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Proceedings of the 66th Annual Conference

Prague 2–6 October 2011

Partnering for Sustainable Zoos and Aquariums


Imprint Editor: Gerald Dick, WAZA Executive Office IUCN Conservation Centre Rue Mauverney 28 CH-1196 Gland Switzerland phone: +41 22 999 07 90 (WAZA Executive Office) Layout &Typesetting: michal@sky.cz Cover photo: Prague Castle by night © Gerald Dick, WAZA Edition: © WAZA 2012 In order to make wise use of natural resources, it has been decided to offer the proceedings of WAZA Conferences online only. This saves paper resources and expensive postage costs, thus CO2 emissions. WAZA thanks for your understanding. www.waza.org (members’ area).

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ISSN: 2073-6576

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October 2011 | Prague

Partnering for Sustainable Zoos and Aquariums Proceedings of the 66th Annual Conference 2–6 October 2011 Hosted by Prague Zoo

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Proceedings of 66th Annual Conference

Editorial Dear Members and Friends! I would like to start with a big thank you to our host, the Prague zoo! All their staff worked hard to make our conference a big success, in all respects. The perfect meeting venue and the beautiful city of Prague guaranteed a nice and friendly atmosphere for working and socializing at the same time. The 66th WAZA Annual Conference was dedicated to the theme of partnerships and sustainable animal populations. Progress was made in working better together in terms of cross-regional breeding efforts and the first set of global species management plans was agreed. This year much time was devoted to workshop meetings, whereas the first day of technical congress started with two prominent keynotes, followed by 19 papers devoted to sustainable collections, animal welfare and business implications.

We were also happy to welcome a representative of the UN Convention on Biological Biodiversity and finally the membership adopted a resolution in support of the UN Decade on Biodiversity with a view to provide a long-term support for this global endeavour. The world zoo and aquarium community is getting stronger every year and more visible on the global stage of conservation with a clear focus on species, let’s get even more “United for Conservation”! Gerald Dick Executive Director

Legend: Conference Documents DOC

Documents submitted prior to the Conference, like Committee reports, Association reports.

INF

Documents presented at the conference without previous documentation, made available after the Conference

MEM Presentations of new members ADM

Administrative sessions

COM

Committee meetings at the Conference

WS

Workshop results

RES Resolution

Example Number of Annual Conference

DOC 65.20 Type of document Number of document


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October 2011 | Prague

Table of Contents Welcome Address by the Host...................................... 5 Welcome by the Mayor of the City of Prague................6 Welcome Address by the Czech Minister of the Environment.................... 7 Welcome to the Region................................................8 Welcome Address by the WAZA President...................9 Keynote Addresses......................................................11 Time Is Running Out!.................................................. 12 Global Species Conservation – The Zoo Community Must Lead!..................................17

WAZA Congress Papers Abstracts........ 19 Received Full WAZA Congress Contributions.................................... 29

Identifying Gaps and Opportunities for Interregional Ex situ Species Management............ 30 The Conservation Centers for Species Survival: Breeding Center Partnerships for Sustainability......... 33 Reproductive Health and Population Sustainability..................................... 37 Public Relations for the Saint Louis Zoo’s WildCare Institute...................................................... 41 Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) & its Elegant Strategy ................................................ 43 Wildlife Conservation & Animal Welfare Need One Another … Hence, “Conservation Welfare”................. 45 Transport of CITES Listed Species............................... 56 Project Ocean: Fish Meets Fashion............................. 58 Forging Public Opinion Or Influencing the Legislator?....................................60 The Travelling Sex Show ............................................ 64

1st Plenary........................................ 71

Annual Report by the WAZA President....................... 72 WAZA Executive Office Report................................... 76 International Relationships Report............................. 84 The Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG) Report.................................. 85 International Species Information System (ISIS) Report...............................90 Amphibian Ark (AArk) Report..................................... 91

2nd Plenary....................................... 93

Conservation and Sustainability Committee Report............................... 94 Committee for Population Management (CPM).......... 95 International Zoo Educators Association (IZE).......... 102 Marketing Committee Report.................................. 109 Ethics and Animal Welfare Committee Report...........111 Aquarium Committee Report....................................113 Science & Veterinary Committee Report....................117 WAZA Associations Committee Report.................... 119 Decade on Biodiversity.............................................121

New Members Presentations....................... 122

Foz Tropicana Parque das Aves | Brazil.......................123 Vogelpark Marlow | Germany....................................123 Torre Design Consortium, Ltd. a Professional Architecture Corporation | USA.......... 124 PJA Architects + Landscape Architects, p.s. | USA..... 124 Fondazione Bioparco di Roma | Italy......................... 125

Regional Reports........................................ 126

Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) Report....................................127 Eurasian Regional Association of Zoos and Aquariums (EARAZA) Report................................... 129 The British and Irish Association of Zoos and Aquariums (BIAZA) Report .................................132 Verband Deutscher Zoodirektoren e. V. founded 1887 (VDZ) Report.......................................134 SNDPZ Annual Report...............................................135 African Association of Zoos and Aquaria (PAAZAB) Report.................................. 136 South Asian Zoo Association for Regional Cooperation (SAZARC) + Zoo Outreach Organisation (ZOO) Report.......................................141 Japanese Association of Zoos and Aquariums (JAZA) Report.................................. 144 Zoo and Aquarium Association (Australasia) [ZAA] Report....................................... 145 Latin American Zoo and Aquarium Association (ALPZA)Report......................................................... 149 Colombian Association of Zoos and Aquaria (ACOPAZOA) Report.................................................151 Mesoamerican and Caribbean Zoo and Aquarium Association (AMACZOOA) Activities Report..............153 French Association of Zoos – Association Française des Parcs Zoologiques (AFdPZ).................154 Canadian Association of Zoos and Aquariums (CAZA) Report.......................................................... 156 Deutsche Tierpark­‑Gesellschaft (DTG) Report .......... 160


4 1st Administrative Session................ 161

Approval of Minutes of 65th WAZA Annual Conference................................ 165 The Report of JAZA Activities After the Disaster and Current Issues.........................170 Membership Committee Report as of 31 August 2011.................................................. 171 Finance Committee Report....................................... 174

Proceedings of 66th Annual Conference

2nd Administrative Session............... 181

Secure Long-term Animal Collections (Sustainable Collections), Workshop..........................187 Animal Welfare, Legislation and Public Opinion, Workshop.................................. 188 Business Prerogatives – Making Money and Saving Wildlife, Workshop................................. 192 Conservation and Sustainability Committee Meeting................................................. 194 Science and Veterinary Committee Meeting............. 196 Aquarium Committee Meeting ................................ 199 Associations Committee Meeting............................. 210 Marketing and Membership Committee Meeting..................................................213 Ethics and Animal Welfare Committee Meeting................................................. 215 Resolution: Contribution of WAZA and its Members to the UN Decade on Biodiversity, 2011–2020...........217 WAZA Budget 2012.................................................. 218 The 2011 WAZA Heini Hediger Award....................... 219

List of Participants............................221


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October 2011 | Prague

Welcome Address by the Host Miroslav Bobek, Director, Prague Zoo

Dear Mr President, dear colleagues, ladies and gentlemen, Let me welcome you to the 66th WAZA Annual Conference, held in one of the world’s most beautiful cities, in Prague. I am immensely honored to welcome you in the name of Prague Zoological Garden, and at the same moment thank you that our zoo was entrusted with the preparation of such an important event. The 66th WAZA Annual Conference is held under the patronage of Bohuslav Svoboda, the Mayor of Prague, whom I am welcoming and I wish to thank him not only for the patronage over the conference, but also for the support of our zoological garden. I am also welcoming and wish to thank the Minister of Environment of Czech Republic, Mr Tomáš Chalupa. Forty years ago formal director of Prague Zoo Zdeněk Veselovský welcomed our predecessors at the 26th international conference of the directors of zoological gardens. I am happy that I can welcome you here on the year of the 80th anniversary of Prague Zoo, and open the conference with a short documentary, dedicated also to professor Veselovský. On top of that, I think that it is pre-eminently related to the overall theme of the conference… Thank you for coming and I wish you successful deliberations!

© Tomáš Adamec Miroslav Bobek, director of Prague Zoo.


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Proceedings of 66th Annual Conference

Welcome by the Mayor of the City of Prague Miroslav Svoboda

Dear friends, honoured guests, ladies and gentlemen, Last week, Prague’s zoological garden celebrated the 80th anniversary of its opening. The 66th WAZA Annual Conference and Technical Congress is a splendid culmination of these celebrations and it is my honour to welcome you to the Czech Republic’s capital city. In terms of age, the Prague Zoo cannot compare to traditional institutions such as the zoo in Vienna’s Schönbrunn Palace; nevertheless, over the course of its existence it has managed to build up an excellent international reputation. One significant factor in this is the unique breeding of Przewalski’s Horse. Just last Wednesday we christened the 216th foal born in Prague. But we also take pleasure in the more than 670 other species kept at the Prague Zoo.

I am certain that you will have the opportunity to get to know our beautiful city from many perspectives over the coming days. Aside from the Zoo, our metropolis also offers many other fascinating experiences. Visitors to Prague are often curious as a cat about the local architecture. They are also often busy as a bee trying to visit all of Prague’s monuments. And when they are hungry as a wolf after a long day, they stop to try out our local culinary specialities and renowned Czech beer. If you don’t already have a set programme, please take it as a bit of inspiration. I wish you a pleasant stay in Prague. Thank you.


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October 2011 | Prague

Welcome Address by the Czech Minister of the Environment Tomáš Chalupa

Dear Ladies and Gentlemen, It gives me great honour to welcome you to Prague on behalf of the Ministry of the Environment and address all of you who have come to our beautiful city from all corners of the world – from Argentina to New Zealand, from Canada to Japan, from Sweden to the Republic of South Africa. We come together in a city which has been the crossroads of various cultures, views and languages since time immemorial. Perhaps that is why it can boast the epithet “mother of cities”. However I am convinced that the beauty and history of our capital city is not the only reason why this year’s WAZA conference is being held here. The reason is Prague Zoo which is celebrating its 80th anniversary this year. Prague Zoo has been developing successfully for 80 years and continues to develop. Today it is ranked among modern zoos. It can boast many breeding successes such as being the first zoo in the world to breed the Andean Condor, the first to artificially breed the polar bear, the first to breed the lowland gorilla, the first for the most productive breeding of the Komodo dragon outside Indonesia and collaborated in saving Przewalski’s Horse.

Prague Zoo is not the only zoo in the Czech Republic which is a small country by its area but has a total of 21 zoos. Eleven of them are members of WAZA. Zoos have a long tradition in the Czech Republic and have been in the limelight of public interest for a long time. Almost 5 million people visited Czech zoos in 2010. This corresponds to half the population of the ten million people who live in the Czech Republic. The high number of visitors is very important, but is not the only force that keeps zoos operating. The operation of zoos in the Czech Republic and in many other countries would be unthinkable without the support and understanding of local self-government and central governing authorities. The Ministry of the Environment, as the central governing authority for the operation of zoos, has been supporting Czech zoos in the long term in fulfilling the World Zoo and Aquarium Conversation Strategy. The priority is the support of the breeding of endangered species of world fauna and involvement in a number of national and international rescue programmes which are to contribute to the conservation of the biodiversity of animals in human care and in natural habitats. The protection of populations living in the wild in natural habitats is an activity that is developing in all Czech zoos. This area has met with the growing support of the public and the Ministry of the Environment. The list would be a long one if I were to name all the projects that Czech zoos organise in this area or provide with significant cooperation.

Ladies and gentlemen, in the opening speech of Prague Zoo’s director, Mr. Miroslav Bobek, we saw a short documentary about the transport of four Przewalski’s horses to the countryside in Mongolia. This is a wonderful example as one of many. It was a project which best illustrates the functional link of zoos working together to protect populations living in the wild in their original habitats. The example also illustrates the support of the Czech Republic. It was an honour for me to assume the personal auspices of this project. The mission of zoos has long been not just to show animals. An integral and very important part of a modern zoo is to educate people, acquaint them in narrow and broad terms with the problems of nature conservation, increase their awareness of the problems of the conservation of species and their natural habitats, and provide them with the opportunity to become actively involved in solving these problems. Ladies and gentlemen, I wish you a fruitful and successful conference. I hope that in the end you will go home filled with impressions, new ideas and pleasant experiences not just of the conference, but also of Prague Zoo and the Czech Republic!


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Proceedings of 66th Annual Conference

Welcome to the Region David Nejedlo, President of Union of Czech and Slovak Zoological Gardens

Dear Minister, The Mayor, dear colleagues, Seeing you all present here today, reminds me of all the countries I have had the chance to discover for myself during the period of my zoo directorship, when, like you, I have travelled to WAZA conferences. I have seen the beautiful mountains in Taiwan, the wild coastline of Australia and the rough desserts of south-west America – and I have felt happy everywhere. However, I have always looked forward to my homecoming, to the green heart of Europe, which is how the Czech Republic is sometimes nicknamed, with a great number of freely accessible natural beauties on one hand, and the footprints of the human history – the old castles, chateaus and churches – on the other hand – they can all be found in our country. Czech towns offer many opportunities for cultural and sporting activities. However, despite all these numerous and easily accessible tourist attractions, zoos are to be found amongst the most widely visited public institutions.

The Union of Czech and Slovak Zoological Gardens gathers together some 19 members and as is the case with free wild birds, mammals and other animals, our collaboration is neither prevented nor restricted by the border which was built between Czech and Slovakia many years ago. The member zoos, in 2 countries, keep and breed nearly 30 thousand animals, in some 3 thousand species, which are visited annually by nearly 6 and a half million visitors. No wonder then, that one quarter of the 20 most visited sociocultural institutions in the Czech Republic are represented by zoos. The first place goes to Prague zoo, which I am sure, you will visit during the conference. However, I would also like to invite you, on behalf of my colleagues, to other regions of the Czech Republic. Believe you me that in our none-toolarge country, that distance is not a limiting factor. Please accept my invitation and set off to the west, to the progressively-changing zoo and botanical garden in Plzeň; or to the south, to the rather small but still nice Ohrada zoo, situated not far from one of the most beautiful Czech chateaus, the chateau of Hluboká. My personal invitation however, goes to the north of Czech, where my colleagues will welcome you heartily to the Zoopark Chomutov with an abundant collection of Eurasian fauna. In Ústí nad Labem you will be able to see expositions and pavilions situated in a hill over the fascinating canyon of the River Elbe, along which you can shortly get to the rather small but innovative Děčín zoo with its terrarium and educational pavilion ‘Paradise islands‘. You can finish, or start, your

tour around Northern Czech zoos in our oldest, but still vibrant Liberec zoo, which I have had the honour to run for the past seven years. In the Eastern part of our country, I would also like to draw your attention to the African expositions in Dvůr Králové zoo and to the African village Matongo in Jihlava zoo, surrounded by the expositions of many rare and endangered animals. In Northern Moravia, I would like to point out the nice and dynamic zoos in Ostrava and Olomouc, and the beautiful Lešná zoo, whose modern expositions can be found in a charming chateau park. You must also visit the changing Brno zoo, in the Czech Republic’s second city, or, in the south of Moravia, the interesting zoos in Vyškov and Hodonín. And as for neighbouring Slovakia, well please accept my invitation to the capital city of Bratislava and its much visited zoo; to Spišská Nová Ves zoo, situated near the majestic mountain range of the Tatras; to the beautiful area of a chateau park in Bojnice zoo; or to the romantic valley full of expositions of animals in Košice zoo. Ladies and gentlemen, it is a great honour to have been able to welcome you to the Czech Republic. To the country where much of the history of human kind has been written, and the country which is nowadays writing, alongside you and together with you, the history of world zoology. Thank you for your attention.


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October 2011 | Prague

Welcome Address by the WAZA President Mark Penning

Your Worship the Mayor of Prague, Mr. Bohuslav Svoboda; Minister of the Environment of the Czech Republic – Mr Tomáš Chalupa; Chairman of the Czech Zoo Association – Mr David Nejedlo; distinguished guests; ladies and gentlemen, it gives me great pleasure to welcome you all to Prague and to the 66th Conference and Annual General Meeting of WAZA.

When we consider the interface between wilderness and so-called civilisation, it becomes clear to us very quickly that we are using our planets’ resources at a rate far quicker than they can be replenished. We have millions of people in developing countries desperately needing basic services like water and sanitation, and we’re cramming together in enormous concrete jungles which have, at best, only tiny remnants of the natural habitats that once existed there. The Species Survival Commission of the IUCN has told us that one in four mammals species, one in eight birds, one in three amphibians, and one in three corals are at risk of extinction in the wild. We know in which regions these threatened species occur, and we know which species are classified as “data deficient”. We must ask ourselves how we as scientists can contribute to the conservation of these species.

Late in 2010, Dr Gerald Dick and myself attended the Conference of Parties COP 10 of the Convention on Biological Diversity in Nagoya, Japan. The conference was attended by 193 signatory parties with over 18 000 registered delegates present. We were very proud to fly the flag for the international zoo and aquarium community at such a high-level and the prestigious gathering. The CBD has adopted as its vision “Living in Harmony with Nature”, a maxim that most of us will wholeheartedly support. The meeting produced some very favourable outcomes including a new ten year strategic plan, a resource mobilisation strategy, and a protocol on access and benefit sharing. The new ten year strategic plan is referred to as the Decade for Biodiversity, and conference delegates will hear a lot more about this initiative over the next few days. Some of the specific targets agreed to include halving the rate of loss of natural habitats, including forests, over the next ten years. In terms of protected areas, the targets of 17% land, 17% inland waters and 10% marine and coastal areas were chosen. Furthermore all parties agreed to restore 15% of the degraded landed, and to reduce the pressure on coral reefs.


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The outcomes of COP 10 were adopted by the United Nations General Assembly, and include what are now known as the Aichi targets. All signatory parties agreed to the development and implementation of national biodiversity strategy and action plans within two years. During the meeting, no fewer than 34 donor agencies agreed to make funding available for related initiatives, and various business coalitions like the World Business Council for Sustainable Development pledged their support in achieving these targets.

Proceedings of 66th Annual Conference

The task we face over the next few days is determining what can we as the International Zoo and Aquarium community can do towards achieving these strategic objectives. The fact that we host some 700 million visitors in our Institutions each year underscores the potential contribution we have to make. During this conference we will be seeking to adopt a resolution in support of the Decade for Biodiversity to serve as an over-arching theme for WAZA activities.

In addition we will be discussing the importance of developing a more robust ethical framework for our organisation and its members, and we will be confronting some of the business realities we must face over the year ahead. It promises to be an interesting conference, and I wish you all an exciting and productive week ahead.


October 2011 | Prague

Keynote Addresses

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Proceedings of 66th Annual Conference

Time Is Running Out! Leobert E. M. de Boer, former EAZA President

The overall theme of the 66th WAZA Annual Conference is “Partnering for Sustainable Zoos and Aquariums”, with as sub-themes: • “Secure long-term animal collections”, • “Animal welfare and public opinion”, • “Bussiness prerogatives: Making money and saving wildlife”. My contribution focusses mainly on the first of these, with an emphasis on “partnering”, and will here and there touch on the third aspect (business). It does not present really new information, but merely gives an introduction to the theme and summarises developments in de past decades. The title of this presentation, “Time is running out!”, was inspired by two references from the literature. Firstly, the 1993 edition of the World Zoo Conservation Strategy, the last chapter of which called upon the zoos and aquariums of the World to “help build a time bridge” for wildlife to survive a critical period of increasing threat caused by human activities. Secondly, the 2010 paper by William Conway in Zoo Biuloogy, entiteled “Buying time for wild animals with zoos”, a paper with the same overall message. Between 1993 and 2010, however, the urgency of this message considerably increased. Although nobody in 1993 was really optimistic about the future of wildlife and natural areas world-wide, meanwhile human pressure on our planet’s natural systems has increased tremendously. Habitat destruction accelerated and the percentage of surface area still available for natural life deminishes by the year. Climate change undeniably is progressing. Human over-consumption is rocketing. The end of these developments seems further away than ever. Thus, the time bridge must be built, and we must buy time as rapidly as possible.

Speaking of bridging a critical period Obviously, in order to play a substanfor wildlife, the question should be tial role in assisting the survival of asked “how much time do we need?”. wildlife, zoos and aquariums need to In 1986 Soulé, one of the founders of build up sustainable populations of the theory behind small population endangered species. But what is “susmanagement in zoos, suggested that tainable” in this regard? As Lees & Wila period of some 500 to 1,500 years cken (2009) and others have explained, should be bridged to help wildlife here we must distinguish between survive what he called: “demographic “self-sustaining” and “sustainable”. winter”. In the 1980s SSPs, EEPs and A “self-sustaining” population should other breeding programmes started remain viable in the long run without to plan for a 200 year time-span, as any addition from the outside. In they hoped for stable human populaorder to be “self-sustaining” a population size before the end of that period, tion should number at least several after which wildlife might recover hundreds to several, or even many again. A few years later, however, thousands of individuals. A “sustainSSP/EEP understood that planning able” population, on the other hand, for 200 years might be too difficult, can be much smaller (let us say a few so they reduced their target to 100 hundreds to one thousand individuyears, amongst others on the basis als), as occasional addition of animals of the expectation that gene banks from outside the core population is for wild animals would become part of the strategy to keep it viable operational meanwhile. William over a long period of time. Without Conway, though fully advocating the wanting to go into any detail (there need for long-term planning, always is an abundance of literature on this underlined that zoos, simultanesubject), the required population size ously should also work on short-term in each of the two categories depends (10–15 years) “rescue operations” on factors such as the generation (bring into captivity, breed, and retime of the species under concern, the introduce as quickly as possible), that number of founder individuals that proved to have great potential in sav- formed the basis of the population, ing critically endangered species. the speed with which the founder population grows towards the final population size, the percentage of genetic variability the program wants to preserve, the length of time during which this should be preserved, the effectiveness of population management, etcetera.


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October 2011 | Prague

The objectives of sustainable zoo populations (what do we want to maintain them fore?) also play an important role. If a species is (nearly) extinct in the wild, there is no choice: we should aim at self-sustainablilty. If we want to help save threatened species by building up “reserve populations” in captivity, occasional additions from the wild seem fully legitimate, and we could do with much smaller populations. Sustainable zoo populations, however, are also needed in support of other zoo and aquarium conservations tasks, such as education, research, awarenessraising, and raising funds for conservation. In fact: zoos and aquariums need sustainable populations for their own future. There is no future for zoos without animals! By the way: when discussing sustainable zoo populations, it is often feared that the need for sustainable – read large – populations will unavoidably lead to an overall decrease of species diversity in the collections of the regional/global zoo and aquarium community. The opposite – I believe – is true: the maximum number of species we can all together keep in the future is determined by the degree of sustainablility we can realize for each individual population, combined with the best possible joint collection planning (that is how do we, all zoos and aquariums together, assign space to each of the species populations we want to maintain for the future). The less sustainable our populations are, and the less effectively we plan our collections, the poorer they will be turn out to become in the future. The first cooperative zoo breeding programs were initiated in the 1980s and untill today their number and quality increased. The theory of small population management basically is in place, and all required knowledge is available. Data management systems were developed, ISIS, ARKS, SPARKS, ZIMS. The regional zoo and aquarium associations set up professional organisational structures to run regional breeding programmes. Meanwhile the number of successful reintroductions of animals from

captivity into the wild increased, and much knowledge on reintroduction techniques was accumulated. Alltogether, the potentials of zoos and aquariums in supporting the survival of wild species by captive breeding became realistic and undeniable. However, recent evaluations of the performance of breeding programs – after almost 30 years of hard work of hunreds of dedicated zoo and aquarium staff – do not show a very hopefull picture. Both Baker (2007) and Lees & Wilcken (2009) concluded that no more than 50%, or – depending on the criteria used – even far less of the studbook populations currently attained sustainability. And that, while less still than 30% of all zoo populations is managed as a studbook or breeding programme population. Thus, in spite of all efforts, we are doing not good at all. Lees & Wilcken literally concluded that “the zoo Ark, it seems, is sinking”. So what went wrong? All kinds of things, such as lack of breeding success in many species. Lack of space; even if a species is propagating sufficiently, it is often difficult to place the offspring. Inadequate exhibits; many exhibits are perfect for presenting species to the visitors, but often not for optimal breeding and partner choice (e.g. too small groups). Implementation of rules and recommendations of breeding programs often pose problems. Programs, in fact, are run by “volunteers” with a lack of time, whereas especially the complex programs with large populations would require full-time professional management. Effective regional joint collection planning (important for assigning enough space to the selected species populations) in most of the regions so far hardly came off the ground. And, last but not least: zoo and aquarium breeding program succes suffers from a lack of partners. Speaking of partnerships for sustainable zoo collections, I would like to distinguish three categories: 1. Internal partners (partners within your own institution), 2. Zoo network partners, and 3. External partners.

Starting with internal partners: building up and maintaining sustainable zoo collections seems to have become too much a matter of curators only. Unlike 25 years ago, even zoo directors now often hardly want to be directly involved any more. Sustainable zoo collections and all their aims and objectives, however, require the full support and interest of zoo managerial, PR, marketing, educational and financial staff, as well as those of zoo governing bodies (boards, cities, etc.). Admittedly, there are excellent exceptions: examples of zoos and aquariums that have done extremely well in involving all sections of their staff, management and authorities in species conservation, and are performing superb conservation PR and marketing. But overall, it seems that a majority of zoos and aquariums still have much work to do to abandon traditional views of the roles and functions of their institutions. Explaining and marketing the necessities and potential benefits of zoo conservation breeding internally and externally require much attention. In this regard, I want to underline once more that the “recreation/conservation conflict” does not exist! In-house scepticists of zoo involvement in conservation often argued (and still are doing so) that zoo visitors will only want to pay their entrance fees for the recreation they expect in the zoo. They would not want to come to be educated or to learn about conservation. Especially zoo boards, city authorities and zoo marketeers frequently adhere this standpoint. Recreation can be commercially marketed. Conservation is idealism that does not bring in visitors, nor money. It even looks as if such sounds in recent years – once again – are more loudly heard. I strongly want to warn against this trend! As already many zoos have demonstrated: recreation, education and conservation can perfectly go hand in hand, and can mutually reinforce each other. Let us be very happy that visitors are coming to the zoos in masses, simply to enjoy wild animals. Their joy is the best possible basis for conservationmindedness. All the rest is a matter of creative and innovative education, PR and marketing.


14 The second category of partners for sustainable collections – zoo network partners – comprises particularly the regional associations and WAZA. The regional associations are very able to run and manage their breeding program, and are increasingly also involved in in situ conservation activities. Together with WAZA the regions constitute a unique network of professionals. Hardly any other type of institutions has such an intensive, effective and widely distributed network. However, this global network could (and should) even become more efficiënt after a reconsideration and redefinition of relationships and task divisions between WAZA and the regions. Additionally, WAZA should play a more prominent role in the coordination of global breeding programs. As I said: the regional associations are well equipped to organise their regional breeding program (WAZA could never do that), but an increasing number of species programs requires some level of inter-regional coordination, and that is where WAZA should step in (Figure 1). Inter-regional coordination of species programs does only mean that regional species coordinators should be brought together in order to discuss and plan occasional animal exchanges between their regions (depending on the species,, its captive population size and history, no more than one or a few inter-regional exchanges per generation). Not a big task for WAZA, but an important one. The third category of partners for sustainable zoo collections includes a whole range of external (= non-zoo/ aquarium) bodies. CBSG of course, IUCN/SSC, international conservation bodies (WCS, CI, WWF, etc.), all kinds of “trusts” specialised in or focussing on breeding and conservation of specific animal groups (cranes, pheasants, waterfowl, etc.), private breeders with great expertise in the propagation of certain species (take

Proceedings of 66th Annual Conference

Figure 1. Regional sub-populations as parts of global programs.

Coordination through global program

Figure 2. Ex situ and in situ sub-populations as parts of interactively managed meta-populations.

care, however, not to get mixed up with the animal trade!), local, regional and national conservation authorities, and – last but not least – wildlife parks in all countries and corners of the world. Partnering up with the latter will have to be at a species to species basis (at least one partner for every species we want to maintain in the zoo/aquarium community). Consequently, this will require building up a very extensive, global, “parallel” network, connected to, and interwoven with the network of the zoo regions and WAZA.

In regard of “partnering up with wildlife parks” I would like to remind you of the “metapopulation concept”. This concept was already introduced in the zoo species conservation discussion in the 1980s. Have a look at Figure 2. Natural (= wild) populations originally often consisted of two or more geographical subpopulations. Along the boarderlines of their distribution areas some level of genetic exchange took place. Due to human activity, wild subpopulations often became isolated from each other (fragmented). Exchange of genetic material between wild remnant


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October 2011 | Prague

Figure 3. In-country breeding/rescue centres facilitate interactive management of in and ex situ populations.

subpopulations therefore nowadays often can only be effectuated by population management in wildlife parks. An increasing number of wild animal populations will require such management. The captive populations of endangered species consist of (regional) subpopulations as well, with some exchange between them (as explained above). Metapopulation management implies that the in situ components (Figure 2 left), as well as the ex situ components (Figure 2 right) of a given species are considred as part of one entity. In and ex situ components should be managed interactively, including – when necessary – occasional exchange between wild and captive. Such exchanges (please note that the exchange of one or two individuals per generation is enough to maintain acceptable levels of genetic variability on either side!) would logistically be easier, financially cheaper, and medically safer if there would be something in between of in and ex situ: e.g. breeding/ rescue centres for the species under concern in their country of origin (see Figure 3), such as they exist already for several species.

Zoos and aquariums in fact should In stead of sticking to the traditional once and for ever abandon the “Zoo Ark” concept, zoos and aquaritraditional “Zoo Ark” concept (Figure ums should understand that they nev4), and stop promoting the idea that er can accomplish anything in isolathey might be able to save substantion. Instead of the “Zoo Ark”, an “Ar tial numbers of endangered spe(k) mada” is needed to save as many cies by maintaining self-sustaining as possible species from extinction. populations for any length of time in A fleet in which the zoos’ ship sails captivity. This concept is irrealistic. together with those of its partners The “Zoo Ark” is much too small and in conservation: IUCN/SSC, CBSG, CI, much too expensive to saveguard WCS, WWF, Trusts, Parks, etc., etc. more than a maximum of 1.000 spe(Figure 6). Only as part of such a fleet cies, while we all know that tens of the zoo and aquarium ship makes thousands of species are at risk now, sense, and can play a role in buildand many more will require assisting the required “time bridge” for ence for their survival very soon. And the survival of wildlife. Only as part even now already, with less than one of a large fleet, zoos and aquariums third of the maximum number of with 500 or even 1.000 ecological key species on board (in the form of stud- and ambassador species on board, book/breeding program populations), can effectively help saving an equal the Zoo Ark seems to be sinking….. number of habitats, and a multitude (Figure 5). of endangered species world-wide.


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Figure 4. The traditional Zoo Ark concept.

Figure 5. The Zoo Ark is sinking.

Figure 6. What we need is an Ar(k)mada.

I would like to conclude this paper with four statements: 1. Zoo populations serve many conservation purposes. 2. None of these conservation tasks can be performed without sustainable zoo animal collections. 3. Zoo populations do not necessarily need to be sustained 100% in-house. 4. If zoo populations are considered as parts of (interactively managed) metapopulations, partnering up with a wide variety of conservation partners is of utmost and urgent importance.

Returning to the title of this presenta- References tion – “Time is running out!” – my conclusion is that “buying time for wild • Baker, A., 2007. Animal ambassaanimals” as William Conway called it, dors: an analysis of the effectiveis becoming exponentially more exness and conservation impact of pensive by the day. Any further delay ex situ breeding efforts. In: A. Zimshould be avoided, and I therefore mermann, M. Hatchwell, L. Dickie sincerely hope that the WAZA Prague & C. West (eds.), Zoos in the 21st Conference 2011 will see a major step century; calalysts for conservation? foreward in “the great mustering of all Cambridge University Press. Pp. available forces [as the WZCS-1993 139–154. called it]” to man the Ar(k)mada! • Conway, W. G., 2010. Buying time for wild animals with zoos. Zoo Biology vol. 29: pp. 1–8. • IUDZG (WAZA) & IUCN/SSC (CBSG), 1993. The World zoo conservation strategy; The role of the zoos and aquaria of the world in global conservation. (First edition). • Lees, C. M. & J. Wilcken, 2009. Sustaining the Ark: the challenges faced by zoos in maintaining viable populations. International Zoo Yearbook vol. 43: pp. 6–18.


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Global Species Conservation – The Zoo Community Must Lead! Russell A. Mittermeier, President – Conservation International | Vice-President – IUCN

Biodiversity conservation, and especially threat of a mass species extinction episode, is one of the most pressing issues of our times. Although it has gotten far less attention than climate change, it remains an issue of great global importance and needs the kind of leadership and sustained attention that climate has received in recent years. Traditionally, much of the work on endangered species has been carried out by major conservation NGOs and by IUCN, mainly through its Species Survival Commission. However, most of the major conservation NGOs have begun to shift focus over the past few years, and are now placing much more emphasis on ecosystem services and human well-being, with biodiversity conservation in general and focused species conservation in particular becoming more and more marginalized. The zoo community has also played a role in species conservation, and its involvement has grown over the past few decades from captive breeding of selected species to increasing support for field projects in other parts of the world. But the time has come for this role to change from significant involvement to full-blown leadership. It is my firm belief that the future of species conservation now lies with the zoo community, and that this large and immensely important community needs to recognize its leadership role and take it on with greatly increased commitment, enthusiasm, and funding if there is to be any hope of success.

This means much more than captive breeding programs and a selection of field programs in other parts of the world. It means full recognition of the fact that what the zoo community does will ultimately determine whether or not we are successful in biodiversity conservation, and it will require a much more significant worldwide involvement in tropical countries where so much of the world’s biodiversity is found, particular in places like the Biodiversity Hotspots. These 35 Hotspots have already lost nearly 90% of their original natural habitat and what remains in them is only about 2.3% of Earth’s land surface. Nonetheless, they still harbor more than 50% of all plant and more than 42% of all vertebrates as endemic species found nowhere else, as well as 72% of all CR and EN mammals, 86% of all CR and EN birds, and 92% of all CR and EN amphibians. And its not just species at risk. These hotsptos are also the only home to a wide range of unique genera and families representing entire evolutionary lineages that could disappear over the next couple of decades if appropriate measures are not taken. But of course the Hotspots are not the only places of concern. They are clearly the tip of the iceberg, but many other areas and the unique species living within them – terrestrial, fresh water and marine, also require increased attention.

To be truly effective, the zoo community – and the conservation community as a whole – needs to recognize that conservation efforts in captivity and in the wild are part of a continuum, and not just separate ex situ and in situ domains, and that there must be much more interchange of staff, technical capacity, animals, and financial resources. We also need to see greater effort in education and public awareness, something that zoos have done very well over the past few decades but which needs to be ramped up even more. And we must have a greatly increased commitment of funding to field-based conservation, which among the zoos of the world only the Wildlife Conservation Society has done at a scale that is up to the challenge. The long-time General Director of WCS, Bill Conway, who was honored at the Prague WAZA meeting, recognized this key role of zoos early on, became the most respected figure in the zoo world, and was one of the greatest leaders in the history of the conservation movement as a whole. As a result, WCS investments in field conservation account for $89 million (81%) of the approximately $110 million spent on ex situ conservation by the 225 members of the AZA. Not all zoos can reach the level of this huge institution, but there is not one that couldn’t increase its commitment beyond where it is today.


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© Conservation International

Needless to say, the zoo community has unmatched potential to lead on this issue, with more than 700 million zoogoers worldwide and more than 1300 institutions that can serve as vehicles for getting the message out and raising the funds required. Global zoo membership far exceeds that of all the conservation organizations combined, and there is not a single community with a zoo that does not have people interested in conservation with the means to contribute more than they do now to this critically important work. However, at present, field-based species conservation accounts for at best 1–2% of the budget of the global zoo community, and that may be an overestimate.

I firmly believe that the time has come for the zoo community to set a goal of increasing this by an order of magnitude to 10% over the next decade, and to take on the to take on this challenge of global leadership on species conservation at a much higher level than ever before. If you can’t do it, who will?


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WAZA Congress Papers Abstracts

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Table of Contents Author

Title

Bert E. M. de Boer Russell A. Mittermeier

Collection Planning in Zoos Species Conservation: the Key Role of Zoos

Anne Baker

Are Zoo Populations Truly Building a Future for Wildlife?

Bob Lacy Kathy Traylor-Holzer

Achieving True Sustainability of Species Assurance Populations Identifying Gaps and Opportunities for Interregional Ex situ Species Management

Robin Sawyer

Conservation Centers for Species Survival (C2S2): Breeding Center Partnerships for Sustainability

Markus Gusset

Taxonomic Representation and Threat Status of Studbook Species

Cheryl Asa

Reproductive Health and Population Sustainability

Dalia Conde

Addressing One of the Challenges of Climate Change with Sustainable Animals Collections

Eric R. Miller

Methods of Increasing Public Awareness and Support for Conservation: the Example of the Saint Louis Zoo’s WildCare Institute Can Mate Choice Improve Reproductive Success of Zoo Populations?

Cheryl Asa Sanjay Molur Sally Walker

Strategies and Implementation of Holistic Conservation Action through Stakeholder Participation of Threatened Taxa Prioritized by the Alliance for Zero Extinction Wildlife Conservation and Wildlife Welfare – Two Sides of the Same Coin

Miranda Stevenson

The Elephant in the Room: Elephants, Welfare and Politics

Andreas Kaufmann

Update on the Transport of CITES Listed Species

Miklós Persànyi

Zoo Culture and Zoo Future – Ideas on the 5th Mission of Zoos

Heather Koldewey and Jonathan Baillie Gordon McGregor Reid

Project Ocean: Fish Meets Fashion Zoo Conservation and the Species Dilemma

Joanne Lalumière

Forging Public Opinion or Influencing the Legislator?

Forrest Young

Effecting Strict Quarantine of Sand Tiger Sharks to Meet a Specific Set of Import Criteria

Bernard Harrison

The Travelling Sex Show: Creating Sustainable Zoos by Creating Exhibits that the Public Will Pay to See


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Collection Planning in Zoos Bert E. M. de Boer The establishment of cooperative breeding programmes in the 1980s was a major breakthrough in the zoo and aquarium community. By the mid 1990s the science, organisational structures and practical requirements for the long-term management of captive populations all were in place, and in the years thereafter the number of species programmes steadily increased. Recent evaluations, however, showed that three decades of continuous effort resulted in a disappointingly low number of sustainable populations in zoo and aquarium collections. This does not mean that all hard work has been in vain. Most probably the current state of our collections would have been disastrous if we had not invested so much energy. What it does mean is that we urgently need to reconsider the future of our collections, and the future of our institutions, as without sustainable animal collections there will be no future for zoos and aquariums themselves. Meanwhile – during the same three decades – the world in which we live has changed enormously. Human population has increased by two billions; human consumption and overexploitation of our planet has doubled; undisturbed wildlife areas have drastically decreased in size; global climate undeniably started to change; biodiversity loss became a realistic concern, while the full extent of the effects of the currently already greatly diminished ecosystems still remains to be seen in the near future. Altogether, it never before has been so clear how bleak the future of wildlife in all corners of our planet is!

When we combine these two conclusions – the deep concern about the future of zoo and aquarium collections, and that about the future of wildlife on Earth – there is only one possible solution: we need a new breakthrough, new elan, vision and work power, leading to what the first edition of the World Zoo (and Aquarium) Conservation Strategy (1993) called “a great mustering of all available powers to give our Earth’s biosphere and all its living elements the best possible chance of survival”. For zoos and aquariums this means that they will have to double, triple, or multiply their efforts to partner up internally, as well as externally. Internally, all zoo and aquarium partnership structures at bilateral, national, regional and global level need to be reinforced and intensified. As a result, the effectiveness of breeding programmes, collection planning, and other conservation activities should substantially increase. Externally, our most natural (and hopefully effective) partners are conservation organisations and authorities. In this regard partnering should be carefully planned. WAZA’s role is to partner up with IUCN, WWF, World Bank and other global organisations, in order to help influence global conservation policies and funding. Cooperative zoo and aquarium species programmes should link with conservation parks and their governing bodies to effectuate interactive population management and fundraising. Individual zoos and aquariums should partner with any relevant local, national or species-related conservation body to raise specific funds as well as public awareness. And there is a whole range of possible partnerships in between of these main categories.

In a recent paper in Zoo Biology William Conway spoke of “Buying time for wild animals with zoos”; the World Zoo and Aquarium Conservation Strategy worded it “Zoos should help building a time bridge for wildlife”. We have to admit, however, that time is running out. Zoos and aquariums worldwide indeed have a major role to play, and they have enormous potentials to help save wildlife on our planet. But if we do not act very rapidly to build effective global partnership networks at all relevant levels, we better stop using such phrases.


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Species Conservation:

Are Zoo Populations

Achieving True

the Key Role of Zoos

Truly Building a Future

Sustainability of

Russell A. Mittermeier

for Wildlife?

Species Assurance

Species conservation remains the most basic component of the conservation movement, and much needs to be done to prevent a major extinction episode in the next couple of decades. However, many of the major conservation organizations have moved away from or reduced their commitment to species conservation in favour of green economies, climate change, ecosystem services, and other emerging issues. While unfortunate, this is the reality of the day. If we are to maintain a strong focus on species conservation, the zoo community needs to take on an increasingly large role, both in situ and ex situ. While zoos have done a lot over the past 20 to 30 years, the time has come for the zoo community to assume the mantle of leadership and increase its commitment by an order of magnitude over the next decade. Examples of what is at risk and what can be done are drawn from the biodiversity hotspots, including Madagascar, the Atlantic forest of Brazil and other global priority regions.

Anne Baker

Populations

Zoos have long lauded their cooperative captive breeding programs as contributing to the conservation of wild populations. However, recent analyses of our cooperative programs have demonstrated that the majority of these programs are not maintaining levels of genetic diversity sufficient to classify them as ‘‘assurance populations“. How then do our cooperative programs contribute to conservation of wild populations? Do we need to change our approach to collection planning to focus more on taxa of high conservation concern? What paradigms might we need to shift if we are to become true partners in the global conservation effort?

Bob Lacy Presently, our breeding programs are not designed for sustainability – the use of a resource without causing permanent damage to its value. Instead, we accept degradation of populations in our care. For many species, we may need new goals: continually sustaining diversity, resilience, and adaptability. Achieving this will require attention to multiple aspects of diversity, monitoring changes, and exchanges with wild populations rather than reliance on closed populations. This will require that our zoo programs are integrated with other forms of management, will require trust among conservation partners, and will result in zoo conservation programs being part of ongoing species conservation.


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Identifying Gaps

Conservation Centers

Taxonomic

and Opportunities for

for Species Survival

Representation

Interregional Ex situ

(C2S2): Breeding

and Threat Status of

Species Management

Centre Partnerships

Studbook Species

Kathy Traylor-Holzer

for Sustainability

Markus Gusset

Cooperation and management among regional zoo programs may improve the viability of non-sustainable regional populations. A database of 942 taxa with studbooks and/or management programs was compiled to understand the characteristics of currently managed species and as a tool for identifying management opportunities. Threatened species account for 48% of managed species, which focus heavily on mammals and birds. Regional differences exist in number of programs, taxa, and management intensity. There are 77 threatened and 106 non-threatened taxa with multiple regional studbooks that are potential candidates for an international studbook. Similarly, 69 threatened and 16 non-threatened species are intensively managed in multiple regions, and should be assessed for the potential benefits and feasibility of interregional management.

Robin Sawyer

We sought to provide an understanding of the taxonomic representation C2S2 is a group of five AZA-accredand threat status of species with ited zoos that collectively manage a studbook, using data on all studmore than 25,000 acres of land devot- books registered in the ISIS/WAZA ed to the survival of threatened spestudbook library and data on threat cies with special needs – large land status from the IUCN Red List of areas, natural group sizes and miniThreatened Species. Studbooks for mal public disturbance. By combining 1,027 different species are actively scientific and management expertise, updated. The majority of species with these centres excel in studying and an active studbook are vertebrates creating self-sustaining populations (96.3%), mainly comprised of mamof some of the world’s most endanmals (48.8%) and birds (31.8%). There gered animals. This talk will illustrate are active studbooks for 1.6% of all the roles and value of large breeding 62,574 described vertebrates, includcentres and how collaborating with ing 9.1% of known mammals and other institutions helps advance sci3.3% of known birds. Of those species entific study and species conservation, with an active studbook, 41.5% are especially for sustaining populations, classified as threatened (i.e. Vulnerable, Endangered or Critically Endanboth in situ and ex situ. gered) on the IUCN Red List; 17 out of 34 animal species (50.0%) classified as Extinct in the Wild have an active studbook. Of the 989 vertebrates with an active studbook, 42.6% are classified as threatened; 8.6% of 25,780 assessed vertebrates classified as threatened have an active studbook. Without studbooks, it would be virtually impossible to scientifically manage animal populations in human care.


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Reproductive Health

Addressing One

Methods of Increasing

and Population

of the Challenges of

Public Awareness and

Sustainability

Climate Change with

Support for Conservati-

Cheryl Asa

Sustainable Animal

on: the Example of the

Although there may multiple factors responsible for the current unsustainability of many zoo populations, to be sustainable these populations must be able to reproduce. In an analysis of the seven canid species in AZA-managed programs, we found a higher risk of uterine pathology in females not allowed to reproduce regularly. This condition (endometrial hyperplasia) can cause infertility by interfering with implantation or preventing the uterus to support pregnancy. Thus, females not allowed to produce offspring regularly are more likely to become infertile. Endometrial hyperplasia may be widespread in captive mammals as a result of current AZA population management practices.

Collections

Saint Louis Zoo’s

Dalia Conde

WildCare Institute

Climate change is one of the biggest challenges we face and its impact on species survival is still unclear. However, for some species it is certain that the outlook is so bleak that captive breeding may be the only short-term solution to ensure their survival. We assessed the number and population structure of species vulnerable to climate change represented in the ISIS zoo network. Sustainable collections that ensure the survival of these species could be a great asset in meeting some of the conservation challenges resulting from climate change.

Eric R. Miller This presentation focuses on various public relation methods, some standard, some novel, that raised the knowledge level of Saint Louis Zoo visitors in regard to zoo-based conservation. For example, in 2005, only 10% of Saint Louis zoo visitors were aware of the Zoo’s field conservation programs, however, in 2008, that recognition rose to 69% and has remained at 70%. These methods helped raised US$ 1,000,000 in donations in that same period. The presentation ends with a 6 minute marketing video that features the Center for Humboldt Penguin Conservation in Punta San Juan, Peru, a cooperative, WAZA-branded conservation program.


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Can Mate Choice

Strategies and

Wildlife Conservation

Improve Reproductive

Implementation of

and Wildlife Welfare –

Success of Zoo

Holistic Conservation

Two Sides of the

Populations?

Action through Stake-

Same Coin

Cheryl Asa

holder Participation of

Sally Walker

Many zoo animal populations are cur- Threatened Taxa PrioriConservation and welfare had been rently unsustainable. Although many considered two separate disciplines factors may be involved, increased tized by the Alliance for but in the last 5 years numerous reproductive rates must be part of publications and symposia have conthe solution. Allowing female mate Zero Extinction firmed profound similarities leading choice has been shown to increase to integration of the two fields. This pregnancy rates, litter sizes and Sanjay Molur is relevant to zoos, where animal weloffspring survival in numerous taxa, fare sometimes may seem to conflict and may be one route to improving The Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) with conservation, but is also relevant breeding success in zoos. We are represents 67 biodiversity conservain the field where the handling of studying approaches for providing tion organizations, including Zoo Out- animals trapped for conservation choice and assessing outcomes in reach Organisation and its Indian AZE research is not always humane. Zoo several model taxa. A better undernetwork. AZE strategies target IUCN Outreach Organisation was one of standing of mate choice could help Red List CR and EN species occurring the first organisations to link conpopulation managers achieve goals in a single location, further prioritized servation and welfare in education, research, field work and animal care. for viable, genetically healthy popula- by the AZE principles, vulnerability This paper will review activities and tions, reduce selection for behaviourand irreplaceability. According to AZE output including impact of training al changes to captivity, and provide there are 950 such species in 612 sites, in conservation welfare for zoo/field insight into developing more effecwith 19 species in 16 sites within India. personnel, educators, and academics. tive breeding management strategies. Conserving them will promote zero extinctions, habitat conservation, and local stakeholder participation. AZE targeted species are very fitting for both in situ and ex situ conservation projects including generation of public support and guidance in local and national legislation.


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The Elephant in the

Update on the

Zoo Culture and Zoo

Room: Elephants,

Transport of CITES

Future – Ideas on the

Welfare and Politics

Listed Species

5th Mission of Zoos

Miranda Stevenson

Andreas Kaufmann

Miklós Persànyi

In 2002 the RSPCA produced a report which severely criticised the welfare and keeping of elephants in UK zoos, which created a lot of media coverage and public interest. BIAZA, meanwhile, had been working with the membership to improved elephant husbandry and management and consequently welfare. A joint project with Defra, the government department responsible for zoos, funded a research project on elephant welfare which resulted in Government requesting BIAZA’s assistance in ensuring that welfare is monitored and evidence provided of improvements. This paper describes how good liaison and proactive work on behalf of a zoo association can ensure working with government as a lead body.

Update on the development of new guidelines for the non-air transportation of CITES listed live animals.

Modern zoos are among the cultural products of the industrial civilization and they are among the common places for interaction of the urban public in its leisure. Addition to the education, leisure, science and conservation missions, a modern zoo has a fifth mission: it is a community cultural centre. A modern zoo can trespass any areas of sciences and arts and it has broad social networks. Addition to all these missions, a modern zoo is an important element of its local economy, providing the community with attractions, employment and significant incomes. A modern zoo also has an essential role in maintaining the traditions and values of community (ies).


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Project Ocean:

Zoo Conservation

Forging Public

Fish Meets Fashion

and the Species

Opinion or Influencing

Heather Koldewey and Jonathan Baillie

Dilemma

the Legislator?

Gordon McGregor Reid

Joanne Lalumière

There is a crucial need in the international zoo and aquarium world to better understand, manage and breed sustainably the (usually) small populations of wild taxa held. There is much confusion over species concepts. Recent surveys in Europe and North America indicate that only a relatively few vertebrate taxa are managed on a genetically sustainable basis for the longer term. This issue is compounded by a general lack of taxonomic sophistication in breeding programmes, with many (probably most) species/specimens kept never having been subject to rigorous taxonomic and genetic identification and evaluation processes. Their potential conservation value is thus compromised

Opposition groups mastered the art of forging public opinion. In doing so, they also tend to influence the legislators. Animal welfare groups are no exception. In doing so, they undermine the experience and expertise that lie in our community of zoos and aquariums. The 2011 International Zoo Marketing Conference covered topics related to the promotion of conservation actions by zoos and aquariums. This paper will share some results and explore ways to influence public opinion and legislators beyond keeper talks and education programs.

The EDGE of Existence Programme is a highly innovative conservation initiative, which seeks to conserve the world‘s most Evolutionarily Distinct and Globally Endangered species. EDGE species represent a larger diversity of evolutionary history and include some of the world’s most unusual animals. Priority EDGE species need urgent attention but, alarmingly, most are overlooked by existing conservation initiatives. We will discuss how actions are being initiated for EDGE species (mammals, amphibians, corals), including building conservation capacity in the regions where they occur. We will also explore how EDGE can be effectively integrated into zoo and aquarium collection plans and conservation programmes. Luxury department store Selfridges and ZSL have embarked on a groundbreaking partnership to bring attention to the crisis facing the world’s oceans: Project Ocean was launched in May 2011 with a huge ‘retail activism’ campaign, including dedicating its famous window displays to marine conservation. This truly collaborative initiative involves 22 NGOs, as well as many other sectors. Selfridges switched to sustainable seafood, produced a seafood guide, and hosted a month of activities in its restaurants and foodhalls. This new approach to raising funds includes an interactive digital window and implementing a marine reserve in the Philippines.


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Effecting Strict

The Travelling

Quarantine of Sand

Sex Show: Creating

Tiger Sharks to Meet

Sustainable Zoos by

a Specific Set of

Creating Exhibits that

Import Criteria

the Public Will Pay

Forrest Young

to See

Many insular regulatory authorities enforce strict standards for importation of non-native species into their jurisdiction. Hawaii, Guam, Australia and New Zealand all have very exacting standards for non-native wildlife importation. The authors caught and provided quarantine for five sand tiger sharks, Carcharias (Odontaspis) taurus, 1.6 to 2.2 m, under the auspices and supervision of the USDA and the New Zealand Ministry of Forestry and Agriculture. Prior to shipment, the five individuals were given a complete veterinary work up including oral and bucal examinations on two separate occasions, to remove ecto-parasites. Prior to shipment, blood samples were analyzed by a pathologist to prevent passage of non-native hemo-parasites that could infect local NZ populations. The five sharks also underwent chemical treatments that will be described in detail to further remove any parasites that may have been missed by the exams. Incoming water for additions following backwashes and maintenance were treated with high dose chlorination that will also be described to maintain strict quarantine conditions throughout. All five sharks were safely transported to New Zealand by a proprietary closed container shipping method.

Bernard Harrison The Travelling Sex Show can be a profitable, business prerogative, communally funded by a consortium of zoos which can travel to each for a 6 month season, making money which can be earmarked for saving wildlife. The Travelling Sex Show is a hypothetical travelling zoo exhibit which consists of a range of live exhibits, graphics, video, virtual reality, and motion based theatre and the like – to tell the story of sex, which starts with microscopic exhibits of asexual reproduction in bacteria, amoeba and hydra and moves through displays of reproduction in simultaneous hermaphroditic earthworms and sequential hermaphroditic clownfish. It touches on parthenogenesis in whip lizards, hammerhead sharks and komodo dragons, looks at the need for males, and at their few ventures at raising young with displays of the midwife toad and Dayak fruit bat. It also displays examples of adultery and prostitution in the animal world. It closes with two displays: for chimpanzees and bonobos, contrasting the dramatically different social behaviours of our two closest relatives. The final exhibit of humans, reviews our sexuality and social structure, gives examples of cloning and haploidization and speculates on Oxford geneticist Bryan Sykes’s theory of a world without male humans.


