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Of Research Â

About the Author The author  is  a  17-­‐year  old  student  who  made  this   project  for  her  Library  Sciences  class.    She  wrote  this   book  to  help  middle  school  students  with  their  research   projects/      

The of Research ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Copyright 2010 All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the prior written consent of the publisher or a licence.


Table of contents The Definition  of  Trustworthy  

pg. 1  

How to  evaluate  a  website    

pg. 2-­‐3  

Spotting misleading  sites    

pg. 4  

Free engine  sources    

pg. 5-­‐6  

-­‐Google, Bing,  Aol,  Yahoo    

-­‐Domain names    


pg. 7-­‐8  


pg. 9-­‐10  


pg. 11-­‐12  

Databases and  Encyclopedias  

pg. 13  

News-­‐ Articles    

pg. 14  

Library Books  and  Ebooks      

pg. 15  

-­‐Library websites    

Checking your  info  (Don’t  believe  everything  you  see)    

pg. 16  


pg. 17  

One Last  Note    

pg. 18  

The meaning of trustworthy Similarly to starting the alphabet, we have to start from letter A. In this sense, we’ll start by defining what trustworthy means from two different sources: the dictionary and from the internet. Dictionary: -Able to be relief on as honest or truthful Internet: -worthy of confidence; specifically : being or deriving from a source worthy of belief or consideration for evidentiary purposes -deserving of trust or confidence; dependable; reliable: The treasurer was not entirely trustworthy. To determine if the website is trustworthy we use the C.A.R.E.S criteria Advice: Try to find your own definition of trustworthy; this will help you evaluate websites faster and easily.


Evaluating A Website How do we know who to trust? The C.A.R.E.S criteria help us evaluate a website. There are five basic criteria you can apply: 1.) Current or Cross-checked, 2.) Authoritative, 3.) Reliable, 4.) Ease of Use, and 5.) Support for research question.


urrent or cross-checked

This means that updated information and the facts on the website matches information found in “expert” sources. Make sure the website matches information found in “expert” sources. Information related to history need not have been published in the last year, but information related to science and health should be current, not from 4 years ago. Health information should be no more than 6 months to one year old.



Individuals who authored the information should be clearly identified on the webpage and his/her credentials should be clearly specified. Check the “about” page or home page for links.



Information is not based on one favorable point of view that is the information is not bias.



ase of Use

Information should be easy to use, where the layout and features are clearly visible and easy to navigate, and search limiters are found to help narrow search items.


upport for research question

The source supports your research topic/question. Here are some videos to help you evaluate websites: Advice:  Never use a source from an anonymous author. Even if a person has a Dr. degree, look for information such as a brief biography that specifies where the individual went to university. Always look at the domain name to check whether a website is trustworthy or not. (More information is found on 5). One a webpage, look for a date in which the website was last updated. (*Hint* Look at the bottom of the site)          


Misleading and Untrustworthy sites How to point out a spoof, hacked, malicious site, non-informative site? Using the C.A.R.E.S. criteria can be used in these situations.

Spoof sites   These sites are just for fun and are meant in jest/humor, but many may look real. Here is an example of a spoof site: Malicious  sites   The sites that aim to discredit someone or an organization in a particular vicious way for the purpose of disseminating misinformation Hacked  sites   The websites that copy the exact look and form of the real web site and look authentic but are false! Tip: Uncovering a hacked site: -cross-check information from other websites. Also look for a page describing who authored the web page. The real web page provides contact information about actual members.  Misinformation  sites     Websites that twist the truth by leaving out important facts and information Tip: Always use more than one source and cross-check information with other sites.      

4 4

The Free Engine Sources There are  4  major  Free  Engine  Sources:  Google,  Bing,  Aol  and  Yahoo.       Although   a   LOT   of   information   can   be   found   of   these   major   engine   sources,   it   means   that   a   lot   are   non-­‐trustworthy.   Google,   the   most   powerful  of  the  four  arranges  the  sources  by  the  amount  of  times  the   keywords   show   up   in   a   website.   There   are   other   ways   to   quickly   access   credible  web  sites.   The  best  sources  of  the  Free  Web   WebPath  Express   • This  is  found  on  Lambrick’s  Library  Webpage.     • It  is  a  subscription  service  that  helps  students  find  the  best   internet  sources  on  a  variety  of  curriculum-­‐related  topics.     • You  retrieve  fewer  results  that  further  more  sorted  by  grade   levels  (intro-­‐advanced).     Subject  Directories   • There  are  human-­‐selected  web  sites  associated  with  a  particular   subject  area.     An  example  of  a  subject  directory:    


