AXIS

[D] MULTIPLY PATTERN

[E] OFFSET TILES CREATING HOLES

[F] EXTRUDE DIFFERENCE

[G] CULL USING IMAGE MAP

[H] EXTRUDE AND COLOUR


GRIDS

ITERATION MATRIX

1.1 HEXAGONAL GRID

1.2 RADIAL GRID

1.3 RECTANGULAR GRID

2.3 +1 [0.7] [0.9] [0.5] [0.7]

2.4 x5 [1] [2] [0] [1]

2.5 x10 [2] [4] [0] [2]

2.10 +5 [0.7] [0.5] [0.5] [0.5]

2.11 x10 [0.7] [0.5] [0.5] [0.5]

3.1 [0]

3.2 [6]

3.3 [1,3,4]

EXPRESSIONS

2.9 =0 [0] [0] [0] [0]

B DESIGN CRITERIA

44


INTERNAL POINTS 1.4 SQUARE GRID

2.6 =5 [5] [5] [5] [5]

2.12 =5 [5] [5] [5] [5]

3.4 [0,3,2]

2.1 [0.2] [0.4] [0.0] [0.2]

2.7 [1] [-1] [1] [-1]

2.13 [1] [-1] [1] [-1]

3.5 [5,5,5,5]

2.2 [0] [0] [0] [0]

2.8 [1.9] [0.5] [-0.3] [-0.7]

2.14 [1] [-1] [1] [-1]

3.6 [0,3,3,8]


4.2 [0,0,3,4]

4.3 [0,0,4,5]

S P A CI N G

4.1 [0]

5.2 [2]

5.3 [3]

IMAGE SAMPLER

5.1 [1]

7.2 REEF

7.3 FRABIC

RANGE

7.1 CLOUDS

8.1 [-1]

B DESIGN CRITERIA

8.2 [5]

8.3 [100]

46


4.4 [5,5,5,5]

6.1 [1]

7.4 WAVES

8.4 [-1]

4.5 [0,3,3,5]

6.2 [1.5]

7.5 STRIPES

8.5 [0]

4.6 [0,5,5,5]

6.3 [2] [5]

7.6 PAINT STROKES

8.6 [10]


B3 CASE STUDY 2.0


REVERSE ENGINEERING | AQUA TOWER CHICAGO | STUDIO GANG ARCHITECTS | 2009

B DESIGN CRITERIA

50


DESIGN DIAGRAM

RECTANGULAR PRISM

DIVIDE TO CREATE FLOOR PLANES

CREATE UNDULATING CURVE ON THE EDGES

OFFSET TO GIVE THICKNESS

BACKGROUND INFORMATION

The design was inspired by striated limestone outcropping in the Great lakes. The result was a building characterised by a rippling facade of many curves and bends. It’s a 82 storey tower with 82 unique floor perimeters [6]. The undulating curves are an extension of the floor perimeters and thus requires prefabrication to create the precise forms. The pattern intends to maximise specific views whilst are absence at areas where they are not required. These extrusion points act as balconies but also as eaves to provide better views and solar shading.

PROCESS

This section is my attempt to reverse engineer the Aqua Tower by Studio Gang Architects. The design intent was to create a series of horizontal undulating curves to resemble the rippled facade. In order to reconstruct this I considered three methods to test: Image sampling, projecting contours and Perlin noise. The first exploration utilises image sampling to create a series of curves on a flat surface. The use of domain restrictions allowed me control the height of the curve. This method allows me to more easily test and and experiment with different images but a I noticed that it was hard to control the precise undulation of the curves even when creating my own image and inputting it into image sampler. Furthermore, it was a very straight forward algorithm and I find it had a lot of potential to be manipulated.