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Received Full WAZA Congress Contributions

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Identifying Gaps and Opportunities for Interregional Ex situ Species Management Kathy Traylor-Holzer – Senior Program Officer for the IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group

Abstract

Introduction

Cooperation and management among regional zoo programs may improve the viability of non-sustainable regional populations. A database of 942 taxa with studbooks and/or management programs was compiled to understand the characteristics of currently managed species and as a tool for identifying management opportunities. Threatened species account for 48% of managed species, which focus heavily on mammals and birds. Regional differences exist in number of programs, taxa, and management intensity. There are 77 threatened and 106 non-threatened taxa with multiple regional studbooks that are potential candidates for an international studbook. Similarly, 69 threatened and 16 nonthreatened species are intensively managed in multiple regions, and should be assessed for the potential benefits and feasibility of interregional management.

Biodiversity is being lost at an increasingly alarming rate. About one-fifth of the 33,468 vertebrate species on the 2010 IUCN Red List are classified as Threatened (IUCN 2010), and each year about 52 species of mammals, birds and amphibians move one Red List category closer to extinction (Hoffmann et al. 2010). As wildlife populations decline in size and become more fragmented and isolated, they also become more vulnerable to extinction risks. There is an increasing conservation role, and responsibility, of zoos and aquariums to manage species in an appropriate and effective manner to contribute positively to their conservation in the wild.

Global Management However, recent evaluations indicate that most regional zoo populations are not self-sustainable and cannot meet the common goal of retaining 90% gene diversity for 100 years as closed populations under current management strategies (Barlow and Hibbard 2005; Lees and Wilcken 2009; Leus et al. 2011; Long et al. 2011). The growing concern over the sustainability of ex situ managed populations was the focus of the recent issue of the WAZA Magazine (Vol. 12, August 2011) as well as the theme of this annual WAZA conference symposium.

Alternative management strategies provide several options that can increase the viability and sustainability of zoo populations. One promising option is the potential for increased population viability through interregional or global management. Examples include the recently established WAZA Global Species Management Plans (GSMPs) for the Javan gibbon and Sumatran tiger, as well as other species that have been successfully managed across regions such as lion tamarins and okapis. Well planned, coordinated animal exchanges between regional populations can increase viability through improved demographic stability and genetic status. To contribute most effectively to conservation, such meta-population management should include an intensive managed population in the species’ range country. But what is the current potential for interregional management? Which species currently have, or have the potential to develop, multiple well-managed ex situ populations that would benefit from coordinated management? What criteria should be used to prioritize such species for global management?


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In order to address these questions, a database of managed programs was compiled for 942 taxa managed by the following zoo associations: • European Association of Zoos and Aquariums (EAZA); • Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA); • Zoo and Aquarium Association (ZAA); • Japanese Association of Zoos and Aquariums (JAZA); • Chinese Association of Zoological Gardens (CAZG); • Southeast Asian Zoo Association (SEAZA); • Central Zoo Authority of India (CZA); • African Association of Zoos and Aquaria (PAAZAB); • Latin American Zoo and Aquarium Association (ALZPA); • Mesoamerican and Caribbean Zoo and Aquaria (AMACZOOA); • World Association of Zoos and Aquariums (WAZA); • Plus programs organized under the Amphibian AArk (AArk). For each taxon, the database included the IUCN Red List level of threat, information on any existing international studbook and/or global management plan, and level of management intensity (studbook only, basic management, or intensive management) for each zoo association. Species can be filtered by taxonomy, threat level, region, management program type, and/or the number of managed programs. For example, it is possible to quickly determine those bird species that are Endangered or Critically Endangered and are currently managed in at least two regions, or identify which species are managed by both JAZA and ZAA, or other such data subsets of interest.

This database is also useful to examine trends in species population management. Management programs vary across taxonomy and level of threat. Mammals and birds comprise the majority (76%) of the managed species: mammals (44%); birds (32%); reptiles (10%); amphibians (7%); fish (7%); and invertebrates (<1%). Threatened species (Extinct in the Wild, Critically Endangered, Endangered, or Vulnerable) account for 47% of managed taxa. However, zoos still hold and manage only a fraction of threatened species. Of the 4,733 IUCN-assessed threatened vertebrate taxa: • 14.7% are held in ISIS zoos (Conde et al. 2011); • 8.9% have studbooks; • 7.7% are managed to some degree (data analysis and recommendations); and • 5.4% are intensively managed (detailed breeding and management plan). Not all threatened species are appropriate for ex situ management – the potential benefits, risks and feasibility of ex situ management varies among taxa and should be considered carefully, as outlined in the new IUCN Technical Guidelines on the Management of Ex situ Populations for Conservation (currently under revision). However, there is likely the potential, and the need, for zoos and aquariums to increase the taxonomic diversity of their collections and to expand their efforts to encompass a greater number of threatened species under their protective care.

Most taxa (70%) are managed in only one region. There are 278 species that have studbooks in two or more regions (30% of the taxa in the database); 224 species are managed at the population level in more than one region (24%); and 97 species are managed intensively in more than one region (10%). Of these 97 intensively managed species, 69 species are threatened and have no recognized inter-regional coordination between management programs. There is increasing interest in interregional and global management and the potential role it may play in improving population viability and conservation value. A workshop on the Future of International Studbooks and Global Management was convened by WAZA in April 2011 to address issues related to the use of international studbooks for inter-regional management. At this workshop WAZA’s Committee for Population Management (CPM) used this database to identify six candidate species for new GSMPs (two each by EAZA, AZA and ZAA). CPM is currently developing criteria for identifying priority species for global management, including data that can be gleaned from this database. The number of studbooks, and especially management at a population level, varies substantially among regional zoo associations. Most of the currently managed taxa are managed by AZA (n=552) and EAZA (n=368). Although ZAA has a smaller capacity, it also manages a large number of taxa (n=107). JAZA is quickly developing management programs as well. There are currently few management programs in the other regions. This is not surprising, as AZA, EAZA and ZAA have a history of developing strategies and tools for population management, provide regular training courses for their members, and have population management advisors to assist species coordinators in population planning.


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In contrast, if this distribution of regional ex situ management programs is compared to Hoffmann et al.’s (2010) geographic distribution of the global patterns of threat to species, there is little overlap. North America, Europe and Australia have comparatively low biodiversity threat levels, while regions such as Central and South America, Africa, South and East Asia, and especially Southeast Asia have high levels of threat. It is in these regions that many threatened species first come into captivity from the wild. The quality of the husbandry, record-keeping and breeding management here, in the first generations from the wild, can have a great impact on the retention of genetic diversity of the founders and on the quality of the pedigree information. This affects the viability and conservation value not only of these range country populations but often also of populations managed outside of the range by AZA, EAZA and ZAA. Building capacity in studbook keeping and population management in other regional zoo associations should be facilitated and supported as a way to promote the viability of populations within range countries, and ultimately globally through increased opportunities for effective population management. Recent training efforts in these regions by CBSG, ISIS, EAZA and ZAA include population management training for ALPZA (Panama, 2008;

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Argentina, 2010); SEAZA (Singapore, 2008); Taipei (Taiwan, 2009); CZA (India, 2010); CAZG (China, 2009 and 2011); PKBSI (Indonesia, 2011); and JAZA (2008 and 2010). As a result of previous training activities, JAZA now conducts regular basic studbook and population management courses for its members, and an advanced training course by CBSG is scheduled for early 2012.

References

• Barlow, S. C. and C. Hibbard. 2005. Going, going, gone. A zoo without exotic mammals? ARAZPA Submission 148b. Canberra: Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry. • Conde, D. A., N. Flesness, F. Colchero, O. R. Jones, and A. Scheuerlein. 2011. An emerging role of zoos to conserve biodiversity. Science 331: 1390–1391. As the conservation need for well• Hoffmann, M., C. Hilton-Taylor, A. managed, viable ex situ populations Angulo, M. Böhm, T. M. Brooks, et al. increases, it will become more impor201.) The impact of conservation on tant to look beyond closed regional the status of the world’s vertebrates. populations and take advantage of the Science 330: 1503–1509. opportunities for increased viability • IUCN. 2002. IUCN Technical Guidethrough effective inter-regional and lines on the Management of Ex global collaboration and management. situ Populations for Conservation. Gland: IUCN. Thanks to the numerous zoo associa- • IUCN. 2010. Red List. Gland: IUCN. tions and individuals who provided, • Lees, C. and J. Wilcken. 2009. and continue to update, the data for Sustaining the Ark: the challenges the managed programs database: faced by zoos in maintaining viable Danny De Man, Candice Dorsey, populations. International Zoo YearChristina Henke, Chris Hibbard, book 3: 6–18. Laurie Bingaman Lackey, Caroline • Leus, K., L. Bingaman Lackey, W. Lees, Kristin Leus, Kazutoshi Takami, Van Lint, D. De Man, S. Riewald, A. William Van Lint, Yolanda Matamoros, Veldkam and J. Wijmans. 2011. SusSally Walker, Roz Wilkins, Xie Zhong, tainability of European Associations Kevin Zippel. of Zoos and Aquaria bird and mammal populations. WAZA Magazine 12: 11–14. • Long, S., C. Dorsey and P. Boyle. 2011. Status of Association of Zoos and Aquariums cooperatively managed populations. WAZA Magazine 12: 15–18.


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The Conservation Centers for Species Survival: Breeding Center Partnerships for Sustainability Robin Sawyer – Conservation Centers for Species Survival | David Wildt – Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute | Nicole Cavender – the Wilds | Steve Shurter – White Oak Conservation Center | Robert Wiese – San Diego Zoo Global | Jack Grisham – Saint Louis Zoo | Dan Beetem – the Wilds | Michael Mace – San Diego Zoo Global

Abstract

Conservation Need

C2S2 is a group of five AZA-accredOne-fifth of all known animal speited zoos that collectively manage cies on the planet are threatened more than 25,000 acres of land devot- by extinction (Hoffmann et al 2010). ed to the survival of threatened speHistorically, approaches for preserving cies with special needs – large land biodiversity have centered on saving areas, natural group sizes and minihabitat and, by default, protecting mal public disturbance. By combining species living in these native environscientific and management expertise, ments. However, the magnitude of these centres excel in studying and the species crisis now means that all creating self-sustaining populations conservation options deserve considof some of the world’s most endaneration, including those that can be gered animals. This talk will illustrate contributed by our zoological commuthe roles and value of large breeding nity. Zoos, of course, are active forces centres and how collaborating with for species conservation through (1) other institutions helps advance scianimal exhibits and education proentific study and species conservation, grams that improve public awareness, especially for sustaining populations, (2) raising and distributing funds for both in situ and ex situ. conservation, (3) conducting research, (4) providing security (insurance) populations for wild counterparts and (5) participating in reintroduction efforts. Successes highlighting these efforts have included the California condor (Gymnogyps californianus), whooping crane (Grus Americana), golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia), black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes), Przewalski’s horse (Equus ferus) and scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah), among others. Every one of these stories depended on intensive collaborations. This is no business for ‘lone rangers’ or the faint of heart. The effective and efficient recovery of rare animals requires the equally rare capability of resolving enormous complexities – from understanding the often odd and mysterious bio-

logical specialties of each species to having the ability to establish and sustain viable populations. Taking on these challenges requires distinctive resources, especially wildlife experts and scientists, space and a commitment to collaboration. Managers of animals in zoos and aquaria are confronted with a unique dilemma -- their collections have a finite shelf life, and there is a constant need to perpetuate each species. To be truly successful, zoos need to maintain living collections that are able to withstand or avoid the potential hazards of fluctuating birth and death rates, sex-ratio skews and inbreeding. Almost 30 years ago, zoos pioneered the ‘Ark’ paradigm where select species would be intensivelymanaged in small, but connected groups until they could be reintroduced into restored wild habitats. The overall aim was to create sustainable ex situ populations by institutions sharing and moving animals (sometimes over long distances) to make the best use of available space resources while maintaining a targeted amount of gene diversity. This philosophy led to the development of ‘Species Survival Plans’ (SSPs) and ‘Taxon Advisory Groups’ (TAGs), cooperative zoo breeding management programs that eventually expanded to Europe and Australasia.


34 However, many of these managed programs have failed to become self-sustaining (Lees and Wilcken 2009), an issue that has become a top priority for the Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) and its Sustainability Task Force (AZA 2009). More in depth assessments indeed have revealed that the zoo community has a real and growing problem with its capacity to maintain genetically vigorous and demographically stable living collections. Populations are not always reproducing to replacement levels, and gene diversity is not being retained at recommended thresholds. While the causes are complex, many of the problems appear related to most zoos only having the space to manage a few individuals of a given species. To meet genetic goals, program success generally relies on frequent transfer of animals among institutions for breeding. The expenses and logistical challenges associated with moving stress-sensitive wildlife often over long distances can result in non-compliance with transfer and breeding recommendations. Even in cases of successful translocation, designated mates can be behaviorally or socially incompatible, infertile or unexpectedly die. And, most species are being managed in restricted spaces that are substantially different from conditions found in nature, which can limit development of normal coping and breeding behaviors. These challenges and opportunities were the major reasons for the formation of Conservation Centers for Species Survival (also known as C2S2).

What is C2S2? Established in 2005, C2S2 is a group of conservation centers that collectively manages more than 25,000 acres of land devoted to the survival of threatened species with special needs (including those requiring large land areas, natural group sizes and minimal public disturbance). By combining their scientific and management expertise, these centers excel in studying and creating self-sustaining populations of some of the world’s most endangered animals. Currently

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the five participating facilities are the Fossil Rim Wildlife Center, San Diego Zoo Global, Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, the Wilds and White Oak Conservation Center. Projects have been developed to take advantage of the consortium’s resources, while linking activities to target species in nature. Specific projects involving collaborative research, including the sharing of trainee staff, and cooperation with the U. S. Fish & Wildlife Service can be found at www. conservationcenters.org. Here, we also briefly share three emerging projects led by C2S2 that may partially address the sustainability crisis for the zoo community.

Cheetah Sustainability and Conservation Program With the well-recognized need for more space overall, the AZA Sustainability Task Force has challenged C2S2 to explore other management scenarios for wildlife. Working closely with the AZA’s Conservation Directorate and Cheetah SSP, C2S2 has committed to examining novel ‘models’ on how a consortium might help achieve sustainability. One target is the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), long popular with the public as an exhibit and ambassador for generating funds to support in situ conservation. However, the SSP cheetah population is not self-sustaining, in part, because the species best breeds when managed in larger numbers in spacious enclosures. Evidence for this is illustrated within C2S2 which holds approximately one-third of all cheetahs in North America and has produced 55% of the cubs in the past decade.

Discussions are ongoing on how to develop a win-win model, whereby interested AZA institutions make membership donations to a new AZA Cheetah Sustainability and Conservation Program. Those joining this program select a level of membership matching their budget and institutional goals for conservation and sustainability recognition. Different membership levels provide a range of services that meet institutional needs and offer the opportunity to directly support different types and levels of in situ cheetah conservation as well as in situ or ex situ research, all while building a cheetah population that is sustainable for more than one hundred years. Prime breeding animals are beginning to be moved to breeding centers where the chances of reproduction are high, and then cheetahs would be distributed to participating institutions through the SSP. Program members would be assured of continuous access to cheetahs for exhibition and education. Portions of donations would be used to support in situ conservation and priority research (identified by the Cheetah SSP), thereby allowing all participants conservation creditability. The balance of the donated funds would be used to partially recover species management costs incurred by the breeding institution. This will begin to address a long-ignored, but serious topic – the ‘real costs’ of creating sustainable programs for conservation.


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Creating sustainable herds sustainably Because C2S2 institutions have large barn complexes and spacious pastures, we became interested in the value of alternative management scenarios for space-loving hoofed species, especially antelopes. This also seemed timely because ungulates appear especially vulnerable to current zoo breeding programs. First, there has been a loss of nearly 1,000 spaces in AZA zoos for antelopes since 1999, and this decline is projected to continue. Secondly, many of these ungulates live in polygamous herds or harems in nature where one male mates with multiple females. Offspring develop in herds, an adaptation that not only assists in survival, but likely confers social, behavioral and reproductive benefits to young and the population as a whole. This is contrary to most zoo collections that maintain only pairs or a few individual animals/species. Thus, maintaining ungulates in more naturalistic groups may help produce behaviorally-adaptable offspring that can thrive in captivity as well as in the wild after reintroduction. Antelopes, in particular, are at risk. According to the IUCN, one-fourth of all antelopes are threatened with extinction (IUCN 2010). Therefore, it appears timely to examine how managing animals as larger groups, rather than as individuals, influences not only genetic variation, but also the biological quality and robustness of individuals. This project is designed to take a step beyond traditional pedigree based analysis to identify and explore other biological traits, including behavior, health and reproductive factors that contribute to adaptability and resiliency and ultimately population sustainability.

Our targeted species designated for study include: the addax (Addax nasomaculatus), addra gazelle (Nanger dama), scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah) and sable antelope (Hippotragus niger). The species were chosen because (1) the conservation priority for them is high, (2) current ex situ populations are not self-sustaining and (3) available zoo spaces for these species are declining. For instance, only a few hundred individuals remain of both the addax and the addra gazelle, making ongoing conservation action a real priority. Using stocks produced by zoos, reintroduction programs for addax and addra gazelle are in place or in discussion for Tunisia and other locales. Similarly, the scimitar-horned oryx was extirpated in nature in the 1990s. Captive born scimitars have already been released into Tunisia, Senegal and Morocco with all these efforts often led by, or aligned with the Saharan Conservation Fund (Iyengar et al 2007). Currently, there is keen interest in reintroducing sable back into Southern Africa. But for these reintroductions to be successful, animals of sufficient quality and quantity must be produced. Working in partnership with the Antelope TAG and respective PMP/SSPs (for breeding recommendations) and 10 other AZA zoos (that will be providing ‘control’ data), the goal of C2S2’s big herds project is to determine the biological quality, cost benefits and resources used when managing these species in large versus small groups. C2S2 institutional space will be used to develop and monitor breeding herds with ‘rotating’ males as well as bachelor and bachelorette groups for surplus individuals. We are especially keen to determine if a herd management system is better at producing more animals that also are more socially and behaviorally competent, healthier, adaptable and more suitable for reintroduction.

Crane sustainability Using concepts and aspects of our Cheetah Sustainability and Conservation Program, C2S2 is now collaborating with the AZA Gruiformes TAG, program leaders and interested AZA-accredited interested institutions to provide leadership, scientific management and capacity building to ensure the sustainability and conservation of cranes. Cranes, like cheetahs and most ungulates, are charismatic, iconic species with populations that are not self-sustaining. C2S2 will be focused on two species, the wattled crane (Grus carunculatus) and the hooded crane (Grus monacha). Similar to the cheetah program, the crane program will allow these species to be managed in a sustainable fashion while generating support for research and in situ activities, although not production. We envision various opportunities for ‘crane partners’, including: (1) direct training to staff from participating zoos in crane management (including assisted breeding), husbandry and research; and 2) advice and guidance about the value and complexities of breeding centers.


36 Our facilities as conservation landscapes for sustaining native biodiversity C2S2’s focus for managing and recovering endangered species includes maintaining its own landscapes for native and regional biodiversity and wisely managing natural resources. C2S2’s collective 25,000 acres includes a portfolio of unique habitats – ecosystems of the longleaf pines and wiregrass in Florida, the chaparral in Southern California, the scrub prairie in Eastern Texas and the eastern hardwood forests and open fields in Southeast Ohio and Northern Virginia. The matrix of pastures, shrublands and old fields for nurturing these endangered species is a significant natural resource in its own range. From its onset, C2S2 has been committed to a collaborative effort of land stewardship that incorporates science based research and education. C2S2’s lands are already dedicated for conserving endangered species, and manipulating habitats to enhance the conservation of local biodiversity is a natural extension of the mission. While used for the maintenance, breeding and recovery of endangered species, these lands also serve as critical habitat for local wild animals and plants. Like many habitats around the world, C2S2’s properties are under threat, largely due to habitat fragmentation and invasive species. With a common theme of protecting and restoring indigenous wildlife populations, each C2S2 institution has been conducting a series of land-based and outreach projects in partnership with the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation. Activities have been geared at testing and implementing respective invasive species control measures, monitoring critical ‘backyard wildlife, building public awareness about the threats of invasive species and providing information about enhancing native biodiversity. This project is serving as a model for North American landscapes by demonstrating how scientific inquiry can be integrated with endangered species management programs, all while increasing public awareness.

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Looking ahead As demonstrated by our diverse and growing sustainability program portfolio, C2S2 is committed to using its space and experience to explore how priority species can be better managed both biologically and economically, and in ways that complement the interests and responsibilities of traditional zoos. In essence, C2S2 wants to become a means for a national examination of the value of not just the ‘breeding center concept’, but an assemblage of cooperating, expansive areas across the USA and potentially, around the world. While C2S2 already has a growing portfolio of projects and successes, the consortium is committed to extending its partnerships. Even greater cooperation with other institutions – in the U. S. and abroad – could compliment, not replace the interests and responsibilities of traditional zoos. Wild areas around the world are continuing to shrink, so the skills developed and experience gained at the C2S2 facilities in caring for more intensively managed populations will become increasingly relevant for managed parks in the future. With ever-increasing species needs and ever-decreasing budgets, the timing seems perfect for exploring new ways of working together towards more efficient wildlife sustainability on both a local and national level.

References • Association of Zoos and Aquariums: Antelope and Giraffe Taxon Advisory Group (TAG) • Regional Collection Plan, 5th Edition 2009. • Hoffmann M, et al.: The impact of conservation on the status of the world’s vertebrates. Science 2010; 330: 1503–1509 • IUCN: One-Fourth of Antelope Species are Threatened with Extinction in the World. 2009. [cited December 23, 2010]; available from: http:// cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/antelope_report.pdf • Iyengar A, Gilbert T, Woodfine T, Knowles JM, Diniz FM, Brenneman, RA, Louis EE, Maclean M.: Remnants of ancient genetic diversity preserved within captive groups of scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah). Molecular Ecology 2007; 16: 2436–2449. • Lees CM, Wilcken J. Sustaining the ark: The challenges faced by zoos in maintaining viable populations. International Zoo Yearbook 2009; 43: 6-18.


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Reproductive Health and Population Sustainability Cheryl Asa – Director of Research at the Saint Louis Zoo and Director of the AZA Wildlife Contraception Center

Abstract Although there may multiple factors responsible for the current unsustainability of many zoo populations, to be sustainable these populations must be able to reproduce. In an analysis of the seven canid species in AZA-managed programs, we found a higher risk of uterine pathology in females not allowed to reproduce regularly. This condition (endometrial hyperplasia) can cause infertility by interfering with implantation or preventing the uterus to support pregnancy. Thus, females not allowed to produce offspring regularly are more likely to become infertile. Endometrial hyperplasia may be widespread in captive mammals as a result of current AZA population management practices.

The problem: Unsustainable populations

Role of the AZA Wildlife Contraception Center

Many captive populations are not reproducing at sustainable rates (Lees & Wilcken 2009, Baker 2007). In the U. S. efforts to address the problem have focused on re-structuring AZAmanaged programs to facilitate animal management, transfers, etc., to increase breeding success. These factors have undoubtedly contributed to the failure of programs to reach their goals. However, the fertility of animals in these managed programs has not been addressed. Reproductive biologists have the ability to assess fertility and to monitor reproductive processes, but most AZA programs do not incorporate these measures to support breeding recommendations. Instead, programs typically are “outcomes based”. That is, young are either born or they are not. If a pair is unsuccessful, new partners are sought rather than working to identify causes of reproductive failure.

We monitor reproductive health in non-contracepted as well as contracepted animals, to better assess effects of contraceptive treatment. Because contraceptives should be reversible, we also study factors related to fertility. Zoos in the U. S. and around the world report to us about contraceptive use and about any potentially associated problems. It was in response to such reports that we initiated a study with canids in AZA-managed programs, after several zoos contacted us about female red wolves, African wild dogs, and Mexican wolves being diagnosed with pyometra, a potentially fatal uterine infection. Typical treatment for pyometra in the U. S. is surgical removal of the reproductive tract, so even if the female is successfully treated, she is removed from the breeding population. Thus, the condition is extremely serious, regardless of outcome.


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What we know about pyometra The primary contributing cause of pyometra, which is well-described in domestic dogs, is progestin exposure (Noakes 2001, Smith 2006). The source of progestin may be elevated natural progesterone during the luteal phase of the reproductive cycle of a female that has not conceived or from progestin-based contraceptives, such as melengestrol (MGA) implants or Depo-Provera® injections. The risk of pyometra in the domestic dog increases with age, especially in females that experience exposure to progesterone during repeated nonconceptive cycles. Pyometra is more likely to be diagnosed in females 8 years or older, and the rate in dogs 10 years and over is 25% (Hagman 2004).

Precursor condition for pyometra: Endometrial hyperplasia Normal growth of the uterine endometrium prepares the uterus for implantation and to nourish the embryo. At the end of a pregnancy, the endometrium is shed during parturition; this process can be thought of as resetting the endometrium to “zero”, in preparation for the next cycle. In non-conceptive cycles, the endometrium regresses following withdrawal of hormonal stimulation (estrogen and progesterone), but it may not regress completely. Thus, during successive non-conceptive cycles, there can be incremental, cumulative endometrial overgrowth (hyperplasia). A progestin-stimulated endometrium, prepared to nourish embryos, provides an ideal growth medium for bacteria. Most cases of pyometra are probably preceded by endometrial hyperplasia (EH); the difference may just be whether bacteria gain access.

Our first concern is for the health of the female, and EH is an established risk factor for pyometra. However, female fertility is also important for inclusion in breeding programs. Data from domestic and lab species show that EH can interfere with implantation and pregnancy maintenance. So, although the original objective of our investigation was to determine whether contraceptive treatment might contribute to the incidence of pyometra, we included an analysis of the incidence of EH in the study to better understand its possible role in reproductive failures.

Survey of AZA Canid SSPs for incidence of EH and pyometra Species in the study included fennec fox, African wild dog, bush dog, Mexican wolf, red wolf, maned wolf, and swift fox, representing the seven AZA canid SSPs. We requested medical records and pathology reports for all females in these programs. Although the programs had been in existence for varying times, data requests went back at least 20 years. A multivariate analysis of factors possibly associated with uterine pathology was run, assessing in particular female reproductive and contraceptive histories. Contraceptive products used in females in the analysis included MGA and deslorelin (Suprelorin®) implants; some females treated with Suprelorin® also receive megestrol acetate pills (Ovaban®) for two weeks around the time of implant insertion. The resulting model of relative risk for endometrial hyperplasia or pyometra showed that the highest risk was associated with the number of years treated with deslorelin alone. Intermediate risk was associated with the number of years a female did not reproduce and was not contracepted (i.e., separated from males) and with the number of years treated with MGA implants. Lowest risk was associated with the number of years giving birth (i.e., going through pregnancy and parturition) and with the number of years treated with deslorelin plus megestrol acetate to prevent the deslorelin stimulation phase.

We knew that progestin contraceptives (e.g., MGA implants) can cause uterine disease in felids and likely in other carnivores because of the earlier studies by Dr. Linda Munson (2005). Based on that research, we have been recommending against the use of MGA and other progestins in carnivores for about 10 years. The current contraceptive recommendation is for deslorelin, which was developed for domestic dogs (Trigg et al. 2001). As a hormone agonist, deslorelin first stimulates the reproductive system before the suppressing it for 6 months or more, depending on formulation and dosage. That initial stimulation can result in ovulation followed by two months of elevated progesterone in canid species. The stimulation phase can be prevented by giving megestrol acetate (Ovaban®) pills for one week before and one week after deslorelin implant insertion (Wright et al., 2001; for more detailed information see the AZA Wildlife Contraception Center webpage at www.stlzoo.org/contraception). As our results showed, although deslorelin alone increases the risk of uterine pathology, prevention of the initial stimulation phase seems to eliminate that risk, presumably by preventing the two-month period of exposure to progesterone that would follow the stimulated ovulation. Not surprising was the increased risk following treatment with MGA implants, since MGA is a synthetic progestin that can stimulate the carnivore endometrium (Teunissen 1952). However, separation of males and females to prevent pregnancy carried the same risk of uterine pathology as treating with MGA implants.


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Perhaps the most important result was that the lowest incidence of either endometrial hyperplasia or pyometra was found in females that gave birth more frequently or that were treated with deslorelin plus megestrol acetate to prevent the initial stimulation phase. However, these approaches are not equivalent, because time to reversal for deslorelin has not been well established and is being studied. Thus, deslorelin treatment may suppress reproduction in some females beyond the desired interval, interfering with the timing of breeding recommendations.

Frequency of reproduction and fertility in other species Endometrial hyperplasia and leiomyomas (non-cancerous uterine growths) have been documented in female elephants and rhinoceros that have experienced multiple nonconceptive cycles (Hildebrandt et al. 2000; Hermes et al. 2004; Agnew et al. 2004). Similarly, number of non-reproductive years has been associated with uterine pathology and lower reproductive rates in female cheetahs (Crosier et al. 2011, Wachter et al. 2011). In all-female colonies of Seba’s bats, that would have undergone repeated non-conceptive cycles in the absence of males, a high prevalence of EH and uterine adenomyosis have been found (Napier et al. 2009).

AZA SSPs and reproductive management A typical AZA SSP program starts by breeding as many females as possible until carrying capacity or the target population is reached, then reproduction is stopped through separating males from females or by using contraception. Also typical is to delay first reproduction to increase generation time which retains gene diversity, yet both practices may be contributing to infertility in those females. Thus, current management policies may be inadvertently increasing female infertility by not allowing early and regular opportunities for pregnancy and birth.

What we are doing to address the problem The Contraception Center’s Advisory Board is working to select representative species from other major taxonomic groups for similar study to determine how the uterine endometriun of other taxa respond to the cumulative effect of either natural or synthetic hormones. For species identified as being at risk, preventive measures or treatment might be given. However, to assess the efficacy of potential treatments requires methods for diagnosing EH. We are working on a method for minimally invasive, transcervical endometrial biopsy, by adapting a technique successfully used for intra-uterine insemination. If the biopsy technique is successful, we will begin testing treatments in females diagnosed with EH that might cause regression of the endometrium and restore fertility. Meanwhile, ideal reproductive management should space pregnancies to reduce successive, non-conceptive cycles.

Acknowledgments The study was conducted in collaboration with the AZA Canid TAG and the seven AZA Canid SSPs, along with reproductive veterinary pathologists Dalen Agnew (DVM, PhD, Michigan State University) and Anneke Moresco (DVM, PhD, University of California-Davis). Karen Bauman (MS, Saint Louis Zoo and Canid TAG secretary) requested and received the medical records and reports. Graduate students Sarah Devery (University of London) and Martín Zordan (University of Chile Veterinary School) processed records and entered the data, with assistance from Sally Boutelle (MS, AZA Wildlife Contraception Center Program Coordinator). Gerardo Camilo (PhD, Saint Louis University) ran the statistical model. Bruce Christensen (DVM, Iowa State University) is developing the transcervical uterine biopsy technique.


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References • Agnew, D. W., L. Munson, and E. C. Ramsay. 2004. Cycstic endometrial hyperplasia in elephants. Veterinary Pathology 41: 179–183. • Baker, A. 2007. Animal ambassadors: An analysis of the effectiveness and conservation impact of ex situ breeding efforts. In: A. Zimmermann, M. Hatchwell, L. Dickie and C. West (eds.) Zoos in the 21st century: Catalysts for conservation? Pp. 139–154. Zoological Society of London, London. • Crosier, A. E., Comizzoli, P., Baker, T., Davidson, A., Munson, L., Howard, J., Marker, L. L., Wildt, D. E. 2011. Increasing age influences uterine integrity, but not ovarian function or oocyte quality, in the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus). Biology of Reproduction 85: 243–253. • Hagman, R. 2004. New aspects of canine pyometra: Studies on epidemiology and pathogenesis, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden. • Hermes, R., T. B. Hildebrandt, and F. Göritz. 2004. Reproductive problems directly attributable to longterm captivity-asymmetric reproductive aging. Animal Reproduction Science 82-83: 49–60. • Hildebrandt, T. B., Hermes, R., Pratt, N. C., Fritsch, G., Blottner, S., Schmidt, D. L., Ratanakorn, P., Brown, J. L., Rietschel, W., and Goritz, F. 2000. Ultrasonography of the urogenital tract in elephants (Loxodonta africa and Elephas maximus): An important tool for assessing male reproductive function. Zoo Biology 19: 333–346.

• Lees, C. M., and J. Wilcken. 2009. Sustaining the ark: The challenges faced by zoos in maintaining viable populations. International Zoo Yearbook 43: 6–18. • Munson, L., A. Moresco, and P. P. Calle. 2005. Adverse effects of contraceptives. In: C. S. Asa and I. J. Porton (eds.) Wildlife contraception: Issues, methods, and application. p 66–82. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD. • Napier, J. E., S. Caron, D. R. Reavill, H. Murphy, and M. M. Garner. 2009. Proliferative endometrial lesions in a group of Seba’s short-tailed bats (Carollia perspicillata). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 40: 437–444. • Noakes, D., G. Dhaliwal, and G. England. 2001. Cystic endometrial hyperplasia/pyometra in dogs: A review of the causes and pathogenesis. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, Supplement 57: 395. • Smith, F. O. 2006. Canine pyometra. Theriogenology 66: 610–612. • Teunissen, G. H. B. 1952. The development of endometritis in the dog and the effect of oestradiol and progesterone on the uterus. Acta Endocrinologica 9: 407–420.

• Trigg, T. E., Wright, P. J., Armour, A. F., Williamson, P. E., Junaidi, A., Martin, G. B., Doyle, A. G., and Walsh, J. 2001Use of a GnRH analogue implant to produce reversible long-term suppression of reproductive function in male and female domestic dogs. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, Supplement 57: 255–261. • Wachter, B., Thalwitzer, S., Hofer, H., Lonzer, J., Hildebrandt, T. B., Hermes, R. 2011. Reproductive history and absence of predators are important determinants of reproductive fitness: The cheetah controversy revisited. Conservation Letters 4: 47–54. • Wright, P. J., Verstegen, J. P., Onclin, K., Jochle, W., Armour, A. F., Martin, G. B., and Trigg, T. E. 2001. Suppression of the oestrous responses of bitches to the GnRH analogue deslorelin by progestin. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility Supplement 57: 263–268.


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Public Relations for the Saint Louis Zoo’s WildCare Institute R. Eric Miller – Saint Louis Zoo, Director of the Saint Louis Zoo’s WildCare Institute

Formally launched in 2004, the Saint Louis Zoo’s WildCare Institute is dedicated to creating a sustainable future for wildlife and for people around the world. Initially, the WildCare Institute greatly expanded the Saint Louis Zoo’s field conservation activities and has resulted in approximately $1,000,000 US/year being spent in field programs. These funds came from two sources, a generous endowment from the Saint Louis Zoo Friends Association (now the Saint Louis Zoo Association) and approximately $350,000/year from the Zoo’s Conservation Carrousel. Twelve areas of conservation focus that we call “Conservation Centers” were identified and each was sponsored by a Saint Louis Zoo curator, veterinarian or researcher. A decision was made early on “brand” the WildCare Institute as part of the Saint Louis Zoo in order to take advantage of the Zoo’s 90+ years of history, image and reputation. The WildCare Institute was “launched with a press conference and an interactive exhibit at the Zoo.

Two major concerns arose: 1) that the • Stories in each edition of the quarterly zoo magazine that has WildCare Institute would not detract from the Zoo’s ongoing activities, a 40,000 circulation. and 2) that no tax money was spent • The WildCare Institute was featured outside of the region (which is illegal on the Zoo’s web site or on its own under our taxing structure). Both at www.wildcareinstitute.org. There questions could be addressed by nothave been an average of 55,000 ing the discrete funding sources – The “hits’/year for information. Zoo Association and the Conservation • The WildCare Institute was included Carrousel. on the Zoo’s Facebook page which has 135,000 “friends.” A feature of the WildCare Institute’s • The WildCare Institute was a regular philosophy was collaboration with feature on the Zoo’s Saturday mornothers, and within 2 years, the Instiing television show. tute had over 180 partners including • An hour long prime–time television other zoos, universities, and govspecial on Grevy’s zebra and comernmental and nongovernmental munity conservation work in the conservation organizations. That was Samburu region of Kenya. also featured by playing active roles • Three short (6-8 minute) videos in collaborative conservation efforts by a local film company (Beyond such as the Madagascar Fauna and Motion) on the conservation and Flora Group, the Sahara Conservation research efforts with avifauna in Fund and the multi-zoo partnership the Galapagos, mountain vipers in that maintained the Punta San Juan Armenia and Humboldt penguins at Reserve for Humboldt penguins. Punta San Juan, Peru (the latter one was show as part of the presentaMarketing the WildCare Institute to tion). The film WildCare Institute members and employees was done in donated their travel, and Beyond several ways including: Motion donated their film and production time. • Each Conservation Center hosted • Signs on the Zoo’s grounds were a dinner for donors and featured placed in front all exhibits that have major speakers from the field in animals related to our Conservation that area. These often coincided Centers. These signs are concise, with other conservation meetings in uniquely shaped so as to be readily St. Louis. Each dinner cost approxirecognizable, and talk about what mately $15,000. Attendance ranged the Saint Louis Zoo and its partners from 120 for American burying are doing to help protect these spebeetles and horned guans to 200 for cies and habitats. Grevy’s zebras and hellbenders. • A monthly electronic newsletter was sent to all employees, boards and WildCare Institute Advisors. • Print materials were produced in the form of a 3-fold brochure, a magazine format, and 1-page hand outs.


42 Interestingly, our initial concern was that “charismatic megavertebrates” such as cheetahs and zebras would gain the attention and donations for “smaller” species such as hellbenders and American burying beetles would not. However, the latter two Conservation Centers are 2 of our 4 largest Centers for receipt of donor funds ($100,000+ for hellbenders, $125,000 for American burying beetles). We strongly believe that in telling an engaging conservation story, we have and can make those species “attractive” to donors and the general public.

Proceedings of 66th Annual Conference

In our initial, scientific surveys of In the summary, we hope this presthe public perception, only 10% of entation will provide assistance to the public was aware that the Saint others as we all work to increase the Louis Zoo was synonymous with recognition of the field conservathe WildCare Institute supporting tion efforts of the worlds’ zoos. If we and performing field conservation. could reach 70% of the estimated However, by 2008, after the ques700,000,000 visitors to the world’s tion was reframed to “Does the Saint zoos; that could provide a base of Louis Zoo do conservation work in 490,000,000 visitors who would be other parts of the world?,” the results more likely to pay closer attention in all years were that 70% of the Zoo’s to conservation issues and hopefully 3,000,000 annual visitors were aware. support them through our instituTheir stated source of information tions or other agencies. was signs in the Zoo (60%), Zoo Friends membership (9%), shows on The author wishes to thank Janet television (8%), “just assume that Powell, Director of Public Relations they would” (7%), and word of mouth and Amy Niedbalski, Manager of (6%). Our initial concern about public Audience Research at the Saint Louis awareness of the WildCare Institute’s Zoo for their contributions to and funding sources were now addressed support of this presentation. as only 9% of respondents thought it came from tax funding (the leading answer was private donations at 75%).


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Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) & its Elegant Strategy Sanjay Molur – Executive Director, Zoo Outreach Organisation, Tamil Nadu, India

Abstract

Introduction

The Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) The Alliance for Zero Extinction is • Discreteness. The area must have represents 67 biodiversity conservaa relatively new organisation, set up a definable boundary within which tion organizations, including Zoo Out- in 2000 and by 2005 was launched the character of habitats, biological reach Organisation and its Indian AZE internationally. The organisation communities, and/or management network. AZE strategies target IUCN is composed of nearly 100 NGO’s issues have more in common with Red List CR and EN species occurring whose goal is to avert extinctions of each other than they do with those in a single location, further prioritized species. Many organisations claim in adjacent areas. by the AZE principles, vulnerability the same goal but AZE has a unique and irreplaceability. According to AZE and elegant system or formula for Over 600 AZA sites have been there are 950 such species in 612 sites, targeting priority cases. identified of which only 250 qualify with 19 species in 16 sites within India. as protected areas: in these sites Conserving them will promote zero AZE works to ensure the conserva950 species have been identified extinctions, habitat conservation, and tion of species with the highest risk of comprising mammals, birds, amphiblocal stakeholder participation. AZE extinction found in a single location. ians, some reptiles and conifers. The targeted species are very fitting for This is achieved by identifying and sites must also be homogenous and both in situ and ex situ conservation monitoring of the site that hosts manageable for conservation. AZE projects including generation of pubcertain IUCN Red List generated EN will develop a “Candidate List” for lic support and guidance in local and and CR species. These species have any areas that are narrowly disqualinational legislation. been prioritized by using the IUCN fied or unclear for inclusion. Examples criteria of irreplaceability (options in include sites that do not quite meet space for conservation) and vulnerthe irreplaceability criteria, that are ability (options in time). Priority not quite threatened enough (VU and species have both high irreplaceabilDD species) but which are restricted ity and high vulnerability along with to one or a few sites, unevaluated the aforementioned single site and species, and species with taxonomic therefore take precedence for conser- uncertainties (including un-described vation. The IUCN Red List is used to and newly described species). This list assist in these assessments. will be periodically reviewed so that the best judgments can be made in More about these selection criteria cases of uncertainty. for the site: • Endangerment. An AZE site must There are great advantages in investcontain at least one Endangered (EN) ing in AZE species. We are most likely or Critically Endangered (CR) species, to lose these species next. We can as listed on the IUCN Red List. prevent the extinction crises most ef• Irreplaceability. An AZE site should fectively. It is the most cost effective only be designated if it is the sole way to proceed. area where an EN or CR species occurs, contains the overwhelmingly significant known resident population (>95%) of the EN or CR species, or contains the overwhelmingly significant known population (>95%) for one life history segment (e.g. breeding or wintering) of the EN or CR species.


44 Membership in the Alliance is open to any non-governmental environmental organization that has as a primary purpose the conservation of biological diversity. Zoos should consider taking membership in AZE – it is a “win-win” for zoos. The AZE method is a natural for selection of conservation projects undertaken by zoos, which are changing the image and meaning of zoos. Moreover the data collected through supporting project will add to the global database.

Indian case study Zoo Outreach Organisation (ZOO) has set up an Indian AZE and is encouraging NGOs in key areas such as the Western Ghats to take up some of the AZE identified species of fish and aquatic plants which were recently assessed under IUCN criteria. ZOO has also taken up a Project. Zoo Outreach Organisation hosts the IUCN SSC Primate Specialist Group in South Asia, e.g., South Asian Primate Network. There are 43 taxa of Primates in the region of South Asia. Of these, the Himalayan Grey Langur, Semnopithecus ajax Pocock, 1928 has a narrow distribution and restricted to a single location, e.g. Chamba Valley of Himachal Pradesh and Jammu & Kashmir in the northwestern Himalaya in India. Semnopithecus ajax occurs in pine and alpine cedar forest from 2,200 to 4,000 m. It is folivorous, diurnal, and mainly arboreal (Molur et al. 2003). Himalayan Grey Langur has been assessed as Endangered by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species based on its highly restricted distribution (single location), it population size of less than 250 mature individuals and due to threats from human activities in the area. (Groves & Molur 2008). Grey langur is reported to be hunted by local communities and hunting parties from neighbouring areas. The

Proceedings of 66th Annual Conference

species is very shy unlike other langurs, due to its avoidance behaviour in human presence, perpetuated by hunting with guns. The species is listed on CITES Appendix I, and Schedule II Part I, of the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 amended up to 2002. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species recommends that urgent action be taken for conserving this species and paying particular attention to the following areas: survey and establish distribution range, population monitoring and public education. Other priorities include community participation in protecting the species and working with the state forest department to implement holistic conservation management plans for the species and the site.

Kempholey forest of Karnataka State. Millardia kondia is a rat with soft fur restricted to Sinhagad Plateau/Fort in Maharashtra state. Both of these species have a very restricted distribution and are not recorded from any other location. Both are CR according to IUCN Red List criteria. These two lesser-loved species are excellent AZE examples that require urgent conservation efforts that include stakeholders such as locals, forest staff, temple authorities, and many others. Lesser-known small fauna face higher threats due to neglect, which occurs due to their non-charismatic qualities and human ignorance. There are hundreds of such neglected species and projects out there. As zoos have so dramatically improved their image with the enormously successful in situ conservation projects, perhaps species such as these have a much better chance of survival.

The Himalayan Grey Langur is one of the 19 species identified by the Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) in India. AZE’s primary objective is to ensure AZE also runs national alliances in conservation of species with the highest risk of extinction found in a single Colombia, Mexico, Brazil as well as location. The IUCN Red List categories India. Read all about AZE at of Critically Endangered and Endanwww.zeroextinction.org gered provide important information on the risk of extinction a species faces in the wild. AZE species are those References prioritized from within the CR and EN species that are restricted to a single • herpinvert@gmail.org location. These species exhibit the • zooreach@zooreach.org classical combination of characteris• www.journalofthreatenedtaxa.org tics, e.g., irreplaceability and vulnerability, which determine high priority among threatened species that require urgent conservation actions. Semnopithecus ajax fits this requirement and due to its dwindling numbers and highly restricted distribution, is a species that requires immediate attention for conservation action. Of ZOO’s several taxon based South Asia Networks the Amphibian Network and the Bat/Rodent Network have selected one amphibian species and one small mammal species that need urgent conservation action, e.g., Indirana gundia and Millardia kondia. Indirana gundia is a small rock frog that occurs only in the Gundia/


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Wildlife Conservation & Animal Welfare Need One Another … Hence, “Conservation Welfare” Sally Walker – SAZARC

Conservation biology & animal welfare were once considered two separate disciplines, but in the last few years several symposia and publications have suggested more integration of these two topics. Some examples are: Symposia / Publications Organisation Peter Wall Institute & Universities Federation for Animal Welfare Chicago Zoological Society, Institute of Animal Welfare. WildCru, Oxford / Born Free Foundation AZA Welfare Committee Zoo Outreach Organisation

Several papers delivered at the workshop held in Vancouver, Canada in 2007 were published by UFAW in the Animal Welfare Journal, May 2008. It was a special issue entitled “Conservation and Welfare” comparing and synthesizing the two fields. Fraser, in an overview article, commented that the output of the UFAW workshop “… showed that many research problems and practical interventions (of wildlife conservation) would benefit from involving animal welfare and recognizing animal welfare concerns.” He also said “…for animal welfare scientists and advocates, the papers call for an expansion of concern to include the vast number of free-living animals whose welfare is adversely affected by human action. He stated that until date, animal welfare scientists had paid little attention to the welfare of free living wildlife”… yet routine forestry, agricultural, pest control measures gravely impact the welfare of wild animals.

Event Publication(s) Interdiscipinary Workshop; Sp. Issue Animal Welfare Journal, Vancouver, Canada, 16–18, Nov. 07 May 2010, UFAW, UK www.interaction.pwias.ubc.ca 2008, International Workshop zoo Sp. Issue Zoo Biology Journal, and animal welfare scientists 28:501–506 “e-proceedings” on website all PPts in PDF, Animal Welfare in Conservation Practice, http://compassionateconservation.org Oxford, UK, 1–3 Sept 2010, White paper approved AZA, 2010 Multiple education workshops over two decades Educational packets, posters, booklets, Power-point presentations on the topic in thousands of schools, zoos, ngo’s, etc. since about 1989, www.zooreach.org

Also in 2008, the Chicago Zoological Society Center for the Science of Animal Welfare conducted an international workshop intended to bring zoo and animal welfare scientists together and to promote investigation and assessment of current zoo welfare research. The focus was how the understanding of wild animals could improve zoo animal welfare. The papers from the workshop were published in Zoo Biology. 1–3 Sept 2010 WildCru, University of Oxford and Born Free Foundation organized a 2-day International Symposium entitled “Animal Welfare in Conservation Practice” to debate animal welfare issues in conservation, examine potential synergies, look for practical outcomes and promote dialogue in Oxford, UK. www.compassionateconservation.org Very recently, July 2011, the American Zoo Association’s Welfare Committee brought out an excellent White Paper entitled “White tigers, lions, and king cheetahs: welfare and conservation

implications of intentional breeding for the expression of rare recessive alleles.” The paper is striking because it unapologetically combines welfare and conservation in its title and throughout the document. This paper makes such a good case against intentional breeding for rare recessive alleles that it has been possible to use it to break through the mind-set of some Asian zoo personnel where the white tiger has been deified both for its godlike whiteness, its uniqueness and (perhaps more than anything) the “heavenly” price it brings on the market. So there have been enough gatherings and publications about animal welfare and conservation to create a dialogue and extension of the utility of this concept. In October 2010 the Conservation Breeding Specialist Group entertained two sessions of a working group on the need for the welfare group in CBSG, and this was followed in 2011 by the creation of a Task Force on animal welfare under its auspices.


46 Education & training material There is plenty of education and training material on conservation for youngsters as well as adults but much less so welfare literature and precious little on this relatively new concept of “conservation welfare”. Youngsters need to learn to be kind to animals from toddler to teen and beyond. They need to learn from actual reasons and facts and not just because “it’s a nice thing to do.” If they learn when they are young and if the reasons for protecting and not persecuting free ranging animals, as well as pets, it has a good chance of sticking to them as they grow into adulthood. One often hears that serial killers tortured animals when they were kids. That alone should justify a mighty effort to instill adequate respect for Life of any and all creatures. At present the write could turn up NO educational literature at all on conservation welfare except what has been brought out by Zoo Outreach Organisation (Z. O. O). Z. O. O has been bringing out educational literature using the synthesis of conservation and animal welfare as a teaching and training tool to stimulates new thinking about both animal welfare and conservation, as well having the capacity to bring about changes human attitudes and behavior. Suzie Boardman, Director of Twycross Zoo and a well-known animal welfare advocate credits the author and ZOO for first using the term “conservation welfare”. Zoo Outreach Organisation (ZOO) based in India was founded to help Indian and later South Asian zoos improve, including zoo staff and visitor attitudes and behavior towards the captive wild animals. ZOO grew out of Friends of Mysore Zoo (FOZ) founded 1981. Some of the first teacher training, educational literature and educational signage the FOZ developed carried the seeds of conservation welfare. ZOO was

Proceedings of 66th Annual Conference

the first to use the terms “wildlife welfare” and “conservation welfare” and to use them in a series of educational booklets, toys, packets and handouts. These have been supplied to hundreds of zoos and NGO’s who wanted to educate their visitors and improve animals’ conditions. Similar educational materials continue to be evolved, produced and distributed widely in South Asia. Some examples will be discussed further on in this paper.

Intersection of conservation and (animal) welfare What are the ways that conservation and animal welfare intersect? Some quotes from the symposia, publications and education/training materials are helpful in establishing this.

From the UFAW Symposium published in Animal Welfare 2010, 19, ISSN 0962-7286 In preparing captive living animals for life in the wild, concerns for welfare and conservation may collide. B. Beck, 1995 Since reintroduction programs involve moving animals from captive or wild environments and releasing them into novel environments, there are sure to be challenges to the welfare of the individuals involved. RR Swaisgood, The Conservationwelfare nexus in reintroduction programs, 2010. Conservation biology and animal welfare science… many areas of existing or potential overlap. Policies and practices targeting either conservation or animal welfare may not work unless they take account of both areas of concern. D. Fraser, Toward a synthesis of conservation and animal welfare science, 2010.

From the symposium of WildCru and Born Free, Compassionate Conservation Symposium 1–3 September 2010, Oxford: Animal welfare in conservation: working towards a common goal Macdonald, et. al. makes a case for animal welfare in conservation in discussing ethics in conservation and describing “the great divide” as Welfare including the welfare of the individual and its right to live and Conservation as conservation of the population (many individuals) and their right to be left alone. Finding common ground will lead to a common goal. David Macdonald, Sandra Baker Merryl Gelling & Lauren Harrington, September 2010. Do the means justify the end? Welfare and the kangaroo harvest The mission is to foster understanding amongst Australians about kangaroos in a sustainable landscape, through critically reviewing current kangaroo management practices and exploring non-lethal management methods that are consistent with ecology, animal welfare, human health and ethics. Dror Ben-Ami, 2010 Dealing with interspecies conflicts in wildlife conservation What measures can be taken to minimize risks to welfare (in conservation)? The author refers the “Three Rs” or principles of humane use of animals in scientific procedures and suggests two of them for conservation interventions, e.g., Refinement – of protocols and methods in order to minimize adverse welfare consequences and Reduction – involving no more (nor fewer) animals than required in order to achieve the conservation objective. James Kirkwood, 2010.