Google Advanced     • You  can  sort  domain  names-­‐limiting  sites  to  .edu  or  .gov  sites   • You  can  also  sort  videos  by  source  to  narrow  search  results  to   these  sources   Domain  Names   • Always  look  at  the  domain  name  of  a  website,  it  can  tell  you  a  lot   about  the  credibility  of  the  content     • “.com”  domains  mean  commercial  websites,  meaning  they’ll   approach  you  from  a  certain  point  of  view   • “.org”  means  organization,  and  concentrates  on  their  own  point   of  view   • “.edu”  means  educational;  trustworthy  because  it  is  made  for   students   • “.gov”  means  government;  this  is  also  trustworthy  because  it   contains  information  from  the  government   • It  is  always  wise  to  verify  the  domain  name  before  consulting   information  from  the  website  


The Famous Wikipedia What is  Wikipedia  and  where  does  it  come  from?     Wikipedia  is  a  special  type  of  website  that  allows  a  number  of  people  to   contribute   to   the   content.   The   word   means   “Quick”   in   Hawaiin   and   – that   on   a   basic   level,   the   wiki   is   quick   way   for   information   to   be   posted   and  reached.     Facts  about  Wikipedia   • The  Founders  are  Jimmy  Wales  and  Larry  Sanger   • It  was  created  on  January  15,  2001   • There  are  more  than  200  languages  and  100s  or  1000s  of   contributors  around  the  world   • There  are  more  than  200,000  registered  user     • A  core  group  of  1000-­‐2000  people  are  responsible  for  73%  of  edits     • According  to  Aaron  Swartz,  about  5  of  400  edits-­‐or  1%  of  the  edits     Benefits  of  Wikipedia     • People  from  all  around   the  world  can  share  what   they  know  on  the  topic  of   discussion   Cons  of  Wikipedia   • The   authors   are   anonymous   and   the   quality   and   accuracy   of   the   information   is   not   questioned   in   book     7  

sources. They   have   gone   through   editing   and   peer   review   to   ensure  the  information  is  not  faulted.     • Controversial  topics-­‐  bias  content   • Info  influx  because  it  is  always  changing       Conclusion     Is  Wikipedia  trustworthy?   Wikipedia  is  a  place  of  discussion,  meaning  of  the  personal  opinion  on  a   topic   will   likely   influence   someone   else.   Wikipedia   has   insufficient   references  and  warns  about  new  articles  until  they  are  reviewed.   Wikipedia   should   not   be   used   for   research   papers.   Although   the   site   has   improved   its   status,   it   is   still   a   site   based   on   personal   opinions   where  anyone  can  come  in  and  change  the  facts.  When  using  Wikipedia   always  cross-­‐check  the  information  with  other  websites.            


YouTube: The World’s largest video sharing website What is  YouTube?   YouTube  is  a  video  sharing  website  on  which  users  can  upload  and   share  videos.       Facts  about  YouTube   • Chad   Hurley,   Steve   Chen   and   Jawed   Karim  created  YouTube  in  2005   • The  company  uses  Adobe  Flash  Video  and   HTML5  technology  to  display  a  variety  of   user-­‐generated   video   content,   including   movie  clips,  TV  clips  and  music  videos,  as   well   as   amateur   content   such   as   video   blogging  and  short  original  videos.     • Feature   of   YouTube   include:   playback,   uploading   and   quality   and   codecs,   3D   videos,   content   accessibility,   platform,   localization.   Pros     • • • •

Using YouTube  is  easy   It  will  show  most  videos     The  service  is  clean  and  clear     It  is  has  variety  of  videos,  infomercials,  how  to  videos  and  much   more     9    

You can  stay  up  to  date  with  the  new  videos  at  YouTube     Expressing  your  creativity  through  YouTube  is  a  major  benefit     Getting  to  know  people  through  YouTube  is  great     You  can  get  a  good  deal  of  information  to  many  people  in  a  short   amount  of  time     • Ease  of  Use   • No  need  for  tons  of  equipment,  computer,  video  equipment,   microphone  and  editing  software     • • • •

Cons • This  is  public,  so  anyone  can  see  the   videos  you  post   • Anyone  for  the  most  part  can  post  a   video     • There  is  violence  and  animal  abuse  on   some  of  the  videos  on  the  site   • There  are  explicit  videos   • There  could  be  issues  of  privacy   invasion     • There  could  be  copyright  infringement  issues.     Conclusion     YouTube   goes   would   be   a   semi-­‐credible   source.   Although   the   site   promotes   lots   of   good   information,   the   same   applies   for   bad   information.  In  occasion  that  your  teacher  allows  you  to  use  YouTube,  it   should  not  be  used  for  research  topics.      