B DESIGN CRITERIA

The second exploration, I wanted to exert a greater level of control. Thus, I attempted to create the undulating forms by using contours projected onto a curve to create that form. I found this way allowed me for more control and precision but was more tedious than the previous attempt but i found this that i could much more easier to control the curves. In relation to the algorithm I found due to it’s simplicity it did not have much potential to be further manipulated. The last exploration I wanted to explore the design as a whole rather than just considering the facade shown in previous attempts. Thinking of this building as being constructed by a series of floor parameters I designed this iteration so that it would be constructed from a series of flat planes. The attachment of purlin noise would create the curving exterior. Although this method was successful I found that it was difficult in creating a very undulating forms and also the algorithm was more restrained and could not be easily manipulated for the next part. I found that the most successful attempt was the image sampling as it allowed for the most interesting form and had the most flexible algorithm. In accessing my designs I have selected five criteria’s to document and compare the iterations: Regularity, Curvature, fluidity, complexity

52


FIRST EXPLORATION | IMAGE SAMPLING


SECOND EXPLORATION PROJECTING CONTOURS

DESCRIPTION

Projecting contours allowed me to manipulate the structure. Thus, this image was more free in it’s movement. The structure flows more and the voids are more shocking.

B DESIGN CRITERIA

SELECTION CRITERIA FLUIDITY SMOOTHNESS DENSITY COMPLEXITY ORGANICNESS

52

•••• •••• ••••• ••••• •••


THIRD EXPLORATION | PURLIN NOISE

DESCRIPTION

This method unlike the previous trials where I experimented with just the facade, experimented with the floor plates and altering those to create the curving exterior geometry.

SELECTION CRITERIA FLUIDITY SMOOTHNESS DENSITY COMPLEXITY

•••• •••• ••••• •••••


FINAL RECTANGULAR PRISM

IMAGE SAMPLER

POINTS

REMAP NUMBERS

UNIT Z

MOVE

INTERPOLATE CURVE END POINT DECONSTRUCT

DECONSTRUCT

POINT

POINT

CONSTRUCT

CONSTRUCT

POINT

POINT

LINE

LOFT EXTRUDE

B DESIGN CRITERIA

54


CONCEPTUALISATION 57


58

CONCEPTUALISATION


B4 TECHNIQUE DEVELOPMENT


B DESIGN CRITERIA

60


CONCEPTUALISATION 61


B5 TECHNIQUE : PROTOTYPES


B6 TECHNIQUE : PROPOSAL


DESIGN AGENDA

CALLISTEMON GREEN ENVY

B DESIGN CRITERIA

CERATOPETALUM ‘ALBERYS RED’

ANIGOZANTHOS ‘BUSH TANGO’

68

HIBBERTITA ‘LITTLE ROCKER’


CERES Community Environment Park is a non-profit centre that strives towards environmental sustainability and social quality with an emphasis on cultural richness and community participation. When visiting CERES I notices the variety of herbs, vegetables and fruits but what stood out most was the native Australian herbs and plantations. I was inspiring looking at the diversity of native herbs, flowers and berries that I have never heard or seen before.

recognise and declare it’s appreciation for the community but a structure that would reference native plants and consolidate the idea of redistributing and sustaining native flora within a urban setting. This will form a multi purpose space that would be allow for the shelter, seating and also a area devoted to the growth of a range of native flora. When visiting the site I noted that a lot of areas were only available at certain periods of the day and also of the week. In providing a space that is available to public at all times and encompasses native vegetation and information can hopefully further promote and educate people of native vegetation and herbs.

The community since 2000 have been deeply involved in the plantation of over 16,000 plants across Merri Creek and I thought that this was a great reason to give thanks to the community that is so actively devoted to improving the health of the park. Thus, I wanted to create a structure that