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Animal Welfare in Zoo Education Zoo education seems to have steered clear of animal welfare except in very uncreative, repetitious, brief and subtle ways. This is hard to understand because there are so many opportunities at the zoo for a child or adult to have fun messing with the animals and harming them, intentionally and/ or unintentionally. Teasing animals, feeding, pretending to attack, shouting, throwing harmful items inside the enclosure or cage is rampant in many zoos. Signage alone is not sufficient to insure these practices stop; youngsters need to be guided before they will willingly give up such a treat as tormenting animals. Combining welfare and conservation can often create a rationale that reaches older youngsters. Even human–animal conflict can be very effectively addressed with conservation and welfare for both human and animal. Some examples follow. The Appendices contain the text of three documents and one document containing a list of topics covered. Daily Life Wildlife is a concept meant to inspire kids to adopt kindness to the animals which hang around their home, school, roadside, ponds, etc., instead of tormenting them for entertainment. We don’t think of what killing flies, torturing frogs, and lighting fires on cat’s tails might be doing to kids in the long term. In some countries, even adults don’t take it seriously, and the result is kids who grow up thinking that is “right behavior”. “Daily Life Wildlife” addresses all minor and some major cruelties perpetrated by so called innocent youngsters on animals we encounter on a daily basis. “Daily Life Wildlife” has been the most popular packet for the longest duration of any ZOO has developed in the last two decades. See Appendix I. Monkey Manners confronts the issue of invasion of monkeys from destroyed forests and barren lands into villages, towns and cities, schools, hospitals, etc. … where human beings eat and or throw leftovers away. Monkeys quickly become accustomed to this life and morph into very bold and pugnacious creatures that cause enormous angst, as well as a range of

injuries, etc. Human beings cause this monkey mischief … in countries where locking up garbage and trash is not practiced and rotting food and leftovers are left outside houses for dogs or flies to eat, and they attract monkeys. The Monkey Manners literature explains the mistakes made by human beings and also warns children not to fight the monkeys if they snatch food, or to run from the animals as that will incite the monkeys, and to take responsibility for the problem since the monkeys cannot be expected to do so. Learning how NOT to be attacked by a monkey, how NOT to attract them with food, etc. creates a vacuum in which monkeys hopefully find other forests where they may feed on wild fruits, bark, etc. See Appendix II. Human Elephant Conflict HEC –> Human Elephant Coexistence HECx. Much like the Monkey Menace, human beings cause much of the injury and death from elephants themselves. The elephants have been squeezed out of their large range and also done out of their watering and grazing areas. People become enraged at the behavior of the elephant and forget the strength and fury of the elephant. Ultimately human beings, aided by forestry officials, prevail with the elephants getting the worst of it. Many elephants are maimed or killed! Many are killed trying to find water or food. Over all, it is both a conservation and animal welfare issue, despite the fact that human beings are also harmed. Elephant Etiquette explains what human beings should do and not do in cases of marauding elephants. See Appendix III.

the point and a card on how to really help a zoo that wants to improve. Only the FAQs are included in the Appendix due to the size of the packet. See Appendix IV. ZOO also has brought out a wide range educational material on sloth bears who are used as entertainers by their owners and live horrible lives tramping the hot roads and streets of city and country in India including a teaching manual. Welfare is no less than the ”well-being” of wild animals. The welfare/wellbeing of wild animals either captive or wild is essential to conservation of wildlife. This is so simple and obvious that it literally goes without saying. Wildlife conservation, however, requires a different kind of welfare than domestic animals – it requires “conservation welfare” which involves a heavy measure of “leave them alone”, as well as certain necessary welfare actions. Good zoos and conservation biologists or field practitioners routinely use welfare practices in their keeping, breeding (or not breeding), catching, handling, etc. Ironically “welfare” is still not wholly welcome by all people in the context of conservation, and “conservation” is not welcome to all in the context of animal welfare. This anomaly can be mitigated if a clear distinction between Conservation Welfare and Animal Welfare is established.

Good practice

• Good practice of welfare both in the field and captivity is desirable for ethical and humane reasons. • Good practice is necessary for Conservation Conscious v.s. Conserwildlife conservation which requires vation Careless. This packet is a comphysically and psychologically fit plicated one about zoos, differentiatanimals. ing between “conservation conscious” • In the final analysis, what’s good for and conservation careless” zoos. The the health and well-being of either packet is designed with the idea of captive or wild animals seems good teaching people in a wide range of also for their conservation. ages to appreciate a zoo, what to do if the zoo is not good. A collecConservation … saving species, population of a dozen large “cards” explains tions, and individuals … is welfare plus almost everything one should know benefits! about a zoo, in order to behave well in it, or to help it as a volunteer, to respect a good zoo, etc. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) about different aspects of zoos are frank and to


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References

Appendix I

• Fraser, D. Toward a synthesis of Wildlife Welfare in Daily Life conservation and animal welfare (illustrations removed) science. Animal Welfare 2010,19: 121–124. Produced and published by Zoo Outreach Organisation (ZOO) Sponsored by • Watters, Jason V. & Nadja WielebChester Zoo and UFAW, Text by Sally Walker, Education booklet No#14/2006 nowski, Eds., Introduction to the Special Issue on Zoo Animal Welfare. Zoo Biology 28: 501–506, 2009. • From the symposium of WildCru What is “Wildlife”? What is “animal welfare”? …. and Born Free, Compassionate ConWelfare means “well-being”. servation Symposium 1–3 SeptemDefinition: “Wildlife” refers to (wild) ber 2010, Oxford animals which are not domesticated Wildlife welfare therefore means the • (2010) AZA White Paper – (in case of plants, not cultivated) well-being of wild animals both in Welfare Implications of intentional wild and in zoo Inbreeding. • When we think of “wildlife”, we www.google.co.in/url? think of animals that live in the wild Well-being means sa=t&rct=j&q=aza%20white%20 or away from human habitation. • to be free from neglect, abuse, paper%20animal%20wel• But any free-ranging non-domestistress, distress and deprivation. fare%20committee&source=w cated animal is wildlife (except feral • to have basic needs satisfied, & eb&cd=2&ved=0CEgQFjAB&u formerly domestic animals). even to have comfort, happiness, rl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.aza. • Examples are tigers, lions, eagles, contentment, and general good… org%2FuploadedFiles%2FAbout_ butterflies, fish, rodents, bats, lizUs%2FWhitePaperInbreeding_ ards, snakes, etc., that one sees in BoardApproved_%252028July11. the forest. Human Welfare pdf&ei=dzXLTqrhOY6urAetzaXgDA &usg=AFQjCNG7navbnfcwH93nfwZ What is Captive Wildlife? • Humans give a lot of importance to MVpAeSW-lwQ their own welfare. • Animals kept in zoos are wildlife, • For our own welfare, we often harm even though they live in captivity. other life forms unknowingly and • Temple animals, although domestiunnecessarily. cated perhaps, are still wildlife – el- • Captive wild animals i.e., animals ephants, monkeys, bats! in the laboratory, zoos, pets often • What about frogs, insects, house have a hard time when human begeckos, lizards, spiders, snakes, ings are insensitive. crows, etc. that we see around our • Free-living animals also deserve house and compound. There are kind treatment to the extent posalso wildlife. We call it “daily life sible. wildlife”.

What is “Daily life wildlife”? • “Daily life wildlife” is a term created by Zoo Outreach Organisation to draw attention to the animals that live close to us that we all take for granted. • We consider these animals so common that we treat them like objects, as if they didn’t have feelings. • Youngsters may get a habit of mistreating animals by being careless with the feelings and lives of these animals they encounter on a daily basis.

Why learn about wildlife welfare? • Wildlife is important to our survival, even daily life wildlife. • You kids are tomorrow’s adults. • Good values will not let you down. Practicing good values makes us feel good. • Learning to be kind to all animals builds good values and prevents other bad habits.


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Human activities affect welfare of wild animals in forests: • Destruction of habitat • Introduction of diseases through domestic animals • Hunting / trapping / poisoning • Disturbance caused by tourism (firing crackers in forest) • Introduction of inappropriate animals • Release of chemical pollutants

Cruelty in Daily life • Killing household insects that could be scooped up and set free. • Killing or injuring animals that come in or near the house but are harmless (such as frogs, garden lizards, insects, birds, bats, shrews, etc. • Torturing animals just for entertainment • Such animals are not just harmless … most of them are helpful to us! • Some animals like mosquitos are pests due to their impact on human health, but they are few compared to the number of useful animals.

Daily life mistakes!

Check your Habits!

Since we are talking about wildlife… when you go to the zoo

• These are bad habits. We just don’t think! • Common sense applies. No need to • Don’t tease animals in the zoo; be fanatical! (You can swat mosquithey also have feelings. tos). • Don’t throw stones, or paper, • Sometimes we just don’t know what or sticks or stones. animals are harmless. • Don’t feed zoo animals your food. • Cultivate investigation, rather than It is not good for them and could careless habits. make them sick. • Watch wild animals at the zoo like you watch daily life wildlife

Daily life wildlife as pets?

• Wild animals — even daily life wildlife should not be kept as pets. • Not every animal can adapt itself to humans’ conditions. • All animals have some basic requirement that a captive situation can’t provide. • Many wildlife pets become upset and even die of stress and trauma. • Keeping wild animals can sometimes be dangerous to humans because of their unpredictable nature or disease.

Watching daily life wildlife

• Daily-life wildlife doesn’t have to be kept. You can watch them from Many of the animals people kill or a distance like a naturalist studying shoo away play a beneficial role in our wildlife in the wild. lives… • Keep a record of the behaviour of • Frogs, snakes, bats control insect a familiar gecko. Does it come in the and rodent populations. same room daily? Does it like the • Many insects and some bats are wall or ceiling better? pollinators. They are responsible • See how many frogs come into your for one-third of the food we eat and bathroom in a month. also for flowers and some trees. • Watch ants troop up the wall to get • Shrews and other small rodents a dab of jelly or other sweet stuff. spread seeds and also eat up • Count the kinds of birds in your grasses that clog waterways. compound. • Worms break down living material for enriching the soil.


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Proceedings of 66th Annual Conference

Appendix II MONKEY MANNERS! Misplaced Monkey Mischief – How to Handle Concept and text by S. Walker with help from J. Lenin, S. Paul, S. Molur Sponsored by Awley Wildlife and People (www.awley.com) and Apenheul Primate Park (www.apenheul.nl) Published by Zoo Outreach Organisation/South Asian Primate Network Education booklet number 18/December 2007

Hello! Will you answer some questions? Just answer “yes” or “no”.

What are Monkey Problems and their cause?

• Do you have wild monkeys roving] your neighborhood doing bad things? • Have you ever had wild monkeys come home, steal food & make a big mess? • Have you ever been bitten by a wild monkey in a public locality? • Have you ever met a wild monkey in a park and felt scared?

1. Today – modern times – there is less space between wild animals like monkeys and where people live. Monkeys find it easier to raid crops and eat garbage around homes and other human habitations, in villages, towns and cities, than to forage in a shrinking or crowded forest. Therefore there are a growing number of monkeys coming into human localities.

If you have replied YES to even one question, you need to learn some “Monkey Manners!”

2. Some places like temples and tourism sites encourage the feeding of monkeys for sake of pilgrims obtaining blessing and for entertaining tourists. Today there are just too many monkeys, and they have learned bad habits.

But what ARE Monkey Manners? Monkey Manners are NOT the bad manners of monkeys, described before. Monkey Manners are a set of behaviors or actions to be learned by YOU and your friends and family, so that you will be safe from these mischievous relatives of mankind. That’s what this booklet, and this whole packet is about. “Mind your monkey manners” means] you will NOT act in ways that make monkeys mean. The monkey problem is NOT because monkeys are mean. It is because human beings are short-sighted. Human beings have not managed other humans, forests and wildlife in such a way that there is enough space for all. It is now high time we human beings learned our “Monkey Manners!”

3. These monkey groups thrive on the easily accessible, rich food and their numbers increase, thus increasing the problem. So Monkey Manners Rule # 1 is Don’t feed monkeys or leave food where monkeys can get it easily. 4. Mischievous monkeys are not popular. Sometimes people try and solve the problem themselves by killing them regardless of their unique type. It is not good for the maintenance of biodiversity as some of the rare unique ones are being killed and shifted in addition to the numerous common ones.

5. Mischievous monkeys destroy crops, creating hardships for farmers and their families. Government panics and uses wrong method to control them, which makes the problem worse. 6. The longer the problem persists, the bolder the animals become through familiarity. 7. Disease can be passed from people to monkeys to people. Such diseases are called “zoonoses”. This is very bad for both people and monkeys.


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Things to do as a student, as a family member, & as a concerned citizen At home, offer to be “garbage monitor”, insuring that garbage cannot be accessed by monkeys or other animals. At school make signboards telling how destructive it is to feed monkeys and places around areas where this happens. Encourage your parents, teachers, & their clubs to support the city government purchasing incinerators so that they get rid of garbage entirely instead of simply moving it from one area to another. Also good for controlling rats and other pests.

Things that your government authorities should be doing Legislators should pass a legal ban on public feeding of monkeys Municiple authorities should create an action plan for combating monkey menace without harming the animals. Forest authorities should provide training to wildlife staff to handle monkey menace Sanitation authorities should check that the garbage is being removed every day. Temple authorities should find other ways for devotees to satifsy the need to feed monkeys without creating problem monkeys.

Monkey Drama

MONKEY-DO’s

You can get your neighborhood together on what to do about the monkey problem by conducting a drama or a series of dramas with other kids. Get together as many of the kids in the neighborhood as you can. Divide them into two groups: householders and monkeys. Conduct a drama a day for several days. Use this method to teach the adults what they can do about the monkey problem. Here are some samples… make your own dramas from what you learn in this book.

1. Make a system for holding garbage away from home, so it doesn’t attract monkeys.

Day 1: Demonstrate what happens when house-holders are careless with garbage or put out food for stray animals to eat. Show the monkeys demanding more and more food and becoming more and more aggressive. Show them entering houses where the shutters have been carelessly left open. Day 2: Demonstrate how to wean the monkeys away from living off human houses. You can show monkeys hanging around the trash bins piteously begging and householders acting strong and refusing to give food. Day 3: Demonstrate how kids should behave around monkeys. Show what happens when you ignore them and what happens when you tease them and give them treats. Day 4: Conduct a debate between householders and monkeys. Let each give their point of view and figure out what to do. Day 5: Bring government officials, animals welfare enthusiasts and forester and wildlife officers into the debate. Monkey see… monkey do… monkey do’s… monkey don’ts.

2. Report destructive monkey individuals and troops to your wildlife department and animal welfare society 3. If a wild monkey troop habitually visits your neighborhood, make your house secure. 4. Avoid being close to any wild monkey or monkey troop. 5. Avoid confrontation for both your safety and that of the monkey

MONKEY- DONT’s 1. Don’t feed wild monkeys or eat in front of them… in parks, road, at home… anywhere. 2. Don’t smile or show your teeth to monkeys – it means “danger” to them. 3. Don’t taunt or tease wild monkeys anywhere (ex. offering food then pulling it away). 4. Don’t run from wild monkeys… if it threatens, stand your ground with a threat pose. 5. Don’t ever try and fight if a monkey grabs something out of your hand. 6. Don’t look monkeys directly in the eyes; that can be interpreted as a threat by them. 7. Don’t snarl or even smile at monkeys – showing teeth means “hostile” to monkeys. 8. Don’t act afraid… that is interpreted as weakness, meaning you are safe to attack. 9. Don’t go close to them; don’t run up to them or run from them. 10. Don’t tease them… for any reason anywhere.


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Proceedings of 66th Annual Conference

Appendix III Elephant Etiquette Compiled and designed by Sally Walker | Illustrations by Shajee Chelad Sponsored by US Fish and Wildlife Service, Elephant Family, Twycross Zoo, Columbus Zoo, and Schonbrunn Zoo. Typesetting, proofreading and other assistance – ZOO staff Produced and published by ZOO March 2010 – Education Booklet Number 43

Lets Look at our Elephant Etiquette for the well-being of elephant and man Who has not heard of “man-animal conflict” these days? The newspapers are full of reports of domestic cattle lifting by big cats, depredation of crops by wildpig, monkeys invading orchards, etc. The conflict between human beings and elephants has become so pervasive that it has its own acronym, HEC – Human Elephant Conflict. More attention is given to HEC in rural areas because elephants having been deprived of habitat and food by developmental works, are entering villages and agricultural fields to find eatables in kitchen gardens and fields. In some countries, however, captive elephants even in cities and towns have their own problems with human beings — in zoos, temples, public roads, etc. Some people don’t know how to behave around them, sometimes resulting in injuries or fatalities though no fault of the elephant. The elephant may be punished however. So, in this booklet, when we talk about Elephant Etiquette, we include all instances of human elephant contact: rural, city, captive and wild. Elephants are big and powerful. Don’t risk either injury to yourself or putting the elephant into trouble. Learn some rules and principles of Elephant Etiquette. Elephant etiquette means appropriate behaviour with elephants… avoiding confrontations, refraining from annoying them, from exciting them, from goading or tempting them… to put you and others in danger.

Elephants, as such, once lived in completely different parts of the world and in a very different form. They were from Primelephas that will include Loxodonta, mammuthus and Elephas. Instead of warm tropical forests their habitat was cold tundra such as in northern North America and northern Eurasia. These elephants have been extinct since 2000 BC and are called Wooly Mammoths. They existed as long as 20,000 years ago. Elephants today are the subject of much scientific research. Like monkeys, our closest relatives, elephants have very interesting and intelligent minds, with thought and behavior processes which defy explanation. Today’s elephants have many problems.

Human Elephant Coexistence HECx Many rural people that we met while assembling this booklet seemed to be more “successful” in dealing with HEC. These were people who had adjusted to the elephant presence, who willingly coexisted with the animals and accepted them as part of life. These people seemed to have no more and possibly many less irrevocable tragedies, such as loss of life or limb, than people whose way of behavior was fighting the elephants. We sympathise with both people and animals in nature, so we adopted human elephant coexistence as our direction in education and philosophy. We have titled our programme “Getting Along with Elephants” meaning Human Elephant Coexistence, HECx.

This booklet is about HECx and the well-being of both human beings and elephants. We do not mean to belittle or dismiss the suffering or seriousness associated with crop and home loss or of the inconvenience and aggravation that adjustment often carries. We simply want to focus on minimising the loss of life and limb. That is why we include people living in cities where they come across captive elephants at zoos, temples, circuses, etc. Injury and loss of life happens to them also when they behave foolishly around elephants. Etiquette means manners or people’s customs of being polite, or what we call civilised. We don’t break the queue; we don’t push and shove; we try to be on time for engagements; we don’t break our word; we try to speak nicely, etc. When we speak of elephant etiquette, we don’t mean good manners for elephants!. We mean good manners, eg. correct behaviour of humans toward elephants. And we define “correct” here as whatever will help you stay alive and in one piece and also keep elephants out of trouble. Elephant etiquette helps both man and animal to survive. Elephant etiquette is when you agree NOT to act in ways that frightens or angers elephants, tempting them to misbehave. This is for your well-being and for the well-being of elephants.


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Etiquette for Elephants? Elephants, as are all wild animals, are very unpredictable. Wild animals believed to be tame sometimes injure or even kill their trainers or owners, who trusted them. This is always because, although we know we mean the animal no harm, and the animal may return our love and trust, we can never know what in the immediate environment frightens or threatens the animal. As wild animals, they have a strong survival instinct which kicks in quickly, as if the animal were living in the wild.

Elephant Quiz for people living in elephant areas. Just answer “yes” or “no” 1.

2. 3.

4. 5.

Do you like elephants? Can you imagine what it would be like to be an elephant? Do you ever get hungry? Can you imagine what it would be like NOT to have anything to eat in your area? Would you go to nearby areas and try to find food? If people tried to keep you away from food when you were very hungry, would you be angry? Would you fight with them?

Reports of elephants killing people for seemingly small offences don’t give Thanks for taking this quiz. Now, if the whole picture… the whole picture you replied “yes” to any questions includes what the elephant sees and 2–5, how do you think an elephant does… For example, the elephant feels? may be warning his wayward mahout with a ‘slap on the wrist’ but – because they don’t realise their strength, Elephant Quiz for people a slap could hurt or maim. living in cities. Just answer Fast movements are believed to frighten elephants… it may be the reason behind the belief that elephants are afraid of mice. Rats and mice move extraordinarily quickly and this is probably the reason for the stories of elephants seeing a mouse and running amok. This information should be useful to us… we should be careful not to make fast or suspicious movements, or sharp loud noises when around elephants, even when they are securely tethered.

“yes” or “no” 1.

2.

3.

4.

Would you like to be an exhibit in a zoo, or circus, or temple, to be restrained by a chain or cage and dependent on others for food? Would you like to have people throwing peanuts at you? or to have people pointing and laughing at you? or offering food to you then pulling it back when your reach for it? Do you like it when people deliberately try and upset you to see your reaction? When your schoolmates tease you, or throw things at you, do you simply stand down?

Thanks for taking this quiz. If you replied “no” to these questions, how do you think an elephant feels? Well, we don’t know but it is likely that an elephant may not be able to empathize with a human being or to follow the Golden Rule of “Do unto others as you would have them do unto you.” You, as a human being, have an advantage … you can empathize with humans or animals… if you want to. Even the most uneducated villagers in some villages we surveyed, empathized with elephants. Several villagers said: “the elephant has a very big stomach but we people with our small stomach get so hungry… they (the elephants) need more food than us. They have to eat.” The villagers thus “forgive” the elephants for trying to raid their crops. This is how they adjust.

What causes elephant problems anyway? 1. In contemporary South Asia, there is less space for animals, particularly in rural areas near to forests, where people live. Elephants have been displaced by development… clearing forests by humans. There is less forage and fruit for elephants because human beings are gathering for themselves and their livestock. Elephants maintain their family ties, living in large herds. It takes a big area of forest to provide them with sufficient food and “breathing room” to survive. 2. People have infiltrated forests and collect forest delicacies for sale, reducing the variety and nutritional content of available foods for elephants.


54 3. The lure of “easy food” from crops, domestic stores, rural markets, etc. is overpowering to the hungry and frustrated elephants. 4. Elephants sheer size and the complexity of their social behaviour cause tremendous difficulties in finding a place to settle. In any case elephants move around a lot but now there is scant space to do so. In zoos and other captive situations, elephants really suffer. 5. Elephants are much more sensitive than people think, in captivity as well as in the wild. Many a visitor to a zoo or other captive elephant site has unwittingly provoked an elephant with some silly behaviour resulting in injury, death or a very bad scare. In the process sometimes the elephant, who just behaved like an elephant, is punished.

Who causes elephant problems? Some of you might be thinking: “it’s not fair! its not fair for us to have to adjust to elephants. They should adjust to us. They come in our living and work areas and take what they want. It is their fault…” Well let’s look at that. The problem of HEC is not because elephants are greedy, or stupid or mean. It is because human beings have been shortsighted. We have developed most of the world with houses, industry, public services, etc. so that it is not habitable by large animals. Forests have shrunk because of human beings, not because of tigers or monkeys or elephants. Their number is growing smaller while our numbers are increasing. We, who as a species had the intelligence to take over the Earth, do not have the intelligence or farsightedness to see that it was wrong. We went on breeding and building. Now we are in trouble. So how is it “not fair” really? If elephants could talk they would say we were at fault… aren’t they right, in a way? If elephants could read history and talk, they could say a lot about that.

Proceedings of 66th Annual Conference

Elephant gods and work horses – Temple, camp and farm elephants Throughout Asia elephants are utilised for temple duty and also heavy duty forest and farm work. Temple elephants are often taken to beg for alms by temple mahouts. Often they are out in hot part of the day without access to sufficient water. As one can imagine, elephants need a lot of water! Elephants in forest departmentowned elephant camps seem to get a better deal than privately owned work elephants. For one thing they live in camps or near the forest and are generally better treated than privately owned elephants. Privately owned work elephants may be used like a tractor without much concern for their welfare. Some of these may be owned by large farms, timber companies, and other commercial entities. You may come into contact with temple or forest camp elephants. Although chained, they are still big and powerful. Be careful around any elephant.

Entertainment elephants – Zoos and circuses There are thousands of elephants owned by zoos and circuses. Many of these elephants have very hard lives. Elephants are social, smart and energetic. In nature, they move with a herd and interact with other elephants. They also have challenges such as finding food, dealing with carnivores and man. They spend a lot of time moving around, gathering a variety of foods, bathing, taking care of young, etc.

In a zoo or circus they are normally chained, and in many cases, they are all alone. So from a very rich life of interpersonal relationships and activity, they are lonely, bored and lethargic. Sometimes their mahouts mistreat them, as if standing chained in one place was not enough punishment. Elephants normally live a very long time and it is not unusual to hear of an elephant having spent half a century chained in a small stall or behind a building. Some zoos have seen the light about elephants and as a policy will not even keep them. Other have improved their standards of care quite a lot. Still, elephants on display for our pleasure have had to give up a lot. We owe it to them to behave in their presence and avoid irritating them.

Some Elephant Etiquette (rules) for being “near captive” elephants Visiting a zoo or circus • don’t go close to the elephant • don’t try to give food to moving elephants • don’t give them food directly; give to their mahout • don’t touch elephants unless their mahout or keeper is there • don’t make threatening gestures near elephants • don’t ridicule or laugh at elephants in their presence • don’t make loud noises or fast movements in presence of elephants • don’t run in front of elephants • Visiting a temple • don’t harass chained elephants; it is a cruel • don’t try to feed the elephant by offerings. Let the keeper do it. • don’t go too close or stay too long • don’t do any of the “visiting a zoo” “don’ts” • don’t burst crackers at a temple or anywhere near elephants


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Encountering elephants in city traffic (Sometimes we see elephants on city roads. Their Mahout or “driver” has to obey traffic rules. If you are also in traffic, think!) • don’t put your hand outside car/bus window to wave to the elephant • don’t try to attract the attention of the elephant from a two-wheeler • don’t offer the elephant food in traffic even if the Mahout say you can • don’t do anything that might frighten or anger the elephant • don’t rev up your engine loud close to the elephant • don’t blow your horn loudly around the elephant • don’t cut in front of the elephant • don’t go close, either back or sides

• If you find elephants trashing your house or garden, think before you act. They are bigger and stronger. You can’t win a fight. Stand down. • If elephants are taking something from you, think of its value!. Is it worthwhile to risk your life or your well- being for a basket of coconuts? • There are many, many suggestions and rules for avoiding or minimising conflict with elephants in villages. The main one is to try and stay out of the way, no matter what.

Give up your rights! All human beings are very attached to what they perceive as their “rights”. Sometimes if we are very stubborn about our “rights”. It leads us to do foolish things.

Suggestions for people in elephant areas from people living in elephant areas • If you are habituated to doing some Demanding our rights when dealing activity, and elephants start coming with elephants is like shaking our fist there at the same time, stand down! at a tsunami or tornado, or terrorist Do it some other time. attack. In some situations you have • Don’t keep water, smelly food or to do what is wise and what will help garbage or fermenting liquors out in you survive, not what you think you the open. are entitled to! • Villagers of Anaikati village in India say “Don’t talk ill of elephants, at Imagine a man holding a coconut least within their hearing. They can nearby an elephant. The elephant feel your bad words.” reaches for the coconut and the man • Don’t leave high smelling garbage hits out at the elephant, and the around your home. elephant hits back. Now, see the man • Some villagers in Nepal, India and in hospital, bandaged from head to Bangladesh recommended fire to toe still holding his coconut saying discourage elephants, particularly “I won!” fire that produces much smoke. • Other villagers at West Bengal Giving an elephant the right of way is (India), Nepal, Bangladesh said they usually wise. Demanding your rights had various ways of making noise at in some situations may cost you your elephants, such as shouting, whislife, or your backbone, or your leg. tling, clapping, etc. • Some Nepalese sing hymns, conWhat good are your rights then? duct worship, etc which makes then calm in their mind which also affects the sensitive elephant. • Villagers in West Bengal, India changed all their habits… they planted paddy during the night, harvested paddy very quickly, and stopped planting corn.

Appendix IV Conservation Conscious/Conservation Careless Zoos

(Contents only)

Why We have Zoos Conservation-Conscious Zoos v.v. Conservation-Careless Zoos 3. Zoo Inspection: Improve Your observational Skills 4. Improvement, not Closure of Zoos 5. Reasons NOT to close a Zoo 6. How to Help? What YOU can do. 7. Pro’s and Con’s of Zoo Volunteers 8. Principles for Positive Action – How to be a GOOD Zoo Volunteer 9. Drama at the Zoo including Sample dramas 10. Frequently Asked Questions and Honest Answers! 1. 2.


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Transport of CITES Listed Species Andreas Kaufmann – GoWILD KG Zoo & Wildlife Consulting Services

A quick review at the beginning • CITES entered into force in 1975. Countries adhere volontarily to CITES but once they do, it is legally binding on them. • CITES aims to safeguard species from overexploitation and ensure their survival by regulating and controlling the trade in wildlife. • To move a CITES listed animal from one country to another, one has to obtain an import-, export-, or reexport permit from the respective CITES authorities prior to shipment. The permit serves as proof of a legal transaction. • However, as a condition of issuance CITES requires animals to be so prepared and shipped as to minimize the risk of injury, damage to health or cruel treatment. The permit is only valid when animals are shipped in compliance with applicable transport regulations. • Transport regulations want to ensure the animal’s welfare while being in transit and avoid high mortality rates.

Are there high mortality rates and if, where do they come from? According to reports high mortality figueres are inevitably related to illegal trade and smuggling of live wild animals. Over a dozen birds from Vietnam were confiscated at Los Angeles airport after airport staff noticed brid droppings on a passengers socks, and it was only last week a man was caught in French Guiana smuggling live hummingbirds in his pants. Last year a woman tried to smuggle a two month old tiger cub among tiger plush toys from Thailand to Iran. A box full of Kinixys tortoises – although correctly packed – were seized as no import permit had been obtained prior to the import. As we see it works both ways: failing to comply with transport regulations invalidates the CITES permit, and a shipment without a CITES permit invalidates the shipment even if you do comply with transport regulations. Perfectly legal movements that comply with regulations and standards can also raise issues! IATA LAR is deemed to meet CITES air transport requirements and shall also be used as a reference for other modes of transport “… where appropriate”. Unfortunately it doesn’t say when it is appropriate and when it is not! There are still the CITES guidelines for transport and preparation for shipment of live wild animals as a second standard. Needless to say that having two potentially appropriate standards for non-air-transport, leaves you at risk with the inspector’s interpretation and preferences. You can’t get it right!

There has to be one global standard! The CITES transport working group believe that only the IATA Live Animals Regulations (LAR) can be that one standard. As the LAR are primarily aiming at air transport, we need amendments, exceptions, deviations,… in some taxa for non-air-transport, and these exceptions need to be compiled into an addendum to the LAR. The respective taxa like elephant, hippo, rhino, ratites,… have been identified, and I’d like to take the opportunity to thank the European Association of Zoos & Aquaria (EAZA), the Alliance of Marine Mammal Parks & Aquariums (AMMPA), the San Diego Zoological Society, the International Elephant Foundation, the Pet Industry Joint Advisory Council (PIJAC), the US Fish & Wildlife Service, the American Zoo Association (AZA), WAZA, and the Austrian Government for their valuable input, help and support! This addendum might finally become regulations, might become the law! What do we need these regulations to be? Certainly we do not need the new edition of the 1981 CITES guidelines! As we all know things change, and the first version of the addendum to the LAR cannot be the last one! This is a dynamic process! We need regulations that stay flexible and can be amended and improved easily according to the best knowledge. In order to achieve flexibility you want to use a reference that is under constant revision. So here we are back with IATA LAR! It is the only available transport standard today that is under permanent revision. And everybody can take part in this process. Instead of complaining about regulations there is finally a chance to do something good and right for yourself and the animals in your care.


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In case you have complaints about the LAR or find them inappropriate in one respect or another: come up with something better! The Live Animals & Perishables Board (LAPB) of IATA – in charge of the LAR – meets twice a year, and they have even a template for “Agenda Item Submission” which allows you to describe the problem along with the proposed solution. Add some data that support your proposal and mail it to the LAPB Secretary in time. You can even participate in LAPB meetings and champion your proposal that will be discussed in the forum. There are so many obstacles in the way when shiping animals! Did you plan your shipment thoroughly? Do you have all the required documentation? Various authorties from various countries have requirements of various kinds in you. Given that you can’t be prepared for everything, you must be prepared for the obvious and plan your shipment to the best knowledge. There is no excuse for not being informed about weather conditions along the way! There is no excuse for not having an alternative route when traffic is congested! There is no excuse for not having looked up the phonenumbers and contact details of other zoos along your way who will be able to help when things get tough, who can provide shelter, food or medical care when animals get sick!

Did you choose an appropriate transport crate? Can you provide appropriate care, food and water along the way? Will your container actually contain the animals inside? Does the container fit the animal’s size? Is the transport safe for animal and attendant? Did you choose an appropriate vehicle for the particular anima (s)? Are your access roads adequate to the size of the transport vehicle? Are all the required equipment for loading of the animals in place and functional? Will all the equipment needed for unloading be in place and working? Will staff be there to help? If you don’t know in advance, don’t ship! You are under surveillance, and you do get the attention from the public! And you do get the attention from the media! And you do make a lovely story when everything goes well! But, you make it right to the front page when something goes wrong! On the other hand: if you did not devote your time and attention to the professional planning of the transport, did not double-check and reconcile with authorities, did not check conditions along the way and thus cause a disastrous outcome – you should be on the front page! The transport working group is still collecting information for non-airtransport, and I encourage you to work with the CITES transport working group! Share your experience and expertise! Share your good and your bad experience! This is the only key to improvement!

Set up a transport working group with your regional zoo organization, have regular meetings where you discuss problems and find solutions. Work with the authorities! Be proactive! Come up with suggestions for amending the IATA LAR and we can accomplish the best possible standard that serves the animals and the industry! Keep in mind: in the end regulations do not tip the scales and make your shipment a success or a failure. Your actions do!


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Project Ocean: Fish Meets Fashion Heather Koldewey and Jonathan Baillie – ZSL

Abstract Luxury department store Selfridges and ZSL have embarked on a groundbreaking partnership to bring attention to the crisis facing the world’s oceans: Project Ocean was launched in May 2011 with a huge ‘retail activism’ campaign, including dedicating its famous window displays to marine conservation. This truly collaborative initiative involves 22 NGOs, as well as many other sectors. Selfridges switched to sustainable seafood, produced a seafood guide, and hosted a month of activities in its restaurants and foodhalls. This new approach to raising funds includes an interactive digital window and implementing a marine reserve in the Philippines.

Introduction Project Ocean saw The Zoological Society of London (ZSL) embark on a ground-breaking partnership with luxury department store Selfridges to bring attention to the crisis facing the world’s oceans to new audiences. This conservation-communication experiment involved celebrities, scientists, royalty, youth-group leaders, parliamentarians, heads of state, leaders from the fishing industry, artists and fashion designers. Events ran for over a month and ranged from political forums to live music, celebrity chef demonstrations and children’s theatre. This truly collaborative initiative involved 22 NGOs and launched the concept of ‘retail activism’.

Project Ocean had three clear objectives: 1. Raise awareness of overfishing 2. Change people’s buying and eating habits 3. Raise money and awareness for marine reserves

The Project Ocean advertising campaign reached a national audience through a wide variety of print and other media. Across London adverts featured on the underground, bus shelters and on the main arterial road into London from the west. A spectacular launch combined Selfridges’ quirkiness with some hard-hitting messages, notably the opening speech from HRH Prince Charles surrounded by frogmen with placards and walking balloon art sculptures. A celebrity launch party included a performance by the band Noah and the Whale with sustainable seafood canapés and Project Ocean cupcakes.

For the first time in its history, Selfridges committed to stocking their shelves with only sustainable fish. Based on the Marine Conservation Society guidance with support of ZSL and a technical working group of expert NGOs, Selfridges conducted a complete audit of 46 different suppliers and 434 product lines, removing all non-sustainable species by the launch of Project Ocean. A simplified The 12 windows along Selfridges’ seafood guide was produced which famous facade formed one of the was given away as a booklet in store highlights of Project Ocean. Over the as well as developed into an iPhone main entrance, a slogan developed app which incorporated recipes and by Katherine Hamnett of ‘No More information from Fish2Fork which Fish in the Sea?’ was a gathered georeferences you to the nearest sus- crowds and generated discussion. tainable seafood restaurant. In-store The focal messages for each window cookery demonstrations and a variwere developed through brainstormety of new dishes in the Selfridges’ ing sessions with ZSL staff and the restaurants encouraged customers Selfridges’ creative team. Simple to try new, sustainable species and interpretation within our zoos is diversify their fish consumption. In hard enough, but to capture a sericollaboration with Fish2Fork, Sustain ous marine conservation message and Greenpeace, we established the in a shop window for someone who concept of the ‘Oxford Street Marine may be walking past chatting on their Reserve’. This involved an initial mobile phone, or glimpsing from seafood audit of all 150 eateries on a bus was extremely challenging but Oxford Street and information and ultimately effective. One of the most support to encourage a transition to striking windows was a giant panda sustainable options. At the same time, ‘swimming’ next to a southern bluefin ZSL did a complete seafood audit and tuna with the message ‘You wouldn’t strengthened its sustainable seafood eat a panda’. This illustrated that this procedures (established in 2007). This tuna species is more endangered was particularly important as the new (Critical on the IUCN Red List) than Penguin Beach exhibit opened during the giant panda (Endangered), importhe same period. tant when most fish are considered food and not wildlife.


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Another window engaged the public in a text petition to change European policy on discards in conjunction with ‘Hugh’s Fish Fight’ campaign (run by celebrity chef Hugh FearnleyWhittingstall). In terms of impact, 12 million people exposed to the advertising, 4 million people saw the windows on Oxford Street and more than one million people experienced Project Ocean in the London store. In addition, media coverage in over 37 countries reached over 400 million people, with an estimated value of £4million. In addition, the effectiveness of Project Ocean’s communication was measured by an MSc student from Imperial College London. The marine theme extended throughout the store. Consistent messaging on ‘Don’t eat endangered fish’ was used throughout, meaning that people were exposed to Project Ocean whether they were popping in for a new lipstick in a lunchbreak in the beauty halls, or purchasing fresh fish from the fish counter in the foodhalls. A number of artists produced some extraordinary marine-themed art, including a light art installation by Chris Levene and plankton-like balloon sculptures by Jason Hackenwerth. A stunning display of ocean-themed fashion through the ages – including Lady Gaga’s famous lobster hat – was curated by Judith Clarke against a backdrop of dead coral skeletons. These corals were part of a 16 tonne Customs confiscation from the early 1990s which is has been stored at ZSL London Zoo ever since. The exhibition highlighted the threats to corals through this trade through graphics, a dedicated staff member working on the exhibit and a beautifully illustrated guide. The focal point for Project Ocean activities was in the Ultralounge. This special exhibit area was used as a flexible space with two permanent installations – a film exhibit by Beth Derbyshire and a stunning collection of 20 live coral exhibits designed, installed and managed by the ZSL London Zoo Aquarium team. Over a two week period, the entire exhibit was constructed including tanks, fil-

ters, theming and the associated infrastructure to the highest standards. The animals displayed showed the beauty, diversity and fragility of corals in a completely novel way, with clever used of lighting and custombuilt perspex stands meaning they appeared to float. All were Customsseized animals that were already part of the ZSL Aquarium collection. The Ultralounge hosted a variety of NGO events, including diverse events organised by ZSL that profiled our conservation projects (Tidal Thames, Project Seahorse, EDGE Corals) and through partnerships: A youth declaration event with ClientEarth saw school children marching with placards around the store calling for governmental action on biodiversity conservation. With Greenpeace and the Earth Security Initiative, we hosted fishing leaders from the UK, Senegal, Mauritania, Cape Verde and the Pacific Island nations in a discussion evening on the impact of EU fishing fleets on local fisheries. In addition there was a regular series of events each week, with high profile panel discussions each Thursday, bands playing at the Dive Bar each Friday, children’s events on Saturdays and film showings each Sunday. The finale, on World Ocean’s Day saw ZSL and GLOBE International work with European environmental legislators to produce the Selfridges’ declaration to support reform of the European Common Fisheries Policy. As with the sustainable seafood initiative, Selfridges led by example in promoting marine reserves as its third key objective. Working with the Project Seahorse team in the Philippines, a 50ha marine reserve was implemented by the community of Matabao and endorsed by the local government prior to the May launch date. The team continue to develop this community-managed marine reserve, including constructing a guardhouse, conducting in-water surveys and building community management capacity.

The focus of the activity for marine reserves during Project Ocean was to raise money. Fundraising was achieved through the sale of dedicated products including designer slogan t-shirts, wristbands and pins. A bucking bronco whale ride provided a highly entertaining way to attract donations! One of the store’s windows used touchscreen technology to raise funds through text donations that resulted in an egg being laid which hatched into a fish with the name, Twitter and Facebook tags of that individual. This was also hosted on the Project Ocean webpage and iPhone app and gave a running total for donations. Through these mechanisms, £120,000 was raised during the one month Project Ocean launch period. These funds were given to ZSL for collaborative projects that strengthen existing or support new marine reserves. To date, funds have been used to train emerging marine conservationists from the Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia at our first EDGE Coral Reefs training course. One of the most exciting initiatives emerging from Project Ocean was the initiation of the Marine Reserves Coalition (ZSL, Greenpeace, Marine Conservation Society, ClientEarth, Blue Marine Foundation, Pew Environment Group) which launched a manifesto for marine reserves. In 2012, funds will be used to progress marine reserves in the UK and Overseas Territories through this Coalition, support an expedition to develop the management plan for the Chagos marine reserve (British Indian Ocean Territory), and improve the implementation and enforcement of new marine reserves in Sierra Leone through the Environmental Justice Foundation. Selfridges’ and ZSL have an ongoing commitment to Project Ocean and plans for 2012 are under development.


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Forging Public Opinion Or Influencing the Legislator? Joanne Lalumière – Executive Director, Granby Zoo, Québec, Canada

Abstract Opposition groups master the art of forging public opinion. In doing so, they also tend to influence the legislators. Animal welfare groups are no exception. In doing so, they undermine the experience and expertise that lie in our community of zoos and aquariums. The 2011 International Zoo Marketing Conference covered topics related to the promotion of conservation actions by zoos and aquariums. This paper will share some results and explore ways to influence public opinion and legislators beyond the keeper talks and education programs.

Legislators are linked to public opinion It is well known that legislators in a democratic regime are deeply influenced by public opinion on a number of topics and translate a favourable opinion into voting support on elections day. Opposition groups have mastered the art of communication for a long time and often hold in their ranks skillful professional communicators. By forging public opinion, they tend to influence the legislators. In this manner, protest voices are well organised and powerful and part of their power lies in their ability with words and story telling that usually draw emotions in the public opinion.

It’s about managing perception One of the challenges we face is influencing the perception of zoos and aquariums by our different audiences. Our visitors are already conquered in some way and in this regard, we may consider that we manage what they see and thus influence their perception of our utility in conservation and on the quality of our facilities.

When it comes to the general public, with opposition groups, we can say that we are both in the same arena and have the same opportunity to influence the general public’s opinion on our actions and our facilities. This is where substandard zoos have a negative effect. We have a responsibility in raising the bar for ourselves and the whole zoo and aquarium community. The media love animal stories and we can offer plenty of good animal stories. The animals in our collections create unique opportunities for telling so many good stories on conservation, on reproduction of endangered species, etc. However, protest groups know how to play with all the horror stories they can find or link to our community and in doing so contribute to undermining the great conservation and education work done by accredited zoos and aquariums. It is also important to actively manage the perception that governments and legislators have on zoos and aquariums as this can influence decision making at many levels that could have significant impacts on our capacity to carry out our missions. Supporters of protest groups are very knowledgeable of this and many have cleverly worked their way into the political arena hoping to introduce legislation that could compromise our work. It’s all about who influences who?


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Figure 1

Why consider protest voices?

Socio-historical underpinning

• Because they have raised doubt and • Because they are not a marginal phenomenon: for instance, the Huquestions, including among some mane Society has 11 million memof our visitors and potential visitors, bers and PETA, 2 million members. among the press community, legis• Because of their increased visibility. lators and government employees. They appear in TV Shows such as Whale Wars, Animal Cops, know Having said this, zoos and aquariums how to master the new information also have higher visibility opportunitechnologies such as the Internet ties through media campaigns or and have carried social media cambehind-the-scenes televised docupaigns with a worldwide span. They series. Social media is also ours for also use traditional publicity camthe taking and mastering. Institutions’ paigns with TV ads and posters and web sites, Facebook or Twitter acattract celebrities as spokespersons. counts can be used to our advantage. • Because their power has increased Interacting with our visitors on these in many ways, good as more social media can also be beneficial questionable. Their influencing, for as they often speak positively about instance, has driven many fast-food our institutions, our animals, our chains to introduce more vegetarian programs, etc. However we must not forget that with higher visibility products. In other instances, cusalso comes more vulnerability and tomers have been invited to boycott products. Finally we see governa heightened importance to project ments introducing more and more a positive image and… walk the talk! legislation that limit movements of animals. We must not forget that “perception becomes reality”.

Zoos and Aquariums have come a long way in history and their goals and objectives have also changed over time as simplified in the Figure 1.


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Figure 2

Perception today: often a recreational institution Beyond the influence of our background, if we take a look at how our institutions are perceived, we realise that the recreational institution has outweighed the conservation institution. Andy Van Drom, a University Laval (Québec) professor prepared a presentation called “Discursively Constructing Zoos and Aquariums: Institutional vs Animalist Voices” for the International Zoo Marketing Conference in Granby. Unfortunately, he was not able to make this presentation but his observations are worth sharing. He examined 37 zoo and aquarium web sites to analyse the language used and he observed that zoos are responsible for this perception about their institutions. Here are a few examples of the promotional language used in some WAZA members’ websites:

Problematic situation • “Come and visit […] Zoo. We have These observations about the influover 1000 animals on show for ence of the past in our language a great day out with the family and and vocabulary show how we, not kids in […].” intentionally, provide ammunition • “With so much to see and do, a visit for animal rights / welfare groups: to […] Zoo is the perfect day out for “Zoos are pitiful prisons” (PETA). This people of all ages.” also reinforces the mission of these • “[…] Zoo’s mission is for visitors to groups to close down zoos and aquarenjoy a unique educational and reciums and “end the use of animals for reational experience (adventure) entertainment”. through close proximity with mainly endangered or exotic animals.” • The following graph also shows the evolution in time of the mission related vocabulary used by zoological institutions. See Figure 2.


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Marketing strategies The study showed that emphasis largely remained on “entertainment” and that efforts to provide information related to education, conservation and research were unequal between institutions. The research highlighted some contradictions between messages and practices and also noted that zoos and aquariums do not exploit the full potential of new information technologies. It seems that for many of us our language is still very much influenced by this socio-historical background. It is not always easy to sell “conservation” but somehow we must find mechanisms to better promote our missions of conservation and education.

Marketing challenges With such observations about our promotional habits, it becomes more than obvious that marketing conservation is a must and not a luxury. However, and whatever marketing efforts are put in place, many challenges remain. The existence of too many sub-standard zoos is an obstacle that must be addressed by our associations in concerted efforts with local governments. Our community must also remain sensitive to the public’s expectations towards animal welfare and maybe we need to look at a few practices we have in place. Finally, and as mentioned earlier, it is crucial that we master the new marketing technologies as they add to our vulnerability to others forging public opinion on our community.

Many strategies were highlighted at the Granby Conference in June 2011, among these:

At the institutional level: This is where a lot can still be done and among some actions here are a few:

• How partnerships at the international level raise the profile of WAZA and its members • How national, regional and international associations can play a role particularly in lobbying efforts • How to link education and marketing for efficient and compelling messages • How social media marketing is a must, but requires resources and remains a tool amongst others

• Pay attention to the vocabulary used • Avoid contradictions between messages and practices • Develop relationships with the local media • Invite the media to cover aspects of conservation efforts from a documentary perspective • Be present and active on social media networks and help supporters by providing efficient messages

Other strategies to consider When looking at efforts that can be made, it may be useful to distinguish between what can be done at different levels as the actions and targets differ. At the international level: At this level, we can already appreciate how strategic partnerships raise the profile of WAZA and its members. Another useful strategy would be to promote the value of a quality label, such as WAZA’s Code of Ethics. At the regional or national level: At this level, associations can play a crucial role in lobbying governments to recognize the value of accreditation processes and consider accredited zoos and aquariums as partners in legislation making. AZA has done a tremendous effort in this regard in the last years and benefits are already showing.

Conclusion In conclusion, it is fair to say that a lot has been done but there is still a lot to do!


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The Travelling Sex Show Creating sustainable zoos by creating exhibits that the public will pay to see Bernard Harrison – Principal Partner, Creativity & Design, Bernard Harrison and Friends

Abstract

Introduction

Display techniques

The Travelling Sex Show – is a hypothetical travelling zoo exhibit which consists of a range of live exhibits, graphics, video, virtual reality, and motion based theatre and the like – to tell the story of sex, which starts with microscopic exhibits of asexual reproduction and moves through displays of reproduction. It addresses the following issues: the purpose of life and sex; factors that determine sex; courtship; copulation; raising young; the third chimpanzee; and what are males good for anyway?

Sex is possibly the most taboo subject in the world, yet we all talk about it and joke about it all the time and are embarrassed about it too. That makes it a great subject for a zoo display!

The idea is to set up a consortium of zoos who are each willing to contribute a prorated share of the set up costs in return for hosting (and charging for) the Travelling Sex Show for about six months. The Show needs to be flexible and utilize some of the existing, out door exhibits in the consortium zoos. Thus if the zoos have a chimpanzee or bonobo exhibit, this would be a good location to site the Show.

The Sex Show ends with a final exhibit on humans, reviews our sexuality and social structure, speculates on Oxford geneticist Bryan Sykes’s theory of a world without male humans. The Travelling Sex Show can be a profitable, business venture, funded by a consortium of zoos, which can travel to each venue for a 6-month season.

The British Museum of Natural History ran a six month long exhibition in 2011 entitled ‘Sexual Nature’ with a separate exhibition charge of £8 for adults and £4 for children. One of many display supplements was a series of short films show Isabella Rossellini acting out the part of a range of animals having sex. Dr Olivia Judson1 published a book in 2002 entitled ‘Dr Tatiana’s Sex Advice To All Creation’ and in 2004 she played Dr Tatiana in an adaptation of her book in a series aired on UK Channel 4 and Discovery Canada. In a similar vein, the Australian Broadcasting Corporation aired a 4-part series called ‘Sex In The Bush’ in 2004. There are various interpretations on how many classifications of life there are on Earth. One of the latest is the following groupings or kingdoms: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Chromista1, Protozoa and Bacteria. For completeness, we would draw examples from all of the Kingdoms, demonstrating asexual and where appropriate sexual reproduction, as well. However there will obviously be a predominance of examples from the animal and plant kingdom. 1 Chromista, probably rather unfamiliar to many, included the diatoms, kelp and mildew using colourful pigments to capture and store energy from the sun.

Besides existing outdoor exhibits, there can be a variety of indoor exhibits, primarily glass fronted cages (for small mammals and birds) and tanks (for reptiles, amphibians, fish and invertebrates). However, as some of the exhibits will be small or microscopic, other display techniques should be used such as projection microscopes. Also as much of the sexual behaviour that is of interest is almost impossible to show on display, a range of supplementary techniques such as high definition television (of wildlife documentaries from National Geographic, BBC Wildlife, Animal Planet and Discovery), computer generated imagery (CGI), holograms, touch screens and of course graphics can be used. Finally, to add some excitement motion simulators and 3D theatres can also be used.


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The purpose of life and sex? It is envisaged that there would be several galleries, each with a different theme. The term gallery is used here very loosely, which could be tent like structure along an existing trail or an existing building. Visitors would enter an introductory gallery: The Purpose of Life and Sex? After this, the layout of the display would depend on the layout of zoo hosting the Travelling Sex Show. It is envisaged that visitors will meander in and out of galleries to view existing outdoor animal and plant exhibits (where their sexual activities are highlighted). It is also envisaged that the galleries would have the following themes, though more could well be added, or existing ones combined where deemed necessary or appropriate: • The purpose of life and sex • Factors that determine your sex • Hermaphrodites • Courtship • Copulation • The mating game • Bringing up baby • The third chimpanzee • What are males good for anyway? • A world without men A short description of each Gallery and some simple and certainly not exhaustive thoughts on factoids2 of information that can be disseminated and the display techniques, are set out below:

2 Factoid: defined here as a short and digestible piece of factual information

The introductory gallery would address the simple question ‘What is the purpose of life’ and Richard Dawkins2 would be seen on a touch screen talking about the selfish gene. One of his quotes used in the graphics could be: The Purpose of Life – ‘The blind tendency of genes wanting to continue their existence into the next generation’ The topic of asexual reproduction would be covered here with numerous examples using mainly projection microscopes and high definition video to show asexual reproduction through binary fission, in a range of examples such as bacteria, amoeba, hydra and algae such as Spirogyra, spore formation in fungi and fragmentation in plants, corals and sponges. These can be extended to examples of cloning in aphids and female whip lizards (Cnemidophorus sp. and Aspidoscelis sp.) mating to introduce the concept of parthenogenesis. Some examples of parthenogenesis in zoos can be illustrated: a hammerhead shark born in Omaha Zoo in 2001; a clutch of Burmese rock pythons hatched at Artis Zoo in 2003 and a Komodo dragon born at Chester Zoo in 2006.

Purpose of sex? Videos and graphics will explain that animals and plants undergo sexual reproduction to share and generate new genetic material. Sexual reproduction ensures that at least 50% of your genes are passed down to the next generation. It is not as good as 100% image of yourself but it helps them to adapt to inevitable changes in the environment. Simple sex or conjugation can be illustrated in such projection microscopes displays as with paramecium (Paramecium putrinum). Here it is interesting to show the difference in cloning and sexual reproduction in such animals like tardigrades (Hypsibius sp.) and potato aphid (Macrosiphum euphorbiae), which switch from cloning to sexual reproduction at the onset of winter or harsh conditions.


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What determines your sex?

Temperature-dependant Sex Determination (TSD)

This Gallery explains how organisms create males and females and the fact that males are basically genetically modified females.

It will be explained that TDS is thought to be the primordial mechanism that triggers either testicular or ovarian development in the early embryo and was used by dinosaurs and pterodactyls and still by crocodiles, alligators, turtles, some species of lizards and surprisingly some fish. This system relies on the temperature inside the nest – all males being developed at temperatures above 33°C and all females at temperatures below 29°C. In between these extremes, either gender will develop.

There are several ways to create a guaranteed balanced sex ratio, which is important for survival.

Genetically sex determination (GSD) It is explained that GSD mechanisms have evolved independently in many different genera throughout the history of life on earth to ensure a balanced male-female sex ratio. Mammals, birds, all snakes and most lizards, amphibians, flying insects, worms and some fish – employ specific “sex-determining” chromosomes or genes to determine the sex of the embryo. The two that are illustrated are the XY and ZW chromosomes. It is explained that the method we are most familiar with in all mammals is the XY chromosomes, where the smaller Y chromosome of the male controls the sex. Thus it is the sperm that controls the sex of the offspring. This is as opposed to the ZW system where the ovum determines the sex of the off spring. The males are homogametic (ZZ) while the females are heterogametic (ZW). The Z chromosome is larger and has more genes, like the X chromosome in the XY system. This method is used by birds, some fish and crustaceans, some insects and some reptiles (e.g. Komodo dragon).