Blogs What is  a  blog?   A  blog  is  a  website  on  which  an  individual  or  group  of  users  record   opinions,  information  on  a  regular  basis.     Pros   • Offers  real  reading  material   from  real  writers   • Reflects  current  topics     • Offers  access  to  the  cultures   of  the  countries  where   language  is  spoken     • Writing  for  real  readership   may  motivate  learners  to  edit   and  rewrite  their  work   Cons   • The  level  of  writing  is  often  not  a  good  model  for  language   learners  to  read   • Texts  are  not  graded  to  readers’  levels   • Most  blog-­‐types  cannot  be  corrected  by  teacher,  thus  bad  writing   habits  may  be  developed   • Some  people  may  not  have  the  right  mindset   • Pointless  or  narcissistic  facts   • Bias  facts  =  one  way  conversation       11  

Conclusion Blogs  are  simply  for  enjoyment.  They  allow  you  to  share  information   with  other  people  all  around  the  world.  Although  blogs  allow  for  long-­‐ distance  connections,  they  should  not  be  used  for  research  projects.   The  content  of  the  material  is  based  on  opinions  of  other  people.  In   research  papers  you  need  a  blank  point  of  view,  kind  of  like  looking  for   knowledge  all  over  the  place.                          


Databases and Encyclopedias Why use  them?   • Giant  warehouse  of  information:   thousands  of  articles  in  one  location     • Mix  of  popular  resources   (magazines,  newspapers)  and   scholarly  resources  (journals,  books,   peer-­‐reviewed  studies)   • Hidden  from  Google  and  other   search  engines   • Current  information     • Free  resource   • Searches  are  more  efficient  and  effective   • You  can  use  advanced  search   and  limiters     • You  can  save  articles:  folders,   e-­‐mail  and  to  a  computer   The  Usefulness  of  Encyclopedias   • There  are  different  types  of   encyclopedias:   • General  encyclopedias  cover  a   wide  range  of  knowledge  at  a   very  basic  level.  They  are  useful  for  basic  fact  checking   • Subject  encyclopedias  provide  in-­‐depth  scholarly  coverage  of  a   single  subject  area.    


News In the  21st  century,  you  can  always  turn  on  a  channel  and  hear  what’s   happening  around  the  world.  It’s  a  great  way  to  learn  about  our  planet   and  the  things  that  are  happening.     What  have  been  some  of  the  top  news  in  your  recent  week?   It’s   always   good   to   know   what’s   happening   around   you.   I   know   sometimes   news   can   be   boring,   but   bear   with   it   and   you’ll   find   out   some   shocking   things   and   might   even   gather   some   info   for   your   research  paper!   Why  trust  the  News?     The   News   is   one   of   the   only   sources   that   we   can   get   information   globally.   It   lets   us   know   what   is   happening   and   what   to   watch   out   for.   The   News   backs   up   their   stories   with   a   lot   of   facts,  and  with  these  facts  you  can  easily  write   your   research   paper   with   the   why,   what,   where,   who,   when   and   how.   They   are   a   trustworthy   source   with   continuous   updated   information.   There  aren’t  just  printed  copies,  but  also  digital  and  electronic.       What  are  some  networks?    