7. LINDA MCCORMICK, ‘COFFEE AND CHOOKS AT CERES COMMUNITY ENVIRONMENT PARK, MELBOURNE’, , , (2012), , IN <HTTP://WWWECOTRAVELLERGUIDE.COM/2012/06/COFFEE-CHOOKS-CERES-ENVIRONMENT-PARK-MELBOURNE/> [ACCESSED ]. 8. BUSH MAGIK, CALLISTEMON GREEN ENVY (2016), IN , <HTTP://WWW.BUSHMAGIK.COM/BM-CALLISTEMON-GREEN-ENVY.PHP> [ACCESSED 6 APRIL 2016 9 BLACK DIAMOND IMAGES, SEPALS OF CERATOPETALUM GUMMIFERUM - NEW SOUTH WALES CHRISTMAS BUSH (2009), IN , <HTTPS://WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/BLACKDIAMONDIMAGES/4108148990> [ACCESSED 6 APRIL 2016]. 10. BAMBOO PIPELINE, ANIGOZANTHOS ‘BUSH TANGO’ (2006), IN , <HTTP://WWW.BAMBOOPIPELINE.COM/PIR/PLANTINFOVIEW.ASPX?SAPITEMCODE=ANI-BUS-05009> [ACCESSED 6 APRIL 2016]. HTTPS://C1.STATICFLICKR.COM/3/2751/4108148990_ D03FCB95A6_B.JPG 11. AUSTRALIAN PLANTS ONLINE, YELLOW FLOWERING PLANTS AUSTRALIAN(: , 2010), IN , <WWW.AUSTRALIANPLANTSONLINE.COM.AU> [ACCESSED 6 APRIL 2016].


SITE ANALYSIS

village green

bike shed cafe

honey lane

community gardens

market garden

organic market

dam

visitor the merri

center

carpark 50M

In selecting my site I wanted to find a spot

The second location was towards the right of that was subjected to the best views and also the organic market. This location was mostly a quiet location where people would be able unoccupied with only a presence of a few relax, converse and exchange ideas. bench chairs. It was the highest location on site and thus overlooked the whole of Ceres When visiting the site a few locations stood and even glimpses of Merri Creek. I thought out as having the best views. Firstly, the this would be a great site to locate my design gravel area that was a major passing point to on. the community farms and organic market. I thought this location would be great because the space was so empty and lacked interest. B DESIGN CRITERIA

70


IDEA GENERATION - GROUP PROJECT Moving forward with the design I am working with

Jeanette and Vien for the next component. Initially we discussed our own designs and discovered key themes we each wanted to bring into the design which was light, functionality and sustainability. Breaking down these key themes we wanted to see the opportunities we could explore. Firstly, the idea of light was very interesting. I could highlight a space, guide users, create illusions, whereas, the absence of light can change the focus and hide particular elements on site. I was very much inspired by precedent products that that allowed for the clear distinction of positive and negative space. In terms of functionality the members of my group were interested in make it a interactive space that could somewhat suggest sustainability. In reference to site I think we noted the issues of pollution in the Merri Creek and also wanted to encourage the idea of what CERES stands for - to move towards a more sustainable future. In particular we were interested in the idea to design a structure that would allow people to see the power they have over the environment. Some early design generation ideas were to create open structure that reveals the environment behind but with a touch of a component would ultimately close off the structure blocking users from seeing nature and presenting them with harsh, bland, industrial material.

This idea attempts to suggest a destructive future if we do not act now and become aware of our actions whilst also implying a metaphor how everyday decision and actions matter and those choices essentially inform the future. In terms of location we wanted to locate it within a destination area, we to find a spot where people would gather and question this structure and its purpose, thus we have narrowed it down to a few spots near the village green or the open space on either side of the organic market. Just briefly considering materiality we wanted to look into responsive materials or mechanical material that is able to drastically transform a design and thought that would be very intriguing and fascinating to users. We also wanted to look into possibly membranes and panels with perforation or some kind of twisting.

12. ARCHDAILY, ‘WINDSHAPE / NARCHITECTS’, (2008), IN <HTTP://WWW.ARCHDAILY.COM/4608/WINDSHAPE-NARCHITECTS> [ACCESSED ]. 13. SHEARYADI’S WORLD, ‘SHEER WALL, THE AMBIVALENT SPATIAL QUALITY’, (2012), , IN <HTTP://WWW.SHEARYADI.COM/MYWORLD/SHEER-WALL-THE-AMBIVALENT-SPATIAL-QUALITY/> [ACCESSED ]. 14. PROJECTIONE LLC, ‘EXOTIQUE’, (2009), IN <HTTP://WWW.PROJECTIONE.COM/EXOTIQUE/> [ACCESSED ]. IRINA VINNITSKAYA, ‘IT INCUBATORS / SYMBIOSIS DESIGNS LTD’, (2011), IN <HTTP://WWW.ARCHDAILY.COM/139376/IT-INCUBATORS-SYMBIOSIS-DESIGNS-LTD> [ACCESSED ].