It is postulated that global temperature increases during the global warming that occurred 65 million years ago (following the series of asteroid strikes that ended the Cretaceous Period) might have led to a skewed sex ratio and thus a predominance of males in the land dinosaurs, leading to their extinction. Crocodiles and turtles which lived in estuarine waters and river beds, which might have afforded some protection against the more extreme effects of environmental change, gave them more time to adapt. This factoid would be the subject of a 3D theatre presentation.

Hermaphrodites The previous Gallery looked at how sexes are formed, where as this Gallery looks at hermaphrodites where organisms have both female and male in their body. In some, the predominant sex of the of the organism can change during their life, while others have male and females organs simultaneously. There are two basic types of hermaphrodites: sequential and simultaneous. The Clown fish (Amphiprion ephippium) is a sequential hermaphrodite, being born a non-reproductive male, then turning into a reproductive male and finally turning into a female – which is the dominant sex. The giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus) is known specifically as a protogynous hermaphrodite, which commences life as female in a harem but eventually turns into a dominant male. An example of a simultaneous hermaphrodite is the earthworm (Lumbricus sp.). Although they possess active ovaries and testes simultaneously, they have a protective mechanism against self-fertilization. The only vertebrate known to naturally self-fertilize is the mangrove rivulus (Kryptolebias marmoratus), a fish that has both testes and ovaries. In some populations, it can become a hermaphrodite, developing both male and female parts simultaneously and essentially clone itself by laying its own, already fertilized eggs. They can also survive out of water for weeks and the fish may hold clues to how their ancestors evolved into land animals. Of course there would be displays of angiosperms, as 80% of these plants are hermaphrodites. There are many examples that will be shown, the cactus species Echinopsis spachiana is a good display as it shows both carpals and stamens, making it the perfect flower. Live exhibits in tanks can be used here for display, with supplementary touch screen high definition video snippets.


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Courtship – choosing a mate

Fertilization – sperm quest

The next Gallery looks at how the male impresses the female, often competes with other males, and eventually entices her into having sexual intercourse and thus spreading his genes. Females normally select the fittest male to spread her genes. And how some females do the same.

This Gallery examines the actual act of fertilization, be it external or internal….or somewhere in between!

There are a range ways males attract females – some birds have impressive courtship displays like the bird of paradise and many of the pheasants. The male of the polygamous bowerbirds (Family Ptilonorhynchidae) decorates his nest with bright objects to entice the female to enter and mate. Male and female fireflies (Family Lampyridae) use bioluminescence and flash their lights to attract each other, while the male queen butterfly (Danaus gilippus) uses perfume, by spraying the female with pheromones during courtship, through the hair pencils extend from its abdomen. Certain species of balloon fly (Hilara sp. and Empi sp.) offer nuptual gifts, an insect wrapped up in a silk balloon, to entice the female to mate while she unwraps and eats the gift. Another nuptual gift is the spermathophore (a capsule or mass created by males containing spermatozoa that is transferred into the female’s ovipore during copulation). The spermatophore may contain nourishment in which case it would be a nuptual gift. The male Mormon cricket (Anabrus simplex), a species of bush-cricket, makes a spermatophore that is 27% of his body weight as a nuptial gift for the female. Male elephant seals spar for dominance and a territory on the beach where the winner takes a harem of up to 100 females, over which he has almost exclusive access to mate with.

Salmons return to the same river they were born in because they know that it’s a good place for eggs to mature. The ocean has far more predators than a stream. The female salmon makes a redd (a shallow in the river bed) where she lays and guards her eggs, while the male fertilizes them externally. Most adults die of exhaustion after mating, but some do return to the sea. This exhibit makes an excellent candidate for a motion-based theatre, which will really illustrate the tortuous journey salmons have to make upstream. External fertilization is most common in the ocean and many invertebrates and most fish use it. Some species like the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) have separate sexes and broadcast their eggs and sperm into water. Sperm can be produced in vast quantities; the testes of the male tuberous bush cricket (Platycleis affinis) make up 14% of body weight; a human ejaculate contains 180 million sperms; a blue whale releases 1,500 litres of semen in one ejaculation! But sperm can also be produced in limited but high quality packages. For instance a male fruit fly (Drosophila bifurca) produces one 6cm long sperm, which is 20 times longer than the body length of the male. Each male has about 800 sperm in its reproductive tract at one time and it is estimated it releases only 50 per copulation. Females usually produce much fewer eggs than males do sperm. The vertebrate that produces the most eggs is the sun fish (Mola mola) which releases 300 million eggs at a spawning. The male must release a huge amount of sperm!

Internal fertilization External fertilization is a bit random, that is why so many eggs and sperm are produced. There are a number of different methods organisms have developed for the internal fertilization of eggs, which becomes vital as animals and plants move on to land. The male octopus (Order Octopoda) has a modified arm called a hectocotylus that deposits a spermathophore in female mantle cavity. The hectocotylus detaches and is left in the female’s cavity. In the case of the Paper Nautilus (Argonauta argo) the hectocotylus detaches with the spermatophore that swims to female and fertilizes her. Male spiders have modified pedipalps with bulbous tips that act as syringes to inject sperm into the females’ reproductive openings when mating. Many lizards and snakes have more than one penis, for instance the male garter snake (Thamnophis sp.) has two hemipenes, although only one is used at a time. The monotremes in some ways are more closely related to reptiles than marsupials and placentates. The male echidna (Megalibgwilia sp.) has a four-headed penis, only two heads of which are used at each intercourse. Most marsupials except for the two largest species of kangaroo have a bifurcated penis. That is, it separates into two columns, and so the penis has two ends corresponding to the females’ two vaginas. Most zoos have a lion exhibit, so copulation in lions – to induce ovulation – can be illustrated, on high definition video at the exhibit. When a lioness is in oestrus, the male will stay with her constantly, mating may only last less than a minute, but will occur every 15-30 minutes for several days until the cycle is over.


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The mating game This Gallery takes a look how organisms mate and as monogamy is extremely rare in the animal world, how males try to ensure that their sperm is the one that fertilizes the female’s eggs. This can be done in a range if different ways: • In some species of cuttlefish (Order Sepiida) the males ‘flush out’ the females’ sperm receptacle with a squirt of water; others remove other males’ sperm using a special spoon-shaped arm, before mating. The male dies after the process of mating and the female usually shortly after laying eggs. • The penis of male carrion beetle (Nicrophorinae) has a spermathophore scoop that it uses to get rid of previous lovers spermatophores. • Up to 12 male green anacondas (Eunectes murinus) may try to mate with the larger female, when she is receptive. The successful male implants a sperm plug or chastity belt of sorts, to prevent other males from depositing the sperm. • The drone honey bee (Apis sp.) mates with a virgin queen in the air and insert his endophallus, ejaculating semen. After mating, the drone pulls away from the queen, ripping off his endophallus that remains attached to the newly fertilized queen. Other drones can remove the endophallus, although it serves as a form of chastity belt. • In stick insects (Order Phasmatodea) the male fights with many others for the right to mate with the female. Once he does, he then mates all night, a convenient way of keeping other males away from the female. Some animals even tend to the sadomachestic: • The male bed bug (Cimex lectularius) injects sperm into the female’s abdomen leaving her with open wounds, which are susceptible to infection. • The ultimate cleaning machine is surely the bristles on penis of bean weevil or seed beetle (Callosobruchus maculates) clean out competitors’ sperm.

Bring up baby

In the Kookaburra (Dacelo sp.) there is battle for survival between siblings. This Gallery looks at raising the young, One chick will fall by the wayside. The and some of the quirks in doing so. tougher brothers and sisters begin by stopping it from getting any food. Bringing up baby – literally!!! The As the chick gets weaker they begin female gastric brooding frog (Rheoattacking it. This is kept up until it’s batrachus silus) swallows her eggs, inevitable death. then her digestion slows down, she stops feeding and the tadpole develBrood parasitism in the European ops in her stomach. After six to eight cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) is well docuweeks, she opens her mouth, dilates mented. Their eggshells are thick to her oesophagus and the babies crawl provide resistance to cracking when out. Sadly this Australian amphibian the eggs are dropped in the host is now thought to be extinct. nest. The cuckoo egg hatches earlier than the host’s, and the cuckoo chick The brush-turkeys (Alectura lathami) grows faster; in most cases the are birds which build large, comchick evicts the eggs or young of the munal nests on the ground, made of host species. The chick encourages leaves and earth about 1.5 metres the host to keep pace with its high high and up to 4 metres across. The growth rate with its rapid begging eggs are hatched by the heat of the call and the chick’s open mouth. composting mound which is tended to by the males who by adding or removing material maintain the temParental altruism perature of the mound at 33–35°C. The female Pacific giant octopus Like social insects, the queen naked (Enteroctopus dofleini) finds a den, mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) supseals the entrance in which she lays presses breeding in females and is the and tends to some 50,000 eggs. The only one tin the colony hat breeds. eggs are strung in lengths of 200 and glued to the roof of the den where It is well known that marsupials raise she tends to them for 6 month. This their young in a pouch. It is however involves constantly groom them less well known that the female giant to prevent bacteria and algae from isopod (Bathynomus sp.) also has growing on the eggs. The female also a brood pouch in which she raised her blows water across the eggs ensuring young. a constant oxygen supply. Once they hatch, the mother dies. Ants, bees and carrion beetles are the only insects to raise young. Carrion Having mum for dinner is a bizarre beetles (Nicrophorinae) cover the show of unconditional love is females carcass with antibacterial and antihump earwig (Anechura harmandi) fungal oral and anal secretions, which where the female is consumed by her slows down the decay of the carcass. offspring once the hatch out of the Although the larvae are able to feed egg, their first meal! This behaviour is themselves, both parents also feed referred to as matriphagy. the larvae digesting the flesh and regurgitate liquid food for the larvae In one species of the beewolf wasp to feed on. (Philanthus basilaris) sometimes the father end up as grub for the grubs. After mating, the female lays an egg Sibling rivalry and places a paralyzed honey bee into a small underground chamber, Baby nurse sharks (Ginglymostomaas future food for the larvae. If she tidae) at the age of 5 to 6 months cannot find any honey bees she will kill and eat each other in the uterus – sometimes substitute the male beeonly the fittest surviving. wolf wasp.


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The third chimpanzee In his book by the same title, Jared Diamond3 draws our attention to the very close relationships between chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), bonobos (Pan paniscus) and man. (Our last common ancestor lived about 6 million years ago.) This similarity is not only genetical (a difference of 1.6%) but also in our social behaviour. In chimpanzee society, which is totally male dominated, power is used to resolve questions of sex, there being power struggles between males for dominance and thus the right to mate with a harem of females. In turn alliances are formed to topple the dominant male. This is as opposed to bonobo society that is female dominated and in which male aggression is greatly reduced. Here sex is used to resolve questions of power and subdue aggression and males are less dominant to females in the social hierarchy. As their closest relative, humans could well have gone the way of the chimpanzees or the bonobos. We went the way of the chimpanzees! As with both the chimpanzees and bonobos, man evolved to be polygamous and much of the non Judo-Christian world still practices polygamy3. In fact the institution of marriage is starting to come into question, in the western world divorce rates are up to 50% and there is 76% chance of one partner in a marriage having an extra marital affair. Genetic studies indicate that in many bird couples 10 to 30% of offspring are not sired by the male partner, which is fairly similar to studies in married human couples.

3 There are 49 countries in the world where polygamy is legal

Are humans meant to be monogamous? This is a question that can be addressed in this Gallery with a dearth of information currently available. And a pertinent quote that can be use by film director Nora Ephron’s father is: ‘You want monogamy? Go marry a swan!’ And now, through genetic studies, we are finding that even swans are not monogamous! One bird that ensures monogamy is the Great Pied Hornbill (Buceros bicornis). After mating the male seals the female into a nest and feeds her through an opening until the chicks are ready to emerge. Takes no prisoners!

What are males good for anyway? This Gallery addresses the uses of males, which are rather few and far between! We can find some examples of their usefulness to the females: The male sea devil, a deep-sea angler fish (Family Ceratiidae) is tiny in comparison to the female and spends most of his sexual life attached to the female’s forehead, like a thumb drive, full of and supplying her sperm! During mating, the female preying mantis (Family Mantidae) often decapitates and eats the head of the male mating her – an intercoital snack? While the female black widow spider (Latrodectus mactans) will usually eat the male after mating. Better than a cigarette after sex? She only has to mate once because she can store the male’s sperm then fertilize her own eggs.

Male parenting normally ranges from indifference to infanticide In the case of lions (Panthera leo) the male actively kill cubs that are not sired by them. In several subspecies of baboons (Papio hamadryas) the males kill lactating babies to induce quick ovulation in a nursing mother, so she will become sexually available.

However some males are solely involved in the process of raising the young • Why do some males invest a lot of time and effort to carry the eggs around like the male midwife toad (Family Alytes)? • Incubate the eggs like the King Penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus)? • Brood and giving birth to them like the sea horse (Hippocampus sp.)? • Raise them in his mouth like the male arowana (Family Osteoglossidae)? • Care for them after birth like the male rhea (Rhea americana)? • And share the duties of breastfeeding like the male Dayak fruit bat (Dyacopterus spadiceus)? It is to make sure that they are the real fathers and that they raise their own young!


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A world without men?

References

This Gallery explains that MitochonA world without men? drial Eve is the hypothetical first woman estimated to have lived about A wonderfully controversial question 200,000 years ago, most likely in East and one that evokes a great amount Africa, when modern man (Homo saof emotion (especially from men) and piens sapiens) developing as a distinct debate (especially from women!). human population. Mitochondrial Eve is the source of mitochondrial DNA What would be the consequences? (mtDNA) for all humans alive, passed down only from mother to daugh• USA prison population would drop ter. This makes it is possible to trace by 97%! maternal lineage back in time. • There would be no more wars! • Road deaths would fall by 70%! Y-Chromosomal Adam is the hypo• Women would not have a decent thetical first man estimated to have sex life? lived between 142,000 and 60,000 years ago. Paternally inherited, YThe last exhibit is a high definition TV chromosomal DNA is used to trace monitor showing a video of Kaguya, paternal ancestry. the fatherless mouse (created by a team of Japanese and Korean Prof Bryan Sykes4 has a fascinating scientists led by Dr Tomohiro Kono5) hypothesis that human male fertilthat had two female parents. They ity is falling – sperm counts have developed a process called haplodideclined by 20% in the past 50 years sation that removed one of the two and unlike other chromosomes, the Y sets of chromosomes from some cells chromosome cannot repair itself and leaving them with only one, just like with continual atrophy will decline to normal gametes. They then created 1% of its present level within 5,000 a viable embryo. Kaguya later gave generations. In which case men will birth to conventionally fathered disappear in about 125,000 years! offspring. It may thus be possible for two women can have a child who is biologically from both of them from a process of haploidization. And if so, the final, parting and totally, controversial question: • Do humans need men in the world anyway? • But would we want a world without men? • Close with images of Sean Connery… and George Clooney!!!!!!

• Judson, Olivia (2002): Dr. Tatiana’s Sex Advice to All Creation: The Definitive Guide to the Evolutionary Biology of Sex. Henry Holt and Company, ISBN 0-8050-6331-5 • Dawkins, Richard (1976): The Selfish Gene. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1976. ISBN 0-19-286092-5. • Diamond, Jared (2006) The Third Chimpanzee: The Evolution and Future of the Human Animal. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-060-84550-3. • Sykes, Bryan (2003), Adam’s Curse: A Future Without Men, Bantam, ISBN 0593050045 • Tomohiro Kono1,3, Yayoi Obata1,3, Quiong Wu1,3, Katsutoshi Niwa1,3, Yukiko Ono1, Yuji Yamamoto2,3, Eun Sung Park4, Jeong-Sun Seo4,5 & Hidehiko Ogawa1,3 (2004): Birth of parthenogenetic mice that can develop to adulthood. Nature 428, 860–864 (22 April 2004)

1. Department of BioScience, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8502, Japan 2. Department of Applied Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8502, Japan 3. Bio-oriented Technology Research Advancement Institution (BRAIN), Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0001, Japan 4. MacroGen Inc, Chongno-Ku, Seoul 110-061, Korea 5. Department of Biochemistry, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Chongno-Ku, Seoul 110–799, Korea

This paper is best read in conjunction with the PowerPoint presentation of the same title made to the WAZA conference in Prague in 2011, which is available for download at www.bernardharrisonandfriends.com media releases.


October 2011 | Prague

1st Plenary Prague, 4 October 2011 Start at 6.00 pm | End at 7.00 pm

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Annual Report by the WAZA President Mark Penning – WAZA President

Dear members

Strategic Review

It is a pleasure for me to welcome you to Prague for this, the 66th Conference and Annual General Meeting of WAZA. That so many of us can gather once again to share information and experiences is significant, for this has not been an easy year for many. It began with inclement weather bringing many centres in the Northern hemisphere to a standstill, extensive flooding wreaking havoc in parts of Australia, the earthquake that struck New Zealand, and then the series of earthquakes and the tsunami which caused devastation in Japan.

The activities pursued by the WAZA Committees and Executive Office over the last year are in line with the WAZA Corporate Strategy, and a full day strategic workshop was held in Switzerland immediately after the mid-year meeting of Council to review the strategy. It was agreed that good progress had been made in each of the six strategic directions:

Our sincere thanks go to colleagues and friends around the world who generously contributed almost CHF 64 000 to the JAZA relief fund. We are confident that our colleagues in Japan have utilized the funds effectively to support the affected institutions, evacuate animals where necessary and ensure a steady supply of feeds and other essential items. JAZA has repeatedly expressed its collective gratitude to the global zoo and aquarium community, and will deliver a presentation on the relief effort during this WAZA Conference.

2. Develop and strengthen WAZA’s external partnerships

Decade of Biodiversity: After the 2010 Year of Biodiversity and the successful CoP 10 of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) in Nagoya, Japan, the United Nations General Assembly proclaimed the next 10 years the United Nations Decade on Biodiversity. It makes sense for WZA to support this global initiative, considering that professional and 1. Develop and deliver reputable zoos and aquariums can WAZA’s core conservation play a key role in achieving specific activities targets of the Strategic Plan of the CBD, particularly “raising awareness Field conservation: The WAZA about the value of biodiversity” and Executive Office has increased the “improving the status of threatened number of WAZA branded projects, species.” and has presented these to politicians, The WAZA Council has recognized decision makers and the general this as an opportunity to promote public on the website and in a host of the zoo and aquarium community publications, which paint the interat global level, and to utilize the national zoo and aquarium commusynergies within geographic regions nity in a very positive light. We have to fulfill the community’s conservareceived invaluable support from tion mandate. We believe that formal members and regional associations in adoption of the Decade of Biodiversiputting together all this information. ty will build on the success of the Year To the AZA, EAZA, ZAA, PAAZAB, of Biodiversity event, and will provide SAZARC, SEAZA, EARAZA, JAZA, communication opportunities for CAZA, our members and all other WAZA, for regional associations and contributors, a sincere thank you. for the members, and make the biodiversity work of zoos and aquariums more visible. Please understand that we wish to use the Decade of Biodiversity as an over-arching theme for the decade ahead, and there is no desire or intent to conflict with any programmes already planned by the Regional Associations. The potential for synergy is substantial, and I urge you to support the resolution to be proposed in the administrative session.


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DOC 66.7 CITES: An MOU is being developed with CITES, and we are most grateful for the assistance of the AZA’s Kris Vehrs in this regard. CBSG: Dr. Bob Lacy has stepped down as chair of the CBSG – Bob believes that he can serve conservation and the work of CBSG most effectively if he devotes his energy to specific projects in the future. Bob has been a tremendous asset to the CBSG, and has built up a strong working relationship with WAZA. We hope that he will continue to work with us in the years ahead, and thank him for his generous contribution to WAZA over the years. ISIS and ZIMS: Congratulations and thanks go to Roger Stonecipher, Nate Flesness and the ISIS team for launching the long awaited ZIMS software. Our community can feel proud of what is an enormous achievement.

3. Increase WAZA’s visibility and positive impact The number of WAZA branded projects has increased by 30% and the number of visitors to the website by 20%. The website can be viewed in three languages, and includes a fundraising tool that is being used to good effect. The Executive Office has developed a Marketing Action Plan through which network and media contacts have been established, and at least 4 media/press activities are planned per year. WAZA has dramatically increased its profile, and continues to serve to demonstrate the conservation potential of the zoo and aquarium community.

4. Improve and Develop internal organization, reflecting needs of institutional members and the associations Terms of Reference: The WAZA Council sees a need to develop clear Terms of Reference for the Regional Associations and their respective roles and responsibilities within WAZA and on the WAZA Council. This is currently being addressed, and mechanisms developed through which integration with the regions can be strengthened.

Regional opportunities: The Council identified China as a region that we would value having under the WAZA umbrella. The Chinese Association of Zoological Gardens (CAZG) has been working hard to bring together the zoos and aquariums of the region, and it is partly through their lobbying that the Chinese government ministry responsible for the management of zoos has banning potentially abusive animal performances like bears on bicycles, tigers and lions jumping through hoops of fire, and elephants made to perform head stands. It is certainly a positive step for animal welfare in that country, and WAZA will continue to engage with the CAZG.

Sustainability: Several of our respected Regional Associations have placed emphasis on the sustainability of their managed populations – main- AMMPA: A Memorandum of Undertaining both demographic stability standing (MoU) has been developed and gene diversity have long been between the Alliance of Marine Mamconsidered a critical part of cooperamal Parks and Aquariums (AMMPA) tively managed programmes in zoos and WAZA to establish a formal basis and aquariums, and we need some for cooperation, and facilitate the creative solutions to some complex exchange of information relating to issues we face. During the conference, marine mammal conservation. we will hold a workshop on Sustainable Collections, in which we will discuss the issues affecting the viability 5. Secure the financial of these populations. It promises to growth and stability needed to implement the generate some lively discussion. Regional focus: Prior to the earthquakes, WAZA had made a commitment to build good relations with the Japanese Association of Zoos and Aquariums (JAZA) and its members, and a spirit of positive cooperation and collaboration was developed. The tenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP 10) held in Nagoya in Japan in October 2010 was the ideal opportunity for this, and we worked hard to do so while at the same time trying to address welfare issues relating to bear parks and dolphin collections. The launch of the Japanese version of “Turning the Tide” was a real success, and the new Chairman and Vice Chairs of JAZA give the impression that positive change in the industry in Japan is taking place. Our thanks go to Mr. Yamamoto and Mr. Arai for their substantial efforts in this regard.

Strategy

Financial position: The Association has done very well financially over the last period, showing an operating surplus of over CHF 50 000 in 2010 and being in a healthy cash-flow position. A concerted effort was made to reduce WAZA’s reliance on membership fees, and these efforts have certainly borne fruit. Where membership dues contributed 94% of revenue in 2009, this figure dropped to just 84% in 2010, and shows the emphasis placed on alternative revenue streams during the period. The credit for these efforts must go to Gerald and the Executive Office.


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DOC 66.7 Biodiversity initiative: The WAZA 6. Maintain and develop Council would like to develop a proa culture of professional gramme linked to the Decade of management and governance Biodiversity through which WAZA can offer the professional development of specific tools for supporting Ethical Framework: The Council the work of zoos and aquariums glob- agreed that the Association’s ethially. Funding will be secured to set up cal framework needs review, as the a framework or project matrix which current Code of Ethics provides no will allow for the development of guidance on best practice in animal supporting material of various kinds, welfare or what is considered unethibe it printed material, computercal by WAZA. This was recently highbased information, events, projects, lighted when an institutional member interactive tools, success stories, of WAZA terminated its membership tips and tricks for everyone, tailored of EAZA following a protracted into the needs of members. Taking quiry into alleged unethical practices. into account the different cultures, The important conclusions arising out languages and different focus of work of this matter are: across the globe, the material will be • That a more comprehensive ethideveloped to meet the specific needs cal framework be developed, and of each region. a workshop to this end will be led by David Jones and Jenny Gray during The WAZA executive office was manthe conference. dated to look for potential sponsors, • That WAZA fully supports EAZA in and managed to generate interest by its efforts to coordinate breeding the Swiss-based MAVA Foundation. programmes through the EEP, and When presenting the budget for 2012, its efforts to develop a mandatory we will be asking your permission to accreditation system. spend CHF 100 000 per year for three • That the WAZA membership of the years to achieve a value spend of CHF institution concerned will not be 1.4 million through a grant from the terminated at this time, but will MAVA Foundation, an investment in be subject to review following that the building of capacity and resources institution’s disengagement from of WAZA and the international zoo the EEP’s managed programmes and aquarium community. I urge you in a responsible and appropriate to give this matter your careful confashion. sideration, and hope that the motion will receive your support. When considering this matter, one must remember that the WAZA Bylaws Article II states: “The objectives of WAZA shall be: • To promote cooperation between zoological gardens and aquariums with regard to the conservation and breeding of animals in captivity, and to encourage the highest standards of animal welfare and husbandry; • To promote and coordinate cooperation between national and regional associations and their constituents.“ This clearly spells out the duty that WAZA has to its members and to its constituency, and the WAZA Council believes it has acted accordingly in this matter.

WAZA Council and Committees During this year, Dr. Jörg Junhold (Leipzig Zoo, Germany) has served as the Vice President of WAZA, with Lena Lindén (Norden’s Ark, Sweden), Ryzsard Topola (Lodz Zoo, Poland), Chris West (Zoos South Australia, Australia), Lee Ehmke (Minnesota Zoological Gardens, USA), Rick Barongi (Houston Zoo, USA), Joanne Lalumière (Granby Zoo, Canada) and Cesare Avesani (Parco Natura Viva, Italy) making up the WAZA Council. Following the elections this year, the new WAZA Council will be made up of Dr. Jörg Junhold as President and Lee Ehmke as President elect. The newly elected members of Council are Rick Barongi (Houston Zoo, USA), Kevin Bell (Lincoln Park Zoo, USA) and Joanne Lalumière (Granby Zoo, Canada) representing Region 1, Olivier Pagan (Zoo Basel, Switzerland), Lena Lindén (Norden’s Ark, Sweden) and David Field (ZSL, UK) representing Region 2, and Christ West (Zoos South Australia, Australia) representing Region 3. Once again, the contributions made by representatives of regional representatives was substantial, and Kris Vehrs (AZA), Lesley Dickie (EAZA), Dave Morgan (PAAZAB and CPM) and Sally Walker (SAZARC) were formally co-opted onto the WAZA Council for the past year. I must express my sincere gratitude to those regional associations for supporting their attendance at meetings of WAZA Council.


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DOC 66.7 When considering matters of particular importance to the Association, the WAZA Council uses four Standing Committees and a number of additional committees to provide expert advice and recommendations where required. The individuals who serve on these committees give up an inordinate amount of time in carrying out their WAZA duties, and their collective efforts are greatly appreciated. The persons nominated by the Council to serve on these Committees will be presented for ratification by the members during the administrative session. On behalf of Council and the WAZA membership, I extend grateful thanks to all who serve tirelessly on these committees. The new Committee members for the year ahead will be announced during the conference for ratification by the members.

In closing The Prague conference brings the end of my term of office as President of WAZA, and I owe a debt of gratitude to the WAZA Council and Executive Office for their camaraderie and spirit, for working relationships which have evolved into strong friendships, and for being prepared to give so much to this Association. The two year term has flown by in what feels like the blink of an eye – it has been an incredible journey, both humbling and invigorating, and an experience I will always treasure. To the WAZA membership, I thank you for the opportunity, the honour and the privilege of playing this role. I will be forever grateful, and will continue to serve WAZA in whatever capacity I can. Rest assured that you have a wonderful President in Jörg Junhold, and a very strong WAZA Council to guide the Association. I wish Jörg and the new WAZA Council all the very best for the future. Salani kahle.


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DOC 66.8

WAZA Executive Office Report Gerald Dick – Executive Director

Management of Executive Office

Work plan of Executive Director

In 2011 the major task for the office was to get fully established in terms of the new team in the location of Gland. Improvement of workflow like using new accounting software helped to further professionalize. One of the highlights at the executive office was the organisation of the first midyear meeting, including meetings of WAZA Council, ISIS and CPM together with workshops on population management and international studbooks. A meeting with IUCN Director General, Mrs. Julia MartonLefèvre, was organised as well as a social gathering with IUCN staff, WAZA partners and invited Swiss Zoo directors.

Organise the Executive Office • staff appraisal twice a year, providing daily guidance • Further optimise flow of work • Installation and implementation of professional accounting software • Improve efficiency through synergies with IUCN

Implement corporate identity of WAZA • Offer WAZA CD more actively to members • Establish contacts with marketing units of members • Use the UN Decade on Biodiversity for further promoting WAZA internationally and develop a 10 year focus of work

Regular engagement with partners • Networking with international partner organisations • Take part in international zoo conferences and regional meetings • Intensify member contacts and search for new members • Strengthen the bonds with IUCN

Implement WAZA future strategy • Focus on new members, support Membership Committee • Focus on increased income (also external sources to be addressed) • Focus on increased outreach and marketing • Organise workshop on re-visiting the operational objectives

Programmatic preparation of 66th WAZA Annual Conference • WAZA technical Congress with focus on sustainable collections • Re-organize the conference set-up to have a less stressful programme • Liaise with all future conference hosts (till 2015) to guarantee preparation

7th International Zoo and Aquarium Marketing Conference • Organise marketing conference together with Zoo Granby and in cooperation with AZA, EAZA and CAZA

WAZA’s 77th Anniversary in 2012 • Prepare a commemorative volume on WAZA History • Secure funding for the production of this volume • Prepare launch and suitable event for 2012

Organise Council elections • Sending out ballots in early summer 2011 • Checking correct ballots and counting before Annual Conference

Ongoing activities • WAZA News 4 times a year • Liaise with WAZA Council regularly • Prepare mid-year meeting 2011 in Gland • Reminding of action points • Providing members with updates • Troubleshooting


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Executive Office Staff As per September 2011 the office staff consists of 3.8 employees. Names and allocated tasks are detailed as follows:

WAZA Council Elections 2011: Results In May ballots were sent to all 277 voting members requesting sending them back by 30 June 2011. 180 ballots were received back and 173 were valid. In presence of Mrs. Carla Duarte, legal department of IUCN, the ballots were counted on 7 July 2011 with the following result:

• Gerald Dick (1.0), Executive Director • Monica Gamp (1.0), PA, Office manager, accountant • Carole Lecointre (1.0), Marketing and communication • Markus Gusset (0.8), International Ratification of officers studbooks and conservation • President: Jörg Junhold • Gabriela Allen, Office support on an • President-elect: Lee Ehmke hourly basis, since May 2011 • Laura Penn joined the office on Other Council Members: a short term contract, working on • Region I: (3 seats) the WAZA commemorative volume Rick Barongi, Houston Zoo USA • Lorena Sánchez joined the office as Kevin Bell, Lincoln Park Zoo USA volunteer in June/July 2011, working Joanne Lalumière, Zoo de Granby on the virtual zoo on the web Canada • Region II: (3 seats) Olivier Pagan, WAZA change Basel Zoo Switzerland of bylaws Lena Lindén, Nordensark Sweden (mail ballots after David Field, Zoological Society Cologne conference) London UK • Region III: (1 seat) After the 65th Annual Conference Chris West, Adelaide Zoo-Zoos in Cologne and the adoption of the South Australia amended bylaws a mail ballot was sent to all voting members. The executive office received 192 ballots back, Marketing/ all votes were valid. On 21st January Communication 2011 the ballots were opened and counted with external supervision of 7th International Zoo & Mrs. Laura Penn, at the WAZA execu- Aquarium Marketing Confetive office. Out of a total of 275 voting rence, Granby, Canada members a 2/3 majority was required in order to finally accept the proThe Marketing conference was held posed change of bylaws (this being from June 13th to 16th 2011 and hosta minimum of 183 ballots). As a result, ed by the Zoo de Granby in Quebec, 191 ballots were in favour and 1 ballot Canada. The event welcomed more against the bylaws change. Therefore than 70 participants from 22 different the change of bylaws is accepted. countries. They were able to attend a variety of presentations, panel discussions and a workshop under the theme of “Strategic Marketing in Action”. The conference was divided in 6 different sessions: Strategic Marketing, Marketing Conservation, Social Marketing, Marketing the Zoo and Aquarium Community, Marketing Education, Best Practices-Turn Bad News into Good News.

At the end of the conference the summarizing recommendation concerning the UN Decade on biodiversity for the 66th WAZA Annual Conference in Prague was presented and adopted. After the conference, the MarCom platform was created on the member’s area of the WAZA website (more details in the Website paragraph below).

Membership brochure • In March 2011 WAZA decided to produce a printed tool to introduce its activities to potential new members, advertisers or sponsors. Focus of this publication is to explain the benefits of being a WAZA member (both institutional and corporate). This “Membership brochure” was developed by the WAZA office and kindly designed and printed by the creative team of the Houston Zoo. • This brochure has been distributed to all participants of the Marketing Conference, to all WAZA members and is made available to the participants of the WAZA Annual Conference in Prague. • It is also available for download on the public domain of the WAZA website, under the “Get involved” section.


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Being part of a global community

Getting information from inside and outside the network

Contribution to the strategic developement of the zoo and aquarium co…

Meeting colleagues from all over the work

Improving your institution’s image

Figure 1

Surveys Marketing Survey The WAZA marketing survey has been conducted from May 23rd to June 6th and was sent out to all our institutional members. The survey was developed online and 84 people replied. The aim of the survey was to understand better our members’ expectations and needs in terms of marketing and communication tools. Here are the main trends: • 90% of the interviewees feel well informed by WAZA! • As illustrated in the chart (Figure 1), the main benefit of being a WAZA member is being part of a global community. Getting information and taking part in the strategic development of this community is also seen as very important. • 78% use the WAZA website. We will continue updating and improving our website to reach the 100% soon! • 88% read the WAZA NEWS. We hope that the new sections, such as the interview, will bring even more readers.

• When it comes to WAZA services, WAZA News, WAZA Magazine and WAZA website seem to be the favorite tools. They are regarded as the most useful ones. (See Figure 2)

10 corporate members replied and the main trends are: • 55% of WAZA Corporate members are satisfied with the services/offers they are getting. • 64% would be interested in yearly This survey will serve as a basis for advertising package in the WAZA News. the improvement of WAZA existing • 73% would be interested in advertismarketing tools (WAZA News, WAZA ing on WAZA website website etc…) as well as for the devel• 64% would be interested in getting opment of new tools. more visibility through sponsorship opportunities at WAZA Annual conferences Corporate membership survey • At the occasion of WAZA 77th birthday, 60% would be keen to advertise in our calendar and 70% in the This survey was conducted online history book. from July 14th to 22nd and addressed our 13 corporate members. The main Following these very encouraging objective was to get their feedback on results WAZA has decided to: WAZA existing communication tools • Create advertising packages (see and sponsorship offers (advertising next paragraph) in WAZA News, sponsoring of WAZA • Open the WAZA website to adverconferences etc…); but also to try to tisers (see next paragraph) identify their expectations in terms of advertising and sponsorship proposals, specially for WAZA 77th birthday.


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Receiving the WAZA News

Receiving the WAZA Magazine

Using the WAZA website

Participating in the WAZA conferences

Benefiting from the WAZA Having communication conservation activities projects branded by WAZA

“Member of” & “Partner of” logos A new version of the “Member of” and “Partner of” logo is now available on our website for our members. Several formats have been developed for different usages: email signatures, website homepage, printed material, banners, entrance signage etc…

Press releases The non-members also have access to these offers with a 20% discounted rate (non-member’s rate).

Advertising

An 8 pages document has been created with all technical specifications and rate card. This document will be sent out to all corporate members and potential new members. It will also be available on WAZA website.

Advertising packages for WAZA publications

Advertising on WAZA website

A new rate card has been created with 5 different formats (instead of 3): full page, half page, quarter page, horizontal banner and vertical banner. For each of these formats, our corporate members have now access to yearly packages (an ad in the next 4 issues) with a 20% discounted rate (member’s rate).

Figure 2

WAZA has decided to open its website to advertisers. Different formats of banners will be available on the homepage as well as on other pages. This project will be finalised by end of October 2011.

• October 2010: Turning the Tide • December 2010: WAZA branded conservation projects were granted significant support • January 2011: United Nations Decade on Biodiversity 2011-2020 • February 2011: Sichuan Forest Biodiversity Project in China • March 2011: Zoos and Aquariums affected by earthquake and tsunami in Japan • June 2011: Zoos and aquariums save the world most endangered species • July 2011: WAZA is building a future for wildlife: WAZA celebrates the 200th WAZA-branded conservation project • August 2011: Minnesota Zoo’s black rhino project in Namibia • September 2011: Signing of a MoU between WAZA and the United Nations Convention on Biodiversity


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Publications

Country/Territory United States

84,018 23.65%

WAZA News (4 times per year), WAZA magazine Vol. 12 (published in August 2011), proceedings of the WAZA Annual Conference 2010 online (complete version, including technical congress in member area) and proceedings of the technical congress only as separate publication for download on the public domain (both published in March 2011), “Turning the Tide” published in Chinese thanks to Fanny Lai of Wildlife Reserves Singapore, WZACS published in French thanks to Franck Haelewyn of SNDPZ, WAZA membership brochure, WAZA briefing paper for sponsors.

Spain

34,081 9.59%

United Kingdom

33,917 9.55%

Mexico

28,391 7.99%

Argentina

12,220 3.44%

Visits Visists (%)

Colombia

11,351 3.19%

Germany

10,407 2.93%

Canada

9,937 2.80%

Australia

8,300 2.34%

Chile

7,131 2.01% Figure 3

The WAZA Membership Directory is available in a bi-weekly updated version on the website in the members’ area.

WAZA Website (www.waza.org) Website figures: • As of end August 2011 there were 358 members registered on the member’s area, which is an increase of 38 % since last year (260). • Average of 970 visits/day (1 Sept 2010 to 31 August 2011): + 63% compared to 1 Sept 2009 to 31 August 2010 (596). • In average the visitors stay 2 minutes on WAZA website; they are from 209 different countries, with the US in first position, followed by Spain and The UK. (See Figure 3). • Traffic sources: most of our visitors find our website through search engines, or through referring sites and also direct traffic – visitors who visited the site by typing the URL directly into their browser. (See Figure 4). • The favourite page on WAZA website is still our virtual zoo. • (For other detailed information about the websit traffic see Figure 5, 6 and 7)

Figure 4

Year Unique Visitors No. of Visits 2003 14,006 20,725 2004 36,205 50,001 2005 61,495 84,119 2006 114,484 154,328 2007 291,762 384,969 2008 345,115 506,758 2009 358,043 519,522 2010 428,736 546,965 until August 2011 325,773 429,664

Pages 94,224 191,590 333,374 651,678 1,343,013 1,732,967 1,740,556 1,969,816 1,466,377

Hits 720,213 1,727,621 3,072,273 5,933,091 12,772,234 14,659,627 14,755,427 14,084,040 10,689,456

Bandwidth 2.97 GB 8.80 GB 20.47 GB 46.94 GB 161.04 GB 252.79 GB 397.95 GB 413,75 GB 325.28 GB

Unique Visitor: a unit of traffic to a website, counting each visitor only once in the time frame of the report (30 min). | Number of Visits: a visit is defined as a series of page requests from the same uniquely identified client with a time of no more than 30 minutes between each page request. | Pages: a ‘page’ request results from a web surfer clicking on a link on another ‘page’ pointing to the ‘page’ in question. This should be contrasted with a hit, which refers to a request for any file from a web server. | Hits: The number of hits received by a website assert its popularity. | Bandwidth: A rate of data transfer. Figure 5

Documents consulted No. of on WAZA website views 1st Jan 2010–1st Jan 2011 WAZA Conservation 2681 strategy (English) WAZA brochure – 1161 Understanding animals and protecting them WAZA Biodiversity 1161 Education Manual (English) WAZA Turning the Tide 1151 (English) WAZA Magazine Vol 11 1079 (Gorilla Conservation) WAZA Code of Ethics 629 (English) WAZA Conservation 622 strategy (Spanish)

No. of downloads

Visitors on WAZA website

867 498

219

526 154 263 409

Figure 6

Figure 7


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“Donate for Japan” emergency operation In March 2011, following the disaster in Japan, WAZA has created a new page to collect money for the affected institutions. The public could get the latest information from JAZA, have access to JAZA Facebook page and also donate online. This operation was a success as of 31 August the amount of the collected donation in support of JAZA and the rescue operation was CHF 63,932 (> 77,000 $).

WAZA Conservation Resource Center (www. unitedforconservation.org)

WAZA and IZE IZE and WAZA signed a Memorandum of Understanding during the 65th Annual Conference in Cologne (Köln), focusing on mutual support and joint future activities. The administrative tasks of the fast growing IZE association have been taken over by the IZE president’s office.

A new conservation tool has been developed as part of the WAZA website: The WAZA Conservation and Sustainability Resource Center. At the initiative of the WAZA Conservation and Sustainability Committee under the chairmanship of Jo Gipps last year, a collection of conservation related WAZA Training Grant web links has been put together as a resource tool. This website is accesFor 2010, based on the scores allocatsible via the WAZA website but also ed to the 11 applications by the three Dedicated page directly on the www.unitedforconreferees and their comments profor Corporate Members servation.org address. Everybody is vided, the winners are the projects welcome to report updates and new “A workshop on primate behavioral Under the “Members” section of conservation related weblinks for monitoring to enhance the capacity WAZA website a dedicated page for inclusion. of Asian zoo professionals” (Wildlife the Corporate members has been creReserves Singapore) with €8592 and ated with pictures and text.6 pages “Zoological collection planning and has been created so far. 77th birthday zoo management in Sri Lanka” (Zoo Vienna) with € 8776. To celebrate its 77th birthday WAZA MarCom platform has developed different tools: In 2011 again11 applications were re• 77th years Logo | This logo has ceived within the deadline of 8th July Following the WAZA Marketing Conbeen created in black & white and 2011. Ten applications proved to be ference in Canada WAZA has decided in colour and will be used for all complete and were passed on to four to implement a new tool for its memprinted materials as well as online external assessors. Decision by WAZA bers: the WAZA MarCom Platform. (on the website, on email signatures Council is pending. etc…). We will start using it just after This platform is available only on the the Prague conference. member’s area of the WAZA website • 77th years Calendar | A desk calenand is dedicated to the marketing dar for 2012 was prepared in relateams of all our members. tion to some milestones of WAZA’s history. Those are highlighted in the The objective of this platform is to 12 months of the year 2012 and illusprovide our members with a sharing trated with full colour photos. The point for all marketing and communicalendar is sent to all members. cation matters by giving them access • “77 Years: History and Evolution to other member’s experiences and of WAZA, 1935–2012” | At the best practices. occasion of its 77th birthday WAZA has prepared a commemorative volThe MarCom platform is divided in 2 ume. The WAZA archive has been parts: searched for interesting documents, • “MarCom case studies” that provides photos and publications. In addition WAZA members with marketing former presidents and representaand communication case studies tives of zoos and partner organisafrom members all around the world. tions contributed to the text. It is • “Member’s press articles” for press planned to have this publication clippings of members. ready by early 2012. The information available on this platform will be updated regularly.


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DOC 66.8 • 10029 – Programa SADA – Hawksbill Sea Turtle Conservation: to ensure the survival of Hawksbill sea turtles in São Tomé and Príncipe (Universidade do Algarve) • 10030 – Red Panda Research and Conservation: to collect baseline information on red pandas in Nepal (Small Mammals Conservation and Research Foundation) • 11001 – White-footed tamarin International Conservation Programme: to promote the survival of whitefooted tamarins in Colombia both in situ and ex situ (Beauval Zoo) Figure 8 • 11002 – Attwater’s Prairie Chicken Recovery Programme: to breed and reintroduce Attwater’s prairie chickens into their former range in WAZA branded projects the USA (Houston Zoo and US Fish and Wildlife Service) The number of WAZA-branded • 10021 – Primate Research and • 11003 – Giant Anteater Conservation conservation projects has continued Conservation: to study and conserve Project: to promote the survival of to increase to 211 in August 2011. two primates endemic to Ethiopia giant anteaters in Argentina both In March 2011, we celebrated the (Addis Ababa University) in situ and ex situ (Proyecto Conser200th branded project, the Kina• 10022 – Red Panda Research: to vación oso Hormiguero Gigante) batangan Orang-utan Conservation study the behaviour of red pandas • 11004 – Giraffe Conservation Programme. (See Figure 8) in India both ex situ and in situ (PadFoundation: to protect and secure maja Naidu Himalayan Zoological populations of all giraffes throughUS$ 25,000 were raised by the office Park) out Africa (Giraffe Conservation from the Mohamed bin Zayed Spe• 10023 – Sichuan Forest BiodiverFoundation) cies Conservation Fund to support sity Project: to enhance networks • 11005 – Kinabatangan Orang-utan five branded projects for species catof protected areas in China and Conservation Programme: to egorised as Critically Endangered: Cat engage local people in their sustaindevelop and implement innovative Ba langur, cross river gorilla, Przewalable management (Chester Zoo and solutions to conserve orang-utans, ski’s horse, Scott’s tree kangaroo and Liverpool John Moores University) elephants and other iconic species Siamese crocodile. • 10024 – Mexican Wolf Reestablishin Malaysia (Hutan) ment and Recovery Programme: • 11006 – Elephants for Africa: to New features were added to the to re-establish the Mexican wolf address the wider conservation WAZA website relating to branded throughout its historic range in the and management issues facing projects, such as a “Project of the USA and Mexico (The Living Desert) elephants in Botswana (Elephants Month”, testimonials about the value • 10025 – Omo Forest Conservation for Africa) of branding for various projects and Project: to ensure the survival of the • 11007 – Chaparri Conservation: to the possibility to make a donation to Omo Forest ecosystem in Nigeria preserve a natural dry forest ecosysbranded projects. (Paington Zoo Environmental Park) tem in Peru (Tu Tierra) • 10026 – Rodent Conservation As• 11008 – Black Rhino ConservaThe database for the branded sessment: to assess the conservation and Tourism: to promote the projects has been updated to verify tion status of four rodent species in science-based management of contact details and to distinguish acColombia (Universidad de Ciencias black rhinos for conservation and tive from terminated projects. Aplicadas y Ambientales) tourism in Namibia (Save the Rhino • 10027 – Andean Condor ConservaTrust Namibia) The following projects have been tion Project: to conserve Andean • 11009 – Houston Toad Recovery Probranded since the 2010 Annual condors throughout South America gramme: to breed and reintroduce Conference, starting with the project (Buneos Aires Zoo and Fundación Houston toads into their former number (first two digits indicate year Bioandina Argentina) range in the USA (Houston Zoo and of branding), followed by the name • 10028 – Zambia Red Caps ProUS Fish and Wildlife Service) and a short description of the project. gramme: to monitor, understand Organisation (s) implementing the and resolve human–wildlife conflicts project are indicated in parentheses. in Zambia by training local people (Awely)


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DOC 66.8 • 11010 – Banded Leaf Monkey Research: to do population monitoring and feeding analysis of banded leaf monkeys in Singapore (National University of Singapore) • 11011 – Leopard Cat Research: to study the ecology of leopard cats in Singapore (National University of Singapore) • 11012 – Project Batagur Baska: to promote the survival of northern river terrapins in Bangladesh both in situ and ex situ (Vienna Zoo and Peter Braschag) • 11013 – Marine Mammal Survey: to assess and monitor the marine mammal populations in the territorial waters of Singapore (National University of Singapore) • 11014 – Crocodile and Hippo Conservation: to mitigate conflict between humans and both crocodiles and hippos in Swaziland (Big Game Parks and Cologne Zoo) • 11015 – Blue-throated Macaw Conservation: to mitigate threats to blue-throated macaws in Bolivia (Asociacion Armonia) • 11016 – Amphibian Breeding and Awareness: to breed and raise awareness of amphibians in Colombia (Santacruz Zoological Foundation)

Support for Committee on Population Management (CPM) In the period from 1 September 2010 to 31 August 2011, no international studbooks (ISBs) were archived, one new ISB was established, nine ISBs were transferred to new keepers, no ISBs were transferred to new institutions and four further decisions regarding ISBs were taken. At the end of the reporting period, two issues were pending. There are currently 121 active ISBs, including 159 species or sub-species (some ISBs cover more than one taxon). Further details are covered by the CPM report. The office organised the CPM mid-year meeting together with workshops on population management and international studbooks.

Amphibian Ark For the organisation of Capacity Building Workshops in Amphibian Conservation, the office applied for funding at a Swiss based foundation (54,140 CHF), in support of AArk.

Attended Meetings

• CBD CoP 10, Nagoya, 23–29 October 2010 • ALPZA Annual Meeting, Santiago de Chile,15–19 November 2010 • CBSG workshop on intensively managed populations, San Diego, 7–10 Dec 2010 Climate Change • NATUR Congress, Basel, 11 February 2011 In support of the Climate Change task • ZACC, Woodland Park Zoo, force, several painful meetings were Seattle, 8–11 March 2011 held in order to get tax exempt status • AMMPA Annual Meeting, Alexandria, for WAZA, a requirement by the Virginia, 10–12 April 2011 Framework Convention on Climate • WAZA Marketing Conference, Change in order to prove NGO and Granby, 13–16 June 2011 non-profit status of WAZA in Switzer- • CITES Animals Committee, land. This has not yet been concluded. Geneva, 18–22 July 2011 • 5th Association Congress, London,18–19 July 2011 WAZA Corporate Strategy • AZA Annual Conference, Update Atlanta, 12–17 September 2011 • UN signing ceremony “Decade on Biodiversity”, New York, As presented in St. Louis 2009, the 20 September 2011 major strategic focus for WAZA and • EAZA Annual Conference, the years 2010 and 2011 is threefold: Montpellier, 22–24 September 2011 Income (secure, increase and diversify), Marketing (raise profile, increase service) and members (increase membership, focus on aquariums). In 2010 WAZA started to diversify the income base by getting the MAVA foundation as a donor for biodiversity activities and by selling the WAZA book and poster. An information package for sponsors was developed, potential sponsors identified and first contacts established. As one concrete result of those endeavours, ten new corporate members joined WAZA since the St Louis conference. In terms of marketing, the profile of WAZA could be raised via international partnerships and the further development of the new website. The WAZA News covered more articles from members and all publications were made available on the web. As an additional service WAZA News are sent via e-mail to institutions, so that the information can easily be distributed to other staff members. Since end of 2010 and until September 2011, new members were three zoos, three aquariums, three corporates and one affiliate. Although WAZA regrettably lost some members, comparing 2010 and 2011 (till September) shows a net increase in membership by 3.0%.


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International Relationships Report Gerald Dick – WAZA Executive Director

International Union of Conservation of Nature (IUCN)

Convention on Migratory Species of Wild Animals (UNEP/CMS)

Using the geographical vicinity of both WAZA and IUCN, the cooperation could be deepened with various units of IUCN.

WAZA was honoured by the presence and keynote address, which was presented at the 65th WAZA Annual Conference by the Executive Secretary, Mrs Elizabeth Maruma Mrema. CMS dedicated the years 2011 and 2012 to the conservation of bats (Year of the Bat) and WAZA chose to provide support by submitting information to WAZA members and providing updates in the WAZA News.

The executive director and the president-elect participated in the IUCN-SSC steering committee meeting, held in Gland, December 2010. According to the IUCN resolution of the last World Conservation Congress (2008, Barcelona) to hold the first World Species Congress, this issue was discussed at the meeting. The proposal to hold the World Species Congress with strong support from WAZA, possibly in Leipzig in Germany, was presented. The committee was very supportive and delighted about WAZAs initiative, but further IUCN internal decision making was still necessary, especially concerning the timing and contents. The Council of IUCN later decided to further develop a detailed concept for the planned congress, in May 2011. At the midyear meeting, WAZA was honoured by the presence of the Director General, Mrs. Julia MartonLefèvre, who addressed WAZA Council and took part in a social gathering afterwards in the IUCN lounge.

Ramsar Convention on Wetlands The World Wetlands Day on 2nd February each year celebrates wetland conservation and WAZA provided details and information on the WAZA website to members. Additionally, information about wetland conservation and the UN forest focus was published in the WAZA News.

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) The 25th meeting of the Animals Committee was held in Geneva (Switzerland), 18–22 July 2011. At this meeting the transport working group was re-established. The task will be to establish guidelines for land based transport of animals. A separate meeting with the convention secretariat took place on 4 April 2011 in order to discuss a closer relationship between WAZA and CITES in future. The executive director of WAZA and the executive director of AZA took part in this meeting and it was agreed to work on a draft MoU between WAZA and CITES.

Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) In 2010, the UN Year of Biodiversity was a big highlight with many WAZA members taking part in education and communication activities. A landmark of cooperation was the launch of the Japanese version of “Turning the Tide – a Global Aquarium Strategy for Conservation and Sustainability” together with JAZA on the occasion of CoP 10 of CBD in Nagoya, Japan (23–29 October 2010). With support of JAZA an information booth about the activities of zoos and aquariums was set up and a press conference organised. Turning the Tide, as well as Japanese conservation activities were presented and discussed during a side event. In December 2010 the United Nations General Assembly proclaimed the period from 2011 to 2020 as the United Nations Decade on Biodiversity in its Resolution 65/161. WAZA has been invited to become an official partner, which offers the zoo and aquarium community to globally display the conservation work and contribute to this global focus. A formal start event together with heads of agencies, such as UNEP, FAO, UNESCO, IUCN, CITES, WWF and WAZA amongst others was scheduled for 20 September 2011.


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The Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG) Report Onnie Byers – CBSG Executive Director

CBSG Membership CBSG currently has a membership of 337 individuals from 63 countries and is supported by 134 donor institutions, organizations, and individuals.

Workshops and Publications CBSG has conducted or participated in 54 workshops/meetings since November 2010, including 15 Population and Habitat Viability Assessment (PHVA) or Species Conservation Planning Workshops, 8 Training Workshops, 2 Tool Development Workshops, and 29 other conservation workshops and meetings. These workshops/meetings are listed on page 6. CBSG has produced 12 documents in the past 10 months. A list of these publications can be found on page 7.