CNN, CBC,  BBC,  FOX  News,  A  Channel,  CHECK  News  and  so  on.     Times  Colonist,  Saanich  News,  Globe  and  Mail…  


Library Books and Ebooks Library books  and  e-­‐books  are  a  great  source  of  information.  With  the   help  of  a  staff  librarian,  you’ll  be  able  to  find  the  information  you  need   for  your  research  paper.   The  library  is  filled  with  books  from  generalities  to  history  and   biographies.     Be  sure  to  ask  for  help  to  a  librarian  if  you  need  to  find  something.   School  Library  Websites   One  of  the  greatest  places  to  search  for  information  is  to  look  on  school   library  websites.   Staff  librarians  purchase  new  research  items  each  year  for  students  to   use.     In  Lambrick  Park’s  library  website,   there  are  several  helpful  tools  for  a   research  paper.  There  are  databases,   encyclopedias,  Webpath  Express,  e-­‐ books,  magazines  and  news  articles   available  for  the  students’  use.   It’s  one  of  the  greatest  treasures  of  the  school  and  for  the  students.     When  doing  a  research  paper,  one  place  you  should  always  go  is  to  the   library  and  check  out  the  material.  If  you  don’t  have  the  patience  to   look  for  a  book,  go  to  a  librarian  and  ask  or  go  to  your  school’s  online   catalogue  to  look  up  the  book.  Just  don’t  forget  to  bring  it  back!  


Checking Your Info: Don’t Believe Everything You See Checking everything  is  a  very  important  value.  Even  a  trusted  friend`s   email  can  have  a  faulted  fact  in  it.  Don`t  believe  everything  you  see  or   hear.     Here  is  one  example:   Myth:  Spinach  makes  you  strong-­‐like  Popeye  the  Sailor  man!   The  myth  comes  from  the  fact  that  spinach  is  high  in  iron-­‐but  wait…   spinach  is  actually  not  very  high  in  iron.  Believe  or  not,  this  part  of  the   myth  comes  from  a  handwriting  error  in  1870  when  a  Doctor  Wolf   accidently  put  a  decimal  point  in  the  wrong  place  and  made  it  look  like   Spinach  had  10  times  more  iron  than  it  really  has.  Now  to  the  strong   part  of  the  myth:  in  order  to  get  muscle  strength,  you  need  to  exercise   and  do  weight  training-­‐eating  spinach  won’t  make  you  strong  on  its   own-­‐it  will  only  give  you  energy  you  need  to  survive  your  workout.      


The Continuum: Credible Sources of Information Here is  a  chart/continuum  for  research  sources  for  school.  To  the  not  so   credible  sources  to  your  best  bet!   Not  at  all  credible   -­‐Wikipedia  for  school   project    

Somewhat credible     Highly  Credible   -­‐Blogs   -­‐Websites  with  the   -­‐Websites  with  the   domain  “.edu”  and   domain  “.com”   “.gov”   -­‐Websites  with  the   -­‐Google  Scholar  for   domain  “.org”  for   school  science  project   biographical   -­‐Databases  and   information   Encyclopedias   -­‐Snopes.coms   -­‐Library  books  and   EBooks   -­‐CBC  News  (website)   -­‐CNN   -­‐Webpath  Express   -­‐Subject  Directories  



One Last Note Knowledge has   been   bee   pursued   differently   through   history   by   different   individuals.   Individuals   from   pre-­‐history   to   modern   times   might   describe   knowledge   as   “new   technologies”   that   assist   technology.  Knowledge  has  had  a  long  journey.     Ancient   civilizations   were   only   available   by   “learned   men”   (philosophers,   men   of   science…)   and   were   transmitted   orally   through   stories,  single  manuscripts,  art  and  music.     The   first   millennium   (1500   A.D.)   knowledge   was   controlled   by   the   Catholic   Church   and   monasteries   and   was   transmitted   orally,   art,   music   and  manuscripts.   16th   to   18th   century,   knowledge   was   controlled   by   learned   men   of   science  and  were  transmitted  though  books  of  fiction  and  non-­‐fiction.     19th  century,  knowledge  was  controlled  by  learned  men  of  science  and   math,   philosophers,   writers,   and   the   wealthy   elite.   They   were   transmitted  by  daily  newspapers  and  books.     20th  century,  knowledge  was  controlled  by  learned  men  of  science  and   math,   teachers   of   all   degrees   and   was   transmitted   by   newspapers,   telephone,  books,  films,  radio,  telegraph,  television,  textbooks.     Today,  in  the  21st  century,  knowledge  is  controlled  by  everyone  and  is   transmitted   by   IPods,   blackberries,   the   ipad,   e-­‐readers   and   all   technologies.  There  is  no  control  with  the  amount  of  knowledge  poured   in,   so   be   careful   and   be   sure   to   use   the   C.A.R.E.S.   criteria   to   check   all   your  research  material.    


ABCs of research  

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