B7 LEARNING OBJECTIVES & OUTCOME


Through this section I have learnt that computation has the power to exert a high level of control in designing. It allows the creation of high level detailing as well as ease of manipulation. Assessing the Spanish Pavilion has enabled me to conceptually picture the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;algorithmic languageâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; and how the design would of been constructed. By breaking down and manipulating the components, it has allowed me to fully understand the composition of the whole algorithm. I found it very fascinating as to how drastic the output is with just a change of one singular component, expression or slider and essentially transforms the design into something unrecognisable for the initial idea. This method of manipulating algorithms allows for higher degree of experimentation and exploration. Furthermore, by not restraining myself to just changing the slider or expression of algorithm but adding and subtracting components can also alter the design as whole. Through reverse engineering of the Aqua tower, I felt as if I was able to use the tools and components I learnt to break down the design and consider how it was created via grasshopper. It was surprising to note how flexible this pattern was and how it could be constructed from numerous different algorithms. It was interesting to note how with a string of simple components can create a very intricate and detailed pattern. This suggest the idea that computation simplifies designs and allows for designers to become more experimental with more ease. Experimenting with prototypes has allowed me to further assess the joints of my design in a more tangible way. By experimenting with different types of joints has allowed me to select one that could become apart of the design and creates a boundary for the plantation box. I find that grasshopper offers many scripts for joints and thus allows designs to be fabricated and experimented with more ease. Lastly incorporating Kangaroo Physics to draw a relationship to the tactility and form finding process to computational design. Using this tool to inform the possible construction of design and playing with materials and joints to experiment and push the limits of the design. This section has allowed me to consider grasshopper to be more than a program that allows for interesting and sophisticated forms but rather moving towards design that can be constructible and functional. B DESIGN CRITERIA

74


B8 ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES


PATH MAPPER

B DESIGN CRITERIA

78


FRACTUAL AND RELATIVE ITEM

B DESIGN CRITERIA

80


FIELDS


C DETAILED DESIGN


C1 DESIGN CONCEPT


CONCEPT

The concept of our design was inspired by our precedent project to create a responsive wall. There were two things in particular we were interested in including which was views and making a design that could be interactive. CERES itself is fairly chaotic, there are a lot of projects, sculptures and buildings. Thus, by controlling the view by blocking particular areas and revealing others can create a level of interest and focus for the users. Secondly, CERES is about informing people about sustainability and thus it is a relatively interactive environment for all ages. Therefore, we wanted to create a playful and interactive design suitable for all ages. Our design was to be guided by four design selection criteriaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s. Firstly, elegance of the overall pattern. We were after something organised and clean that which would complement the landscape. Secondly, we considered permeability and having a structure that would connect with the landscape either in reacting to it or referencing it. Thirdly, cost efficiency. We wanted to consider materials that were affordable or even incorporating recyclable or reusable. Lastly, was fabrication

C DETAILED DESIGN

we didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t want to create a chaotic, complex pattern rather we wanted to take a simple but detailed design. Analysing the site we were in search for a location with nice views and we found the platform to the right of CERES garden which has views overlooking the whole of CERES. We also noted this was a core pass by route to many of the other locations. We thought this would be an appropriate location to place out water responsive wall as it would have the most visual impact. The final design idea was to create a series of walls woven amongst the trees and vegetation. They would vary in height with the tallest and largest placed in the left side where it is exposed with the best views of CERES. The walls to the left would smaller and scattered to create a transition in the trees on the right. The purpose of having overlapping walls with the vegetation is so that users could water the vegetation and when water accidently touches the wall it would transform the wall and reveal landscape behind, viewing the whole of CERES with a single touch.