2011 CBSG Annual Meeting The 2011 CBSG Annual Meeting will be hosted by Prague Zoo 29 Sept–2 Oct. The theme for this year’s meeting is Integration in Action: a “one plan” approach to species conservation. Working group topics will include: • “One Plan” approach to conservation planning: ex situ programs as part of an overall species conservation strategy • Conservation success stories: “stories of species where ex situ/ intensive management has contributed directly to improved species/ population status in the wild” • Decade on Biodiversity: WAZA’s Global Marketing Project • Intensive population management: a one-day follow up and idea elaboration workshop • Metamodeling software: a demonstration and discussion of applications of this approach • Revision of the IUCN Technical Guidelines on the Management of Ex situ Populations for Conservation • Defining WAZA’s response to climate change

2010 Annual Report We are currently working on our 2010 Annual Report, which will highlight several of the year’s successful workshops, including the Paraiba River conservation action planning initiative, and workshops on Scimitarhorned Oryx, bumblebees, Mountain bongos, Indian invertebrates, and Lake Titicaca frogs. We anticipate publication of our Annual Report in late-August.

On-going Initiatives Intensive Management of Populations for Conservation In December 2010, CBSG convened a workshop on the topic of Intensively Managed Populations (IMPs). With increasing threats to wildlife populations, more and more species are being actively managed in order to combat the risks of small population sizes and other threats. Intensive population management can occur in a variety of settings, from populations managed solely in field conditions to those managed within zoos and aquariums. While a potentially powerful tool for species conservation, intensive population management is falling short of its potential. The CBSG IMP Workshop brought together 45 zoo professionals, academics, and field biologists from 12 countries to discuss the challenges of ensuring that intensive population management contributes positively to integrated and effective conservation plans for species. Discussions and recommendations ranged from changes needed within the zoo community to improve its conservation effectiveness, to strong support for increased collaboration between the field and zoo conservation communities to develop true species conservation plans that integrate all conservation activities for the species. CBSG looks forward to its role in helping to build, improve, and promote future population management innovations.


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CBSG’s Species Conservation Planning Initiative

we continue to revise the Matrix and will soon finalize a document for the CBSG community that describes the project and the resulting products. We will then publish the Matrix in a peer-reviewed journal and online so that the larger wildlife conservation community can utilize the information in the Matrix and contribute additional species conservation planning tools from their own fields of expertise. In this way, we will realize our goal of generating an interactive global community of conservation planning practitioners, increasing the effectiveness of our activities worldwide.

CBSG staff and Regional Network associates remain heavily involved in the SSC’s project on creating a more robust process for species conservation planning. Our highly successful workshop on conservation planning tools and processes, held in Italy in May 2010, led to the creation of a detailed Species Conservation Planning (SCP) Tools Matrix describing a wide array of qualitative and quantitative tools for species conservation planning. These tools represent the collective thinking, experience, and practical expertise of the diverse participants present at the workshop. The matrix features a brief Wildlife Disease Risk Analysis but informative description of each Handbook Development tool and where it fits best within the logical structure of a Species ConserFor more than a decade, CBSG has vation Strategy planning process, as been collaborating with specialbroadly defined in the SSC’s Handists around the world in developing book on Strategic Planning for Species a “toolkit” for the zoo and wildlife Conservation, published in 2008. medicine communities to assist in Moreover, each tool is categorized evaluating risks associated with according to its applicability across disease introduction and transa range of planning environments: mission. The document that has number of taxa to be considered, emerged from this collaboration, number of stakeholders, breadth of “Animal Movements and Disease Risk: geographic distribution, amount of A Workbook”, is now in its 5th edition spatial or demographic data available, and has been used by conservation etc. With this expanded descriptive medicine professionals around the capability, our goal is to provide a reworld. However, the book is in need source to assist CBSG and the broader of a revision and so, to launch this wildlife conservation planning comeffort, CBSG Australasia led a meetmunity with applying the right tools ing of more than 20 wildlife health to a specific planning project. specialists, including representatives from most of the Species Survival The SSC has recently formed a SpeCommission’s interdisciplinary Species Conservation Planning Subcomcialist Groups, 4-7 April at the New mittee, and CBSG staff and Regional Zealand Center for Conservation Network associates are among its Medicine. Previous to the meeting members and actively participate in Auckland, workshop organizers in its activities. The Subcommittee created a project website for docuhad its first meeting in March 2011 ment and information sharing, and outside Oxford, England, generously held a series of virtual meetings using hosted by WildCRU. The SCP Tools web-based collaboration tools. This Matrix was presented and discussed, virtual meeting environment was critwith valuable feedback received from ically important to the success of the Subcommittee members on improvAuckland workshop, allowing particiing the Matrix in both scientific rigor pants to get to know one another and and practical applicability. Based on to complete important tasks before these and subsequent discussions, meeting in Auckland. The Auckland participants drafted official vision and goal statements for the overall project, and completed a detailed outline of the proposed new DRA Handbook. This new Handbook will feature

a more cohesive structure and consistent theme, and will be focused on an updated set of tools and processes that will add considerable rigor to the mechanics of disease risk analysis in wildlife conservation programs. The new Handbook is scheduled to be completed by the end of 2011, with the construction of training materials to begin in 2012.

IUCN Technical Guidelines on the Management of Ex situ Populations for Conservation In December 2010, the SSC Steering Committee (SC) approved a CBSGled initiative to revise the current IUCN technical guidelines on the management of ex situ populations for conservation. The SC suggested that a drafting group be formed and this process is now underway. Chairs of the Plant, Marine, Invertebrate, and Freshwater Conservation Subcommittees, the Species Conservation Planning Subcommittee, and the Reintroduction Specialist Group have been asked to identify a representative to serve as a member of the drafting group to ensure that the guidelines reflect the considerations of all taxa. Kristin Leus will be CBSG’s point person for this project. She, Kathy Traylor-Holzer, also of CBSG, and Phil McGowan, of the World Pheasant Association and Galliformes SG, are proposed members of the drafting group, and Mike Hoffmann is serving as the SSC SC liaison. Once the drafting group is formed, ideas/ relevant documents/relevant work in progress will be shared and discussed, and a first draft of the revised guidelines will be drafted and circulated to the drafting group for consecutive rounds of comments. Anticipated time line: first draft to the drafting group by mid July, final draft to SSC SC in time for consideration at their winter meeting.


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Use of Virtual Tools for Conservation

Selected Workshop Summaries

CBSG is currently exploring the potential application of web-based tools to enable distant collaborators to work together in real time, sharing sound and vision, and to continue collaboration off-line, sharing documents and discussion space. At present, CBSG is using a combination of VYEW for on-line, and Google Sites for off-line collaboration, but there are other packages available which have the potential to provide a higher quality and more integrated experience for workshop participants. The goal of the CBSG Virtual Tools Review Project is to locate a single application that enables CBSG facilitators to plan, facilitate and report on stakeholder-inclusive conservation planning processes, entirely within the virtual environment.

North American Bumble Bee Workshop

From an initial list of around 200 virtual tools, 60 were selected for review by a small team of potential end-users. In the first round, these tools were tested for the following list of required functions: • ability to see who is in session and who has dropped out • chat option • ability to share: whiteboard, PowerPoint, screen, applications etc. • ability to raise hand, slow down • multiple webcam ability • ability to capture whole session – visuals • up to 40 user capacity • ability to synchronise screen • ability to take notes within session • ability to set presenting/control privileges for participants. A short-list of 15 candidates resulted which, on further and more intensive review has been reduced to a list of six applications which are considered to be the best fit for CBSG’s needs (Elluminate, Adobe Connect, Webex, Spreed, Nefsis and VYEW). By the beginning of July, and subject to a further round of testing, the team will produce a final report on the project, with a clear recommendation for the purchase of one of these applications. With further work on customisation and virtual workshop design, this will become a standard tool for CBSG workshop activities.

Bumble bees are among the most important wild pollinators in both agricultural and natural ecosystems, yet there is growing evidence that some species are suffering precipitous population declines in North America. The decline in several species of formerly common North American bumble bees underscores the need to develop a comprehensive approach to arrest their declining biodiversity. The Saint Louis Zoo hosted an IUCN North American Bumble Bee Species Conservation Strategy Workshop on 9-12 November. A broad coalition of stakeholders concerned with the survival of North American bumble bees participated, including relevant US government agencies, Biobest and Koppert (the two major commercial breeders of bumble bees for agricultural production), bumble bee researchers and conservationists from the USA, Canada, Mexico, the UK, and Japan. Attendees shared information about global bumble bee status, threats, production and policy, and helped identify the issues of concern that may impact the success of bumble bee conservation, and provided general direction for bumble bee conservation in North America. This meeting served as a first step in a long-term collaborative effort toward bumble bee conservation. Products from this meeting will be a North American Bumble Bee Species Conservation Strategy that can be used to guide future research, conservation actions, funding opportunities, and laws and regulations governing the transport of bumble bees and a proposal to establish an IUCN/SSC Bumble Bee Specialist Group that will help to implement and support this and other action plans. The meeting was organized by the St. Louis Zoo, The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation, Dr. Sydney Cameron of the University of Illinois, and Dr. James Strange of the USDA-ARS

Bee Biology and Systematics lab, facilitated by CBSG and funded by the U. S. Department of Agriculture, The Saint Louis Zoo, The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation, The US Forest Service, and Pollinator Partnerships/North American Pollinator Protection Campaign.

Jaguar Conservation Planning Workshop CBSG was contracted by the United States Fish & Wildlife Service to conduct a conservation planning workshop process for the jaguar (Panthera onca) as part of the Service’s recovery planning process for the species. The species is occasionally seen in the southwestern United States, with animals from larger populations in Sonora dispersing northward into suitable habitat in southern Arizona and New Mexico. The first phase of this project consisted of a population viability analysis (PVA) workshop, with members of the Recovery Team’s Technical Subgroup discussing the ecology and demography of jaguars and the habitat that defines the northern portion of the species’ range. Collaborators from the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) worked with CBSG on this project, providing expertise in landscape-scale analysis of species observation records and habitat suitability modeling through the use of GIS tools. The goals of this collaboration are to provide insight into the nature and distribution of suitable jaguar habitat in northern Mexico and southern Arizona and New Mexico, and to use the spatial analysis to inform metapopulation models of jaguar demography to assess the feasibility of jaguar population expansion in northern Mexico and population establishment in the United States.


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DOC 66.10 This effort was followed by a Population and Habitat Viability Assessment (PHVA) workshop in early March, where a broader array of Recovery Team members and other important stakeholders used the results of the PVA and other data to advise the Fish & Wildlife Service on optimal strategies for recovery and management of northern jaguar populations. Through detailed habitat modeling based on historical records of jaguar sighting throughout northern Mexico and the southwestern United States, workshop participants derived estimates of jaguar carrying capacities across the northern portions of the species’ historic range. A revised PVA provided insight into the potential for jaguar population establishment in the United States, which is critically dependent on northward dispersal capabilities across the border fence between the US and Mexico. Additionally, working groups provided detailed recommendations on reducing human – jaguar conflict in northern Mexico, and on research priorities for jaguar habitat ecology and management.

International Studbooks and Global Population Management Discussions Several CBSG HQ and regional network staff participated in 2 one-day discussions organized by WAZA and held at the WAZA Executive Office in Gland, Switzerland 3-4 April. The first workshop focused on the future of International Studbooks, followed by a second meeting to discuss global collection planning and inter-regional population management. These meetings were bracketed by midyear meetings of WAZA’s Committee for Population Management (CPM), CBSG’s Strategic Committee, and the ISIS Board, to take advantage of the gathered body of expertise. The results of these discussions will be reported at the 2011 WAZA Annual Conference in Prague in October, which will have zoo population sustainability as an overarching theme.

Western Chimpanzee PHVA for Sierra Leone

Metings and Workshops November 2010–Sept 2011

Sierra Leone is home to the second largest wild population of the Endangered western chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes verus. More than one half of the country’s estimated 5,580 chimpanzees live outside protected areas, often sharing habitat and resources with local communities, which sometimes leads to conflict. Chimpanzee numbers are declining due to a variety of threats, including hunting for bushmeat and habitat loss/conversion due to agriculture, logging and mining.

PHVA and Species Conservation Planning Workshops

At the invitation of the Sierra Leone Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Food Security, CBSG conducted a Western Chimpanzee Population and Habitat Assessment (PHVA) workshop in Freetown, Sierra Leone on 24-27 May. The workshop was developed in collaboration with the Tacugama Chimpanzee Sanctuary and IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group (PSG), and involved about 50 stakeholders, including government representatives, researchers, and community leaders (chiefs and paramount chiefs) as well as several PSG members. Workshop participants developed a vision for chimpanzees in Sierra Leone and goals and action steps toward achieving this vision, leading ultimately to the development of a National Chimpanzee Conservation Action Plan for Sierra Leone. PVA modeling helped to identify the primary threats faced by chimpanzees, guiding participants toward effective recommendations, and an implementation plan was outlined to promote realization of these recommendations. Participation by the co-Chair of the IUCN/SSC Hippo Specialist Subgroup helped to ensure that recommendations from this workshop integrate well with recommendations from the recently completed action plan for pygmy hippos in Sierra Leone, strengthening the conservation benefit for both species.

• Brazilian Carnivore PVA Planning Meeting, Brazil • Bush Dog PVA, Brazil • Costa Rican Reptiles CAMP, Costa Rica • Giant Otter PVA Planning, Brazil • IUCN/SSC Species Conservation Planning Subcommittee Meeting, UK • Lake Titicaca Frog Conservation Strategy Workshop, Peru • Mesoamerican and Caribbean Manatee PHVA, Costa Rica • North American Bumblebee Species Conservation Strategy, USA • Northern Jaguar Recovery Planning – PVA and PHVA, USA • Puma PVA, Brazil • Rio Grande Silvery Minnow PVA & PVA Technical Meeting, USA • Species Conservation Planning for Wild Cattle & Buffalo, India • Western Chimpanzee PHVA, Sierra Leone

Training Workshops • Kabul Zoo Staff Training at North Indian Zoos, India • Human-Elephant Co-existence Educator Training, Thailand • PMx Overviews, Netherlands & USA • Population Management Training, Australia • SIS Training, Switzerland • Vortex/Conservation Biology Course, Brazil • Wildlife Welfare Educator Training Workshops, India

Tool Development • Disease Risk Assessment Tool Development Workshop, New Zealand • Outbreak User’s Manual Development, USA


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Other Conservation Workshops and Meetings • AAZK Strategic Planning Meeting, USA • Amphibians of the Western Ghats, India • Asian Zoo Educators Conference • AZA Annual Conference, USA • CBSG Regional Networks Virtual Meeting • Emerging Wildlife Conservation Leaders Meeting, USA • Ex-situ Conservation Programs for European Species, Belgium • Feral Animal Population Dynamics Think Tank, USA • Giant Panda Breeding Techniques Annual Conference, China • Global Freshwater Fish Conservation Symposium, UK • Great Ape Cardiovascular Disease Workshop, USA • Herpes in Elephant Workshop, USA • History of Zoos Symposium, UK • Human-Elephant Conflict Resolution Workshops, India & Thailand • Intensive Management of Populations for Conservation, USA • IUCN Freshwater Biodiversity Assessment Workshop, India • SAZARC CBSG/RSG South Asia Annual Conference, Nepal • SSC Steering Committee Meeting, Indonesia • Tapir and Peccary Red Listing Workshop, Brazil • Tiger SSP Masterplan Meeting, USA • USDA Invasive Species Meeting, USA • WAZA Committee for Population Management Meeting, Switzerland • WAZA Future of International Studbooks Meeting, Switzerland • WAZA Global Population Management Discussion, Switzerland • Western Ghats Reptile Red List Workshop, India

CBSG Publications November 2010–Sept 2011 • Asa, C. S., K. Traylor-Holzer and R. C. Lacy. 2011. Can conservationbreeding programmes be improved by incorporating mate choice? International Zoo Yearbook 45: 203-212. • Bolaños, F., G. Chaves, J. E. Rodríguez, B. Young & Y. Matamoros (eds.) 2010. Taller para Revisar la Lista Roja de Anfibios de Costa Rica de la UICN y Evaluación del Cumplimiento de las Acciones de la Estrategia de Conservación de los Anfibios de Costa Rica. 3–4 de agosto, 2010. Escuela de Biología de la Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro, San José, Costa Rica. Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (SSC/IUCN)/CBSG Mesoamerica. • Cameron, S., S. Jepsen, E. Spevak, J. Strange, M. Vaughan, J. Engler, and O. Byers (eds.). CBSG. 2011. North American Bumble Bee Species Conservation Planning Workshop Final Report. IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group: Apple Valley, MN. • CBSG (ed.) 2010. Mountain Bongo Conservation Planning Workshop Report. IUCN/SSC Conservation • Breeding Specialist Group: Apple Valley, MN. • CBSG (ed.) 2010. Waterbird Mortality Research Issues Workshop Summary. IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley, MN. • Hagedorn, M. and O. Byers, 2010. Conserving the World’s Reefs through Live and Frozen Banks. In: Animal Keepers’ Forum Vol 37, no 12. p. 558563. • JGI, TNC, CBSG, FZS, WCS, WDMNRT, TAWIRI, and USFWS. 2011. Tanzania Chimpanzee Conservation Action Planning Workshop Report. Jane Goodall Institute. • Joseph, Sharon, M. Fischer, D. Olson and O. Byers (eds.). CBSG. 2011. Elephant Herpesvirus (EEHV) Workshop Final Report. IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group: Apple Valley, MN.

• Leus, K., K. Traylor-Holzer, and R. C. Lacy. 2011. Genetic and demographic population management in zoos and aquariums: recent developments, future challenges, and opportunities for scientific research. International Zoo Yearbook 45: 213225. • Reading, R. R., T. J. Weaver, J. R. Garcia, R. Elias Piperis, M. T. Herbert, C. Cortez, A. Muñoz, J. E. Rodríguez & Y. Matamoros (eds.) 2011. Tallerpara establecer la Estrategia de Conservación de la Rana del Titicaca (Telmatobius culeus). 13-15 de diciembre, 2011. Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas de la Universidad Nacional del Altiplano, Puno, Perú. Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (SSC/IUCN)/CBSG Mesoamerica. • Traylor-Holzer, K. and J. Ballou. 2011. 2011 Breeding Management Recommendations and Summary of the Status of the Giant Panda Ex situ Population. Report to the Chinese Association of Zoological Gardens; Giant Panda Office, Department of Wildlife Conservation, State Forestry Administration; and Giant Panda Conservation Foundation. IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley, MN. • Traylor-Holzer, K., Tawes, R., Bayless, M., Valenta, A., Rayman, N., and Songsasen, N. (eds.) 2010. Insectivorous Bat Captive Population Feasibility Workshop Report. IUCN/ SSC, Conservation Breeding Specialist Group: Apple Valley, MN.


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International Species Information System (ISIS) Report Roger Stonecipher – CEO

Introduction

Current status

For 37 years, ISIS has provided its members with zoological data collection and sharing software. ISIS does not keep any animals, but ISIS collects the medical, genetic and behavioral data on more than 10,000 species in human care, entered by thousands of scientists who are working to care for and breed endangered animals. These scientists research this data, analyze it and communicate it to one another.

ISIS has introduced the Zoological Information Management System (ZIMS) application to its members. ZIMS represents complete lifetime animal records and health history and automatic updates across the global network. For the first time in the zoological profession, those who use ZIMS will have one, global, lifetime, permanent ID for each animal in their inventory. They will not have to re-enter data once it is put into the ZIMS system the first time. User can use customized reports to save time on permits and annual reports.

ISIS software has become the world standard for zoological record-keeping. ISIS records are accepted and preferred by CITES and other regulatory bodies worldwide; many national governments accept and prefer ISIS ZIMS also represents an evolution in documents for national permits (e.g. best practices, new techniques, difDenmark requires ISIS documents to ferent perspectives, and even a few transfer animals); regional associa“tricks” from thousands of colleagues tions seek ISIS membership for their around the world. members: AZA (North America) is 98% in ISIS; EAZA (Europe) requires ZIMS will contain almost 300 data ISIS membership. standards. This is the first effort after more than 20 years to standardize ISIS membership has grown steadily data in our community. More than since its beginning in 1974. ISIS now 100 subject matter experts from counts more than 800 zoos, aquariacross the globe participated in creatums and related organization in ing ZIMS data standards. This means almost 80 countries as its members. that ZIMS will produce meaningful data for research, reports and queries. Currently, more than 100 institutions are using the ZIMS application; and more than half of ISIS members have satisfied their ZIMS fees and have been scheduled to begin the transition to using the ZIMS application for the daily animal records management. We anticipate that the majority of ISIS members will have the opportunity to use the ZIMS application by the end of 2012.

Looking forward, ZIMS Release 2 veterinarian system is scheduled for release near the end of 2012. This release will include complete clinical records including anesthesia, diagnosis, treatments, hematology/serology, lab test, necropsy, etc. Vets can search for best treatments, dosages, etc. Depending on funding levels, additional ZIMS releases will add functionality, such as automated studbooks – real time, automatic update of studbook data same-day entered into zoo data.


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Amphibian Ark (AArk) Report Kevin Johnson – Taxon Officer

2011 has been another busy year for the Amphibian Ark, with several new and successful awareness-raising initiatives being undertaken, the continuation of our assessment of the conservation needs of threatened amphibians and capacity-building workshops being delivered in range countries. There is of course, much work to be done, and we still risk losing more species without the establishment of additional ex situ amphibian conservation programs. Our Amphibian Conservation Needs Assessment workshops gather together national field experts, government wildlife agency staff, representatives from the ex situ community and other relevant stakeholders, to assess the threats currently being faced by amphibians in each country, and to prioritize each species for a variety of conservation actions to help prevent further losses in the wild. In the last twelve months, we have assessed the amphibians of Japan, Argentina and the Caribbean, with 318 species being assessed during these three workshops. The workshop in the Caribbean included a joint AArk/ IUCN Red List workshop, where species from Dominican Republic, Haiti and Jamaica were also re-assessed for their Red List categories. We hope to have AArk’s assessment process included within the Red List assessment process, to fill the current weakness in the conservation needs assessment area. Discussions are ongoing with various Red List staff and committees about this.

During the assessment workshops, there are often species that are recommended for ex situ rescue or supplementation programs. AArk strongly encourages the establishment of ex situ programs within the range country of the species, using biosecure facilities. One of AArk’s goals is to provide guidance, support and training for ex situ programs, where additional amphibian husbandry expertise is required. AArk staff were involved in four such workshops during the last twelve months, in Madagascar, the USA, Argentina and most recently in Malaysia, where a second workshop was hosted by Zoo Negara, focussing on advanced aspects of husbandry and program management. In 2009, with support from the Turner Foundation and Nipmuc High School, AArk initiated an Amphibian Veterinary Outreach Program (AVOP), where help is provided to range-country programs, allowing them to reach higher levels of success in their breeding programs through on-site training, delivered by experts in amphibian husbandry, veterinary work and population management. In September 2010 and March 2011, the AVOP team spent a week working at PUCE in the Balsa de los Sapos Center in Ecuador, working with the staff at the facility to help isolate, diagnose and treat problems, and to provide advice on health, nutrition and management issues.

Our successful Frog MatchMaker program continues to facilitate new partnerships between amphibian conservation projects in need of support, and organizations that are able to help out by way of providing funds or staff expertise for those projects. Our project database, online at www. FrogMatchMaker.com currently includes forty-eight projects in twenty-three countries on four continents, with requests ranging from just a couple of thousand dollars, to support vital ex situ conservation programs. A great example of amphibian “match-making” has been the partnership which was formed by Denver Zoo with Universidad Peruana Cayetano in Peru and Bolivia, to help save the Lake Titicaca Frog. This project includes population surveys, establishing an ex situ assurance population, captive propagation, holding stakeholder workshops, and a national education campaign about the effects of human consumption on this critically endangered species. Raising awareness of the significance of the global amphibian crisis and the measures being taken to try to overcome it, remains an important and on-going part of AArk’s work. Making people more aware about the consequences of their actions and what they can do to help protect the environment and amphibians will hopefully result in more positive action and wider support for amphibian conservation.


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DOC 66.29 Thanks to the generous time offered to us by three volunteers, we have been able to distribute four editions of our quarterly electronic newsletter in Spanish as well as in English during the past twelve months. This initiative is benefitting supporters and our colleagues in Spanish-speaking countries, where some of the most threatened amphibian species occur. Currently, just over 6,000 people subscribe to the AArk’s newsletter. Our new web site has grown considerably, and it now contains over 120 pages. In the last year we’ve been strengthening information about establishing best practice ex situ conservation programs and following correct biosecurity protocols. We are very grateful to Oceanário de Lisboa for their very generous support in translating the entire AArk web site into Portuguese. Approximately thirty percent of the web site has been translated into Spanish, and about twenty percent into German, and we are keen to complete these translations. If you know of anyone who would be willing to help with either some Spanish or German translations, please let us know!

Early in 2011 we launched a new Facebook page, www.facebook.com/ AmphibianArk. Although the old Amphibian Ark Facebook profile had over 2,200 “friends”, we were keen to establish an organization-level page on Facebook, since these pages provide for better communication, distribution of information, and capture new audiences through our fans’ recommendations to their friends. We currently have 737 people that “like” our new page, and this number is growing on a daily basis. We make use of this form of social media to post at least one or two amphibian conservation related posts every couple of days. Another very successful internet project that AArk has become involved in is the Global Amphibian Blitz (www.inaturalist.org/projects/globalamphibian-blitz), an online database of global amphibian observations, which can be submitted by scientists and amateur naturalists with an interest in amphibians in the wild. The project is supported by seven amphibian organizations, and aims to gather in situ observations of every species of amphibian in the world. These observations will provide valuable data on the existence of amphibian populations around the globe.

A very successful international amphibian photography competition was held during the first quarter of 2011, with 950 entries from 52 countries being submitted. A panel of six international judges reviewed these images, with the top twelve being selected for inclusion in AArk’s 2012 wall calendar. The calendar, featuring these spectacular images has been produced and is now available for sale via the AArk’s web site (www. amphibianark.org/2012-calendar/). As always, AArk staff are a key part of coordinating our amphibian conservation efforts, and we acknowledge the generous support of the CBSG, Chester Zoo and the Woodland Park Zoo for supporting some of our staff and/or providing office space for them.


October 2011 | Prague

2nd Plenary Prague, 5 October 2011 Start at 11.30 am | End at 1.30 pm

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Conservation and Sustainability Committee Report Rick Barongi – Chair

In October 2010, the WAZA Council appointed Rick Barongi as the new Chair for the Conservation and Sustainability Committee to replace the retired Jo Gipps. Jo served as the first and only chair of this committee and was instrumental in producing the 2005 World Zoo and Aquarium Strategy (WZACS).

The achievements, goals and priorities for this committee (as discussed in previous meetings) are:

• Review and update the 2005 WZACS document so it is more relevant to new global challenges such as climate change, collection sustainability, human population growth and water shortages. A small working The committee is currently comprised group was appointed to address this of 19 members representing all the action item at the Koln meeting, led regions of WAZA (see attached memby Chris West. ber list). The goal of the commit• Sustainability – Differentiate in tee has not changed and is to drive terms of environmental initiatives the conservation and sustainability and collection sustainability and agenda of WAZA and its members, as work closely with the CPM Commitwell as provide for the (field) consertee to delineate responsibilities. vation committee’s of WAZA regional • Conservation contribution – Develassociation members. op methodology to better quantify the collective contribution that all our WAZA members make for in situ conservations efforts. • UN Decade on Biodiversity, 20112020 – Endorse the WAZA resolution supporting this program and develop and communicate biodiversity conservation programs for our members to share and communicate with their staff and guests. • CBSG – Continue to work closely with CBSG to synergize efforts and maximize results. • Conservation Branding – Continue to expand and improve this marketing tool for WAZA organizations. • Conservation Resource Website – Launched the first version of this very important tool for all WAZA members.

The next meeting of the C&S Committee is scheduled for 6 October 2011 in Prague.


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Committee for Population Management (CPM) Dave Morgan and Markus Gusset

Global Species Management

International Studbooks Purpose Statement

With the international zoo community’s focus on sustainable animal management programs, the WAZA Committee for Population Management (CPM) has been especially busy over the course of the year. During the mid-year meetings at the WAZA Executive Offices in Gland, Switzerland in April 2011, an additional three days of discussion and meetings were tacked onto the usual one day meeting of CPM for the express purpose of determining practical solutions and options for sustainable program management through regional cooperation under the auspices to the Global Species Management Plan. CPM meeting attendance was consequently greatly expanded with the addition of technical population managers from the regional associations.

An international studbook dataset is an accurate, global database that is compiled, maintained, distributed and analysed in a timely fashion, so that it is suitable for contributing to the (inter-) regional management of intensively managed (ex situ) animal populations.

Following the normal administrative CPM meeting a two-day workshop tackled the issue of studbook-based global population management, which lies at the heart of successful conservation breeding programs aimed at preserving biodiversity. Participants included around 20 representatives of all major regional zoo associations, individual zoos, the IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG), the International Species Information System (ISIS) and WAZA. The first day of the workshop, facilitated by Onnie Byers, started with drafting a statement on the purpose of international studbooks (ISBs) and developing a flow chart of the ISB process, followed by three working group discussions on the establishment of ISBs for priority taxa; the promotion of ISB data quality and the use of ISBs for inter-regional management.

International Studbooks Flow Chart institutional records = current but less ISIS/non ISIS comprehensive

species selection and prioritisation ISB document

ISB keeper

ISB dataset

= formal publication at given moment in time

assemble, verify, amend, edit and validate data research, etc. assumptions, etc. documented but not published

analytical analyses studbook management regional and institutional plan any level of wants and management needs

on the intensity continuum

The establishment of ISBs for priority taxa Basic criteria were formulated to this end that take into account: • Pre-existing husbandry procedures that must be relatively easy to apply in multiple settings in multiple regions. • Longer term programs. • Large populations needed relative to what can be maintained in one region.

• Ability in terms of resources to keep a meaningful part of the population. • Legal ability to move animals between regions. • Supportive Range state authorities. • Adequate or potentially adequate founder base. • Animal ownership issues do not compromise global population management. • Good presence in more than one region. • Link to in situ conservation. • Opportunity to include developing region(s). • Commitment and ability from a region/person to run the program. Some immediate, short-term action points were developed from this: • Identification of the “CPM 6” – six species to start with (two per region in EAZA, Association of Zoos and Aquariums [AZA] and Zoo and Aquarium Association [ZAA] Australasia) by 4 April 2011; at least one non-threatened. • Look at current ISBs and check for necessary characteristics of ISB/GSMP species. CPM action by WAZA Annual Conference in Prague in October 2011. • Look at existent regional programs and check against characteristics, see if they would benefit from global management – to identify potentially new GSMPs. CPM action by WAZA Annual Conference in Melbourne in October 2012 at the latest.


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The promotion of ISB data quality This working group addressed several issues related to ensuring quality data in ISB datasets. These issues were grouped into two categories for discussion: • Metrics for evaluating data quality (both studbook and ISIS data) and evaluation process. • People-related issues that lead to poor data quality. • Evaluation of data quality: • In order to evaluate data quality, it is important to recognise the purpose and use of the dataset. The purpose dictates the level and type of data quality needed. The primary goal for ISB datasets is for the quality (including accuracy, completeness and currentness) to be suitable for inter-regional population management. Adequate data would support individual-level recommendations (genetic level) and immediate population planning (demographic level). To achieve this, the following is needed: • Promote data quality sufficient for population-level management. • For individual/group-level recommendations, promote compilation of life table information sufficient to guide immediate population goals and pedigree information to guide breeding recommendations. • Before the data quality of ISB datasets can be evaluated, the following needs to be addressed: • Identify the metrics to be measured (see below). • Define the quality of data needed (based on these metrics) to meet various purposes for which the data are suitable. • Identify the high priority studbooks on which to begin the evaluation process. • Identify who will evaluate the studbooks, how and when.

Data quality metrics: Poor data quality can be due to inaccurate (suspect) data or missing data. In some cases missing data may be available to improve data quality, while in other cases the data may never be obtainable. Potential metrics identified by the group are: • Small population size. • Number of institutions. • Number of regions. • Percentage of institutions reporting and by a certain time (currentness); also percentage of collection for that species at that institution; look at how many are current, how many current as of certain time such as one year ago, etc.; feedback to directors and zoo associations for non-responders to studbook update requests. • Scope of data vs. expected scope (certain institutions or regions are missing from the dataset). • Confirmed contact with institutions. • Currentness date (and last event date). • Percentage of pedigree that is unknown (percentage of gene pool unknown; number of living animals with at least one unknown [UNK] parent; date of unknown [UNK] ancestors – how far back?). • Births to unknown age parents. • Unknown birth dates. • Percentage of specimens that lost-to-follow up vs. percentage of deaths. • Percentage of unknown sex. • Sample size in life tables. • Impossible event check (inter-birth interval, sex, etc.). • Survival probability (Lx) at end of the life table. • Duplicate data. • Early mortality recorded. • Age outliers. • In general, the Data Validation Tools provided in the software. • Number of events occurring on 1 January or 1 July. • Artificial deaths (e.g. no lost-to-follow up, peak in mortality at certain age). • Evidence of abandoned demography (i.e. little historical data) (look for percentage of non-reproductive animals over time).

ISIS data-specific: • Unknown birth dates. • No events recorded within last three years. Some of these suggested metrics are or could be included in PMx. The most important metric may be the percentage of pedigree unknown; this number needs to be established. It should be made available in ISIS data in three places: • Footer on specimen report (for individuals). • Average for group of taxa. • Average for institutional collection. • Hopefully, this will drive people to improve pedigree information. There is a risk, however, that data will be artificially created to show “improvement” in the pedigree but that these data will not be accurate. This metric could replace the linkage rate. Once the metrics have been agreed upon and the data quality needed for various uses has been defined, the following steps are recommended to deal with the issues of data quality: 1. Conduct evaluation of studbook data quality. 2. Advertise the evaluation results (the studbook keeper being the primary target). 3. Point out specific problems and concerns in the dataset. 4. Indicate the appropriate use (s) of the data (based on level of data quality). 5. Indicate how to improve the data (e.g. provide a decision tree or a list of issues and what to do about them; arrange mentoring). 6. Arrange training if needed (on-site or remote). CPM is the responsible entity for evaluating ISBs to determine the appropriate use of the data (i.e. adequate for population management or not, etc.). Based on the evaluation, CPM could articulate the possible application and limitations of the studbook (i.e. data quality good enough for x and y).


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Improving data quality: There are many potential factors that can lead to poor data quality in regional and international studbooks, all of which are people-related issues. These include: • Insufficient expertise (lack of training, lack of mentors, lack of training opportunities within region). • Lack of ISB training specific to ISB keepers (which may differ from regional requirements). • Insufficient resources (computer hardware, software, internet access). • Insufficient time allotted to work on studbook. • Lack of institutional support/value placed on studbooks. • Lack of institutional and personal accountability. • Language differences (software and manual comprehension issues; hinders communication with other regions for gathering data). • Lack of animal records (illiteracy among zoo staff, lack of hardware/ software, lack of training, lack of reliable individual identification, difficulties to immobilise animals to mark them, funding issues, etc.). • Unwillingness of institutions to share data. • Small percentage of trained registrars/record keepers (frequent turnover, leaving many untrained). • Turnover of studbook keepers. • Incomplete buy-in to population management on the regional zoo association level (as opposed to population management commitment by individual zoo [s] within the region). • Interest in the status of the ISB position vs. interest in the utility/conservation benefit of studbook data. Some of these issues (e.g. insufficient time, frequent turnover) occur in all regions, even those with a longstanding history of population management and formal training courses. Many of these factors, however, are especially problematic for regions that are recently developing their ex situ population management expertise, strategies and structure, and for which a network of regional technical support is not yet in place.

In these cases, the following are needed for both successful ISBs and for population management: • Understanding and acceptance of population management principles and strategies (at the zoo association level and also at the level of key zoo staff, e.g. directors, curators, veterinarians). • Basic animal record keeping, including individual specimen identification. • Studbook keeping expertise and technical support. CPM has developed a set of training and mentoring guidelines to help guide parts of this process of supporting the development of studbook keeping and training expertise within other regions. The working group ran short on time and was not able to develop these ideas fully, but came up with following comments and ideas for potential action: • Recognition systems could increase the profile and value placed on studbooks (e.g. recognise institutions for hosting ISBs, WAZA could recognise zoo associations for hosting ISBs, certificates for training). • Isolated training courses often are not successful in terms of immediate results, but over time they can contribute to developing acceptance and expertise. • While there may be some success in teaching remotely, it is probably more useful to mentor in person working with studbook keepers on their own data, and then do additional mentoring remotely. • Training or informational overviews might be tied in with other big meetings. • Scholarships to AZA Academy are possible if there is a strong tie to their programs. • WAZA Training Grant is another funding source. • Be proactive, in terms of soliciting new studbooks that should be established, and assisting existing ones. • Encourage regional studbook keepers to talk to each other. Data sharing needs to be timely to meet other regions’ timelines.

• Trial GSMPs maybe most successful if they have people that are motivated and doing a good job now. • Video training programs offer some exciting options • CBSG is compiling a database of potential trainers and mentors (including their expertise in various topics and taxa, languages spoken, past experience and contacts in various countries or regions) to help pair requests for training or remote advice/mentoring with individuals who might be able to assist.

Use of International Studbooks for Inter-regional Management Two primary issues had already been pre-identified at the CPM meeting the day before: • Identification of priority ISBs for global management (e.g. priority species with ISB, at least two management programs in existence) • Current and future role of GSMPs. • If there is an existing ISB, what are the criteria for those ISBs to be appropriate as a GSMP? It was decided by CPM in autumn 2010 that AZA, EAZA and ZAA (the three regions with established population management advisors/staff) would manage pilot programs – two per region. In order to get an idea of what international programs need to succeed, two successful programs that are operating internationally were examined. Golden lion tamarin program: • Described as a “top down” program. • Initially the golden lion tamarins were owned by the stakeholders (zoos). • The group formed a management committee that included all of the stakeholders. • Zoos that joined had to sign a Memorandum of Agreement (MoA) and it was understood that breeding and transfer recommendations were mandated.


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DOC 66.13 • Ownership of all animals was transferred to the Brazilian government. This coincided with a switch in focus to in situ management and conservation. • Includes Brazil, EAZA, ZAA and AZA, and Jon does the population planning. • Why does this program work? • Strong management committee – ownership, participating regions, officers. • Mandated recommendations. • Representatives voted on to make a small group. • Institutions are supportive and invested in acquiring husbandry knowledge and expertise. • Full-time staff position for program. • Recognised as a global program – helps prestige (conservation, reintroduction, etc.). • Considered a sustainable population. • What are the obstacles? • It is important that the range/ownership countries value the population management aspect of the program. Otherwise, it can be harder to move animals and get data. • Data collection, compliance to recommendations can be difficult, or the delay in doing these. • Early growth of the population was confined to small group of zoos that had expertise. • Species-specific husbandry knowledge varies between regions/zoos, hard to find dedicated “breeding zoos”.

Red panda program: • Described as a “bottom up” program. • Regions are autonomous and then globally communicated over (as opposed to golden lion tamarins where there is one global population that is managed as one). • Regions set carrying capacity goals and then they globally evaluate potentially moving animals. • AZA, EAZA, ZAA, Japanese Association of Zoos and Aquariums (JAZA), India are participating. • Why does this program work? • Good communication among regional coordinators including a few stakeholder meetings. • Able to draft an initial global master plan. • Created a global forum. • Holistic conservation approach helped. • Gets the regional keepers to send data (no full-time employee like golden lion tamarins). • What are the obstacles? • The initial informal agreement made it easier to start up as it was not intimidating. However, this later became an obstacle in that no MoA led to poorer compliance. • Differences in regional and institutional expertise/husbandry. • Distance – face-to-face, in person meetings are critical. Phone, e-mail, Internet are not sufficient. • What are commonalities between both different types of global programs? • Creation of a master plan. • Institutional support in husbandry/ expertise. • Holistic program. • Resources (population planner, data gathering, submitting). • Program recognition. • Global forum meeting – strong stakeholder involvement/engagement, ownership of animals may play a role. • Program leader expertise/communications. • Compliance/cooperation/participation. • Continuity of representatives of certain political regions, also continuity of resources/knowledge. • Defining goals for the program.

Other kinds of programs: If there is no established regional program, potentially start from scratch with a population where it is not established in multiple regions to create global population that is globally driven. The program may go straight to globally managed and bypass regional associations. There are likely other models that fall between these types of programs that we need to be careful to look into – there is potential everywhere.

Identifying goals of GSMPs: • All GSMPs should have clearly defined goals. In addition to process, these will be important when evaluating the program’s success and in providing a guide for the future. • Should all international collaborations go through WAZA/CPM or only GSMPs? If two regions are working together, what is the added value of becoming a GSMP? • When does an agreement/collaboration go from collaboration to a formal GSMP? There are benefits to both kinds of arrangements. • Should there be set standard goals for all GSMPs? Or should each GSMP define its own goals that are specific to that population? • Should GSMPs require a conservation component? • Is management alone enough to establish a GSMP? Who should set the goals for GSMPs? • The community of zoos that participate in the GSMP and WAZA? • The species coordinators within each region? • The conservation community? • The owners of the animals? • Suggested primary goals of GSMPs: • Ex situ population sustainability. • How do you define sustainability? Does it need to be defined broadly across the board or should each GSMP define its own sustainability goals? • Is the goal simply to create a sustainable ex situ population where that cannot be achieved through regional management alone? • Maintain or increase current gene diversity. • Stewardship.


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Suggested secondary goals of GSMPs: • Species conservation. • Capacity building. • Tie to range countries and encourage “conservation in backyard”. • Increase awareness. • The goal of GSMPs is to manage populations in zoos sustainably and with the potential to contribute to the conservation of those species in the wild, either now or in the future (e.g. Tasmanian devil). The goal could be that a sustainable population exists ex situ that may one day contribute to in situ conservation. If only “at-risk” programs are managed, then there is a risk of future problems later when the in situ status changes. When is creating GSMPs beneficial? Where there are global sustainability and/or conservation goals and where these cannot be delivered by the regional associations acting independently. Potentially create a flow chart of potential roles and run a program through the flow chart. How many different roles/criteria does a program need to fulfil in order to qualify as a GSMP? More questions/thoughts to consider when establishing new GSMPs and defining goals: • Can any ISB petition to be a GSMP? Who petitions and to whom do they petition? • Can non-ISBs petition to become GSMPs before becoming an ISB? • Should GSMPs be only for threatened species? Or species with declining habitat? • Do we need to define sustainability and conservation potential in order to help GSMPs define their goals? • We should examine metapopulation management – the continual exchange between zoo and wild population –, including looking at extractive reserves and sustainable imports. We should not be too stringent in our approach and realise all of our options.

• Next steps: Succession planning is critical: • Identify the steps/mechanisms to • Support officers/program leaders so establish a GSMP (perhaps from an that they continue to maintain their ISB or perhaps not). leadership roles. • Define the ideal populations – • Even with enough support, outside where the wild population is not forces (political, economical, etc.) sustainable, then we ought to be affect continuity in leadership. If this managing the captive population happens, a region’s participation that is sustainable into the long may be lost. term so that it may be able to supplement the wild population if A strong commitment to global needed. cooperation in the management of • Identify additional success variables. animal populations in human care • Define what a successful GSMP emerged from this workshop. The might mean – demonstrate its value. following day the CPM regional as• Evaluation of what makes a global sociations’ representatives met again program a success. How do we defor the specific purpose of identifying fine success and success factors? core candidate GSMP species and to • Define ways to overcome hurdles. define selection criteria of the same Need to consider: • Capacity building/mentoring/succession planning. Selection Criteria for Future Global Species • Population management – percepManagement Plans tion of it, its value and reality of doing it. • Ability of program to maintain conIt was decided to test the selection tinuity in program leadership and and prioritisation criteria as were participants. discussed during the ISB workshop. • Degree that all representatives These criteria will be applied to all within the GSMP are active, benefit- currently existing ISBs as an exercise ting, etc. within the program. to consider which of the ISBs might be a candidate for global management.

Capacity building group discussion:

It is very important to encourage, assist, train and mentor regions to increase their management framework to increase their ability to effectively participate in a global program. Need to increase capacity of these regions in order to truly enable global community. It is important to remember the importance of communication, and following up on training and meetings, if we are to effectively increase capacity. It was suggested that, as the community is trying to manage species that are frequently in ranges of the zoo associations that are not as involved in formal population management, that they be given assistance in realising their goals as stakeholders in the preservation of their native wildlife.

CPM will endeavour to have the final criteria ready and all current ISBs assessed before the CPM meeting at the WAZA Annual Conference in Prague in October 2011.


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Process of Selecting the “CPM 6”

Finally, the three regions that will take on the responsibility for the initial six trial GSMPs were asked to put forward potential candidate GSMP species.

Following discussion within CPM, a protocol was adopted to the effect that the three larger regional associations who employ full-time populaZAA proposed: tion managers (AZA, EAZA and ZAA) 21. Yellow-footed rock wallaby would commit to managing two “trial” 22. Little penguin GSMP species each. The species that were discussed as potential GSMP AZA proposed: candidates were taken from a spread- 23. Kiwi sheet that provided information 24. Black rhino on species managed in the various regions; the type of management as EAZA proposed: well as the IUCN threat status of the 25. Komodo dragon listed species. 26. Mauritius pink pigeon The following filter criteria were used to select the species: • Existence of an ISB. • Intensive management in at least three regions This led to 16 species that were more or less randomly discussed by the workshop participants as to whether or not they could potentially be a GSMP candidate: 1. Cheetah 2. Addax 3. Red panda 4. White rhino 5. Przewalski’s horse 6. Western lowland gorilla 7. Golden lion tamarin 8. African wild dog 9. Scimitar-horned oryx 10. Sumatran tiger 11. Sumatran orang-utan 12. Bornean orang-utan 13. Cotton-top tamarin 14. Eastern bongo 15. Snow leopard 16. Black and white ruffed lemur After these 16 species we made some changes to the selection criteria by leaving ZAA out but with a condition that there needs to be one program in at least one other region in addition to AZA and EAZA. The led to one additional species: 17. Red crowned crane 18. Okapi 19. Bonobo 20. Partula snails

From the 26 species that were discussed those that were marked as a potential GSMP candidate were revisited and each region was asked to vote whether the species should end up on the short list (yes) or not (no). A species needed at least two votes to end up on the short list for selecting the “CMP 6”. This process led to the following short list: • Red crowned crane • Partula snails • Golden lion tamarin • Red panda • Eastern bongo • Addax • Przewalski’s horse • Scimitar-horned oryx • Sumatran orang-utan • Okapi • Blue-crowned laughing thrush • Black rhino • Yellow-footed rock wallaby • Mauritius pink pigeon • Little penguin Four species received votes from all three regions and these are presented in red. It was decided that these four together with the previously approved Javan gibbon and Sumatran tiger GSMPs would be proposed to be the “CPM 6” trial GSMP species.

In conclusion, the proposed six trial GSMP species are: • Sumatran tiger (EAZA) • Red panda (EAZA) • Javan gibbon (ZAA) • Yellow-footed rock wallaby (ZAA) • Blue-crowned laughing thrush (AZA) • Golden lion tamarin (AZA) The other 11 species will remain on the so-called short list so each of the regions can discuss the need and potential for these species becoming GSMPs at a future stage back home. The regions will report back on this during the next CPM meeting in April 2012. At this time, many of the elements discussed above remain very much “work in progress”. An update of all progress within the regions will be presented at the Sustainable Collections workshop in Prague, October 2011. The new, expanded CPM also decided not to formally meet in Prague in October to allow sufficient time for program development within the regions. The next meeting of the committee has been scheduled for April 2012 in Buenos Aires to correspond with the normal WAZA mid-year meeting of Council.


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International studbooks report for the period from 1 September 2010 to 31 August 2011

Transfer of ISBs to new keepers:

• On 21 September 2010, CPM approved the transfer of the Mauritius Markus Gusset, WAZA International pink pigeon (Columba mayeri) ISB Studbook Coordinator to Harriet Good (Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust, UK). In the period from 1 September 2010 • On 15 November 2010, CPM apto 31 August 2011, no international proved the transfer of the white rhistudbooks (ISBs) were archived, one noceros (Ceratotherium simum) ISB new ISB was established, nine ISBs to Joe Christman (Disney’s Animal were transferred to new keepers, no Kingdom, USA). ISBs were transferred to new insti• On 22 November 2010, CPM aptutions and four further decisions proved the transfer of the black regarding ISBs were taken. At the end rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) ISB to of the reporting period, two issues Christian Kern (Berlin Animal Park, were pending. There are currently 121 Germany). active ISBs, including 159 species or • On 22 November 2010, CPM apsub-species (some ISBs cover more proved the transfer of the gaur (Bos than one taxon). gaurus) ISB to André Schüle (Berlin Zoo, Germany). • On 8 February 2011, CPM approved the transfer of the Pallas’ cat (Felis ISBs archived: manul) ISB to David Barclay (Highland Wildlife Park, UK). • None • On 2 April 2011, CPM approved the transfer of the fishing cat (Proinailurus viverrinus) ISB to Milada Petru ISBs established: (Decin Zoo, Czech Republic). • On 2 May 2011, CPM approved the • On 9 September 2010, CPM aptransfer of the black-footed cat proved the establishment of the Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) (Felis nigripes) ISB to André Stadler ISB, kept by Tom Ness (Minnesota (Wuppertal Zoo, Germany). Zoo, USA). • On 8 June 2011, CPM approved the transfer of the Oriental white stork (Ciconia boyciana) ISB to Naoya Ohashi (Tama Zoological Park, Japan). • On 14 June 2011, CPM approved the transfer of the Chilean pudu (Pudu puda) ISB to André Stadler (Wuppertal Zoo, Germany).

Transfer of ISBs to new institutions: • None

Further decisions: • On 14 September 2010, the case of the blue-throated macaw (Ara glaucogularis) ISB was closed, as issues with data management had been solved. • On 15 October 2010, data management issues for the ruffed lemurs (Varecia spp.) were solved, as the ISB was submitted. • On 2 April 2011, CPM decided not to archive the muskox (Ovibos moschatus) ISB. • On 27 July 2011, CPM decided not to replace Jo Gipps (previously Bristol Zoo Gardens) as the co-keeper of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) ISB and that Xie Zhong (Chinese Association of Zoological Gardens) should serve as the sole ISB keeper for this species. • Pending issues: • As of 31 August 2011, the Edward’s pheasant (Lophura edwardsi) ISB and the Vietnamese pheasant (Lophura hatinhensis) ISB are vacant.


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International Zoo Educators Association (IZE) Kathy Lenhardt

Membership

IZE Website Update

IZE has a total of 227 members. This includes 95 members from 27 institutional memberships, 26 associate members, and 105 full members. Membership, breakdown by category

New items

• IZE created and posted criteria for those seeking a recommendation by IZE on research projects. The Research Project Guidelines are posted under the Resource tab. Membership Number of Members Category • Two new institutions were added to Associate Members 26 the Programs in Action page – uShFull Members 105 aka Sea World in South Africa and Institutional 27 institutions, the Mysore Zoo in India. Members a total of 96 members • The Disneynature African Cats EduTotal 227 cators Guide was added to EducaMembership Totals, tional Materials. breakdown by month • As part of the UN’s International Year of the Forest includes an overMonth Number of Members view of forests ecosystems, lesson January 31,103 plans, and activities on the forests February 28,130 and the animals found in that area. March 31,152 A fun table of conservation actions April 30,178 to help forests, related articles, and May 31,112 an overview of special events hapJune 30,214 pening at our member institutions. July 31,221 These pages are on our top 5 most August 31,227 visited on the website. Total 227 • Regional representatives’ updates • After administration events of 2010 were posted in February. our membership list needed rework- • Jone Porter, Regional Representaing. From January 2011, IZE memtive for Africa, compiled a recap that bership grew by 220% summarizes the presentations and • IZE hosted a membership campaign learnings from the PAAZAB Conferduring the first part of 2010. All ence. members from 2010 received an email in December, informing them that as of the 2010 IZE conference, all IZE membership was based on a calendar year, from January 1–December 31, with a gratis period of October 1 from the previous year. This email asked all members who had not renewed to renew, and provided information on how to do so. A second call for renewal was in the January newsletter. The third email, in a new format using an embedded image, not just a PDF attachment, was sent on February 19.

• Meena Nareshwar, Regional Representative for South Asia, has been supplying her “ceenario” Newsletters, a recap of the Centre for Environmental Education’s recent work. Meena also wrote a recap on the South Asia Conservation Education Network Retreat, held in October 2010. • The IZE membership list continues to be updated on a regular basis, generally monthly or as need arises. • The Interpretation Course Manual was posted as a tremendous training resource for conservation educators around the world. • The Conservation Education Course Manual, adapted from the AZA Course, was posted as another tremendous resource for international training of conservation educators.


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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

/world/africa.htm /education/year%20of%20the%20forests-combined%20paper%20crafts.pdf / Home page /education/Education%20Materials/Habitat%20&%20Adaptations%20lesson%20plan.pdf /education/journal%2046%202010-compressed.pdf /education/dak%20interp%20manual-copyrighted%20keeper%20manual.pdf /education/Treasures%20in%20the%20Sea.pdf /education/Gorillas%20Education%20Kit_Czeck.pdf /education/yog-Gorilla%20Resource%20Kit%202009-Spanish.pdf /education/Trends%20in%20Zoo%20and%20Aquarium%20Exhibit%20Interpretation.pdf

Website Statistics • From January 1-August 29, the site had 126,665 sessions with a daily average of 525.58 sessions. • During the same time the site had 397,251 pageviews with a daily average of 1,648.34 pageviews. • The top ten pages were (see table above)

IZE on Facebook IZE created a Facebook page, which was created in the hopes of driving more traffic to the IZE website.

International Year of the Forest Celebration In the first half of the year, IZE Board members joined forces to celebrate the UN’s International Year of the Forest by creating an on-line resource of forest lesson plans and conservation actions. A variety of forest ecosystems including bamboo forests of China, rainforests of Colombia and Uganda and mangrove forests of the U.S., form the foundation of lesson plans from each of these regions. Conservation educators find content, activities and worksheets to use at their own facilities.

Conservation Education and Interpretation Training Tools On-line Two excellent international training resources have been posted on the IZE website. Disney’s Interpretation Course Manual and the Conservation Education Training Course Manual. Each of these courses have been adapted for use in Africa and China. With these tools in hand, educators can use the manuals as is or customize them to specific regions. Disney’s Interpretation Course is adapted from the National Association of Interpretation and has been customized to Disney’s Animal Kingdom site and Disney’s delivery methods. It includes Tilden’s Principles, 20 Skills of a Great Environmental Interpreter and ends with a section on Passionate and Professional Interpreters. The Conservation Education Course Manual is adapted from the Association of Zoos and Aquariums’ professional development course. It is an excellent compilation of topics and content critical to every conservation educator around the world. AZA has generously given IZE permission for posting of this version on-line.

Pageviews Percent 45,174 11.37% 25,769 6.49% 21,883 6.49% 14,020 3.53% 11,299 2.84% 10,423 2.62% 7,998 2.01% 6,159 1.55% 6,123 1.54% 5,028 1.27%

Decade of Biodiversity A general discussion among the IZE Board has generated much positive interest in building awareness around this important topic.


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Regional Updates Latin America

Sandra Gómez – Santa Cruz Zoo

Lesson Plans for Forest Wildlife During the first period of the year a lesson plan was submitted to IZE as part of the International Year of the Forest celebration. This Colombian lesson plan, established for school programs and community work, includes themes on recycling, environmental education materials pertaining to threatened fauna and flora species and flyers that reflect the reverent use of the forest and social components in our cultures.

Decade of Biodiversity It will be important to connect all the regional associations with the Decade for Biodiversity campaign to establish consistent wildlife messages and goals in order to produce a major impact in our Latin American zoos. This topic will be submitted at the next ALPZA Congress in 2012 for discussion.

AZA Conservation Education Course Latin America had a great participation at the AZA Conservation Education Course running in Wheeling, West Virginia U.S.A., from 7th to 11 February, 2011. Representatives from Mexico, Ecuador, Brazil and Colombia were selected as AZA scholarship recipients sharing their education experience with professional’s educators from a variety of U.S. zoos and aquariums. This excellent course offered information about environmental education techniques, evaluation, types of audience and program development. This course provided a great opportunity to meet other Latin America educators and to learn about their experiences.

9th Environmental

Interpreters Conference and 5th International Workshop of Environmental Education, and IZE Latin American Meeting With enthusiastic zoo educators from several Latin American zoos, along with IZE members, we are planning to run an IZE Latin American meeting in 2012. This event will take place in Pereira-Colombia, during the annual Environmental Interpreters Conference. Included will be lectures from International zoo educators and our regional zoo educators. The meeting will include a work session for IZE to discuss future plans, structure and development of an action plan for the IZE Latin American educators.

Improve the IZE Latin American Memberships During the last months I will attempt to improve the IZE membership through the Latin American Zoos by posting the IZE flyer in Spanish on the web sites of the Colombian Zoos Association including a translations in Spanish of the ‘Become an IZE member’ section to convey the benefits of an IZE membership. New contacts and a data base of the Latin American Zoos educators had been constructed and a communication had been done between the Zoo educators, to transmit the IZE message, and increase the Latin American IZE members.

Australasia Report

By Sean Coleman – Melbourne Zoo (Zoos Victoria)

2011 has proven to be an exciting year for Zoos in Australia, as the push for mandatory labelling of palm oil has taken another huge step forward. On 23rd June, the Truth in Labelling – Palm Oil Bill was passed through the Senate. The Bill now goes to the House of Representatives for consideration. Zoos around the region are asking visitors and students to take action by writing to their Federal MP and expressing their desire for this Bill to be passed. The campaign is still a focus for education programs around the region, with students being challenged to write letters to their MP’s and favourite food manufacturers. Jane Goodall attended Melbourne Zoo for a two-part visit, beginning with the International Year of the Forests Youth Summit. The Summit saw schools from across Melbourne showcasing their conservation and sustainability successes, followed by an address from Dr. Goodall. The attending schools, including the Victorian School for the Deaf, received much media attention, as did Dr. Goodall’s second part to the visit, a forum with IZE President Elect, Rachel Lowry, and Dario Merlo (Program Manager for JGI in the DRC). Wellington Zoo (NZ) have been running an interesting program for the last four years, which may be of particular interest to those keen on furthering their involvement in the biodiversity field. Bush Builders is a successful community conservation program which links a Zoo educator directly with students to improve their understanding of biodiversity, and identifying potential actions for them to improve it.


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Wellington Zoo has also broadened their approach and curriculum reach by designing a secondary Social Sciences program themed around the Treaty of Waitangi in relation to the Zoo. They have also found their animal hospital, The Nest – Te Kohanga, has proven to be a valuable engagement tool for informal and formal visitor learning experiences. Taronga Training Institute (Taronga Zoo, NSW), will be facilitating workshop on Thursday 13th and Friday 14th of October. The Conservation Communication Workshop is a twoday event designed for participants to apply their collective minds to conservation issues. Clearly Australia hasn’t completely mastered the art of conservation communication because we are on the bottom of all OECD countries in terms of green behaviour. The workshop will give participants the opportunity to hear about new concepts and begin building networks in the industry. Facilitated by Dr Tammie Matson, Zoologist and Author, and Dr Rebecca Spindler, Manager of Research and Conservation at Taronga, there will also be four guest speakers. Wayne Walter from Perth Zoo (WA) has been working on a wonderful initiative, Perth Zoo’s Global Forest Project. A way to connect people worldwide with their love and passion for forests, it utilises a Facebook photo album. At the time of writing, over 100 images from location in 14 countries have been submitted. Rachel Lowry (IZE President Elect) has moved into a new role at Zoos Victoria, and now occupies the position of General Manager, Wildlife Conservation and Science (WC&S). Not shy of tackling huge tasks, Rachel and the entire WC&S team have identified that without conservation intervention, 20 species endemic to south-eastern Australia could be lost in the next ten years. Zoos Victoria will ensure that no more Victorian terrestrial vertebrate species become extinct.

African Regional Report

By Jone Porter – Ushaka Sea World, South Africa

Animal Keeper Training Certificate Programme Development – developed for the industry by the industry The African Zoo and Aquarium Association has been inundated for years to provide a specific certified Animal Keeper Training programme for the Zoo and Aquarium industry, particularly for entry level staff. In conjunction with the Animal Keepers Association of Africa, we are pleased to announce that this process is underway with the first ‘Basic Competency Certificate’ course scheduled for presentation in January 2012. This will be followed by two National Certificate programmes which will enable Animal Keepers to attain levels in competency ranging from entry level (correct basic care), through Keeper to Senior Keeper. The important aspects of these developments is that the programme content is being developed by respected and recognised professionals in the Zoo and Aquarium industry and will focus on the particular needs of Africa. Aiden Asekenye – Jane Goodall Institute, Uganda A teachers’ resource book on environmental education for P1/2 teachers with accompanying posters and this has so far been distributed to primary schools in 11 districts. Jone Porter – uShaka Sea World In March this year courses on estuarine and shore fish identification were conducted for KwaZulu-Natal Wildlife marine research and conservation staff. As part of the training, they learn about the biology of each species and how this determines the management regulations that are promulgated. In June a course was run for KwaZulu-Natal subsistence fishing committee members and the monitors of their catches. Although

a number of the participants were illiterate, they had extensive fishing experience and easily grasped the principles associated with sustainable resource management, even to the extent of being able to draw up a management plan for a species based on the animal’s biology and the harvesting requirements. The Outreach Team broadened their scope this year to include some of the KwaZulu-Natal coastal communities beyond eThekwini. For many years ORI has undertaken research studies on the reefs adjacent to Sodwana Bay, Isimangaliso Wetland Park and Sea World has collected selected species to showcase in the aquarium. The community living adjacent to this protected area use it daily and depend on the economic opportunities provided by the visitors to the Park, yet they know little about this environment. In February 2011 the Outreach staff together with two Sea World aquarists that originate from this area went back to Sodwana Bay for a week. A presentation was given to the KwaMbila Tribal authority and community members on the work of SAAMBR and the need to conserve the marine environment. One of the objectives of the community meeting was to encourage sourcing of funding for transport for schools to visit uShaka Sea World – a serious challenge, given the distance of 350 km and the fact that this is an economically disadvantaged area. Presentations were given to a number of senior schools on marine careers and sustainable resource use and two teachers’ workshops were conducted. The week was rounded off with a presentation to the staff of dive operators working at Sodwana Bay. As a consequence of this work, we’ve had sponsored visits from four of these schools between March and June.


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African Zoo and Aquarium Association (PAAZAB) 22nd Annual Conference

hosted by the National Zoological Gardens of South Africa 17–20 May 2011 The theme was “Zoos and Aquaria as Learning Environments”. This was the first time in PAAZAB’s history that the focus was on education. PAAZAB was honoured to have Kathy Lehnhardt, the President of the International Zoo Educators Association give the conference keynote address. Kathy addressed the changes in learning that have occurred in zoos and aquariums over the past 30 years. She confirmed that indeed learning does occur in our institutions and our proof is in evaluating both exhibits and programs to show impact. Over the three days a number of subthemes were explored. Ian Signer introduced the Session on “Staff Learning and Development as a Tool for Driving Education and Visitor Satisfaction” with a keynote presentation on “Intelligent Play” covering critical components for staff development: having a clear mission, mapping all assets: physical as well as social and intellectual, fostering pride in the organization, building empathy between staff of different departments and providing professional development opportunities. Some of the interesting presentations included: Russell Stevens on an aquarium as a learning environment for staff using some case studies to show how individuals had grown from workplace opportunities. An interesting presentation on building understanding between keepers and directors using lessons learnt at uShaka sea World and the National Zoo and John Werth gave an update of the status of progress towards nationally accredited training for animal keepers, bearing in mind that there are no formal education facilities in the country offering this training.

Session 2 was about “Learning in Informal Environments – Zoos and Aquaria as Science Centres The Keynote presentation was given by Mike Bruton, a man experienced in setting up education programmes at Two Oceans and at Science Centres across the country. He exposed the audience to the world of interactives and their strengths of addressing multilingual audiences, catering for a range of entry levels, engaging the senses, encouraging group activities (which is often why families visit zoos and aquaria), the inclusion of experimentation. Ulrich Oberprieler gave a thoughtprovoking presentation on helping learners transition from school to Higher Education Facilities and then to the workforce using examples like internships and work integrated learning. Judy Mann gave a presentation on some recent surveys undertaken at uShaka Sea World to find out more about our visitors, what and how to motivate guests to make environmentally responsible decisions as a consequence of their visit. A fascinating presentation was given using a case study of compulsory community service work undertaken by engineering and I.T. students from the University of Pretoria at a number of non-profit organisations, including the National Zoo and how the tasks undertaken were to the benefit of the animals but also how the animals impacted on the students. Visit Blogs. up.ac.za/jcp2010/ to learn more about the range of projects and responses. Jone Porter gave a presentation on engaging about marine conservation with communities that cannot visit uShaka Sea World and how we need to expand our reach by thinking of alternative methods.

Dr Kirsten Ellenbogen introduced the theme of “Visitor Studies” – a very young field in Africa. The interest in this session resulted on a round-table discussion to brainstorm how we can practically take these ideas into a number of PAAZAB institutions, starting in South Africa. Even though this session directly competed with the technical presentations I was very pleased to see that there was still a fair sized audience, possibly due to the nature of participants encouraged to attend the conference as a consequence of the overall theme. Louise Gordon of the Johannesburg Zoo gave an excellent presentation on using marketing of public events to highlight conservation issues and also showed us new signage to highlight threatened animal species (some of which the public take for granted in South Africa). As part of the conference we also got to spend time at the National Zoo and the Johannesburg Zoo, interacting with staffs (who were welcoming and open) and getting to see some wonderful exhibits and interpretive material. One of the key roles of PAAZAB is to improve the standards of zoos and aquaria in Africa and great effort is put into working with a number of zoos in central and northern Africa to share husbandry and population management techniques with teams visiting other facilities. As a consequence we had a number of presentations from facilities showing how the training has improved their zoos. This particular session showed me the strength of being part of an organization with individuals who are passionate about animals and conservation!


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North and Southeast Asia Regional Report Isabel Li – Ocean Park, Hong Kong

The 18th South East Asian Zoo Association Conference 3–7 November 2010 Taman Safari Indonesia

The theme for the 18th South East Asian Zoo Association Conference (SEAZA) is “Zoos saving biodiversity – Zoos and ex-situ conservation”. There were around 120 conference delegates from 12 regions, with 32 paper presentations and 11 poster presentations. Among the 32 paper presentations, there were about 8 paper presentations and 2 poster presentations related to education. SEAZA cheers at opening ceremony. Here are three of the presentations: • Learning Centre of Biodiversity Conservation in the Eastern Region of Thailand by Danudet Chanhom – Khao Kheow Open Zoo This presentation has introduced the development of zoo education in Thailand. They are at the beginning steps of incorporating education in zoo and emphasis concept of learning in happiness. • Zoo on Air by Hsin-I Hsieh – Taipei Zoo This presentation was about Taipei Zoo’s “Zoo on air programme” which launched on Feb 2009. There were a total of 90 episodes of 40 minutes radio shows and has entered the top ten shows at Taipei Broadcasting Station. They have published a talking book based on the radio programme. “Zoo on air” covers several elements in one show: animal news, interviewing trainers/keepers/veterinarian and introducing animal related English vocabularies. The production is all done in-house by educators and keepers.

Annual Conference of Aquaria Committee of Chinese Association of Natural Science Museums 2010

Ocean Park Hong Kong opens a new aquarium and the International Aquarium Symposium

18–23 October 2010 Penglai, Shandong China

January 2011 Ocean Park, Hong Kong

The aim for the conference is to provide a platform for aquariums in China to exchange information and technology regarding husbandry and operation. Most of the presentations were about animal husbandry; but there is increasing trend of education reports; there were 3 presentations this year.

Ocean Park Hong Kong opened its new aquarium – The Grand Aquarium on 27 January 2011. Inside the Grand Aquarium, there are some 5,000 marine animals of over 400 species “from the sea floor to the sea shore”, such as the scalloped hammerhead shark, the manta ray, the Pacific bluefin tunas, the Japanese skipjack tuna and many more. The aquarium is the 9th largest in size among aquariums worldwide with a 13-metre panoramic acrylic viewing panel. Jewel tanks that display different rarely-seen species are also stationed along the downward journey into the oceanic abyss to showcase the animals’ natural history and conservation status.

Here are two of the presentations on education: • The Benefits of Education Programmes to an Aquarium By Mr Ding Hai-bo, Longmen Ocean Aquarium Longmen Ocean Aquarium designed a booklet as a summer assignment for students. With the encouragement of the schools, parents bring their kids to spend the vacation in the aquarium. Through visiting the exhibit and interacting with the narrators, the kids gained knowledge on marine ecology and also increases the awareness of marine conservation. • A student trying to accomplish the various tasksin the booklet – Thoughts Inspired by Introducing Science Education in Schools By Ms Pang Su-mei, Xuzhou Yunlong Lake Aquarium Xuzhou Yunlong Lake Aquarium organized a programme with the Province’s education department to arouse kids’ interests in biological science. They set exhibitions and brought animal specimens to schools. There were also hands-on activities such as water quality test and making an animal specimen. An aquarium educator demonstrating how to conduct water quality test at a school in China

The external look of the new aquarium. The new aquarium also represents a new chapter in Ocean Park’s education programmes. There are six new education programmes fitting into the new facilities, including three new classrooms, one of which features a private touch pool to encourage interaction with coastal animals.


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European Regional Report

Stephanie Randegger-Heinzelmann – Landscape and Animal Park, Switzerland All over Europe, zoos were busy with their conservation education work. On the EAZA-Level, here some updates for 2011. IZE is part of the EAZA Education & Exhibit Design Committee which for example works closely together with the EAZA Office on planning the EZE Conferences or the training courses for Educators (see below).

EZE (European Zoo Educators) Conference 2011 From 9th till 12th March 2011, the EZE Conference took place at the Oceanogrŕfic of Valencia, Spain. Directly afterwards, an EAZA Academy training seminar was led by the EAZA Visitor Studies Working Group and offered a short introduction to researching zoo visitors to pro-conservation outcomes and the visitor experience. Over 100 participants came together in order to exchange useful advice and information about education and to share ideas on how to improve their work. The main themes on the conferences on which the talks and workshops focused were “Social Education”, “EAZA Conservation Campaigns”, “Climate Change and Sustainability” and “Visitors Studies”. Over all a most stimulating conference which was well planned and organized. European Zoo Educators from EAZA-Members can find all talks and workshop results in the member area under www.eaza.net/ member_area/committees/education/default.aspx The next EZE Conference will take place in spring or summer 2013, the place is in the process of evaluation.

New EAZA Academy Courses The EAZA Academy offers new two courses for Educators, one about educational concepts and technologies and one about Visitor Studies. More information in the prospects: www.eaza.net/activities/academy/ Documents/EAZA-Academy-Prospectus-2011.pdf

EAZA Conservation Campaigns In 2000 EAZA started with an important activity: organizing annual conservation campaigns. These campaigns aim to increase the cooperation between EAZA and important conservation organizations, to raise awareness in the broad public and to raise money for conservation projects. Many European zoo educators worked hard – and still are – to organize these campaigns and reach many of their visitors with their programs and ideas. In September 2010 EAZA started the Ape Campaign which will run throughout 2011. The aim was to make a significant and lasting contribution to the continued survival of apes and their habitats. The next EAZA Conservation Campaign will start in 2012 and will focus on large Southeast Asian animals. The campaign will be jointly run with the IUCN SSC.

EAZA Annual Conference 2011 The annual Conference of EAZA will take place in Montpellier, France, from 21th till 24th September. Information about the conference (program and so on) under following link: www.eaza.net/News/montpellier2011/Pages/Information.aspx

Work done by the IZE Regional Representative (February till August 2011) The important work consisted in composing two Newsletter (April and July), which were send to all IZE members by mail. The most workload was made in getting the IZE-Membership numbers in Europe again to the level of the conference year 2010, as IZE changed the membershipsystem and a lot of the educators needed reminding to renew their membership.


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Marketing Committee Report Jörg Junhold

Composition Core members of the committee are: • Jörg Junhold – Zoo Leipzig, Germany (Chair) • Joanne Lalumiere – Zoo Granby, Canada (Vice Chair) • Jörg Adler – Zoo Muenster, Germany • Henrik L. Andersen – Zoo Odense, Denmark • Jeffrey Bonner – Zoo St. Louis, USA • Andrew Seguya – Uganda Wildlife Education Centre • Brad Andrews – AZA, USA • Cesare Avesani Zaborra – Parco Natura Viva, Italy • Phil Frost – Zoo Baton Rouge, USA • Carole Lecointre – WAZA Office, Switzerland

Meeting 2010 The committee met at the 65th Annual Conference of WAZA in Cologne in October 2010. The minutes have been published in the proceedings of this conference.

International Campaigns Year of the Bat 2011 The United Nations Convention on Migratory Species (CMS) and the Agreement on the Conservation of Populations of European Bats (EUROBATS) have joined together to celebrate the Year of the Bat. WAZA is an official partner of the Year of the Bat. For more information please visit: www.waza.org/en/site/ conservation/2011-year-of-the-bat

United Nations Decade on Biodiversity 2011–2020 After the conference of the parties (COP10) of the Convention on Biological Diversity, which took place in Nagoya in October 2010, the United Nations General Assembly proclaimed the period from 2011 to 2020 as the United Nations Decade on Biodiversity in its resolution 65/161. WAZA holds a working agreement with the Convention and will fully support the conservation of biodiversity and related educational and communication activities. A detailed plan is being developed which includes the setup of a toolkit of materials for members. The application for a major grant for this toolkit is in preparation.

Marketing activities of the WAZA executive office Website Registration Membership Area 358 members have registered on the membership area since the start in November 2009. 98 more members have registered on the website since last year.

News, Events, Jobs & MarCom Platform More and more member zoos send us their news, press releases and job offers to be published on the WAZA website. But it could be even more – please make sure that your marketing and media/PR staff will send us your latest news. In this way we can benefit from synergies. Following the International Zoo & Aquarium Marketing Conference 2011 in Granby WAZA has implemented a new toll on the website: the WAZA MarCom Platform. This platform is available only on the member’s area and is dedicated to the marketing teams of all our members. The objective of this platform is to provide our members with a sharing point for all marketing and communication matters by giving them access to other member’s experiences and best practices (case studies and press articles). The information available on this platform will be updated regularly.


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Donation for Japan on the Website

WAZA Press Releases / Media Alerts

Zoos and aquariums in the North part As you may have already noticed, of Honshu Island have been affected the WAZA Marketing Committee retremendously by the earthquake and ceives since the end of 2010 all press tsunami. The Japanese association releases / media alerts from WAZA to of zoos and aquariums is organizing make sure that you as a member will assistance (food, translocation of ani- be informed about the WAZA press mals, transport). For that WAZA has activities. arranged a “Donate for Japan” button on the WAZA Website looking for donations internationally, so we can WAZA Membership Brochure provide financial support. Till the 1st of September 2011 more than 84 000 “Voice of the Global Zoo & Aquarium US$ have been donated. Community” is the title of the new brochure. A mixture of quotes from members, WAZA projects, training Marketing Conference 2011, grant, Heini Hediger Award and inforGranby mation about the annual conferences are the main part of this marketing The 7th International Zoo & Aquarium tool. Marketing Conference hosted by Granby Zoo, (Quebec) in Canada toke place June 13-16, 2011. Around Marketing Survey 80 participants were able to attend a variety of presentations, panel WAZA developed a marketing survey discussions and a workshop under the for members that has been conducttheme of “Strategic Marketing in Aced from May 23rd to June 6th and tion”. The overall feedback was very was sent out to all our institutional positive and Granby Zoo did a great members. The survey was developed job with the organization and was online and 84 institutions answered it. a memorable host. The aim of the survey was to understand better our member‘s expectations and needs in terms of marketing and communication tools. The results of this survey will be presented at the WAZA Annual Conference in Prague.

New WAZA Marketing & Communication Officer Ulrike Fox has left WAZA at the end of April 2011. Ulrike faces new challenges in Zurich where she will be responsible for Marketing & Communication for an international company in colour management solutions and colour communication technology. Carole Lecointre has already joined WAZA on March 14th and has taken over and continues Ulrike’s work.


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Ethics and Animal Welfare Committee Report David Jones

Composition Core Members of the Committee: • David Jones – North Carolina Zoological Park, USA • Chris West – Adelaide Zoo, Australia • Lena Linden – Nordens Ark, Sweden • Sally Walker – Zoo Outreach, India • Susan Hunt – Perth Zoo, Australia • Jenny Gray – Melbourne Zoo, Australia • Clifford Nxomani – National Zoo, South Africa • Rick Barongi – Houston Zoo, USA • Martin Phillips – ARAZPA, Australia • Anne Baker – Toledo Zoo, USA • Dave Morgan – PAAZAB, South Africa • Paul Boyle – AZA, USA • Heribert Hofer – Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, Germany • Miranda Stevenson – BIAZA, UK • Theo Pagel – Köln Zoo, Germany • Mark Penning – Association for Marine Biological Research, South Africa • Mauricio Fabry Otte – Santiago Zoo, Chile • Gerald Dick – WAZA, Switzerland

Much of the discussion at the Cologne meeting and in subsequent meetings and exchanges has revolved around the need for the Committee to establish a new vehicle to more clearly define ethics and welfare standards for WAZA-member zoos and by reflection initiate debate to set global standards by which zoos could be benchmarked. The Committee recognizes that most of the regional Associations already have published standards of ethics and animal welfare, but there is a clear need, drawing on these writings, to establish baselines around which entry into WAZA membership could be judged and to provide zoos, zoo associations and other organizations interested in zoo standards with an expectation of what those standards should be going forward. Over the last few years the WAZA office has received a range of complaints, some about existing WAZA members but much more frequently, complaints about non-member zoos where the expectation was that WAZA would take a lead in providing advice and other forms of help to zoos which needed to raise standards. Some WAZA member zoos, sometimes in association with animal welfare NGOs have begun making significant progress in improving the situation. For example, in Southeast Asia, in both Malaysia and Thailand there have been moves by the Governments there to take an approach not dissimilar to that used in India. Here, welfare NGOs have been playing a significant role and ARAZPA members are looking at a potential training program for Southeast Asian zoos all of which would help in this process.

There is no question that given the fact that WAZA only meets once a year as a complete body, there is a critical need, given the day to day workload of the Committee members, to establish a full-time Ethics and Welfare post working to a WAZA Ethics and Welfare Committee agenda to help us move forward toward the production of a comprehensive Ethics and Welfare manual on WAZA’s behalf. With all of this in mind, the following actions have taken place and will receive further airing at the Prague meeting across a number of sessions (formal papers, workshop, Committee meeting, etc.): 1. In order to establish a full-time assistant, which in the first instance would be a three-year time-limited post David Jones has undertaken to raise the necessary funding ($100,000 a year for three years) for that purpose and to base the researcher at the North Carolina Zoological Park. Over 50% of the funding required has already been pledged and the expectation is that with further assistance from zoo colleagues and institutions, we should have that person recruited and in place by the new year (2012). One of the functions of the discussions in Prague will be to establish more precisely what the priorities for that post should be so that a detailed workplan can be drawn up prior to the recruitment beginning. 2. Jenny Gray will lead a workshop session in Prague which will both introduce and then give members an opportunity to discuss three critical areas. The results of these will give the Committee useful guidelines on where its work should concentrate. The three topics under discussion are: a) The establishment of an ethical framework around which a com-


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DOC 66.16 prehensive WAZA ethical manual might be produced. This will require discussion as to how far interpretation of ethics in the WAZA and zoo world context should go. Although ethics in relation to animal husbandry and management would be the priority, the Committee might also consider aspects of ethical behaviour between institutions and individuals. There are divergent views on how far that discussion should be taken. Jenny Gray and Susan Hunt have already prepared a short paper outlining the principles around which we might debate and that will be available at the Conference. b) Although we already have an outline complaints procedure, Dave Morgan has been working on a more comprehensive approach to this subject. At the moment we do not have the resources to follow up complaints as aggressively as we might want to. Certainly complaints about WAZA and regional Association members are followed up vigorously. There remains a major question though as to how we would approach complaints about non-members. The degree with which we get involved in complaints that we receive, for example from animal welfare NGOs or concerned individuals, should be discussed in Prague. There is a public expectation that WAZA, seen as the world’s umbrella zoo organization, should be taking a much more active role in establishing ways in which substandard zoos are looked at and upgraded. This subject is closely allied to the third topic to be discussed in the workshop. c) This relates to how we should go about assisting zoos in need of help, what those procedures should be, who should be involved and where do the resources to help them come from. The reality is that the serious conservation and animal welfare world are expecting WAZA and the mainstream zoo associations to do a lot more in regard to establishing global zoo standards. Many of the NGOs want a benchmark, which we should be setting. That would give them a standard tool either to assist zoos that can be helped

and want to be helped or to move towards recommendations and reasoning for those establishments to be closed down with all the sensitivities that surrounds such action. There is also considerable expectation that WAZA should be more active at the political level with government agencies that are struggling with ways in which they can control and then upgrade the standards of zoos in their countries. India is probably a very good model for what needs to be established in many (mostly) developing countries, but the E&W Committee, acting on behalf of WAZA can only move this topic forward if there are adequate resources to support it. Related to all of this, Martin Phillips from ARAZPA and Sally Walker have both offered to assist in collating records of complaints received by the WAZA office and others in recent years. This in order to look at trends and help us define where most effort is needed and how best to approach this major problem. While the question of where and how far we should go in defining ethical and welfare standards for WAZA and indeed for future global expectations will probably dominate the coming meeting, the Committee will also need to consider whether it would be valuable, based on zoo existing association and other published animal welfare standards, to compile a much more comprehensive guide to cover both ethics and welfare expanding on the chapter in the World Zoo Conservation Strategy. Although that chapter provides broad generalizations in regard to expectation for ethics and welfare, it is not a particularly useful document in terms of establishing more specific baselines, which can be used by a wide range of individuals and organizations, in making a judgement about individual zoos and standards. This would be a major function of the newly-established ethics and welfare post. No one expects that such a manual would include fine detail on every taxon, but it should be possible using existing information, to pull together a document which is more helpful than the material we have currently.

Other Activities While the main topics that the Ethics and Welfare Committee need to address are outlined above, a range of practical activities have been taking place during the last year, carried out by either single or groups of WAZA members. Notably amongst them have been: Preparations based around the draft of the new Australian animal welfare laws for ARAZPA zoos to develop a training program, which could be used initially in Southeast Asia, but would have applications for other parts of the world. PAAZAB with assistance from the North Carolina Zoo and the Al Ain Zoo in particular have taken the first steps towards major improvements in the husbandry and welfare of animals at the National (Giza) Zoo in Cairo. These efforts have been interrupted by the political changes there in the country, but are on track to continue shortly. The feeling here is that if significant changes can be made to what is the oldest zoo in the Arabicspeaking world, this might serve as a useful model for the approach to other zoos in need of help. A continuing watch has been kept on the situation regarding the Japanese Taiji operations. WAZA and other agencies in the zoo and aquarium world have faced criticism from a number of animal rights groups. WAZA has played a sensitive role in these discussions, which have also involved JAZA. The situation remains under review currently.


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Aquarium Committee Report Heather Koldewey & Dennis Thoney

Aquarium Committee Membership is as follows: Name

Position

Organisation

Region

Heather Koldewey Chair Dennis Thoney – Vice Chair Jeff Archer Joao Falcato Wolfgang Gettman Max Janse Gordon McGregor Reid Simon Tonge Yoshitaka Abe Kazutoshi Arai Suzanne Gendron Brad Andrews Paul Boyle Mark Penning

Head of Global Conservation Programmes Director, Animal Management; Chair of AZA Aquarium Sustainability Committee Group Curator Chief Executive Officer Director Aquarium Curator Director Emeritus Executive Director Executive Director Director Director Director Conservation Director Chief Executive Officer

Zoological Society of London

Europe

Vancouver Aquarium

North America No

Oceanis Oceanario Lisboa Aquazoo Dusseldorf Burgers’ Zoo, Netherlands Chester Zoo (North of England Zoological Society) Paignton Zoo Aquamarine Fukushima Kamogawa Seaworld Ocean Park, Hong Kong SeaWorld AZA South African Association for Marine Biological Research

Australasia Europe Europe Europe Europe Europe Japan Japan China North America North America Africa

Aquarium News

Membership Matters

Japan

There are no known new aquarium members since the last report in March. The WAZA office analysis of current membership established there are currently 16 members that are stand-alone aquariums and 47 that are zoos with aquariums.

Aquamarine Fukushima re-opened following the appalling damage following the tsunami in Japan. In addition to the WAZA Japan campaign, the annual conservation funds from EUAC of EUR10,000 were donated to Aquamarine Fukushima as a contribution towards the reconstruction of their external touchpool exhibit.

New aquariums New aquariums have opened in Istanbul (Turkey), and a major new aquarium opened as part of Ocean Park (Hong Kong) at the beginning of this year. Wikipedia now hosts a reasonable list of the world’s aquariums http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_aquaria

No further developments have occurred in the relationship between WAZA and the International Aquarium Forum (IAF), however there are no ongoing issues with respect to this. IAF is functioning to exchange information and organise the International Aquarium Congress (IAC), while WAZA clearly has a much broader remit. Dennis Thoney has proposed a sustainability session at the next IAC in South Africa in 2012.

WAZA Member Yes

No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

The Aquarium Strategy – ‘Turning The Tide’ In terms of additional translations of ‘Turning the Tide’, the following is at various stages of progress: Korean, Thai and Arabic (Jeff Archer from Oceanis), German (Wolfgang Gettmann) and Bahasa Indonesian (Suzanne Gendron). French and Portuguese versions are also being explored. The committee felt that holding a series of workshops at the existing regional association meetings would be the most effective approach to develop the strategy, with a champion in each region. This will be developed in 2011. We are progressing the development of an audit checklist on the basis of the aquarium strategy that can be used by individual aquariums to evaluate their performance against the strategy.


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Sustainability

Breeding Programmes

Conservation

Dr Dennis Thoney from Vancouver Aquarium has now adapted the White Paper on Aquarium and Zoo Aquatic Collection Sustainability that was prepared for the AZA to become a WAZA document. Further input to this document will be received at the forthcoming AZA, EAZA and EUAC conferences. This will be the main agenda item for the WAZA aquarium committee meeting in Prague and the document will be circulated beforehand to the committee.

There continues to be good progress in the development of co-ordinated breeding programmes for fish and aquatic invertebrates. Both the AZA and EUAC/EAZA marine and freshwater taxon advisory groups (TAGs) have been undertaking regional collection planning exercises. The AZA Marine Fish TAG RCP is published and its Freshwater Fish TAG one in progress. The RCP for the European FAITAG is being finalised.

At all conferences, we are promoting conservation initiatives to become WAZA-branded projects and promoting the funding of aquatic projects.

Many aquariums are world leaders in the sustainable seafood movement but there is less engagement in the zoo community. We have compiled a global list of sustainable seafood guides and supporting text (see Appendix 1) which we hope can be used on the WAZA website and adapted into an article for the WAZA newsletter. The Marine Aquarium Council initiative to develop a sustainable and certified marine ornamental trade is in hiatus. Dennis Thoney is on their Board and we are exploring how WAZA may engage in the next iteration of this initiative. At present, this is not active. We are also monitoring other aquarium trade certification schemes that are emerging as a result of MAC.

Studbooks are now available for the zebra shark (Stegastoma fasciatum), spotted eagle ray (Aetobatus narinari), blue-spot maskray (Neotrygon kuhlii) and blue-spotted stingray (Taenuria lymma) within EAZA. Methods are still ongoing for studbook management for colony breeding species, with input from Bob Lacy and Kristin Leus. While species with ‘mammalian-like’ breeding strategies i.e. elasmobranchs can be managed with existing population management software, we have had problems when we have tried to deal with species with higher reproductive output. In a pilot studbook for European short-snouted seahorses (Hippocampus hippocampus) we have been unable to manipulate the data successfully to the latest SPARKS software. Discussions with Laurie BingamanLackey at ISIS, the studbook holder (Olivia Walter, International Zoo Vet Group and an experienced studbook keeper), have concluded that there is no appropriate software to analyse the genetics of these populations until a) we get software that can look at the group genetics (not in the pipe line), or b) holders agree to have a subpopulation on which they gather good records, preferably through individually identification. The feasibility of this needs to be discussed with aquarium curators. In the interim, these studbooks will aim to keep a census record at each collection, hatching data and record where each collection gets its imports from. This certainly hampers the number of fish species that can currently be managed by aquariums.

We are working to engage aquariums particularly in coral reef conservation. The SECORE project (www.secore. org) continues to actively engaging aquariums all over the world in advancing techniques for the sexual reproduction or corals, plus research and field conservation initiatives. Following initial contact by Mark Penning and Gerald Dick with the Pew Environment Group, we are working on exploring joint opportunities to work with them on various regional and global marine conservation initiatives (e.g. Global Ocean Legacy programme, Shark Alliance and Oceans 2012).

Husbandry symposia Planning is well underway for the ‘International Zoo and Aquarium Symposium on Syngnathid Husbandry, Conservation and Management’ will be held from the 2–4 November 2011 at the John G. Shedd Aquarium, Chicago, USA. This is being coorganised by Project Seahorse, ZSL, Shedd Aquarium and Monterey Bay Aquarium. We continue discussions with the IUCN Shark Specialist Group on the action plan for sawfish and aquarium community involvement in this initiative. The IUCN Shark Specialist Group is hosting a workshop for sawfish in May 2012 at the Zoological Society of London and we are working on aquarium participation for this meeting.


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New Initiatives Lead by Gordon McGregor Reid, we are developing a new taxonomy training course for zoo and aquarium professionals. We have partnered with the newly formed EAZA Academy who will organise and promote this course, provisionally scheduled for February 2012. This is course entitled ‘Practical Biosystematics Course for Conservationists – Aquarium Fishes’ is a partnership between WAZA, the Zoological Society of London, North of England Zoological Society and Natural History Museum London. If successful, there will be opportunities to replicate it in other geographic regions, as well as to establish other training courses on different taxonomic groups.

Conferences And Meetings

Aquarium Committee Workplan 2011 1. 2. 3.

4. 5.

6.

7.

8.

(Note this is not comprehensive)

9.

• 10–14 October 2011, EUAC, Straslund, Germany • 2–4 November 2011 – International Zoo and Aquarium Symposium on Syngnathid Husbandry, Conservation and Management. John G. Shedd Aquarium, Chicago, USA. • 9–13 April 2012 – Regional Aquatics Workshop, John G. Shedd Aquarium, Chicago, USA. • 9–14 September 2012 – International Aquarium Congress, Two Oceans Aquarium, South Africa.

Develop sustainable acquisition policies and guidelines. Translate ‘Turning the Tide’ into additional languages. Prepare and circulate an audit form on aquarium conservation as relates to ‘Turning the Tide’. Continue to implement ‘Turning the Tide’. Continue to engage aquariums in the coral reef crisis as relates to climate change. Develop and implement fish taxonomy training course for aquariums. Establish close working relationships and joint initiatives with relevant international organisations e.g. IUCN, CITES, The Ocean Project, Pew Environment Group. Promote WAZA membership benefits among aquarium community. Deal with enquiries to the WAZA office on aquarium matters.


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Appendix I Text and supporting information on sustainable seafood for zoos and aquariums – WAZA Supports Sustainable Seafood Sustainable fisheries aim to help ensure that a wild, diverse and healthy ocean ecosystem will exist long into the future. This means fishing (or farming fish) in a way which allows fish stocks be harvested without compromising the ability of the population to replenish itself and without harming the environment. For example, this means not fishing during breeding seasons, not taking juveniles that haven’t yet had an opportunity to reproduce and by reducing the amount of non-target fish caught by accident (called by-catch). Zoos and aquariums need to work to ensure that they only use sustainable fish in both their catering outlets and animal departments to ensure that both animals and visitors enjoy a sustainable fish meal. In fact, many aquariums have taken a leading role in developing sustainable seafood guides and promoting these through best practice and communication campaigns. The ocean is critical to our planet’s – and, therefore, our own – well-being. It is home to 90% of the world’s living creatures, and seafood is the main source of protein for onesixth of the human population. With over 80% of world fish stocks fully or over-exploited, we are depleting the fish and other marine life that we eat faster than their populations can replenish. At the same time, demand for seafood is increasing. As consumers, our seafood choices have the power to make this situation worse, or improve it. If you want to know how to choose sustainable fish yourself then use one of the locally available sustainable seafood guides (See table). It is important to spread the word and encourage others to make sustainable choices as well. Sustainability is also about spreading the load, so eat a variety of species rather than just one or two, and think about cutting down your overall seafood consumption. Always ask the person you buy fish from where and how their fish is caught – if they can‘t tell you or if you are not completely satisfied with their answer, don‘t buy the fish!

A compiled list of sustainable seafood guides available globally Country Australia

Organisation Australian Marine Conservation Society ABC WWF WWF

Website www.sustainableseafood.org.au/Sustainable-Seafood-GuideAustralia.asp?active_page_id=695 www.abc.net.au/science/features/fish/table.htm www.wwf.at/de/fischfuehrer/ Austria www.wwf.be/_media/conso-guide-poissons_870023.pdf Belgium (French) www.wwf.be/_media/viswijzer_854049.pdf (Dutch) www.seachoice.org/ Canada Seachoice, www.oceanwise.ca/about/sustainable-seafood OceanWise www.hvaforenfisk.dk/ Denmark WWF http://assets.panda.org/downloads/seafood_guide_finland.pdf Finland WWF http://assets.panda.org/downloads/guide_poisson.pdf France WWF www.wwf.de/themen/meere-kuesten/fischerei-und-fischzucht/ Germany WWF jeder-kann-handeln/neu-fischratgeber/alle-arten/ Hong Kong WWF http://assets.wwfhk.panda.org/downloads/seafood_guide_hk_ card_fold.pdf http://assets.wwfid.panda.org/downloads/seafood_guide_ Indonesia WWF nov_2009_eng.pdf www.wwf.it/UserFiles/File/News%20Dossier%20Appti/DOSItaly WWF SIER/Mare/Sai%20che%20pesci%20pigliare.pdf www.saveourseafood.my/sustainableSeafood/whereToGetMalaysia WWF Guide.html Netherlands Noordzee Foundation www.goedevis.nl/ http://assets.panda.org/downloads/fish_guide_nl.pdf WWF http://assets.panda.org/downloads/norway_seafood_guide. Norway WWF pdf http://assets.panda.org/downloads/poland_seafood_guide.pdf Poland WWF www.oceanario.pt/cms/1562/?news=1003 Portugal Oceanario Lisboa www.wwf.ru/data/publ/fish_guide_for_web.pdf Russia WWF http://wwf.panda.org/who_we_are/wwf_offices/singapore/ Singapore WWF how_you_can_help/seafood_guide/download_the_guide_singapore_seafood_guide/ www.panda.org.za/sassi/ South Africa WWF/SAAMBR www.wwf.es/que_hacemos/mares_y_costas/nuestrs_soluSpain WWF ciones/pesca_sostenible/consumo_responsable/guia_de_consumo_responsable_de_pescado/ www.wwf.se/vrt-arbete/hav-kust/lsningar/ww-fsSweden WWF fiskguide/1243694-ww-fs-fiskguide-nr-du-ska-kpa-miljvnligfisk www.wwf.ch/de/tun/tipps_fur_den_alltag/essend/fisch/fisSwitzerland WWF chfuhrer/ (German) www.wwf.ch/fr/cequevouspouvezfaire/gestes_ecologiques/ alimentation1/poissons2/produits_de_la_mer_/?category=cat4 (French) www.wwf.ch/it/fare/consiglipratici/cucina/pesce/pesce/ (Italian) www.greenpeace.org.uk/forms/fishguide United Greenpeace Kingdom Marine Conservation www.fishonline.org/ Society www.goodcatch.org.uk/ The Good Catch Selfridges Fish Guide www.selfridges.com/en/StaticPage/ProjectOcean/#/Fish www.blueocean.org/Seafood/ USA Blue Ocean Institute http://eartheasy.com/eat_sustainable_seafoods.htm Eartheasy www.edf.org/page.cfm?tagID=1521 Environmental Defense Fund www.mbayaq.org/cr/SeafoodWatch/web/sfw_regional.aspx Monterey Bay (regional guides) Aquarium http://fishwise.org/our-methods FishWise The Ocean Project http://theoceanproject.org/resources/conservation. php?category=Seafood Issues


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DOC 66.25

Science & Veterinary Committee Report Heribert Hofer – Leibniz Institute for Zoo & Wildlife Research Berlin (IZW)

Introduction

Research agendas

This report gives me the opportunity to review the activities and achievements (or otherwise) of the Science and Veterinary Committee after its first five years.

Five years ago, regional or even After the WAZA resolution on flight global research agendas for zoos restraint in New York 2005 and the and aquariums were a dream in the WAZA meeting in Budapest in 2007 eyes of the authors of the World Zoo we agreed that a method called and Aquarium Conservation Strategy. “extirpation of feather follicles” (the Since then, renewed interest in such surgical removal of feather follicles research agendas and new forms from the skin) employed by some of cooperation in research between German veterinarians for ~25 years zoos and academic institutions have and unknown to the rest of the world emerged and been successfully be examined more closely and made tested, as a comprehensive survey of available more widely before focusresearch in zoos published earlier this ing the entire debate on whether the year abundantly testifies1 – a publicamethod known as “pinioning” is the tion emerging in part from and instionly option of flight restraint suitable gated by the Science and Veterinary or available for recommendation on Workshop at Adelaide in 2008. Rea global scale. This has been put into gional Associations such as EAZA are practice: (1) extirpation has been prenow in the process of publishing or sented in scientific talks and posters have already published their research to European veterinarians at several agenda and I have organised for it to meetings of the “International Conbe presented to an international audi- ference on Diseases of Zoo and Wild ence of research scientists at conferAnimals”; (2) a key exponent, Dr Pia ences such as the 7th International Krawinkel from Zoom – GelsenkirchConference on Behaviour, Physiology en, has published a chapter on extirand Genetics in Wildlife (Berlin 2009). pation in the most recent edition of the standard Fowler / Miller textbook on zoo and wildlife veterinary medicine2, so it is now widely accessible; and (3) several training workshops have been organised for international veterinarians by their German counterparts at several meetings of the “International Conference on Diseases of Zoo and Wild Animals”. • Comment: There appears to be no urgent pressure to update the original WAZA resolution from a scientific or veterinarian point of view and I believe the key issues are now in the domain of ethics and welfare rather than purely technical or scientific.

Putting an “issue strategy” into practice Complex scientific and veterinary issues are ideally explored in a modular fashion. It therefore makes sense to have issues of interest to zoo directors first discussed at technical meetings in the science and veterinary world and then the results fed into WAZA workshops in which the current state of knowledge is presented. This requires careful coordination of regional science and veterinary conferences with the annual WAZA meeting. With good support from the science and veterinary community and several regional zoo and aquarium associations we have put this into practice and transported the latest results and assessments to WAZA, on topics as diverse as (1) flight restraint, (2) tuberculosis, (3) newly emerging infectious diseases, (4) the health and welfare implications of a failure to reproduce, (5) surplus killing and other forms of population control, and (6) zoos as conservation genetic resources. Comment: I believe this now to be an established procedure and my feedback from WAZA participants, particularly directors with a commercial rather than a biological or veterinary background, is positive.

1 Macdonald AA, Hofer H (2011, editors) Research in zoos. International Zoo Yearbook 45: 1-225.

Flight restraint

2 Miller RE & Fowler ME (2011, editors) Fowler‘s zoo and wild animal medicine current therapy, volume 7. 688 pp, Saunders, Philadelphia.


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The future: the relevance of scientific/ veterinary arguments for opponents After several years of relative quiet, I am seeing an upsurge in the efforts of animal welfare proponents to shut down zoos and aquariums – or at least to eliminate the option of keeping (1) great apes, (2) elephants, and (3) dolphins and whales. Typically, arguments to stop such animals to be kept in zoos/aquariums and/or to shut down zoos refer to the “scientific progress in welfare and veterinary issues” in addition to new fundamental ethical positions. Checking and or refuting the arguments that refer to scientific and veterinary progress requires time and effort – more time and effort than anyone (including myself) can currently spare but which the other side appears to have

in abundance. Moreover, research agendas entertained by Regional Associations or research-oriented zoos and aquariums now mostly focus on conservation issues, including research for breeding and re-introduction, rather than welfare. Interestingly, conservation is not at all the issue here – and conservation done by zoos/aquariums is simply being dismissed in this context.

It is my personal view that the zoo and aquarium world should pay more attention to this matter and move from responding to an agenda set by others to pushing its own. This requires a strategy where ethics and welfare are linked to scientific studies, including reviews – a closer cooperation between the respective committees included.


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WAZA Associations Committee Report Sally Walker

Members • Dave Morgan, Director – PAAZAB (African Association of Zoos & Aquaria) • Martin Phillips, Ex. Director – ZAA (Zoo Aquarium Association Australasia) • Bill Peters, Nall Director – CAZA (Canadian Assn of Zool Parks & Aquariums) • Richard Østerballe, Chairman – DAZA (Danish Zoological Gardens & Aquaria) • Lesley Dickie, Exec. Director – EAZA (European Association of Zoos & Aquaria) • Peter Dollinger, Exec. Dir. – VDZ (German Federation of Zoo Directors) • Cinzia Sulli, President – UIZA (Italian Union of Zoos & Aquaria) • Kazutoshi Arai, Acting Dir – JAZA (Japanese Assn of Zoos & Aquariums) • Yolanda Matamoros, Pres. – AMACZOOA (MesoA/Caribbean Zoos & Aquaria) • Kris Vehrs, Executive Director – AZA (Association of Zoos & Aquariums) • Sophon Dumnui, President – SEAZA (South East Asian Zoo Association) • Olga Santacana, Secretaria – AIZA (Iberian Association of Zoos & Aquaria) • Mats Höggren, Chm – SAZA-SDF (Swedish Assn of Zool Parks & Aquaria) • Miranda Stevenson, Director – BIAZA (British & Irish Assn of Zoos & Aquariums)

Meeting 2010 • Sally R. Walker, Director – SAZARC (S. Asian Zoo Assn. for Regn Cooperation) • David Nejedlo, Director – UCSZ (Union of Czech & Slovak Zoological Gardens) • Alain Le Héritte, President – SNDPZ (Société National des Parcs Zoologiques) • Françoise Delord, President – AFDPZ (Assn Française des Parcs Zoologiques) • Gert Emmrich, President – DTG (Deutsche Tierpark-Gesellschaft e. V.) • Adriana Girón Flórez, Ex. Dir. – ACOPAZOA (Colo Assn. of Zoos & Aquariums) • Vladimir Spitsin, Pres. – EARAZA (Eurasian Reg Assn. of Zoos & Aquariums) • Andrea Caiozzi, Director – ALPZA (Latin American Zoo & Aquarium Association) • Frank Camacho, Director – AZCARM (Assn of Zoos and Aquariums of Mexico)

The Associations Committee met at the 65th Annual Conference of WAZA in 2010. The minutes were published in the Proceedings of the Conference. Ref. suggestion last meeting by Miranda Stevenson, Associations Committee circulated updated list information members. Also corresponded with members over dues issues, corresponded with non-member associations and made inquiries about regions that do not have an association. Associations Chair acting on request to liase with Affiliate Association ICZ regarding selections for sponsorship to 2012 ICZ Congress. Discusssion of Emergency Response protocol discussed with ICZ. ICZ now focused on helping zoos in South East Asia formulate their own Emergency Response plans. Assns Chair submitted a draft on History and Development of WAZA Associations for WAZA 77th anniversary History. Also presented a paper on history of WAZA’s evolution via associations for Chester Zoo History Symposium, and submitted a paper for publication. Associations Chair worked through the WAZA Strategic Directions document pulling out pieces that can be supported by the Associations. Circulated it to members requesting feedback as well as EO & President of WAZA. Chair liaised with selected association chairs regarding the upcoming Decade on Biodiversity to ascertain interest in collaborating with WAZA campaign.


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DOC 66.26 Requested CBSG for a slot for a working group for upcoming CBSG meeting in Prague to fine-tune what zoos and aquariums can do for the Decade. Chair discussed requests for simultaneous translations at WAZA conference by non-English speaking Association heads from last meeting and propose a possible solution. Some association heads wanted WAZA to routinely provide translators for the Annual Conference. The cost of simultaneous translation is very high and there is a call for translation even in working groups which may require more than one translator for more house. Also there are several non-English speaking persons who attend WAZA requiring difference language translations. It is not practical for WAZA to provide this service. If the non-English speaking members from zoos that share a language could pool funds and contribute the cost of a translator in their language, the problem could be alleviated to a great extent. The conference organizer could be addressed for assistance with finding an appropriate and skilled in-country translator within the budget of the region or group of zoo requiring it.

Request again correct statistics and assn. communication information Ongoing communication FROM REPORT OF LAST YEAR -Dated 9 sept 2010

Draft Objectives of Associations Committee

Reminders of WAZA Council Requests

Among items for comment was a re• WAZA Branding – request by Gerald vision of the Draft Objectives of the for good stories and projects; Associations Committee following several have appeared in WAZA contributions at 2010 last Associapublications. tions meeting. Kris Vehrs and Chair • Statistics on Zoos – request by Gerhave made revisions. At Koln meeting ald for statistics on visitor numbers, the current Draft was reviewed with conservation funding, etc. to use for revisions (see Appendix I) and context promoting work zoos do. Associawith the document 2005 WAZA tion members complied. SuggesRecommendations document. Comtion made in correspondence by ments were solicited in the meeting Miranda (BIAZA) that this should be and through email. No objections continued and updated systematiwere received. cally by the Associations. • Reminders of these requests sent to Associations Chairs by Assns. ComWAZA Recommendations mittee.

on Cooperation between Associations

The document was drafted in 2005 and adopted by WAZA Administrative session 06/10/05, 60th Ann Meeting, New York. After a long sabbatical, the document re-surfaced and has been re-circulated to Chairs. In the 2010 meeting WAZA EO announced that WAZA is keen to merge work plans of WAZA including “Regionalization” of WAZA initiatives, appropriation of WAZA documents, conversion of WAZA results and agreements into useful information and tools that can be applied to the region. Regional Associations wanted better communication from WAZA to Association members. Chair has requested Gerald Dick for quarterly reports as mentioned in the Vision.


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INF 66.2

Decade on Biodiversity David Ainsworth – Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity

David Ainsworth of the secretariat of International Year the Convention on Biological Diversiof Biodiversity (YOB) 2010 – ty gave a presentation on the Decade Messages: on Biodiversity: David presented the Strategic Plan and the Aichi targets, • Humans are part of nature’s rich adopted at CoP 10 of CBD in Nagoya diversity and have the power to 2010 and addressed the cooperation protect or destroy it. with zoos and aquariums. Indica• Biodiversity, the variety of life on tors for measuring success could be earth, is essential to sustaining the developed by the zoo community and living networks and systems that contribute to the CBD work on indicaprovide us all with health, wealth, tors. WAZA should have a delegation food, fuel and the vital services our at COP 11 in Hyderabad in 2012 and lives depend on. WAZA members could also partici• Human activity is causing the pate in SBSTA meetings. diversity of life on earth to be lost at a greatly accelerated rate. These losses impoverish us all and damage the life support systems we rely on everyday. But we can prevent them. • Let’s reflect on our achievements to safeguard biodiversity and focus on the urgency of our challenge for the future.