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SITE ANALYSIS | CERES MAP

CERES ORGANIC GARDEN

CERES VAN RAAY CENTRE

CERES COMMUNITY ENVIRONMENT

01

DIAGRAMS BY JEANETTE PHAN RENDERS BY VIEN NUGYEN

SELECTED LOCATION ON SITE

CERES PERMATURE AND BUSHFOOD NURSERY

02

01 | AREA WITH THE BEST VIEWS. PLACEMENT OF THE TALLEST AND WIDEST WALL. 02 | AREA OF NO VIEWS. SCATTERNING AND OVERLAPPING OF WALL WITH VEGETATION


PRECEDENT PROJECT | HYGROSCOPE PARIS | ACHIM MENGES | 2012

C DETAILED DESIGN

88


The Achim Menges Hygroscope project in collaboration with Steffen Reichert explores responsive material. They looked into selecting a system that reflects natural, biological system whereby its responsive capacity is within the material itself. In particular, this project looks into the instability of wood when exposed to moisture. As a result the surface is able to open and close in reference to the environment rather than rely on technical equipment or energy.

As a group, we were very fascinated by the idea of a responsive and dynamic material that could transform itself in reference to the environment without the need of energy. By having a structure that could open and close could reveal particular views on side and we thought it was a very theatrical design which would create a shocking visual impact on site.

The material works by the change in water molecules that bond to material molecules and essentially change the structure. The material acts by absorbing and releasing moisture in reference to the environment to create equilibrium between itself and the relative humidity. The increase and decrease of bound water alters the length of the microfibrils in the wood cell tissues, this changes the strength and decreases the dimensions.

ACHIM MENGES, HYGROSCOPE: METEOROSENSITIVE MORPHOLOGY (2012) <HTTP://WWW.ACHIMMENGES.NET/?P=5083> [ACCESSED ].


C2 TECHTONIC ELEMENTS & PROTOTYPES


WOOD PROPERTY

ACORN WATER RESPONSE PRECENDENT

TIMBER SEALED

DRY

WHEN EXPOSED TO WATER

C DETAILED DESIGN

The idea of wood being water responsive material

was referenced from acorns. They expand and contract when exposed to water. Timber, similarly reacts in the same way when one side is sealed and the other is exposed and in contact with moisture, then it expands and pushes the timber backwards created the timber to deform along the length of the grain. This idea create a type of material that reacts with the environment. This reaction depending on the thickness occurs in a matter of seconds and thus is capable of creating intrigue.

92


MATERIAL SELECTION

01 ROMANO

02 CUBAN

03 CHOCOLATE

04 CHALKWOOD

05 SILKWOOD

06 METRO

After reaching out to a timber company we retrieved a large selection of timber veneer samples of a variety of types, styles, colours, and grain sizes. We were particularly interested in the composition of these timber veneers and how they would respond to water. We roughly tested a few and noted that the finer the grain the more susceptible it was to bend around itself whilst also reacting faster than others. We were also interested on further testing the veneers with different grain sizes and discovering whether size, length or the individual thickness of the grain and exactly how much it would affect the outcome. Moving forward, we considerably narrowed our selection

down to six types: Romano, Cuban, Chocolate, Chalkwood, Silkwood and Metro. We selected these due to the fine grain size and also colour. We interested in prototyping with a range of colours. This was due our desire to experiment on whether we preferred a colour that would complement or contrast the landscape. We also need to take into consideration the framing component and how it would interact with the bending.


MATERIAL TESTING : TIMBER VENEERS WOOD

ROMANO

CUBAN

6ND

4TH

CHALK WOOD

CHOCOLATE

METRO

2ND

5TH

SILKWOOD

MINUTES 0

1

5

10

15

ORDER OF SPEED C DETAILED DESIGN

1ST

94

3RD


MATERIAL TESTING : PERFORATIONS

0

2

15

20

As a result of the six timber veneers we tested we noticed they all bend relatively nicely but in particular two reacted fasted and wrapped arount itself more. These were Chalkwood and Chocolate which were relatively similar in terms of bending and also speed. We further established our selection due to wanting our design to blend in and complement the landscape as we wanted the focus to be in the CERES and the environment. Thus we selected Chalkwood as it was suble and the colour had a nice beige with white graings running through it. Correspondingly, due to the simplicity of our design we

6

10

20

wanted to experiment with perforations and possibly image sampling something on the surface to give it an extra layer of detail and complexity. We not only wanted to test the size of the perforations but as the density and the effects that would have on the bending. The result of this experimentation was the perforations caused the panels to bend much slower and was less effective than the unperforated one. This was due to the length of the grain was penetrated weakening the wood along its length. Thus, we thought this wasnt going to be a viable obtion.