Conclusion and lessons learned of YOB 2010 • the logo was the most obvious success • civil society response is good, but needs to be capitalized on • organizations need to find ways to gain advantage from the IYB • messages need to be more customizable • more actions for individuals are needed

Aichi Targets (Strategic Plan, 2011–2020) The Strategic Plan recognises the importance of awareness. • Goal A: Address the underlying causes of biodiversity loss by mainstreaming biodiversity across government and society • Target 1: By 2020, at the latest, people are aware of the values of biodiversity and the steps they can take to conserve and use it sustainably • Goal B: Reduce the direct pressures on biodiversity and promote sustainable use • Goal C: Improve the status of biodiversity by safeguarding ecosystems, species and genetic diversity • Goal D: Enhance the benefits to all from biodiversity and ecosystem services. • Goal E: Enhance implementation through participatory planning, knowledge management and capacity building

Proposed next steps for the Zoo and Aquarium community • develop a plan of activities to celebrate the decade • plans on how zoos and aquariums can contribute to the strategic plan • awareness-raising activities • plans to celebrate IDB on 22 May each year


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New Members Presentations


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MEM 66.1

Foz Tropicana Parque das Aves | Brazil Yara de Melo Barros We are a zoo specialized in birds. The Bird Park is a small zoo, with around 800 animals, and was built within the forest, harmonically integrated with the environment. We have walk through aviaries that allow close contact for the public with the animals. We carry out an intensive environmental education program that reaches around 25’000 children per year. We cooperate on conservation

projects of threatened species developed by the Brazilian Government, and we are successful in breeding many threatened species. One of our main goals is to change the relationship of our visitors with the environment, promoting conservation. www.parquedasaves.com.br

MEM 66.2

Vogelpark Marlow | Germany Franziska Zöger The mission of the Vogelpark Marlow consists of four main areas, which we seek to fulfil and improve in our daily working routine. First of all, we want to impart valuable and informative information to our visitors about the displayed animals, their natural behaviour and their natural habitat as well as the problems and threats which their fellow species are facing in nature. This leads us to our second point of importance-conservation, which the Vogelpark Marlow supports and practices as a member of EEP. Besides practicing EEP, we encourage students to do research within our premises doing investigations about ecology, evolution, behaviour etc.

Besides these three mainly scientific subjects we also aim to facilitate recreational value for our visitors by providing attractive exhibits and an appealing park Our picturesque park presents over 150 species in natureoriented, spacious exhibits, which are mostly accessible for our visitors as the concept of the Vogelpark is – experiencing animals close by! Furthermore, the park is presenting 2 shows during the day, where the visitors get an understanding of the natural behaviour of the shown birds and mammals.

Additionally, to our 2 shows, our animal keepers present 6 shows feedings to inform and clarify valuable information about the natural feeding habit of the shown animals. www.vogelpark-marlow.de


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MEM 66.3

Torre Design Consortium, Ltd. a Professional Architecture Corporation | USA L. Azeo Torre

Torre Design Consortium, Ltd. (a 25plus year AZA member) has over 35 years of architecture, landscape architecture, exhibit, graphic and interior design experience throughout North America, Asia, and the Middle East. The firm has done extensive master plans for zoos, aquariums, and a broad range of other projects. The firm has garnered over 100 national, state, and regional design awards for their work. Their designs extend from entry complexes to themed restaurants; aquariums to African savannas, rainforests to desert exhibits. Their experience is

focused on a wide variety of building types, zoos and aquariums in many different styles, and designs the capture the history and richness of the environment and times. From conceptual master planning to detailed design, Torre Design pursues each project with a comprehensive approach that educates and entertains while delineating the interconnectedness of all living things and our world. Their designs have led to

many zoological facilities exceeding their regional population in annual attendance. With a proper balance between exhibit opportunities and visitor services needs, many of their zoos are operationally self-sufficient and are the most popular and most attended of all regional attractions. Torre Design is dedicated to: “Bringing the World to your Zoo!” www.t-dcl.com

MEM 66.4

PJA Architects + Landscape Architects, p.s. | USA Patrick Janikowski

PJA Architects + Landscape Architects, p.s. is a leading company in zoo and botanical garden design, interpretive, entertainment, and interior work. PJA Architects + Landscape Architects, p.s., provides a broad scope of design and management services to the public and private sectors while delivering projects consistently on time and within budget.

PJA has developed a team of professionals whose goal is to establish innovative trends in zoological and botanical planning and design, theme parks, wildlife sanctuaries, and in the interpretation of nature and culture. Creativity, innovation, and design excellence are characteristic of work produced by the firm.

Our principals and staff professionals work closely with each client to understand and meet the individual needs of every project, translating those needs into aesthetic, functional, cost effective design solutions. www.pjarchitects.com


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MEM 66.5

Fondazione Bioparco di Roma | Italy Paolo Giuntarelli

Situated in the heart of Villa Borghese, The Bioparco became a non profit in the centre of Rome, the Bioparco, organization 5 years ago and is now being the old zoological garden of called “Fondazione Bioparco di Roma” Rome, which was founded in 1911, is owned by the city of Rome. The one of the oldest zoos in Europe. The Bioparco is a member of EAZA, UIZA Bioparco is situated on 17 hectares (the Italian union of zoos and aquariand houses more than 1000 animals ums) ISIS, IZE. Participating in 26 belonging to almost 200 species, EEP’s ESB’s programmes. Mammals, reptiles, amphibians and birds live in one of the most charmIn the last years various animal exing botanical gardens in Rome, with hibits have been renovated between more than 1.000 trees, some of which them the Chimpanzees, Asian lions, are very rare and very old. Giraffes, Brown bears Reptile house and the Lemurs area. Construction More than 500,000 visitors pass of the new Orang-utans area and the through its gate every year among new Callitrchids exhibit, will begin in them are more than 30,000 school the next few months followed by the children who enjoy taking part in the new Tiger exhibit, the Gibbons island various educational programmes and a new children’s zoo. organized within the Bioparco.

www.bioparco.it


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DOC 66.18.1

Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) Report Kris Vehrs

The Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) represents 225 accredited institutions, 15 certified related facilities, 46 conservation partners, 5300 individual members, and 282 commercial members. Three of those members were newly accredited in 2011: • California Science Center (March 2011) • Alaska SeaLife Center (September 2011) • Lake Superior Zoo (September 2011)

AZA’s Annual Conference We enjoyed a successful 87th Annual Conference in Atlanta, Georgia. L. Patricia (Pat) Simmons, President and CEO of the Akron Zoo, was sworn-in as Chair of the Board of Directors. Pat has led the Akron Zoo since 1985 and has served on a large number of AZA committees, putting her special skills in strategic planning and creative thinking to great use. During the Annual Conference we celebrate the good works of our members and present a number of honors and awards. In 2011, a new Green Award was established to demonstrate the recognition that our conservation mission begins with how we operate our facilities. The Green Award recognizes programs that exist institution-wide to reduce the environmental impact of the organization from a business operations standpoint. • TOP HONORS Denver Zoo • Significant Achievement Cincinnati Zoo Woodland Park Zoo

The Education Award recognizes outstanding achievement by an AZA member institution in educational program design. • TOP HONORS Woodland Park Zoo for Ready, Set, Discover • Significant Achievement Chicago Zoological Society/Brookfield Zoo for Nature Start: Early Childhood Nature Program Lincoln Park Zoo for Young Researchers Collaborative The Exhibit Award recognizes excellence in the area of live animal display and exhibit design by an AZA Institution or Related Facility member. • TOP HONORS Columbus Zoo and Aquarium for Polar Frontier Fort Worth Zoo for Museum of Living Art (MOLA) The Toledo Zoo for Nature’s Neighborhood • Significant Achievement Brevard Zoo for PAWS ON Dallas Zoo for Giants of the Savanna

The International Conservation Award recognizes exceptional efforts outside North America by AZA Institution, Related Facility, International The Edward H. Bean Award acclaims Facility, or Conservation Partner the most significant propagation or members toward habitat preservamanagement programs that contribtion, species restoration, and support ute to the reproductive success of one of biodiversity in the wild. or more species or subspecies. • TOP HONORS • TOP HONORS Zoo Society of Milwaukee for Riverbanks Zoo and Garden Bonobo and Congo Biodiversity for Bali Mynah Initiative Zoo Atlanta for Western lowland gorilla


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Five Year Strategic Plan The plan continues to provide a solid framework for AZA’s initiatives going forward.

Educating and engaging public, professional and government audiences

AZA-accredited zoos and aquariums will be recognized for leading a compelling wildlife conservation movement. We will achieve this by:

Build effective government and public affairs capabilities, and support AZA member conservation education programs to advance conservation outcomes and support for accredited zoos and aquariums.

Caring for wildlife and wild places

An up-to-date economic impact of zoos and aquariums was disseminated to Congress.

Ensure the sustainability of diverse wildlife collections in accredited zoos and aquariums; advance high standards of wildlife-focused animal care and welfare; and foster outcomebased conservation by connecting zoos and aquariums to the wild. The Sustainability Taskforce recommendations outline in last year’s report were implemented including the completion of new Handbooks for all animal program leaders and implementing best practices for animal program leader succession. Careful advancement of the sustainability goals and communication resulted in a high level of cooperation by the community. The Aquatic Task Force is now in place and at work. The Field Conservation Committee and AZA staff developed a clear definition of activities, resources and investments to be counted in an assessment of conservation impact.

Using the definitions mentioned above, a report of conservation spending in AZA-accredited zoos and aquariums was completed. AZA’s Conservation Education Committee is assisting with a comprehensive survey of AZA conservation education programs and the Green Scientific Advisory Group will work on a survey of implementation of green practices.

Serving and increasing membership Provide services that build and support an expanding community of individual members, and diverse facilities of all sizes, in collectively achieving the AZA mission. A comprehensive membership satisfaction/needs assessment survey was completed and the findings used to inform budgeting, staffing and program decisions. Online courses are being added to AZA’s Professional Development curriculum.


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DOC 66.18.2

Eurasian Regional Association of Zoos and Aquariums (EARAZA) Report Vladimir Spitsin

The action plan and decisions apContinuing education for zoo professionals proved by the 2010 EARAZA Annual Conference that was held in June provided direction for the work carried The Fourth International Workshop out by the association in 2010. The on Invertebrates in Zoos and Insecopen session was attended by 60 del- tariums was conducted on October 18 egates and was dedicated to research, through 23 at the Moscow Zoo, and with reports on research programs as was attended by 119 participants the topic of presentation. The closed from zoological institutions, researchsession heard and approved the ers, educators and students from reports of the Presidium and of the eight European countries. Following Executive Office for 2009, the Action over 100 presentations, workshop Plan and the budget for 2010, and participants visited various exhibidiscussed current issues. tions and museums. The Workshop was concluded concurrently with As of December 31, 2010, EARAZA a meeting of the EARAZA Working membership was comprised of 63 Group on Terrestrial and Freshwater institutions from 13 countries, of Invertebrates. which 42 were full members, and 21, associate members. On November 22 through 25 the Moscow Zoo hosted a workshop on In 2010, the attention of EARAZA Research in Zoos. The attendees members was focused on continufrom 22 zoos and two nature reserves ing education for zoo professionals, were acquainted with the document strengthening ties between zoos, “Developing the Research Potential of conservation and participation by Zoos and Aquaria: the EAZA Research EARAZA zoos in conservation activiStrategy” adopted by EAZA in 2008. ties of international zoo organizaMost of the presentations that foltions. lowed dealt with specific aspects of the strategy and focused on developing guidelines for research conducted in zoos. Special attention was given to record keeping and behavioral enrichment as a way to improve animal welfare.

The next international workshop under the title Aquarium as a Window into the World was conducted jointly with the Aqua Logo Engineering Company, and hosted by the Oceanology Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences on April 23 through 25. The workshop was attended by over 120 participants, including staff from eight zoos and aquariums. The proceedings were edited by the staff of the EARAZA Information Center and published as the fourth volume of Aquaculture, which is available on the EARAZA website along with the other volumes of this publication (www.earaza.ru). On September 27 through 30 the Vorobji Bird Park in the Kaluga Region hosted a workshop on husbandry and veterinary care of birds. It was attended by delegates from 15 zoos, veterinary clinics, educational and research institutions and the Ministry of Agriculture. The workshop agenda was divided into two parts, husbandry and veterinary care. There was a practical session on endoscopic sex determination in birds and another session on hand rearing parrot chicks, and a round table discussion on efficient information storage and exchange. During the year 2010, over 250 delegates from 25 zoos from Russia and other CIS countries, the Czech Republic, the Baltic Countries and Israel, participated in various seminars, workshops and conferences, and individual internships at the Moscow Zoo and some other zoos of the region were arranged for 102 zoo professionals.


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Publishing activities The following periodicals were made available in 2010: • The 29 issue of Information Material on Zoological Collections containing information on 109 zoos, aquariums, and other zoological institutions from 17 countries (Russia, Israel, countries of the CIS, Baltic countries and countries of Eastern Europe). The publication is available at the EARAZA website www.earaza.ru. • The 19th volume of the Yearbook on Birds of Prey and Owls in Zoos and Breeding Stations contains information on the study, conservation, husbandry, veterinary care and reintroduction of raptors. • The 26th issue of Research in Zoological Gardens dedicated to marine aquariums, husbandry of exotic amphibian species, hand-rearing bats and meerkats, ontogenesis of Persian Gazelles, veterinary care of tortoises and turtles, etc. A separate part of the book is dedicated to the Small Mammal Taxonomic Advisory Group Meeting and the Workshop on the Przewalski’s Horse. • The publication Proceedings of the Workshop on Rare Mammal Husbandry in Zoos and Breeding Stations. • The fourth issue of Aquaculture, published jointly with the Aqua Logo Company. The issue contains the proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Aquariology, including original papers on the biology, behavior and physiology of fishes and other hydrobionts, their nutrition and veterinary care, and on aquarium equipment and design, as well as on conservation and rational use of wetlands.

In 2010 the EARAZA Information Working groups Center was able to considerably expand its electronic library. CoinThe following EARAZA working cidentally, most of the sources deal groups were active in 2010: with a wide variety of problems • The Veterinary Working Group encountered in veterinary care of wild • The Working Group on Terrestrial animals in captivity. and Freshwater Invertebrates • The Working Group on Birds of Prey As usual, staff of the EARAZA Inforand Owls mation Center provided assistance • The Working Group on Education. throughout the year to member zoos and other zoological institutions in preparing documentation on zoo con- Research programs struction projects, collection planning and reconstruction of existing zoo ex- In 2010 many regional zoos particihibits, and in arranging and conductpated in the following EARAZA Ining internships between zoos. Special ternational Comprehensive Research attention in the course of this conPrograms: sulting work was focused on safety issues and the technical implementation of safety requirements. Zoos and The Steller’s Sea Eagle other interested organization, as well as private individuals, were able to Under the program, the 13th Studreceive information, guidelines and book on the Steller’s Sea Eagle was manuals pertaining to the legislation completed and its electronic version on keeping wild animals in captive was distributed to all the participants situations. A total of 192 requests for of the captive breeding program. consultations were handled by the EARAZA financed the project on EARAZA Information Center on bemonitoring Steller’s Sea Eagle popuhalf of many EARAZA member zoos lations. A total of about 250 Steller’s and other non-member institutions. Sea Eagles and 50 White-tailed Sea Eagles were surveyed in the course of Letters referring to the operation of the field project. currently existing zoos and on the design and construction of new zoos were sent out to the administrative Mountain Ungulates authorities of the cities of Almaty, of Eurasia Yerevan, Kazan, Kaliningrad, Kiev, Penza, Seversk, Stavropol, Tashkent, The primary goal of the project is Shymkent and other cities. establishing stable and genetically diverse captive breeding populations of mountain ungulates of Eurasia at zoos and breeding stations with the option of eventual introduction into declining wild populations.


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Eurasian Bustard Conservation Work has been continued on breeding bustards and establishing breeding groups at EARAZA and non-EARAZA institutions

Rare and Endangered Geese of Eurasia The development and implementation of the conservation strategy and recovery of rare species of Anseriformes through intensive captive breeding and further reintroduction into the wild is being continued. Stable and genetically viable breeding populations of rare Anseriformes are being established in zoos and breeding stations. Efforts to establish a Canada goose population in the Northern Kurils have produced the first positive results, with birds wintering in the Japanese Islands. The work is being conducted jointly by Russian, Japanese and American ornithologists.

Eurasian Crane Conservation Work is being continued on establishing stable and genetically viable captive breeding populations of rare and endangered species of Eurasian cranes with the purpose of replenishing zoological collections and recovery of the dwindling wild populations. Zoos and the Rare Crane Breeding Station of the State Oka Biosphere Reserve participate in the reintroduction of Siberian, Japanese and Whitenaped Cranes into natural habitats.

Establishing Reserve Populations of the Siberian Spruce Grouse The work on breeding the Siberian Spruce Grouse and releasing captive bred birds into suitable habitat in the Novosibirsk Region was continued. During the year 2010, 137 eggs were obtained from founder birds, and 78 chicks were raised. Methods are being developed for the release of females with newly hatched chicks, and the released birds are being monitored. Future plans include establishing a stable reserve population outside of the species’ main range. More young birds are being prepared for further release into the wild. A branch of the Breeding Station is to be established in Yakutia jointly with the Orto-Doidu Yakut Zoo for the purpose of reintroduction of the Siberian Spruce Grouse into natural habitat in those areas of Yakutia where wild micro populations of the species are declining rapidly.

Pallas Cat Conservation and Breeding Program The Program was approved at the EARAZA Annual Conference in June 2010. As the initial stage of the program, the following steps were undertaken in 2010: • a laboratory research program aimed at creating a system for diagnosis and prevention of toxoplasmosis in captive Pallas Cats was developed jointly with the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, • an agreement on conducting field research has been reached with the Daursky Reserve and with the Siberian Ecological Center in Novosibirsk.

Conservation of Rare Eurasian Sturgeon Species The program was approved at the EARAZA Annual Conference in June. The goal of the program is saving from total extinction the most rare sturgeons that occur in the basins of the Baltic, Black, Azov, and Caspian Seas, and in Central Asia and the Russian Far East. The program also aims at studying the biology of the target species and optimizing conditions for sturgeon husbandry and artificial reproduction, while contributing to the conservation and recovery of water ecosystems. Two field studies were already conducted in 2010, one in Uzbekistan, Amu Darya river, and one in Russia, Khabarovsk Region.


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The British and Irish Association of Zoos and Aquariums (BIAZA) Report Miranda F. Stevenson

General Although we entered 2010 optimistically with a new strategy in place and as part of the International Year of Biodiversity, which BIAZA and many members partnered. However the recession hit most of our membership adversely, resulting in lower attendance at meetings with many not able to commit as much staff time in supporting the Association as they would have liked. The Association thrives through the hard work of the small staff and also the membership, many of which contribute significant staff time and expense to support BIAZA. As ever we are grateful to our Chairman, chairs and members of committees for this support. In June we welcomed David Field as our new Chairman and thanked Simon Tonge for his fabulous six years of leadership. Since the beginning of 2011 Janine Robinson has joined us as Zoo Biologist and Andrea Marlowe as Management accountant. Boskha left after seven years of serving the Association. Zara, in her role as Communications Manager, continues to improve our public persona as well as attending to the needs of the membership.

Membership and Communication BIAZA’s membership stands at 101 (July 2011) with 98 full and 3 provisional members. Unfortunately three members ceased trading by the end of 2010. The Annual Conference was hosted by Fota Wildlife Park and held in Cork City in June. This was our first annual conference to be held in the Irish Republic and BIAZA received a wonderful Irish welcome. The theme of the conference was Evidence Evidence! Basing decision and action on a sound foundation. Speakers included Dr Michael Murphy President of University College Cork, Sir Drummond Bone President of BIAZA, Sir Nicholas Scheele ex MD of Ford Europe and Anthony Woods from the Wellcome Trust. These talks reflected, in different ways, how zoos and aquariums could be eligible for support from funding streams, but they needed to provide the background evidence for this. As well as the important content of the meeting the social side was also appreciated and several of us became official Irish whiskey tasters at Jameson’s Distillery. BIAZA is supporting the EAZA Ape Campaign and a raffle and auction at the meeting raised over £700.00.

A most productive and informative Research Symposium was hosted by Bristol Zoo in July with topics ranging form measuring stress, to problems of obesity in some species, to visitor studies and their importance. The workshop topic was ethics and legislation. We continued to hold smaller regional meetings and have one specifically for the smaller member collections planned for later in 2011. BIAZA coordinated a Love your Zoo week in May for the membership. This was a great success with 73 BIAZA collections taking part and putting on some super events including themed days, craft activities, animal encounters and more. There was lots of local paper and radio coverage.


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Influencing Decision Makers The conversations at the parliamentary meetings were skilfully orchestrated by our president Sir Drummond Bone. Through our All Partly Parliamentary Group, chaired by Andrew Rosindell MP we held several meetings: a lunch in October which provided advice on how to get a ‘champion’ department while maintaining the vital links with those with which we already work and getting a real presence on the political agenda; a joint meeting with the British Overseas Territories All Party Group in November for which the Defra Minister Richard Benyon stayed for the whole session. This consisted of a talk by Rob Thomas on the overseas territory conservation work that BIAZA members are involved with and talk on their work in Henderson Island from the RSPB. So far in 2011 we have held three meetings, one on the year of the forest, a reception hosted by ZSL London Zoo, focusing on the palm oil issue and our regular parliamentary reception in June. At the start of 2011 the Economic Impact Assessment was produced in a professional format and distributed. The EIA showed that: • When indirect and induced effects are added to the direct outputs of zoos as measured through the purchase of goods and services, they contribute some £645m. in total activity. • As significant visitor attractions, the spending by tourists in zoos of some £246m. is enhanced by associated spending off-site in the region of £198m. • Using employment multipliers, it is possible to calculate that, whilst direct employment by zoos in 2008 was 6,751 FTEs, indirect and induced effects increase that number to some 11,007 across the economy as a whole.

A significant amount of time was spent on elephants. The report on the 2010 elephant collection audits was completed in 2011. The Zoos Forum report on elephant keeping in the UK which was published in July 2010 with recommendations which we not only fully agree with but were pleased to announce that we were already carrying out. This resulted in the Secretary of State requesting that BIAZA act as the secretariat of an elephant welfare group, which would report to the relevant Government Department, Defra. So far in 2011 two meetings of this group have taken place and a work plan, which includes further research on elephant welfare in UK and Irish collections, formulated.

Field Conservation Support Once again we were not able to contribute much ourselves to Field Conservation support, but we were able to contribute small sums and through our membership of CBSG. However low interest rates and very little promotional income severely restricts what we can do. Reports were received (and published in LifeLines) on two previously supported projects: red pandas in Arunachal Pradesh India (Dr Awadhesh Kumar) and the ploughshare tortoise in Madagascar. The data of Dr Awadhesh Kumar from India contributed to the red panda PHVA held in Kathmandu in 2010. As stated earlier we were partners in the International Year of Biodiversity and the January 2011 edition of LifeLines featured the work of BIAZA and its membership in this. Parliamentary Brief Magazine also published a feature on the membership and their work. By signing up, BIAZA helped to contribute the international campaign which resulted in new strategic biodiversity targets with the IUCN declaring 2011-2020 the Decade of Biodiversity. We signed up to the 10: 10 campaign and later in the year our members agreed to support the ‘Lighter Later campaign’ to change the hours in the UK to those of central Europe, resulting in energy savings.

This has been another successful year for the BIAZA World Land Trust project, with the development of the 1,700 acres of Brazilian Coastal Atlantic Rainforest, purchased in 2009 and now termed the BIAZA Reserve. The Reserve has been managed throughout 2010 with trails being cut and surveys started. Eleven members travelled to the reserve in November and were incredibly impressed with the area, wildlife and the work being carried out. Resources are limited, and continued support from BIAZA is essential. Therefore in 2011 we launched the “Keepers for the Wild” project to support staff and survey work in the Reserve.

Assisting others We continue to assist the EAZA Committee on Technical Support and Animal Welfare with mentoring for the Romanian Zoo and Aquarium Federation. We continued to be active members of EAZA, WAZA and CBSG.

Looking forward We will continue with our strategy leading and supporting our membership in their excellent education, research and conservation activities while promoting their work to the outside world. And there are some big political events coming up, such as the adjournment debate which we hope to initiate in Westminster in the autumn.


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Verband Deutscher Zoodirektoren e. V. founded 1887 (VDZ) Report Peter Dollinger

As of June 2011, the VDZ had 162 members, including 68 regular members (zoo directors or zoos) representing 50 zoos in Germany, 5 in Austria, 4 in Switzerland 1 in Estonia and 1 in Spain. The remainder of members was made up of 6 associate, 54 corresponding and 34 honorary members. Regrettably, the Honorary Members Dr. Michael Gorgas, formerly Augsburg Zoo, and Dr. Manfred Zahn, formerly Aquazoo Duisburg, as well as Dr. Peter Rahn, former corresponding member had passed away during the reporting period. The Executive Board elected in 2010 remained unchanged. In spring the usual survey on visitor numbers and entrance fees was made. It appeared that the number of visits to member zoos in 2010 had been 40’894’614, almost the same as the year before, although weather conditions had generally been less favourable during the reporting period. Preceding the General Annual Meeting, a joint meeting of the zoo and professional associations of the German-speaking area took place at Hannover Zoo. Among other things, it was agreed to jointly fund the production of a flyer on amphibian conservation (“Sei kein Frosch – Hilf uns!”), which eventually was produced in July in 110’000 copies.

The General Annual Meeting 2011 was held from June 22–25 at Hannover. It was attended by 112 active participants, 19 accompanying persons and 17 sponsors representing 11 companies. The scientific part started with presentations on the perception of zoos by the society, the second session dealt with conservation and education in cooperation with authorities and organisations of the Germanspeaking area, the third session with animal husbandry issues and new developments in member zoos, and the fourth session with veterinary matters. Among the issues discussed at the administrative sessions was the revision of the minimum standards for the keeping of mammals undertaken by the German Ministry for Agriculture and Consumer Affairs, and discussions in the context of ISISZIMS and the mandatory periodic accreditation of EAZA members. The joint long-term amphibian conservation programme in collaboration with the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Herpetologie und Terrarienkunde (DGHT), the other zoo associations in the German-speaking area (DTG, DWV, OZO and zooschweiz), and the professional organisations of the zoo educators and zoo keepers (VZP and BdZ) continued to work with Stiftung Artenschutz providing logistic support. On the ex situ-side, there were a number of changes to the list of species included in the programme. During 2010/11 four in situ-projects were supported with a total amount of 14’600 €, of which 5’000 € came from VDZ. For the period 2011/12 VDZ contributed again 5’000 € towards the support of another 4–5 projects:

• Research into Amphibian biodiversita at Pu Hu Nature Reserve, Vietnam • Restoration of crested newt populations in the St. Petersburg region, russia • Evaluation of the Mt Moreland Wetland as Potential Protected Area for the Critically Endangered Pickersgill’s Reed Frog (Hyperolius pickersgilli) • The floating meadows of Amazonia – unnoted amphibian diversity in danger • Saving the small and isolated populations of the spadefoot toad (Pelobates fuscus) outside protected areas in the northern range edge in Estonia The ZooFinder App for iPhone and iPad mandated and financed by VDZ went online in January 2011. VDZ’s website www.zoodirektoren. de continued to flourish. As of June 2011, it contained 748 individual pages, 5’600 images, more than 300 PDF-Downloads, powerpoint presentations, and Trailers, 104 references to Studbooks and about 660 bibliographic references as well as data on all member zoos and individual members. In the “News” section, 20 messages, 30 job offers and 1360 press releases from member institutions were published between June 2010 and 2011. The site was visited 417’405 times during the calendar year 2010 (previous year 348‘303 visits).


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SNDPZ Annual Report Jean-Marc Charpentier

Vocational training

Species Conservation

Dream night at the zoo

As officially agreed training center, the SNDPZ offers each year appropriate trainings to zoo employees. In 2010, about 50 people attended one of the various training available.

The SNDPZ works together with other national and/or international organizations dedicated to the preservation or the protection of wildlife. During 2010 the SNDPZ helped financially the HURO program for the protection of the hoolock gibbon.

Low price Tee-Shirts are on sale for the “dream night at the zoo” event. Most of participating zoos give them as souvenirs for attendants.

Wolf registration The ministry, trough the order dated 08/24/2000, gives the SNDPZ its agreement to manage the national wolves’ identification file. All wolves owners and keepers have to register their animals on the national file. On 31th December 2010, 534 wolves were registered: 292 males and 242 females.

The SNDPZ has also finalized the French translation of WZACS (free download on our website).

Avian flu vaccination Franck Haelewyn was the SNDPZ representative at the meeting held on 29th march 2010. The DGAL representatives are in favor of an optional vaccination.

Congress In October 2010, our congress “Zoologis II, the latest technical innovations in zoo facilities” was held at SainteCroix zoo on October 13, 14 and 15th 2010. Mr. Olivier Pagan (zoo director in Bâle), Mr Patrick Paré (director of education and research in Granby) and Mr. Harry Schram were among us as Key lecturers.


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African Association of Zoos and Aquaria (PAAZAB) Report Dave Morgan

Membership Currently PAAZAB lists a total of 68 Institutional, Affiliate and Associate members in 12 African countries: (South Africa, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Uganda, Cameroon, Nigeria, Egypt, Ethiopia, Ghana, Madagascar, Swaziland, Zambia). The breakdown is as follows: 41 Institutional Members in 10 countries; 7 Affiliate Members in 4 countries and 20 Associate members 2 in countries.

Annual General Meeting and Conference The 22nd Annual General Meeting and conference of PAAZAB was hosted by the National Zoological Gardens of South Africa in Pretoria, South Africa 17–20 May 2011, 110 delegates from 13 countries attended. The main theme of the conference was education in informal environments and several key note speakers gave specific presentations followed by workshops in this regard.

At the formal Gala dinner, Ann “Our focus and drive in the past couple Beckhelling of Cheetah Outreach, of years has been about getting our Cape Town South Africa and Profeshouse in order with regard to the qualsor Antoinette Kotze of the National ity of animal welfare and husbandry Zoological Gardens of South Africa within our institutions. It is a known were awarded the PAAZAB Conserva- fact and reality that we come from tion Award 2011 respectively; David a great diversity of institutions with Vaughn of Two Oceans Aquarium, regard to whether we are private or Cape Town South Africa was awarded public, large or small in both physithe Bernard Harrison and Friends cal footprint and public attendance; Award for Best Professional Developlocated in large metropolitan areas ment and Dr Mark Penning of uShaka or small towns, and thus the extent Sea World/South African Associaof the financial resources available tion for Marine Biological Research, to deploy in favour infrastructural Durban, South Africa and Dr David development. The PAAZAB OperaJones of North Carolina Zoo, USA tional Standard (Ops Std) is geared to were awarded the PAAZAB Chairestablish an objective framework for man’s Award 2011 respectively. The implementation and management of finale came with the presentation to quality assurance in our institutions Dr Mark Penning of the esteemed in dealing with a variety of elements, PAAZAB Award for outstanding and principal amongst which is animal significant contributions to the zoo husbandry and welfare. Through the community. Ops Std our institutions will be able to demonstrate to supporters and detractors alike that they uphold high standOperational Standard ards in their facilities. As agreed in our previous annual meeting, we are now During the course of the AGM rapidly approaching the deadline for members were reminded that the PAAZAB’s institutional membership final countdown for applications for to apply to be assessed according to PAAZAB Operational Standard audits the PAAZAB Ops Std. As the PAAZAB had commenced; the final deadline Executive Committeeutive we value for receipt of applications being April the commitment of our membership 30 2012. In his AGM address, the to upholding the highest standards of Chairman of PAAZAB, Dr Clifford animal husbandry and welfare, and we Nxomani made the following obserurge everyone to organize themselves vations: to undergo the Ops Std assessment.”


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African Preservation Program (APP) In cognizance of the requirement for a complete overhaul and revision of the workings of PAAZAB’s Regional Species Management Program, the African Preservation Program (APP), the Executive Committee of PAAZAB took the decision at its meeting of 17 May 2011, to temporarily suspend the APP Charter and disband the APP Coordinating Committee. This move was undertaken solely to facilitate the necessary review/re-invention process. The Executive Office of PAAZAB has in the interim being given the responsibility of directing the review in line with international requirements for sustainable collection and program management.

ED4PAAZAB Chair: Russell Stevens, Two Oceans Aquarium, Cape Town, South Africa Ed4PAZAAB was recently constituted with its first collaborative conference with the AKAA early in 2010. In September a significant Gathering of African Aquarium & Zoo Education staff occurred in Orlando, Florida at the IZE conference in Orlando, USA, the African delegation met over a meal on the 2 October, the last evening of the conference. Included were: • Aidan, Asekenye, Jane Goodall Institute, Entebbe, Uganda • Ali Lawal Yola, Kano Zoological Garden, Nigeria • Andrew Seguya, Uganda Wildlife Education Centre, Entebbe, Uganda • Jone Porter, uShaka Sea World, Durban, South Africa • Joseph Karama, Karisoke Research Centre, Rwanda • Louise Gordon, Johannesberg Zoo, South Africa • Pierrot Kakule Mbonzo, D. R. of the Congo • Russell Stevens, Two Oceans Aquarium, Cape Town, South Africa • Ulrich Oberprieler, National Zoological Gardens, Pretoria, South Africa

The purpose of this discussion was to: • Discuss our way forward in retaining the collective energy generated at the IZE conference. • Utilise collective energy to elevate the perspective and practice of education within our institutions. • Utilise the IZE forum including the journal to publicise the excellent work being done in Africa. • Set in place regional meetings leading up to the PAZAAB conference Dr Andrew Seguya gave a brief of the background to PAZAAB to the group and emphasized the value of interacting with PAZAAB to use African resources and situations for African solutions. Louise Gordon gave a brief background to collaborative efforts made by Africa’s Zoos and Aquariums over the past 10 years from the AZOREN conference which met in 2000- to the more recently held Ed4PAZAAB/AKAA Symposium of February 2010. Jone Porter explained to the group how Ed4Pazaab related to the International Zoo Educators organization in relation to the bodies found on the other continents. (These include Australia & New Zealand’s ZAA formerly ARAZPA, Asia’s SEAZA & SAZARC, Europe’s EAZA, Latin America’s ALPZA and North America’s AZA.) Ulrich Oberprieler explained the view Dr Clifford Nxomani President of PAZAAB & Managing Director of NZG, in that they planned to elevate Education as a major component of the PAZAAB 2011 conference. The group agreed that the way forward for Ed4PAZAAB was to strengthen the regions, namely Central Africa, West Africa, Gauteng, Kwa-Zulu Natal and Western Cape. Our strategy is to plan a mini conference in each of the regions. Education staff from each of the member institutions were encouraged to attend the conferences, take part in debates and deliver presentations at these gatherings. A prize would be given to the best presentation given. As an incentive the best presentation from each region would be considered by the ED4PAZAAB steering committee to apply for funding to sponsor the PAZAAB conference fees.

Regional News In 2011 the Cango Wildlife ranch has focused on the Year of the Bat by educating visitors at their Flying Fox fruitbats display. Here they interpret the hand-raising process of one of their babies which is described in an article in the PAAZAB newsletter. Continuing on the Year of the Bat theme the Johannesburg Zoo is hosting a series of bat education sessions at the Zoo. This program is also being offered to Gauteng schools in a collaborative program with Johannesburg City Parks. A travelling education display is currently being developed which will be on display at various schools. In a further collaborative project between Johannesburg Zoo, Johannesburg City parks and the National Zoological Gardens conducted two workshops for Grade 10-12 educators and their subject advisors over 3 days during April. The subject matter was Biodiversity: Classification of animals and plants and thirdly using genetics for purposes of classification. The animal section was presented by JHB Zoo, Plants by the City Parks and the genetics by the National Zoological Gardens. Feedback received from the evaluation forms indicated that the workshop was very well received. The teachers indicated that the worksheets and practical sessions could easily be adapted, copied and used at their own schools. They clearly learned a great deal from these workshops which could be applied to the curriculum. The content on genetics is clearly valuable for Grade 10-12 programs as this is covered in the Matric syllabus. The Gauteng region looks forward to their next joint workshop which will be on Climate Change and will take place in October this year.


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DOC 66.18.12 The one program that unifies the effort of ED4Pazaab zoo and aquarium members in the Southern African region is the Southern African Sustainable Seafood Initiative (SASSI). Johannesburg Zoo hosted and copresented a SASSI training workshop for participants from various Gauteng restaurants as well as staff from the Spar food chain- the latest chain store participant. Johannesburg Zoo staff later participated in a Spar Trade show at Emperors Palace – educating Spar owners and retailers on sustainable seafood initiatives. UShaka Marine World and The Two Oceans Aquarium have also presented SASSI workshops through the year. The Two Oceans shared presentations together with WWF to staff of restaurants such as Ocean Basket.

Veterinary Committee (VC) Chair: Dr Adrian Tordiffe, National Zoological Gardens of South Africa The PAAZAB Veterinary Committee (VC) was formally established in November 2009. The committee has achieved a number of important goals during 2010, but the year has been fairly busy for all the members and this has taken its toll in that some goals were not achieved. Nevertheless, highlights for the year include the successful hosting of the 2nd Symposium on Zoological Medicine at the National Zoo in September and the veterinary expedition to Giza Zoo in November 2010. A VC meeting was held on the 10th of August 2010. The main topics of discussion for the meeting were as follows: • The roles and structure of the VC • The 2nd African Symposium on Zoological Medicine • Requests for assistance from other African countries • The potential establishment of an African Association of Zoo and Wildlife Veterinarians • Future Symposiums and training workshops.

2nd African Symposium on Zoological Medicine More than 70 veterinarians, veterinary nurses and students attended the 2nd African Symposium on Zoological Medicine hosted at the National Zoological Gardens of South Africa (NZG). Although the number of delegates attending was much lower this year, the symposium was a great success and was thoroughly enjoyed by all. On 16 September Dr Mark Stetter, Director of Veterinary Services at Disney’s Animal Kingdom presented a four-hour workshop on the use of endoscopy in zoo and exotic animals. Delegates were given the opportunity to handle the endoscopic equipment provided for the event by Karl Storz Endoscopy (South Africa) (Pty) Ltd. Several birds were scoped for gender determination and Dr Stetter also demonstrated the ease with which the internal organs of a tortoise can be examined and sampled using endoscopy. The main symposium got underway on 17 September. Dr Mark Stetter started the proceedings with his keynote address on the role of veterinarians in conservation. This was followed by presentations on a wide range of species, ranging from mega-herbivores through to primates and reptiles. Several of the presenters dealt with ethical issues such as Dr Gerhard Steenkamp who presented on the cage trapping of leopards while others, like Dr Martine van Zijl Langhout shared their practical experiences in the field of zoo and wildlife medicine. After the presentations the delegates were taken on a tour of the NZG’s research and veterinary facilities and were then treated to a spitbraai next to the elephant enclosure.

On day two Prof Heribert Hofer, Director of the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, presented his keynote address entitled “From pathogens to asymmetric reproductive aging: wildlife, research, veterinarians and conservation projects”. In his usual thought-provoking manner, Prof Hofer highlighted the differences in approach of veterinarians on the one hand and conservation biologists on the other, toward disease outbreaks in the Serengeti ecosystem. The symposium was judged to be great success and provided a rare platform for veterinarians involved in conservation, wildlife health and zoo medicine to share their experiences and knowledge.

Veterinary expedition to Giza Zoo In November 2010, Dr Gerhard Steenkamp, Sr Jeanne Marie Pittman and I travelled to Giza Zoo as planned to provide much needed training to their veterinary staff and to carry out several veterinary procedures. A major obstacle was the need to transport the majority of the veterinary equipment, consumables and drugs to Egypt as these were not readily available on that side. The larger equipment items were detained by customs officials in Cairo and were therefore not available for use for most of our visit. Nevertheless we were able to immobilize and treat a number of animals and provide practical training. The visit also gave me an opportunity to evaluate the progress that the Zoo has made since our last visit in March 2010. Although we noticed several improvements, we also identified several major obstacles that still stand in the way of serious progress. A formal report on the expedition will be available before the end of January 2011.


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PAAZAB Conservation Science and Research Committee (CSRC) Chair: Prof. Antoinette Kotze, National Zoological Gardens of South Africa Following requests from the Executive Committee of PAAZAB the committee has finalized its name, Terms of Reference and drafted a business plan for the proposed African Zoo Biology Journal. The revised name of the committee is now the PAAZAB Conservation Science and Research Committee, with the following terms of reference:

Appointment and Accountability

Duration (Term) of Appointment

The PAAZAB Conservation Science and Research Committee and its chairperson will be appointed by the Executive Director of PAAZAB and approved by the Executive Committee.

Members will be appointed for at least a three year term with the extension of further terms at the discretion of the chair, the Executive Director and the appointed portfolio Executive Committee member

Functions: • Review and make recommendations on activities referred to by the PAAZAB Executive Director and Executive Committee for comments and action. • Provide a forum for researchers and visitors to meet, thus assisting with the public understanding of science Purpose: • Offer opportunities to raise aware• To promote research within the ness about research and its conserPAAZAB membership according vation implication to the PAAZAB Constitution that • Initiate and undertake own and includes “permanent sited legal escollaborative research to further the tablishments for the foremost and aims of PAAZAB demonstrable purpose of conserva- • Develop research capacity by suption through exhibition, education porting staff and research”. • Develop collaborative partnerships • To contribute to PAAZAB’s vision with universities for “African Zoos and Aquaria to be • Support regular publications, syminternationally recognized as being posia and workshops for the preseffective and trusted centres of entation and discussion of scientific animal welfare, conservation, eduresearch cation, research and service” and • Increase accessibility of results (to to promote the PAAZAB mission of both the academic and zoo and “Conservation through Cooperation”. aquarium communities) and sharing • To include conservation-directed techniques and experiences maxiresearch in line with the World mize the benefit of research. Zoo and Aquarium Conservation • Encourage access to PAAZAB aniStrategy with the vision of zoos and mal collections and material aquariums being serious, respected scientific institutions, integrated into the research community, and Composition making sound scientific decisions of the Committee for wildlife. The Committee will be constituted of no more than 6 members from zoos and aquariums that are paid-up members of PAAZAB. The PAAZAB Executive Committee will allocate an ex-officio portfolio member to represent the Executive Committee.

General The Committee will under normal circumstances meet twice a year. Further contact will take place via emails and telephone calls. Reporting of the committee activities is the responsibility of the chair. All committee meetings will have agendas and minutes and it will be the responsibility of the chair to keep these.


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Business plan for the African Zoo Biology Journal The CSRC plans to run a top quality scientific journal on African zoo research featuring articles related to conservation, education and management which will be offered via internet distribution free of charge. There are several outlets for serious scientific papers. The realization is that many zoo keepers and other zoo staff within the African context need an outlet that has some reputation and a large distribution, but with a more casual approach to publishing, at first for example making use of user friendly notes, short papers on the care of a particular animal being raised by a zoo keeper or the enrichment designed for an animal. In this way the staff of zoos could be more involved and it could become a document kept by all for reference material. To this end the CSRC is looking into the following: • Tentative title for the journal: African Journal for Zoo Biology • A committed and experienced Editor-in-Chief to lead the project • An Editorial Board with good project and content management skills; email access; credibility, visibility and reputation • Time and professional dedication – estimated 5 weeks (2 hours per paper and 1 hour per published paper) • Scope and topics of the journal: these will be decided on a yearly basis by the CSRC • Anticipated publishing frequency: Once a year • Format: electronic versions in PDF and Postscript • Outline of the potential audience: all zoos and aquariums in Africa; academic institutions, • Tentative list of members of the Editorial team: the CSR, the Executive Director PAAZAB, the portfolio representative of the PAAZAB Executive Committee • Benchmark of the most influential journals in the field (competitors): International Zoo Yearbook; Zoo Biology

Executive Committee Office The PAAZAB Executive Office apart from its normal run of administrative duties has in addition been pursuing two core projects: In collaboration with Endangered Wildlife Trust (EWT) and the National Council for Societies for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (NSPCA), PAAZAB has embarked upon an ambitious initiative to define welfare minimums for wild animals under intensive human care. This undertaking has been mandated by the lack of cohesive national legislation in South Africa for the care of non-domesticated animals. The document stipulates welfare and care minimums by taxa from invertebrates through to mammals. At this stage the document is still in review by stakeholders. Upon completion the intent is to submit it to the South African Departments of Environmental Affairs and Agriculture respectively, for consideration for incorporation into national legislation. It is further envisaged that the document will provide a template for use in other African countries.

The second core project is the production of and service provision to, a basic Animal Husbandry Competency Certificate awarded and endorsed by PAAZAB and is sister organisation, the Animal Keepers Association of Africa (AKAA). The certificate is aimed to be a 3 day course which will be presented on site at PAAZAB member facilities for a maximum of 10 learners per course. It will cover the husbandry and welfare of animals in area of responsibility and will tailormade for each participating facility. The certificate is seen to be the first step towards formal professional zoo-keeper training in the region. It is also intended to lay down the primary template for the two South African Qualifications Authority (SAQA), National Certificates in Zoo-keeping and Animal Care. At this time, there is no service provision to either of these SAQA certificates. Both PAAZAB and AKAA have collaboratively applied for the requisite national permissions to perform such service provision. The basic competency certificate is the part of this process and roll-out is planned for January 2012.


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South Asian Zoo Association for Regional Cooperation (SAZARC) + Zoo Outreach Organisation (ZOO) Report Sally R. Walker

SAZARC Report SAZARC, the South Asian Zoo Association for Regional Cooperation hosted by ZOO Office conducted its 10th Annual Conference at Chitwan National Park, 22–27 November 2010 sponsored by National Trust for Nature Conservation NTNC, Nepal; German Nepal Friendship Association Germany; Chester Zoo, Universities Federation for Animal Welfare, Zoological Society of London, UK; CBSG SSC IUCN, Columbus Zoological Gardens, North Carolina Zoo, Cleveland Metroparks Zoo, Sedgewick County Zoo and St. Louis Zoo, USA.

After the conference the Afghan participants stayed in New Delhi where Mr. Marmuthu from SAZARC monitored training for Kabul Zoo Staff, 28 Nov – 04 Dec 2010 which included a tour of 3 zoos in North India includes National Zoological Park in New Delhi, Allen Forest Zoological Park in Kanpur, UP and Mahendra Chaudhury Zoological Park in Chhatbir, Punjab. This training was sponsored by the North Carolina Zoo with five participants from Kabul Zoo, Afghanistan, e.g., Aziz Gul Sabique, Director, Mrs. Rohella Kostani, Director, Culture Dept; Mr. M. Amadhi, Special Assistant to Mayor of Afghanistat; Dr. Abdul Khader, Veterinary Officer and Mr. Nazib Nazari, Education Officer.

Participants from all South Asian countries (except Maldives) attended, e.g.: Afghanistan (5), Bangladesh (6), Pakistan (1), Sri Lanka (3), Bhutan (1), • S. Walker, Director SAZARC guided India (12) and Nepal (20). students from the Architectural College, Dhaka, Bangladesh, in creatThe conference was devoted to ing more environmentally enriched training with theme of Emergency enclosures for the Dhaka Zoo. Response in Zoo Protocols for 21st • The 11th Annual SAZARC Conference Century Crises, e.g., Climate Change, will not be conducted in 2011 due Emerging Diseases, and Terrorism. to lack of resources. The conferDr. Wendy Foden, Pgm. Manager ence has been scheduled to be for Climate Change, SSC IUCN was conducted in November 2012 on resource person for Climate Change the premises of Kabul Zoo, Kabul, and Dr. Mark Irwin for Emerging DisAfghanistan. eases and other health and training aspects. Different participants shared their preparation and response for terrorism. Working Groups organized by country prepared Emergency Response plans in outline for taking back to their zoo for submission to their respective governments.

Zoo Outreach Organisation, ZOO Release of Indian Post special cover featuring Endangered Hoolock Gibbon On 18 August 2010, the Zoo Outreach Organisation collaborating with the Primate Specialist Group South Asia, and CBSG South Asia conducted a Western Hoolock Gibbon Special Postal Cover Release at Krishnammal College, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India. The purpose of the event was to bring public attention to the Western Hoolock Gibbon and activities concerning same since the Population and Habitat Viability Assessment PHVA for Hoolock Gibbon held in Dhaka, Bangladesh in 2008. The PHVA for both Indian and Bangladeshi invited both field biologists and zoo personnel working with the species. Letters summarizing the plight of Hoolock Gibbon were posted in the special covers to hundreds of primate biologists, forest, wildlife and Ministry officials. The release was attended by a large crowd of people from the city, the postal staff, PSG Krishnammal College students and ZOO staff. The event was sponsored by the Primate Action Fund of Conservation International (C. I.).


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Red Panda PHVA A Red Panda Population and Habitat Viability Assessment and Species Conservation Strategic Planning was conducted 2-6 September 2010 and hosted by National Trust for Nature Conservation and Central Zoo, Lalithpur, Kathmandu, Nepal (Shant Jnwali). The PHVA was organized by Zoo Outreach Organisation/CBSG South Asia and and sponsored by Rotterdam Zoo, WWF Germany and EAZA. Facilitators were Sanjay Molur from ZOO and Kristin Leus from CBSG Europe. There were 60 participants from Nepal, Bhutan and India from both field and captive community (except Bhutan). Two major working groups identified 11 subpopulations and concluded that the metapopulation was likely to hold roughly between 230 to 1060 individuals by using GIS technology. The workshop identified the threats and priortised them for each of the six complexes identified as management unit. Three more PHVAs are envisioned for the next three years, e.g. China, India and Bhutan. These workshops have been initiatiated by Dr. Angela Glatston, Red Panda specialist of Rotterdam Zoo.

Wildlife Conservation and Wildlife Welfare A special training workshop inspired by a working group at CBSG in 2010 tested teaching techniques to introduce teachers and other specialists to Wildlife Welfare and Conservation as a related and combined discipline. The workshop was sponsored fully by the Universities Federation of Animal Welfare (UFAW), UK on 19–20 February 2011. The workshop was organized by Zoo Outreach Organisation and facilitated by Dr. B. A. Daniel and R. Marimuthu. There were 15 participants, including zoo volunteers,

animal rescue team members, research/graduate students, education interpretation assistants, members from NGOs involved in wildlife education, police involved in wildlife rescue, school teachers and wildlife photographers). Feedback from participants indicates they have taken the concept to heart and are teaching others to spread this relatively new concept. Educational material on this topic is being prepared for Indian Animal Welfare Fortnightly activities January 2012.

Western Ghats Freshwater Biodiversity Assessments Using the CAMP process ZOO, CBSG South Asia and IUCN conducted two Western Ghats Freshwater Biodiversity Assessment Evaluation Workshops in Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India sponsored by CEPF, Critical Ecosystems Partnership Fund via IUCN. The first workshop was conducted 7–11 October 2010 with 35 participants and the second workshop 24–28 January 2011 with 24 participants. All local participants were Resource Persons and External Resource persons for the data base of the first workshop were Neil Ashley Cox, Acting Manager, IUCN and Conservation International (CI) Biodiversity Assessment Unit (FWU), Emma Brooks and Juffe Diego (FWU), Species Programme, IUCN, UK. Out of 1200 species, 490 Western Ghats freshwater ecosystem species (fishes, moluscs, odonates and aquatic plants) were assessed during the workshop, and another 450 were assessed during the second assessment workshop. Sanjay Molur, B. A. Daniel and R. Marimuthu from CBSG South Asia and ZOO conducted both the workshops. External Resource persons were participants and particularly Neelesh Dahanukar from Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Pune and Rajeev Raghavan, Conservation Research Group (CRG) Department of Aquaculture.

Asian Lepidoptera Conservation Symposium (ALCS) and Training On 25–29 October 2010 the 3rd biannual Asian butterfly conservation symposium was held at Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India. It was the first time for South Asia. Sponsors were Chester Zoo, UK, CBSG, SSC, IUCN; Kadoorie Farm & Botanic Garden, Hong Kong; Dept. of Science and Technology, New Delhi; and Woodward Family, Hong Kong. There were 260 delegates from Brunei, China, Hong Kong, India, Malaysia, Taiwan and Sri Lanka. B. A. Daniel, Sanjay Molur and R. Marimuthu conducted the Symposium.

W. Ghats Reptile CAMP workshop A Conservation and Assessment Managent Plan workshop was conducted on 28 February through 04 March 2011 held at Karl Kubel Institute, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India. It was sponsored fully by CEPF, Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund. Organised by ZOO/CBSG South Asia along with IUCN, the workshop assessed 245 reptile species from W. Ghats. There were 40 participants mostly field biologists from the Western Ghats. External Resource Persons Neil Cox, Manager, IUCN/SSC CI/CABS Biodiversity Assessment Unit, USA; Marcelo F. Tognelli, Programme Officer, IUCN | CI BAU; Aaron M. Bauer, Gerald M. Lemole, M. D. Graduate Program in Biology, Villanova University, USA. Local facilitators and organizers Sanjay Molur, B. A. Daniel and R. Marimuthu.


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Human-elephant Coexistence (HECx) in Coimbatore and Thailand Two series of three workshops on Human-elephant Coexistence among HEC areas were conducted. The first series was for three villages of Coimbatore, South India, June-July 2011 sponsored by International Elephant Foundation, USA with 74 paticipants totally for the three workshops (B. A. Daniel and R. Marimuthu). The second series was conducted on 15-24 August 2011 at Riverside Pavillion Hotel, Kanchanaburi, Thailand, sponsored by the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior, United States; Columbus Zoological Gardens, Columbus, Ohio; and Koln Zoo, Germany B. A. Daniel, R. Marimuthu and Sally Walker).

Conservation and Educator Skills Training Programmes on Bears A training workshop on Conservation and Education on Sloth Bears was conducted at Bannerghatta Biological Park, Karnataka from 29-30 September 2010 sponsored fully by Alertis-Fund for Bear and Nature Conservation, Netherlands. There were 28 participants. (B. A. Daniel and R. Marimuthu).

ZOO Staff Travel & Activities (August 2010–2011) Sally Walker, Convenor, CBSG, South Asia visited government officers and Wildlife Trust of Bangaldesh respectively for zoo improvement and legislation and a Translocation discussion, 09–13 August 2011. B. A. Daniel, Scientist, attended and delivered a presentation at the National Conference on “Biodiversity for Sustainable Development: Threats, Indicators, Climate change, Poverty alleviation and Targets for safeguarding Biodiversity, 25–27 Aug 2011, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai.