GRASSHOPPER DEFINTION POLYGON (X NUMBER OF SIDES)

CONNECT POINTS TO FORM PANELS

FIND CENTRE POINT (CP)

MIRROR CP ALONG THE POLYGON EDGES

CONNECT POINTS TO FORM PANELS

CREATE MODULES

AGGREGATE PANELS TO FORM WALL

BEND PANELS AROUND FRAME

Constructing this definition has allowed us to experiment with more shapes and patterns by simply changing the sliders. We were able to achieve squares, triangles and hexagon which greater ease.

C DETAILED DESIGN

96


FRAME EXPERIMENTATION

PANEL

FRAME

TRIANGLE FRAME

PANEL

PANEL

FRAME

SQUARE FRAME

FRAME

HEXAGONAL FRAME

DIAGONAL FRAME


FRAME PROTOTYPES

DIAGONAL FRAME

TRIANGULR FRAMAE

Our initial prototype was aimed to allow us to select the pattern for our design. We experimented with prototyping different types of frames by laser cutting Perspex and cardboard. We selected this method to purely test the pattern as it was the quickest and more accurate fabrication method. In selecting the design we wanted to consider the aesthetics and what pattern would best complement CERES. We narrowed out selection down to a diagonal frame and a triangular frame as we thought it was the most complex designs. After prototyping we were more drawn to the triangular form due to its complexity when the form was closed and open. We noted the closed pattern resembled flowers that reference CERES and was more organic than the square frame. Even though the frame component of this prototype was not our main concern we noticed the size (length of the frame where the

C DETAILED DESIGN

TRIANGULAR FRAME ITTERATION

panels would wrap around) affected the bending. The shorter the length of the frame and the greater the width of the panel allowed for the greatest amount of bending. We used cardboard to represent our timber veneers but when bending the cardboard we noticed a kink after the panels were bent to a certain point which raised concerns on whether the frame would restrict he panels from bending. This made us consider the type of frame and possibly working with a round dowels to allow for a curved surface for the panels to wrap around.

98


JOINT PROTOTYPE: TRADITIONAL METHODS

After selecting the triangular panel as the design we moved

slight fault would cause the connection to not be flush.

on to consider joints and how each dowel could interact. We also need to take into account the joining of the panel to the frame. We split the tasks up and I was in charge prototyping various joints across a few days. I came up with these few ideas and with little woodwork skills I though it would be an easy task. Little was I aware that working with small, 1cm round dowels was not as simple as I anticipated. It was very time consumer and labour intensive to work with component jointing at one point. What I learnt was that firstly, by having a structure that has six sides meeting at one point makes the structure very weak. Secondly, it was difficult to create a aesthetically pleasing yet sturdy joint without external components. The first joint prototype was very neat and simple, we appreciated the idea of it but when trying to fabricate but very difficult as it require each cut to precision. Any

The second prototype I wanted to minimised the labour by only cutting four dowel, the issue with this was the inability to nail all the way through after the first one was applied. The nail would stick out and also if the dowel was not cut to flat it would push the wood on an angle. The third and fourth prototype we wanted to bring in an external component so the precision of the dowel would not have to be as accurate. Again we it was difficult to nail the dowels in that angle. We considered using a strong glue but we thought if we we repeated this throughout the whole structure it would not support itself. The last prototype was slightly more successful. It didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t require as much accuracy in cutting the components; rather it was more about laying it out of a flat surface, securing it and nailing through.

DIAGRAMS BY JEANETTE PHAN


JOINT PROTOTYPE : 3D PRINTING

Moving from traditional methods we were interested in 3D printing. We thought creating a joint as one module would we much stronger than our previous prototypes. We constructed this joint on Rhino and thought having the dowels all connecting into the central joint would be very effective. We experienced a lot of difficulties when printing as the base kept lifting and took multiple tried before it started printing. The final outcome was much more heavier than anticipated and also because we wanted to have hollow edges it create supports that were very difficult to remove. Another issue was the timing because we intended on creating a large-scale prototype and we need at least twelve joints which would be too time consuming to print. Also taking into account our design critieria of cost effective this was not a affordable method. As a result we thought this was not a viable option.

C DETAILED DESIGN

100


JOINT PROTOTYPE : FINAL PANEL CONNECTION NAIL WASHER PANEL SPACER DOWEL END CAP NODE

FRAME CONNECTION

As

a result we started prototyping with laser cut components. It was faster and would allow for more precision in each component as we were iterating the pattern the smallest inaccuracy would ultimately distort the whole pattern. This method also made it easier to transition from a vertical to horizontal plane. This was a much easy way to fabricate our components and also created a stronger structure. Aesthetically it was more elegance and matched our chosen panel nicely. Having

DIAGRAMS BY JEANETTE PHAN

the panels raised up off the dowel minimises the changes of the bending being effected by the dowel. We selected our joint to be white to to match our panels and also the addition of the washer adds an extra level of detail to the design.


RHINO RENDER : TOP VIEW

01 CLOSED

01 OPEN

C DETAILED DESIGN

102


RHINO RENDER : PERSPECTIVE VIEW

04 CLOSED


03 OPEN

C DETAILED DESIGN

104


05 BACK (JOINT DETAIL)


SECTION

OPEN AND CLOSED STATE

PANEL CONNECTION

PANEL CONNECTION

NODE

NODE

PANEL

NODE

DOWEL

STATE 02: OPEN

STATE 01: CLOSED

C DETAILED DESIGN

106


FINAL PROTOTYPE

CONSTRUCTION PROCESS + MATERIALS

CUT PANELS, NODE, END CAP, SPACER, WASHER AND DOWEL TO SIZE.

ATTACH END CAP TO DOWELS

ATTACH DOWELS TO NODE

APPLY WASHER, SPACER, PANEL

EXCAVATE SITE

CONCRETE FOOTING

PLACE WALL ON SITE

CONNECT PANELS TO FRAME

LASER CUT COMPONENTS (NODE, END CAP, SPACER AND WASHER)

DOWEL AND ENDCAP

The pattern of the panels was largely due to the

LAYOUT FOR DOWEL AND END CAP CONSTRUCTION

LAYOUT OF PATTERN

accuracy of the frame. We were aware of the slight inaccuracy of the dowels and the affects that would have on our design. Thus, to be cautious we created a series of layouts to ensure the pattern would be as precise as possible. Another concern was the attachment of the end caps to the dowels and the need for both end caps on either side to be parallel. Constructing these layouts has allowed us to fabricate this as accurate as possible, minimising human error.


01 | Constructing the frame on our layout to ensure its accuracy.

02 | laying our panels on to ensure the panels match the frame and would sit flush against

C DETAILED DESIGN

108


03 | Using sticky tape to lay out the panels to ensure their positions are flush against each other

04 | Image of panels stuck on the frame with


05 | Applying the panels ensuring the points meet at a points

06 | Due to slight inaccuracy of the frame the panels would slight overlap causing some to lift

C DETAILED DESIGN

110


07 | The final design model. The graining provides subtle patten the panels that direct the eye to the center of the star. The small washers

give

nice

detail to the design.

08 | The back of our final model. We were with

impressed the

results.

We liked the white against the wood and the intricate detail of the joints.


C3 FINAL DESIGN MODEL


C DETAILED DESIGN

114


C4 LEARNING OBJECTIVES & OUTCOMES


LEARNING OUTCOME Overall our final feedbacks were relatively positive. Although, we were asked to look into materials, to investigate and see what else we could use. This was due to our model was presented learning against a wall and when moved was quite fragile. Considering this we were concerned with our frame and dowel joint as it was quite weak. This was due to the inaccuracies of dowels of the same length, which created trouble when constructing our model making the model weak. In order to further refine our design we were interested in investigating in different types of materials and also other possible joint idea. We were interested in looking into steel pipes or considering having a rectangular frame instead, which could be laser cut and thus more accurate, although, we really appreciated the round dowel as it gave the design a sense of softness and matched our idea more. Furthermore we were open into testing perforations in more depth and reducing the size of the holes and seeing what radius would still enable it to react as nicely. Another key thing we wanted to develop was creating a joint what was stronger. The connection we currently had was weak partly because of the cap and dowel connection and because the slight inaccuracy of the dowels slightly distorted the pattern and effected our frame alignment (some joints kept â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;poppingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; our when we pushed others in). It would be nice to source glue that was slightly stronger, we tested hot glue and exopy setting glue and both seemed strong enough but when we held it up,

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118


OBJECTIVES Objective 1. “Interrogating a brief” by considering the process of brief formation in the age of optioneering enabled by digital technologies. I learnt when converging into groups we all obtained different interpretation of the brief and thus we approached in our own ways. However, we were able to use take individual knowledge of site and ideas to a more thoughtful and optimal response. Objective 2. Developing “an ability to generate a variety of design possibilities for a given situation” by introducing visual programming, algorithmic design and parametric modeling with their intrinsic capacities for extensive design-space exploration. Through the use of algorithmic design and parametric modeling we were able to more easily generate a number of patterns (triangles, squares and hexagons) for our design and see its effect. By altering the slider we were able to recognize what shapes were viable and what were not. Objective 3. Developing “skills in various three- dimensional media” and specifically in computational geometry, parametric modeling, analytic diagramming and digital fabrication. I commenced the subject only with basic knowledge of rhino. I found throughout this subject I developed skills in grasshopper that made utilizing rhino with greater precision, easy and accuracy. Objective 4. Developing “an understanding of relationships between architecture and air” through interrogation of design proposal as physical models in atmosphere. In my past I have has little contact with digital fabrication but within this group project it has exposed me to different types of digital fabrication such as laser cutting and 3D printing. I developed skills on how to prepare files for digital fabrication, learning this has allowed me acknowledge the ease, efficiency, cost, and accuracy of construction with prefabricate components. Doing this subject and observing peers has also exposed me to a lot of different techniques and also machinery. In terms of prototype I appreciated the process of prototyping, as a group we were always cautious of possible errors or failures and tried our best to take that into account when model making and how best to reduce error. However, it wasn’t until we prototyped and tested we actually saw what was viable and whatwas not. It was a lengthy process but worthwhile after seeing the results.

Objective 5. Developing “the ability to make a case for proposals” by developing critical thinking and encouraging construction of rigorous and persuasive arguments informed by the contemporary architectural discourse. In reference to the interim feedback and final feedback has allowed me to look at my design more critically and to take into account more aspects of the design. Referencing my intrim feeback and being suggested to relate my design to site we really wanted to create another level of interest. Thus, we decided rather than having a singlular, linear, flat wall to have multiple walls of varying height that would be layered between vegetation. This would allow our design to integrate itself better within the landscape. I think it’s important to constantly push my design thinking and my designs. Objective 6. Develop capabilities for conceptual, technical and design analyses of contemporary architectural projects. I believed that I have developed a language for digital design, throughout this subject I have gained skills which allow me to analyse how contemporary architecture projects may have been conceived. Objective 7. Develop foundational understandings of computational geometry, data structures and types of programming. With my initial lack of knowledge of grasshopper I came to appreciate the systematic and logical workflow of grasshopper. It has allows for the manipulation even the most complex and intricate designs at ease. Objective 8. Begin developing a personalised repertoire of computational techniques substantiated by the understanding of their advantages, disadvantages and areas of application. From the level of skills I withheld at the beginning of semester I am greatly appreciative of what I gave gained not only in grasshopper, but also in rhino and digital fabrication. It has given me another tool to create and design with and has also allowed me to recognised the use of computation and form finding in creating new ways to generate ideas. I have come to really appreciate computational techniques, although it appears to be simple yet required a lot of detail and accuracy. I’m pleased with the skills I have developed and am interested in seeing what I can create in the future. To end, I would like to thank Cailyn for her guidance and support throughout the semester !


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