Sanjay Molur, Executive Director, ZOO, attended the 23rd Congress of the International Primatological Society, 12–18 Sep10 held at Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan representing the Primate Specialist Group, SSC, IUCN. Sally Walker attended the Association of Zoos Aquariums (AZA) Annual conference, 11–16 Sep 2010, Houston, USA and delivered a presentation on Dysfunctional Zoos. B. A. Daniel, SSC Chair of the Invertebrate Specialist Group, South Asia, attended the IUCN/SSC Invertebrate Conservation Sub-Committee Meeting, 13–14 September 2010 at Cambridge, UK Sanjay Molur attended the Madras Crocodile Bank Trust (MCBT) assessment CAMP workshop, 22-24 October 2010 held at Lucknow, U. P. Sanjay Molur attended a Seminar and Workshop on amphibians of the Western Ghats and launch of LOST AMPHIBIANS OF INDIA in search of ‘lost species’ 2–3 November 2010, held in New Delhi. Sanjay Molur attended a Consultation workshop on ‘IUCN Red Listing Process’, 1st February 2011 held by the Ministry of Environment at New Delhi. B. A. Daniel attended the Global Conference on Entomology 2011, 5–9 March 2011 held at Chiang Mai, Thailand and delivered a presentation. Sanjay Molur represented ZOO as a Member of the Steering Committee for the Red Listing Process in India chaired by Additional Director General of Forest (WL), 10th March 2010 held at New Delhi. Sally Walker CBSG WAZA mid-year meeting, 01–09 April 2011 held at Geneva, Switzerland.

Sally Walker attended the International Symposium on the History of Zoos and Aquariums, held at Chester Zoo, 19–20 May 2011 and gave a presentation on the Development of Zoo Associations. Sanjay Molur attended the CEPF Participatory Mid-Term Assessment for the Western Ghats workshop, 08–09 April 2011 held at Keystone Foundation, Kotagiri TN. Sanjay Molur as Member of Re-introduction & Invasive Species Specialist Groups Task Force on Moving Plants and Animals for Conservation Purposes the Second Task Force Meeting, 15–17 April 2011 held at Al Ain Wildlife Park Resort, Abu Dhabi. Sanjay Molur attended the Regional Mapping and Conservation Planning Workshop for Wild Cattle and Buffaloes in S. Asia, 27–29 June 2011 held at WII, Dehradun. Sanjay Molur attended the 2nd meeting of the expert group to discuss the progress of implementation of recommendation of steering committee Redlisting species of India, 11 August 2011 in New Delhi. Sanjay Molur was requested to coordinate the Red List process of India Mammals and specified Indian plants for the country and to bring out a publication on the species already assessed and listed in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.


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Japanese Association of Zoos and Aquariums (JAZA) Report Kazutoshi Arai

General The Japanese Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) represents 153 accredited institutions and 53 sustain members (sponsors).

Responding to the emergency situation JAZA has provided the response for the Tohoku earthquake as follows. JAZA started to check on the damage, support request and support offer by phone and email, and shared them with JAZA member institutions right after the earthquake on March 11, 2011. Due to the damage by earthquake, JAZA website couldn’t be displayed, and we started our official page on Facebook on the next day of the earthquake. Our website was recovered on March 12 and we went forward to put out the information. Based on these efforts to collect information, JAZA implemented the emergency assistance and evacuation of animals for the affected institutions. At the same time, we received lots of inquires and offers from inside and outside of Japan. We immediately opened the bank account for them and asked for the donation. We did the emergency assistance for 10 times between March 18 and April 4. We transported solid feed, meat, fish, vegetable and fruit that we bought or provided by JAZA member institutions. We took the designation for emergency vehicle and used it for the transportation. We also used the aircraft. The provided materials were collected at one institution and then moved by the institution or collaborated delivery company. The evacuations of animals were held four times between March 16 and April 1. We got the permission to move the endangered animals from

the Ministry of Environment and five institutions worked for transportation and kept them. The 38 species including Steller Sea Lion (Eumetopias jubatus), Spotted Seal (Phoca largha), Tufted Puffin (Fratercula cirrhata), Japanese Giant Salamander (Andrias japonicas) and White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus). One of Spotted Seal was pregnant and gave birth on April 7 at evacuated institution. The affected institutions made lots of efforts for restoration with the support by JAZA member institution and related organizations, and all of them could re-open for business on July 15. The call for donation for the affected institutions was implemented through JAZA member institution, JAZA website and Facebook extensively. The Facebook was useful for the transmitting information to outside of Japan, and we could get the support from the overseas organizations. We got JPY 48,987,673 (JPY 30,557,407 from 1013 domestic donors and JPY 18,430,266 from 28 international donors) as of June 30 and we held the meeting for the zoos and aquariums affected by Tohoku Earthquake to provide the appropriate support for them. The JAZA Chair, Board Executive and the Directors of affected institutions joined and exchanged the information to confirm their situation and support request. JAZA also established the donation distribution committee to discuss and decide the distribution method and its candidate. It was finalized in the end of July and the donation was distributed on August 8 and 9 to the affected institutions. We reported this result to all of JAZA member Directors and published on JAZA website and Facebook. To provide these responses, we got lots of great cooperation, support and assistance from all over the world. I cannot thank you enough for your kindness.

Conservation activities JAZA currently have 147 regional studbooks and 4 international studbook keepers. We have held the SPARKS training workshop since 2008 for getting a higher level of population management. We will invite Dr. Jon Ballou and Dr. Kathy Traylor-Holzer and hold the advanced population management course including the PMx training for the International Studbook keeper and Taxon coordinator. To strengthen collaboration with international bodies, JAZA hired the foreign affairs officer. We also strengthen the local partnership with administrative bodies and facilitate the development of the model projects and have strong relationships for in-situ and ex-situ conservation. We review and improve the wildlife conservation fund and prioritized species subsidy system to have the effective correspondence.

Research activities Those two articles are honored as technical research award. They are a part of the articles submitted to Journal of JAZA in 2010. • The Changes of Blood Chemistry Values due to Sex and Reproduvtive Stage in King Penguins, Aptenodytes patagonicus (Osaka Aquarium Kaiyukan) • Female Megamouth Shark, Megachasma pelagios caputured off Yugawara, Kanagawa Pref., Sagami Bay -Internal Characters and Parasites- (Keikyu Aburatsubo Marine Park, et al)


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Zoo and Aquarium Association (Australasia) [ZAA] Report Martin Phillips

Government Relations Constructive meetings throughout the year with numerous departments and agencies

Meetings with decision Makers

Outcomes • Supports government agenda as part of the spectrum of biosecurity strategy • Raises the profile of the industry in a valuable manner • Contributes to the protection of national assets with over 100 cases reported to date.

• Minister for Sustainability, Environment, Water, People and Community to discuss EPBC Act review • Director General Department of Conservation presented on the • Department of Sustainability, value and role of zoos at the NZ Environment, Water, People and conference Communities. • Leader of the Greens Party, to • Department of Agriculture, Fisherdiscuss party policies and Save the Publishing the first national ies and Forestry. Tasmanian Devil Program zoo biosecurity manual • Productivity Commission. • Queensland Minister for Regional • Minister’s Advisory Council on Affairs and Minister for Environment, • Over 600 hours of collaboration beBiosecurity. Resource Management and Sustaintween member zoos and the AWHN • Department of Health and Ageing. ability to discuss a range of issues • Supported by the Department of • Vertebrate Pest Committee. impacting branch members Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry • Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. • This work has been a primary task • Department of Conservation. Outcomes of the Regional Veterinary Officer • Represented member issues and funded by Australia Zoo, TCSA, Outcomes needs to decision makers with posiMelbourne Zoo, Adelaide Zoo and • Continued to build the collaborative tive feedback Perth Zoo. relationship • Continued to raise the profile and • Broader understanding of the indusvalue of the industry Outcomes try among key department staff • Raised the profile and professional• Better understanding of what the ism of Australian zoos with regulaindustry can contribute to society in Zoo based wildlife disease tory agencies terms of conservation activities; essurveillance in support of • Just as useful for NZ members pecially behaviour change, wildlife government initiatives • improved the status of Australian health and biosecurity measures. zoos for future importation of exotic • Presented proposal to Department species of Agriculture Fisheries and Forestry • Support for best practice in member to work with the industry to estabinstitutions to protect their colleclish a disease surveillance network tions • Department accepted proposal and a 12 month trial program established in collaboration with AWHN. • Program received $40,000 funding from Australian Centre for Excellence in Risk Analysis.


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Public Relations and Communications Public Relations

Outcomes • Members provided with the information to stay informed about Association activities • Strong network of member institutions working together on industry issues. • Member institutions providing the direction of the Association through the Board and committees

• National Threatened Species Day expanded to include Brisbane, Cairns, Sydney, Melbourne, Canberra, Port Macquarie, Coffs Harbour with events in Perth and Adelaide. • Event supported by over 35 institutions and attended by thousands of visitors around the country. Build on members’ participa• Association started to develop tion in field conservation its media relations issuing media releases and conducting interviews • Approved funding of $492,000 for across a range of issues including: Tasmanian devil projects. natural disasters, political party poli- • Contributed over $100,000 to tiger cies, animal thefts, wildlife rehabiliconservation organisations. tation, Save the Tasmanian Devil • Supported the Australian OranguProgram. tan Project. • Field Conservation Committee furOutcomes thered the process to support and • Set a precedent for a national day endorse projects. for threatened species run by the • Delivered a government funded zoo community Community Conservation and Visi• Reinforced the sense of collective tor Interpretation for 40 staff from identity 24 member institutions. • Explained the role zoos and aquariums play in a broad range of conser- Outcomes vation activities • The Save the Tasmanian Devil Program was able to add valuable Communications and much needed capacity to the program. • Published the quarterly newsletter • Australian zoos, some through • Sent Executive Directors Commuthe Association made a significant nique as required on more urgent contribution to the insitu tiger coninformation servation. • Sent out new position statements of • Continued development of a colthe Association laborative process for member sup• Provided members with summaries port to effective insitu conservation of Association Board meetings programs. • Numerous SAG meetings • Over $70,000 of training provided to • Quarterly meetings of the Zoo Animember institution staff to enhance mal Health Reference Group capacity. • Monthly meetings of the ASMP Committee • Regular meetings and workshop for the Accreditation and Animal Welfare Committee • Meetings for the Field Conservation Committee • ASMP workshops for Captive Management Plans and TAGs. • Four meetings for the Board • Regular meeting for the Queensland and New Zealand Branch Committees

Administration, Finance and Governance Administration • The Association now has professional IT systems in place including: Off site server, back up service, web access to files and email and in 2010 started using Microsoft outlook! • Established more efficient processes including: online membership renewal, online conference registration and updated the list serve system. • Implemented the new brand including document templates, publications, website and events. • Updated the REGASP database to current technology and added a membership database. • Started the process for updating or producing policy and procedures for all areas of the Association’s business. • Secured IT sponsorship from IBM to provide online communication and collaboration software – LotusLive • Change in staff has added capacity in science, public relations and communications fields. Outcomes • The Association now has the appropriate IT systems to carry out its role. • Reduced Association administrative burden on the membership. • Contemporary and professional image for the Association. • Collection and membership database to support members. • Policy and process in place to support members operations. • Increased staff and IT capacity to support member needs.


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Finance

Professional Standards

Outcomes • Membership categories that better • Association budget in the black Australian Animal Welfare reflect the scope of members needs third year running. Standards at an appropriate cost. • $163,000 in government funding for • All existing and new members meetspecies management and program • Association part of the Australian ing the same minimum standards administration. Animal Welfare Standards – Exhibitproviding confidence for animal • $72,000 provided by SEWPaC for ed Animals writing group representexchanges and credibility of memCommunity Conservation and Visiing members’ needs. bership. tor Interpretation Course. • Drafts of the standards reviewed • Help prepare members for Accredi• Association finance processes fully by the Legislation and Standards tation and the pending Australian established and documented. Review Working Group [members] Animal Welfare Standards. • Association has appropriate re• The Association with member repre- • Association’s capacity improved tained earnings in place. sentation drafted the first five taxon to serve members’ needs through • External audit of financial processes. specific standards. documented policy and procedures. • Association recognised by Depart• Time needed to complete paperOutcomes ment of Agriculture, Fisheries and work minimised with the provision • The Association is in a sound finanForestry representative for cooperaof templates and examples. cial position. tive and constructive contribution. • The Association is building on • The development of training reexternal funding to deliver member sources for the implementation of Accreditation services. the Standards. • Members can be reassured of the • A complex review of Accreditation Outcomes financial processes in place. finalised taking into account the • The Association has been instruchanging business and regulatory mental in shaping regulation whilst environment. meeting members’ and animal Legal and Governance • The Accreditation Program aligned welfare needs. with the new membership catego• Recognition by regulatory authori• Association now receives pro-bono ries. ties of the Association’s (and mem- • A strategy for the Accreditation Prolegal support from DLA Piper bers’) expertise in animal welfare Australia, arranged through Andrew gram set in train taking into account and husbandry. Fairley, Chair Zoos Victoria the pending Australian Animal • Enhanced working relationships • Committee terms of reference put Welfare Standards. in place for the first time with regulatory authorities in a key • The resource needs of the Accredita• Board and committee performance area for the industry. tion Program identified and planned self-assessments conducted for the • International recognition for the for. first time work through oversees promotion • Governance measures enhanced • Board Code of Conduct and inducof the Standards by Government. including Accreditation and Animal tion pack put in place • Implementation of national standWelfare Committee terms of refer• Performance and financial reports ards will be supported by governence, Accreditation Breach Policy provided to members in the newsment assisted training. and Accreditation Appeals Policy. letter • Taxon specific standards ensure no • The Committee members have • Supplier and staff contracts updated ambiguity for compliance. provided over 540 hours of service • Regular reporting to Board on opto the Association to complete the erational performance above work, not including Accredi• Outcomes of Board meetings comMembership tation assessments. municated to members • The Association has assessed 29 • Legal advice on the merger of Qld • Associate and full institutional organisations, 3 pending and 24 Acand NZ branches membership categories implecredited members. mented. Outcomes • Policy and procedures developed • The Association has corporate level including: membership category, legal support at no cost to the memmembership fees, Participation in bers. ASMP, Appeals process, joining and • Members can be assured that the renewing procedure. Board and Committees have appro- • Membership pack provided to priate measures in place to ensure support members including: Policy member interests are served. templates with guidelines, sample • Improved transparency of Associapolicies, relevant Association polition business to the membership. cies and explanation of the process. • Extensive communication to the members about the changes.


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DOC 66.18.16 Outcomes • Transparent Accreditation process. • Clear roles and responsibilities for all participants in the Accreditation process. • Accreditation will help members meet regulatory requirements under the Australian Animal Welfare Standards. • Increasing recognition of the program by regulatory authorities. • One third of the membership processed through the Accreditation program. • A viable plan for the success of the Accreditation program.

Species Management and the Future Directions Project Species Management and the ASMP Committee • Species management remains the core business of the Association. • Return of Senior Species Management Officer, Claire Ford and appointment of a Science and Policy Office, Dr Carolyn Hogg. • ASMP Committee introduced monthly teleconferences and increased committee from 6 to 8 members to increase membership representation. • An Import Risk Assessment Prioritisation Committee was established with the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry. • Much anticipated bovid IRA was approved in Jan 2010, and 17 Cooperative Conservation Program approvals are in place for imports. • Committee maintains the strategic direction, strengthens government relationships and is developing relationships with other regional associations. • The ASMP Committee, Taxon Advisory Groups, species coordinators and staff currently manage 111 species programs. • New format Captive Management Plans developed for 10 species. • 16 of the 84 member organisations contribute staff time to the ASMP.

Outcomes • Members’ fees are focused on species management. • 20% of the membership provide the position holders to the ASMP to support the collections of the vast majority of the members. • Members ability to import key species has been increased through the Association’s work with regulatory authorities. • Through the Committee’s and staff’s work, pragmatic and closer working relationships have been further developed with government departments. • Increased involvement of the ASMP Committee representing members’ needs. • The Association has increased the experience and knowledge of the staff to support members’ species management needs. • Through the Captive Management Plans, business needs as well as science needs addressed to support sustainable collections.

Future Directions Project – Progress to date • Program species review completed: 111 species identified for management. • Program species review: Policy and procedure in place for members to add/amend program species. • Program species review: Development of Taxon Advisory Group action plans. • Prioritise the work of the ASMP: Monitoring, measuring and reporting of the ASMP through the ASMP Health Check Report. • Prioritise the work of the ASMP: Annual Report and Recommendation enhanced to provide clear program status through an executive summary. • Resourcing the ASMP: Member organisations now have responsibility for the delivery of species programs rather than their staff as volunteer species coordinators. • Resourcing the ASMP: ASMP Committee responsible for the allocation of resources, Taxon Advisory Groups deliver against TAG action plan goals.

• ASMP Policy and Procedures Review: Policy realigned to further support managing a collection whilst running a business. • Global Species Management Programs: Provided input to the development of the GSMP and assisting in the review of over 100 international studbooks. • The project has enhanced accountability, disciplined processes and inclusiveness. Outcomes • Nominated program species provide the ‘most’ sustainable options for member collections whilst meeting visitor needs. • Plans in place for each Taxon Advisory Group to improve sustainability of program species. • Program species provide members with the most cost effective way to maintain collections and support conservation programs. • Annual Reports and Recommendations allow members to have oversight of their investment in program species. • Species coordination is no longer a ‘voluntary’ position with members committed to supporting coordinators in work time. • A strategic approach to resourcing program species taking in to account whole of business needs. • ASMP policy and procedure is focused on providing species management as a customer service to meet members’ whole of business needs. • ASMP policy and procedure is focused at ensuring transparency of the ASMP and supporting position holders. • World Association of Zoos and Aquariums has adopted the Association’s approach to species management as recommended by the ASMP. • Members needs are represented as part of the global species management community. • The project has improved the effectiveness of species management programs and provides a road map to continue the work.


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Latin American Zoo and Aquarium Association (ALPZA) Report Andrea Caiozzi

During 2010, the Latin American Zoo and Aquarium Association (ALPZA) celebrated its 20th anniversary, by designing our logo “ALPZA 20 years” and publishing the magazine “The 20 Years of ALPZA”. In this last 20 years, the Association has grown significantly, and became stronger with the participation of more members in Latin America and other regions. Currently, the Association represents 65 active members, including 41 institutions, 16 professionals and 8 associated organizations, in 15 countries in North America, Central America, Caribbean, South America and Europe. Since past September 2010, ALPZA has welcomed 10 new members: Sao Paulo Zoological Society (SPZ, Brazil), Gramadozoo (Brazil), Aquarium of Parque Explora (Colombia), Aquarium El Rodadero Santa Marta (Colombia), Jambeli Foundation (Ecuador), X-caret (Mexico), and 4 professional (individual) members.

Five Year Strategic Plan

2.

During our Santiago 2010 Strategic Planning Meeting, held prior to our XVII Congress, ALPZA redefined its institutional strategy and priorities, enunciating new institutional mission, vision, aims, and activities. MISSION: We are a platform that promotes the integral development of its members and inspires to obtain the most impact on biodiversity conservation, integrating the efforts of the Latin American region to global conservation goals. VISION: To ensure the conservation of Latin American megabiodiversity harmoniously integrating humans with nature. PRINCIPAL AIMS AND RELATED ACTIVITIES: 1. To promote strategies for the integral development of our members: Create a standards and accreditation system; ensure a massive and permanent training system (including virtual sessions); operate the zookeepers’ network; develop a strategy for obtaining resources; develop a strategy to increase our memberships; develop our positioning and institutional strengthening strategy; strengthen our awards program; strategy for systematic and reliable information management (Optimal use of association website).

3.

To impact positively on biodiversity conservation in Latin America (Development of a regional conservation program): Certification of conservation programs; promote sustainable environmental practices among members; operate our campaign against illegal animal trade; overall conservation program; promote the publication of results and progress in conservation programs; promote joint educational programs. To ensure the viability of populations of Latin American zoos and aquariums: Promote discussion forums about the collections sustainability and the current model of population management; define a long-term cooperative strategy to ensure viable zoological populations; workshops on populations sustainability; strategy to complete the Studbooks information; evaluation of legal situations and health aspects; establish species’ protocols; establish guidelines to generate, manage and socialize populations information.

During our XVIII Congress at Santo Domingo (May 2011), the Strategic Planning Meeting focused on developing performance indicators for our aims and activities, was well as their responsible teams.


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Organizational highlights During our last General Assembly at the XVIII Congress, a new 2011-2013 Board of Directors was elected. Also, two new ALPZA official documents were approved by our Board of Members: our Code of Ethics and our Manual of Procedures, documents that all ALPZA members must abide. Currently, ALPZA is composed by 9 operational committees: Accreditation, Aquariums, Animal Welfare (sub-groups of Nutrition, Health, and Behavioural Management), Conservation (sub-group of Amphibians), Communications & Marketing, Cooperative Population Management, Education, Ethics, and Zookeper’s Network.

Main projects and events ALPZA advances on the Accreditation Program, defining the criteria and process for accrediting ALPZA members, customizing the Accreditation Program of AZCARM (Mexican Zoo and Aquariums Association). Through ALPZA Accreditation, we seek to promote the improvement of standards and animal welfare of Latin American zoological institutions. The ALPZA Campaign against the illegal animal trade was successfully launched at our XVIII Congress, held in Santiago. Highly appealing educational material, digital and printed, was shared to our members so they give to their visitors, in order to address this widespread problem in Latin America. The campaign includes specific materials addressed to children (colouring-sheets), local communities and general public (flyers and posters).

ALPZA Certification Program of Conservation Projects continues to operate. The objective of this certification is to reward conservation projects with high impact on their region, in order to serve as a reference for similar projects and to inform the world community about the ALPZA certified projects, showing our high commitment to conservation. ALPZA continues working to promote the conservation of amphibians in the region. Our last ALPZA workshop for Amphibian Species Prioritization for Conservation was held in November in Argentina, with the collaboration of Chester Zoo, DWCT, IUCN ASG Argentina. On April, the group of Amphibians and the group of Nutrition launched our new Virtual Training Programme (an ISIS collaboration), with the course Production of Invertebrates as Live Food, for ALPZA members. Recently, a Management of Amphibians in Captivity course was held in Temaiken, Argentina, organized by DWCT, Amphibian Ark and ALPZA. ALPZA continues working on developing Cooperative Species Management Programs and their Studbooks for regional species. Special attention has received ALPZA penguin program.

ALPZA continues its Capacity Building and Scholarships Programmes, through several events carried out during the past year, all of them including scholarships for ALPZA members. Our XVII Congress in Santiago included four mini-courses: Conservation from A to Z, Birds Management, Animal welfare and behaviour, Environmental education and interpretation, some of them sponsored by a WAZA Training Grant, which was obtained in collaboration with EAZA, as part of the EAZA-ALPZA MoU, renewed for the 2010–2015 period on Verona last year. Also, several specific workshops were carried out. During our XVIII Congress in Santo Domingo, 10-hour long courses were offered to attendees: Anaesthesia, Institutional management, Aquarium design, Advanced animal training, Basic husbandry and nutrition, Methodology for network games on nature, several of them sponsored by ZCOG and Chicago Zoological Society. A specific course on Aquatic Organisms Management was held in Colombia, partially sponsored by a Sea World grant, with the collaboration of several aquariums, including Acuario di Genova. Other projects include: Latin American Nutrition database, Environmental Enrichment database, Financial strengthening strategy, among others. ALPZA has strengthened its communication strategy, through the publication of “The 20 Years of ALPZA” Magazine, the Conservation in Latin America Newsletter (Vol. 4 recently released), and through the active management of our website (www. alpza.com, with over 26,000 visits on 2010) and our facebook profile (Alpza Zoos). We welcome you to visit us on our website and friend us on facebook! Our XIX congress will be held in the city of Puebla, Mexico, 19–22 of June, 2012. We look forward for meet all of you there!


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Colombian Association of Zoos and Aquaria (ACOPAZOA) Report Carolina Falla

Association Strengthening

Capacity building

At the beginning of the year the Directive Committee was changed: Rafael Torres (President), Haydy Monsalve (Vice-President) and Sandra Sarmiento (Treasurer) and at the middle of the year the Executive Direction changed to Carolina Falla.

The keepers from some institutions are being training and graduated as technical keepers by an organization called SENA (National Learning Service). Through ACOPAZOA the members are establishing nets to involve everybody in the process. That strategy is a big incentive for the keepers and it is a guarantee for them to stay longer at the zoological institution and improves the work form their part.

ACOPAZOA has been working in a calendar since 2009. The annual calendar was institutionalized as opportunity to educate and build awareness to the community in general, also as economic strategy to get funds for the Association. Each member selects a picture in representation of its own institution. The ACOPAZOA logo was changed to refresh the image of the Association and motivate the members. This logo is going to help us to generate publicity as a strategy to give us to know by the scientific, academic and public community. We have jointed to ISIS, thus we can use the SPARKS program and the web pages with all the services. Improving of the members We are participating in the accreditation committee of ALPZA to give guidelines at the members and improve all the institutions. This work is coordinated for Africam Safari and it is based in the AZCARM document. The meetings have been done with the ISIS web site help.

There was an educative meeting in Santa Marta to train and improve the performance of the educational program at each institution. It was organized by Acuario y Museo del Mar Rodadero with the support of Mundo Marino, both institutions are members of ACOPAZOA. The objective was to learn about playing and educating. There was a Cooperative Workshop between ACOPAZOA and de Instituto Agropecuario Colombiano (ICA) to facilitate the importation and exportation process of the animals and build quarantine protocols together.

Saguinus leucopus International Conservation Program The Program gave a scholarship for one person of the participant’s institutions to attend at the Callitrichidae training course that will be held at Jersey Zoo in October of this year. The Studbooks for Grey titi (Saguinus leucopus) was done. The cooperative management for the species will be possible. The captive breeding Program was successful with 38 animals born and still alive, showing the improvement in the husbandry and behavior of the species at the Colombian Zoos. The ACOPAZOA members did the translation to Spanish of the Callitrichidae Guide of EAZA through a coordinated action between the professionals. The translation will be review and published after the final edition.


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Legislation The Nutrition and Veterinarian part of the Program are working in research to standardize the diet of the S. leucopus and to relate the mortality causes with the welfare of the species. The Committee of Education is working in the frame of the Program against the trade of fauna to support the National Strategy against Illegal Trade of Fauna formulated by the Government. The Program is planning two workshops this year that will be held in October: The Welfare and Husbandry Workshop and the Strategic Plan Review.

ACOPAZOA and the Saguinus leucopus International Conservation Program are working in the legislation to make some changes in the current legislation for the zoos and aquariums through a proposal of a decree. This decree is going to help with the regulation of all institutions whose are managing wild animals in captivity.


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Mesoamerican and Caribbean Zoo and Aquarium Association (AMACZOOA) Activities Report Yolanda Matamoros

Workshops

Future Workshops

Caribbean Manatee (Trichechus manatus) PHVA.

AMACZOOA and CBSG Mesoamerica Workshop. Museo Juan Santamaría, Alajuela, Costa Rica. November 1, 2011.

This workshop was held at Simon Bolívar Zoo, San José, Costa Rica during June 20-24. Thirty three participants from seven countries of the species distribution range, representing 23 organizations, universities and governments, met to analyze the status of the populations of this species at its distribution range. Four groups were constituted and their participants discussed the problems of the populations from the point of view of habitat conservation, public politics and education, research and population biology. These groups proposed a conservation strategy for the species and gave recommendations for its conservation. The report is in elaboration.

Reports in elaboration • Caribbean Manatee (Trichechus manatus) PHVA. • Simon Bolivar Zoo and Santa Ana Conservation Center, Costa Rica, Conservation Strategies.

During this day, AMACZOOA member institutions and other related as governments, universities and other NGO’s will give a short presentation of their work and several participants will speak about innovations in techniques and methodologies about Zoos and Aquariums management and administration. CBSG and WAZA latest work will be explained. This Workshop is part of the III Costa Rican Museums Network Congress that will be held from November 1 to November 4 at Museum Juan Santamaría. AMACZOOA Amphibian Conservation Strategy. Zoológico Simón Bolívar, San José, Costa Rica. February 26–29, 2012. AMACZOOA’s Amphibian Husbandry Course. Monteverde Reserve, Puntarenas, Costa Rica (probable location). March 1–5, 2012. Mesoamerican Reptiles CAMP. Palo Verde Research Station, Guanacaste, Costa Rica (probable location). May 7–11, 2012. VORTEX Course and a PHVA of a species to define. Universidad de Tabasco, Tabasco, Mexico. June 18–22, 2012.

We have sent grant proposals and still looking for funds for the following workshops: • Humpback Whale PHVA -Costa Rica • Cuban Crane PHVA • Mesoamerican Jabiru stork (Jabiru mycteria) • Costa Rican Crocodiles PHVA and Conservation Strategy


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French Association of Zoos – Association Française des Parcs Zoologiques (AFdPZ) Cécile Erny

Social report

Committees

The AFdPZ still have a full time executive coordinator, Cécile Erny, and employ sometimes Mr Jean-Luc Berthier as trainer. These employees are working under the presidency of Mrs Françoise Delord.

Within the 6 committees (Ethical, Education, Conservation, Birds of prey, Legislation, and Security), 3 were really active: Educational committee, Security committee and the birds of prey committee (which hold their annual conference in Branféré Zoological Park the 27 and 28 of March 2010, the next one will be Le Pal). And, this year the falconry has been recognized as Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity the 16th November 2010 in several countries including France.

In addition, lots of zoo directors contribute to the association functioning in various fields such as collective labour agreement, training, and so on. The AFdPZ Board of trustees met the 17th of May 2010 in Amneville Zoo, it was followed by the General Assembly the 18th and 19th of May. The minutes of this meeting have been sent to all our members. The next General Assembly, will be held the 10th and 11th of May 2011 at La Palmyre Zoo, right after the meeting of the Board of Trustees (the 9th of May). Four sponsors have already specified that they will attend this conference.

Financial report The balance sheet shows that AFdPZ funds are still positive. Consequently, this year the AFdPZ fees will remain the same.

Membership We are happy to welcome 4 new members within the Association: • Le Donjon des Aigles, represented by M. Henri Venant • La Planète des Crocodiles, represented by M. Brochard • La Réserve Animalière de la HauteTouche, represented by M. Roland Simon • La Ferme aux Crocodiles, represented by M. Samuel Martin. At the contrary, the General Assembly voted to exclude the “Zoo du Bouy” which did not pay its fees since more than 3 years although they received several reminders. And, the Saint Jean Cap-Ferrat zoo has been closed during the year 2010.

Thus the total number of members is 65 including: • 61 institutionnal members • 1 honorary member • 3 experts members The AFdPZ is pleased to have only institutions of good quality amongst its members, and they respect the ethical code of ethics of the association.

Partnerships The AFdPZ is still member of the following organizations: • IUCN • WAZA • EAZA • SNELAC

Communication The newsletter «La Licorne» (reinforce communication between the members, with our partners, and with the Ministry of Environment). The web site (www.afdpz.org) is regularly updated by Cécile Erny who has been trained for that. It has a new section titled “Legislation” within the Member area. There is also a part for the job offers from the members. The website statistics show that it has been visited 5400 times by 4000 different visitors since the 1rst of January. Unsurprisingly, it was mostly visited in April, May and June. The visitors were coming from France but also from Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland and Spain.


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In addition, the AFdPZ has been named during a TV report on France 3 in November 2010, by some members of our Board of Trustees. Thanks to EAZA, the association has also an international representation: • The AFdPZ President is still sitting in the EAZA Board of Trustees with Pierre Gay, Thierry Jardin et Michel Hignette. • The AFdPZ was represented at the EAZA federations meeting in September 2010.

Collective Agreement An AFdPZ delegation worked with employees unions to rewrite the collective agreement for the private French zoos, since the previous document was from 1996 so some chapters were not adapted anylonger. The final version will probably be signed at the end of 2011.

Services

Species Conservation

Sponsors

In 2010, Pierre Gay presented the new «Vultures Conservation Foundation» (VCF) to the Board of Trustees of the AFdPZ, which acts for the protection of the 4 European species of vultures. The AFdPZ send some funds for their programs.

UNILEVER – MIKO is still an AFdPZ partner, and they did a presentation during our General Assembly.

Relationship with the government Since September, the association is taking part in the official meetings of the Revision Committee for the Biodiversity National Strategy. Lots of action proposals have been submitted to the Committee, we hope that they will use them in the final version which should be ready in 2011. The AFdPZ organized several workshops to study and emphasize the collaboration between zoos and their legal supervisions authorities. The aim is to make the zoo work easier through legislation adaptations and official recognition. The synthesis will be done and given to the Ministry of Ecology, probably at the end of 2011.

The AFdPZ has also done an assessment of the annual flows of Professionnal training the imported animals from counThe AFdPZ has now an official agreetries without Europe for the AFdPZ ment as training center. We organize members (in order to complete the specific zoo training following memfile of the Ministry of Ecology for the ber’s demands. re-opening of the Animal Station in Roissy Airport): In 2010, 2 training sessions on ISIS • Mammals: 100 has been done, the trainer was Mr • Birds: 60 Jean-Luc Berthier in both cases: • Reptils: 60 • 8th and 9th of march, 5 participants, • Amphibians: 20 in Carquefou • Fishes: 300 • 7th of july, 2 participants in Cham• Invertebrates: 3000 prépus Zoological Park Françoise Delord and Cécile Erny represented the AFdPZ during the Available and wanted list meeting of the 29th of March 2010 concerning. The french available and wanted list is now in PDF format. We send it twice In addition, the President continues a year by e-mail to our members. to sit in the National Committee for captive wildlife.

ZIMS After several discussions with ZIMS Board of Trustees, our President has negotiated a 3-terms payment for ZIMS fees.

MAZURI was also present during our General Assembly and hold a stand.

Publications for our members • Available and wanted list of animals (twice a year). • Minutes and synthesis of the workshops organized by the AFdPZ with our legal authorities – 5th of March and 27th of October 2010. • Minutes of the official meeting concerning the Avian flu vaccination (with the DGAL representatives) where Françoise Delord and Cécile Erny represented the AFdPZ – 29th of March 2010. • EAZA mid-year meeting report – 7th and 9th of May 2010. • General Assembly report – 18th and 19th of May 2010. • AFdPZ Annual activity report – December 2010. • AFdPZ newsletter: «La Licorne».

Projets • Improve collaboration between zoos and their legal authorities. • ISIS membership: The AFdPZ wishes it was an ISIS member through reciprocity. An application form has been send. • Complete the conservation planisphere within our website with all the conservation programs of our members • Welcome new members, we already have several applications • Organize ZIMS training when the software will be available


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Canadian Association of Zoos and Aquariums (CAZA) Report Bill Peters

Foreword The Canadian Association of Zoos and Aquariums is a national, not for profit charitable organization that represents the 25 accredited zoos and aquariums across Canada. It is committed to the best of care for its animals and the highest standards of service for its visitors. It is dedicated to continuing its active work in conservation, education and research, and has developed the following vision and mission statements:

Our Vision Animals and their habitats are respected and valued by all Canadians.

Our Mission Unite the Canadian Zoo and Aquarium community in connecting people to nature through demonstrating dedication to conservation and excellence in animal care. CAZA’s recently-completed strategic plan sets out three strategic directions that are now being implemented through the activities described in this report. They are:

Strategic Direction 1: Unite Canada’s Zoo and Aquarium Community Government Relations Work with the province of British Columbia over the past year or so has resulted in the successful introduction of a provincial requirement for CAZA accreditation of all facilities in the province possessing and displaying a designated list of exotic species. This is the first major step in bringing in a similar regime in other provincial jurisdictions and related discussions are underway with several provinces. Planning was completed with the BC Ministry of the Environment to introduce a mandatory accreditation requirement for all facilities in the province in possession of, and exhibiting, species on a provincial list of exotics (Controlled Alien Species). As the first step in CAZA’s continuing effort to establish our standards as the basis for operation of a zoo or aquarium throughout Canada, the BC program has gone smoothly. In fact, none of the facilities identified as potential applicants for accreditation came forward although several are considering applications.

The Province of Alberta continues to consider whether to move in the same direction as BC, and there have been some new developments in Ontario that could lead to legislation that would require a provincial license for zoos. The City of Toronto, at our urging, has agreed to amend the bylaw that requires accreditation for any business bringing exotics into the city to accept an affiliate certification by CAZA as sufficient for their purposes. This would be based on the newly-developed process for reviewing affiliate category applications. Sponsorship The Board has agreed that CAZA needs to develop a new approach to generating funding support for its conservation and education programming. For the past several years, various national promotions have generated significant resources that have been invested in member programming, but all have been linked to retail sponsorships involving some free passes provided by participating members. This approach works for some members but causes difficulties for others; the sponsorships to date have been one-time relationships. Board discussion has focussed on development of a new approach that would recruit supporters – corporations, foundations, other agencies that share CAZA’s objectives – and are prepared to contribute significant funding because they agree with our cause. This approach would de-link support from a retail transaction.


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DOC 66.18.22 In the meantime, a proposal from Cascades Paper, a respected national corporation emphasizing green practices, has been approved by the Association. It is a two-year promotion very similar in nature to past promotions, involving free kid’s passes in exchange for yearly contributions of $45,000. The company has also indicated an interest in developing locally-based promotions with interested CAZA members.

Strategic Direction 2: Motivate and Empower Canadians to Care for Nature 2010 International Year Of Biodiversity – A Focus On Canada’s Arctic CAZA has committed itself to a continuing program to involve Canadians in the issues connected with biodiversity changes in the Arctic. The first phase – an active program of communications and outreach – of an intended two-pronged approach, was executed in 2010 and planning is underway for further such initiatives in the coming years. A national education/outreach program for International Year of Biodiversity 2010 focussed on Arctic Biodiversity. Developed in partnership with three organizations – Parks Canada, the Canadian Wildlife Federation and Polar Bears International – which provided significant funding and in-kind support, the communications/education package was used extensively by most CAZA institutions. This was the most extensive, and certainly the most professional communications tool kit assembled to date for the Association; as in past promotions it was designed primarily to support delivery of education and awareness programs at the community level, albeit elements such as a dedicated website were delivered nationally.

The educational and outreach program elements will be continued into 2011 and beyond, in accordance with the Board’s decision that the commitment to Arctic Biodiversity programming is an ongoing responsibility In fact the CAZA Board has determined that the overarching theme for the continuing program will centre on Challenges to Canada’s Biodiversity, and in 2012 will focus on the challenges of water conservation and management in Canada. This concentration on biodiversity is, of course, consistent with the International Decade of Biodiversity.

Strategic Direction 3: Inspire Excellence in Professional Practices Accreditation

National Awareness

Pursuant to Board direction, the CAZA Accreditation Commission and National Office developed a set of recommendations to modify the Association’s inspection and assessment process – instituting a quantified assessment process and beginning a series of mid-term inspections for targeted facilities. Similar work was completed on a structured assessment process to apply to affiliate facilities.

Work continued on a proactive national awareness campaign. A monthly series of articles and releases based on the work of CAZA members in various fields of endeavour will be produced and distributed to various media outlets by CAZA members across the country. Periodic releases and PSAs using Dr. Sandie Black as CAZA spokesperson were developed.

Continued scrutiny by media, activists and to some extent our visitors, and inquiries/complaints prompted consideration of means to tighten enforcement and monitoring of the Accreditation Program. At the same time, the increasing adoption of CAZA’s standards by governments at various levels increases the need for transparency and accountability.

CAZA’s National Awareness Committee developed and endorsed a proactive approach to generating more understanding among key target audiences for the role and contributions of Canada’s accredited zoos and aquariums. It is based on the development of content and materials that would be primarily marketed and distributed by communications officers in member institutions. CAZA contracted with a freelance researcher/writer based in Calgary to develop and produce a continuing program of articles and other materials to be distributed to members for marketing in their regions. Reports indicate that this initiative generated substantial media coverage across the country.

Starting with a proposal to launch mid-term inspections of accredited facilities, consideration has been given to a reliable, credible methodology for identifying those facilities that are accredited, but have identified weaknesses in some areas. This led to the elaboration of a quantified rating system for all standards on the accreditation inspection form, resulting in scoring that would support not only an overall pass/fail but also a rating of achievement in each area of the assessment. The system identifies, in an objective manner, a facility that needs to make improvements in some areas of their performance. In such cases, interim inspections would be scheduled at the mid-term point.


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DOC 66.18.22 Work was also been completed in developing an inspection form for use in certifying applicants for affiliate status. CAZA’s accreditation program has been recognized as among the best in the world; these improvements ensure that it continues to lead the way in guaranteeing the best in care for animals and the best in facilities and services for visitors while actively pursuing vital work in research, conservation and education. Government Relations CAZA continues to liaise closely with the key government agencies at various levels in order to monitor initiatives that have a bearing on the zoo and aquarium profession. In that respect, discussions continue with Canadian Food Inspection Agency and Environment Canada to iron out a CFIA policy change that in 2010 had seemed to close off all permits for importation (and movement within Canada) of insects by our members and other Canadian businesses. This development caused tremendous concern for a number of CAZA members, as well as for the pet trade and others in the country.

Member Achievements – An Outstanding Year Winnipeg Zoo Wins top National Award Winnipeg’s Assiniboine Park Zoo received the premier award of the Canadian Association of Zoos and Aquariums for its popular new exhibit area – Pavilion of the Lions.

• Col. G. D. Dailley Award This award, presented for success in breeding programs dealing with rare or endangered species, was awarded to African Lion Safari of Cambridge, Ontario for their work in bringing back the endangered barn owl. This outstanding wildlife success story resulted in the reintroduction of a group of barn owls to an area of Illinois where the once-common birds are extremely endangered. This important reintroduction program was carried out in cooperation with the Forest Preserve of DuPage County, Illinois. African Lion Safari worked with the U. S.-based organization to rebuild the barn owl population in Illinois. Their innovative captive practices and a successful breeding program resulted in the birth of 12 birds, allowing ALS to provide healthy birds that now live natural lives back in the wilds of North America.

Association President Rachel Leger congratulated Assiniboine Park Zoo on receiving the CAZA Baines Award for Outstanding Achievement: “This is a great example of an exciting new exhibit area that combines the best in animal care with a design that maximizes the visitor experience. It ensures that Assiniboine Park visitors will be increasingly made aware of these magnificent animals and the urgent issues regarding their preservation”. The exhibit, opened this summer, is an innovative exploration • Peter Karsten Award of the lion’s ecology, conservation, Presented annually for achievement evolution, life history and historic in conservation, the 2010 award was relationship with people. The exciting presented to Quebec Aquarium for new pavilion is an important part of their Polar Bear Conservation and the complete renovation of AssiniResearch program. boine Park Zoo, thanks to major fundThe Aquarium invested over ing of $35 million recently announced $500,000 in renovations of their poby the Manitoba government. lar bear habitat, permitting increases in visitor viewing opportunities, The Baines Award was presented to visitor education and conservation Assiniboine Park Zoo at the closing engagement opportunities, environbanquet of the annual conference of mental enrichment for the animals, the Canadian Association of Zoos and staff and visitor safety, enrichment Aquariums in Montreal. Other awards plan improvements and social manpresented include: agement capabilities. Quebec Aquarium actively participates in national and international efforts to preserve and protect Canada’s polar bears.


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DOC 66.18.22 • Animal Enrichment Award • Animal Care Professional Award This award, presented to zoos or This award recognizes innovation aquariums that have achieved and contribution to a zoo-aquarium significant progress in the design program by a zookeeper or aquarist and management of exhibit areas employed at a CAZA accredited inthat enrich the lives of animals, stitution. The award was presented was awarded to Magnetic Hill Zoo to Mailis Caron, an animal health in Moncton, for Jaguar Junction, technician who has worked at the a larger, more natural exhibit area Zoo Sauvage de St. Felicien since that provides new enrichment op1993. Ms. Caron created an educaportunities for the animals. tional documentary for television This wonderful new exhibit allows on the role of zookeepers in winter; for food foraging, includes novel and has volunteered her time and enrichment objects as well as visual exceptional artistic skills to improve and olfactory stimulation from the zoo’s barnyard area. neighbouring exhibits of fallow deer, features a variety of substrates and • Volunteer of the Year terrain and ensures the animals’ Presented for exceptional service to social needs are respected. a CAZA zoo or aquarium by a volunteer, the 2010 award was presented • Eleanor Oakes Award to Cedric Stapleton of Calgary Zoo. This award, presented for significant He has worked at the zoo for 10 achievement by a zoo or aquarium years, using his exceptional carpenfor smaller projects was presented try skills to design and construct to Saskatoon Zoo for its Zoo School enrichment equipment and shelters Educational Program. The school is for the animals. an educational program based on the new Canadian science curriculum; each session lasts for five days Certificates of Merit and is conducted on site at the zoo. Every Grade One class in the City Certificates of Merit, recognizing of Saskatoon attends the program major contributions to the Canadian during the school year. Association of Zoos and Aquariums, were presented to: • John Nightingale and Jill Marvin as retiring members of the CAZA Board of Directors. Mr. Nightingale is a Past CAZA President; Ms. Marvin chaired the Association’s Conservation and Education Committee for several years. • Chantal Proulx, who served as co-chair of the CAZA Accreditation Commission • Michel Delorme for his service as a founder and co-chair of the CAZA Nutritional Advisory Group.

Accreditation Certificates of Accreditation were presented to the following institutions, which have qualified for membership in the Association as a result of inspections carried out this year which demonstrated that the institutions meet all of the standards required by CAZA: • BC Wildlife Park, Kamloops, British Columbia • Saskatoon Forestry Farm Park and Zoo, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan • Indian River Reptile Zoo, Indian River, Ontario • Zoo Sauvage de St. Felicien, St. Felicien, Quebec


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Deutsche Tierpark­‑Gesellschaft (DTG) Report Gert Emmrich

Two meetings have been organized in the course of the last year by Deutsche Tierpark-Gesellschaft e. V. (DTG). The annual seminar 2010 was held at Nordhorn (Lower Saxony) and hosted by Tierpark Nordhorn. Topics of the seminar were “Building for animals and visitors” and “Interactive educational displays”. About hundred participants attended the seminar. The annual general meeting was held at Muenster (North Rhine-Westphalia) and hosted by Allwetterzoo Muenster. Three zoos have been admitted as full members and two as preliminary members. Two companies joined us as supportive members. After two institutions terminated membership by the end of 2009, there are now 91 members (81 full, 3 preliminary, 5 honorary and 2 supportive members).

Two conservation projects have been supported: Re-introduction of the Little owl (Athene noctua) in the Harz Mountains and re-introduction of the European mink (Mustela lutreola) in the Saarland. The latter being undertaken by Nerz e. V., without which the European Mink EEP would not be feasible.

Together with the other Germanspeaking zoo organizations DTG took an active part in the campaign against amphibian decline with the support of meetings and the support of conservation projects. Some members participated in captive breeding programmes or scientific research projects for amphibians.


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ADM 66.1

1st Administrative Session Prague, 4 October 2011 Chair: Mark Penning | Rapporteur: Gerald Dick Start at 5.00 pm | End at 6.00 pm


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ADM 66.1

Opening

• Jens-Ove Heckel of Zoo Landau transfers the vote to Jörg Junhold The Chair opens the session at 5.00 of Leipzig Zoo pm after the conclusion of the three • Thomas Kauffels of Opel Zoo workshops. Chair reminds that transfers the vote to Olivier Pagan administrative sessions are closed of Basel Zoo sessions, thanks were expressed to • Frank Werner of Zoo Hannover the host and the coordinators at the transfers the vote to Jörg Junhold Prague Zoo (especially Martin Munzar, of Leipzig Zoo Ivan Rehák). Quorum is required • Randy Wisthoff of Kansas City for any voting and therefore voting Zoo Zoo transfers the vote to Lee members present are counted. Out of Ehmke of Minnesota Zoological 96 registered participants as voting Garden members, 49 are needed to be pre• Gregory Geise of Binder Park Zoo sent in order to reach a quorum. After transfers the vote to Mark Reed of waiting another 10 minutes the count Sedgwick County Zoo revealed 53 voting members present. • Dennis Pate of Omaha’s Henry Doorly Zoo transfers the vote to Apologies were received from Rick Barongi of Houston Zoo Thomas Kauffels (Opel Zoo), Moham- • Jim Hubing of Henry Vilas Zoo ad Ngah (Negara Zoo), Koichi Murata transfers the vote to Rick Barongi and Mikiya Imazeki (Yokohama Zoo), of Houston Zoo Gert Emmerich (DTG), Bill Zeigler • Cameron Kerr of Taronga Zoo trans(Brookfield Zoo), Deborah Jensen fers the vote to Jenny Gray of Royal (Woodland Park Zoo), Mike MaunMelbourne Zoological Gardens • Theo Pagel of Cologne Zoo transder (Al Ain Zoo), Jim Breheny (WCS/ fers the vote to Olivier Pagan of Bronx Zoo), Jason S. C. Chin (Taipei Basel Zoo Zoo). • Dieter Jauch of Wilhelma Stuttgarrt transfers the vote to Olivier Pagan of Basel Zoo Approval of minutes of the 65th Annual Conference • Klaus Wünnemann of Tiergarten Heidelberg transfers the vote to Jörg Adler of Allwetterzoo Münster The chair recalled that the minutes • Ulrich Schürer of Wuppertal Zoo of the two administrative sessions Zoo transfers the vote to Olivier in Cologne, which were held on 19 Pagan of Basel Zoo October 2010 and on 21 October 2010 were published as part of the • Michael Martys of Alpenzoo Innsproceedings of the Annual Conferbruck transfers the vote to Olivier ence and again were made available Pagan of Basel Zoo as DOC 66.19 for this conference in • Anna Baumann of Natur- und Tierorder to be formally approved. The park Goldau transfers the vote to assembly adopted the minutes after Olivier Pagan of Basel Zoo Eric Stephens proposed adoption, • Thomas Berling of Tierpark Norseconded by Mark Reed, proceedings dhorn transfers the vote to Jörg were then unanimously adopted. Adler of Allwetterzoo Münster • Wolfgang Dressen of Zoo Krefeld transfers the vote to Jörg Adler of Recording of Proxies Allwetterzoo Münster • Stacey Johnson of The Living DeProxy forms were sent to all memsert transfers the vote to Mark Reed bers on 23 August 2011, and the folof Sedgwick Zoo lowing 38 proxies were received, the • Gary Geddes of Port Defiance Zoo Executive Director reads the names and Aquarium transfers the vote to as follows: Mark Reed of Sedgwick Zoo • Gregg Hudson of Dallas Zoo transfers the vote to Mark Reed of Sedgwick Zoo • Mary Healy of Sacramento Zoo transfers the vote to Mark Reed of Sedgwick Zoo

• Jay Christie of Racine Zoological Gardens transfers the vote to Mark Reed of Sedgwick Zoo • Craig Pugh of Tampa’s Lowry Park Zoo transfers the vote to Mark Reed of Sedgwick Zoo • Steven McCuster of Dan Antonio Zoological Gardens and Aquarium transfers the vote to Jim Fleshman of Cameron Park Zoo • Stephan Hering-Hagenbeck of Tierpark Hagenbeck transfers the vote to Udo Nagel of Rostock Zoo • Kai Perret of Zoo Magdeburg transfers the vote to Jörg Adler of Allwetterzoo Münster • Craig Dinsmore of Utah’s Hogle Zoo transfers the vote to Mark Reed of Sedgwick County Zoo • Wolfgang Gettmann of Aquazoo Düsseldorf transfers the vote to Olivier Pagan of Basel Zoo • Vladimir Spitsin of Moscow Zoo transfers the vote to Mati Kaal of Tallinn Zoo • Michael Fouraker of Fort Worth Zoo transfers the vote to Brad Andrews of Seaworld Orlando • Charles Wikenhauser of Milwaukee County Zoo transfers the vote to Phil Frost of Baton Rouge Zoo • Richard Block of Santa Barbara Zoo transfers the vote to Mark Reed of Sedgwick County Zoo • Jeffrey Bonner of Saint Louis Zoo transfers the vote to Mark Reed of Sedgwick County Zoo • Mauricio Fabry of ALPZA transfers the vote to Gabriel Aguado of Fundacion Temaiken • Dagmar Schratter of Zoo Vienna/ Tiergarten Schönbrunn transfers the vote to Udo Nagel of Zoologischer Garten Rostock • Henrik Lehmann Andersen of Odense Zoo transfers the vote to Simon Tonge of Paignton Zoo • Susanne Klomburg of Zoo Osnabrück transfers the vote to Heike Kück of Zoo am Meer • Andreas Knieriem of Tierpark Hellabrunn transfers the vote to Udo Nagel of Zoologischer Garten Rostock • Karen Fifield of Wellington Zoo Trust transfers the vote to Susan Hunt of Perth Zoo


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ADM 66.1

Results of Council elections and appointment of Committee members WAZA Council election 2011 In May 2011ballots were sent to all 277 voting members requesting sending them back by 30 June 2011. 173 valid ballots were received back in the WAZA Executive Office and in presence of Carla Duarte, legal department of IUCN, the ballots were counted on 7 July 2011 with the following result: • Total ballots sent out to voting members: 277 • Total ballots received back: 180 • Ballots valid: 173 • Ballots invalid: 7 Ratification of officers: • Jörg Junhold President • Lee Ehmke President-elect Elected Council Members: Region I: (3 seats) • Rick Barongi, Houston Zoo USA • Kevin Bell, Lincoln Park Zoo USA • Joanne Lalumiere, Zoo de Granby Canada Region II: (3 seats) • Olivier Pagan, Zoo Basel Switzerland • Lena Lindén, Nordensark, Sweden • David Field, Zoological Society London UK Region III: (1 seat) • Chris West, Adelaide Zoo-Zoos South Australia Congratulations to the new WAZA Council, accepted by acclamation!

Standing Committees: • Membership Committee (Chair: Lee Ehmke, Minnesota Zoological gardens, USA; second term ends 2013) Kevin Bell (Lincoln Park Zoo, USA, first term ends 2013) Suzanne Gendron (Ocean Park Hong Kong, first term ends 2013) Cesare Avesani (Parco Natura Viva, Italy, 2008-2012) Kazutoshi Arai (JAZA, Japan, first full term ends 2013) Stephen van der Spuy (Johannesburg Zoo, South Africa, first full term ends 2013) Thomas Kauffels (Opelzoo, Germany, first term ends 2012) Lee Ehmke agreed to serve for another term; Kazutoshi Arai and Stephen van der Spuy agreed to stay for another term; Suzanne Gendron agreed to replace Fanny Lai; Rick Barongi stepped back and Kevin Bell agreed to take his seat. • Nominating Committee (Chair: Mark Penning, term ends 2013) Rick Barongi (Houston Zoo, USA as Council member, 2011–2013) Theo Pagel (Zoo Köln, Germany, 2010–2012) Sally Walker (SAZARC, 2011–2013) Bob Cook (WCS, Bronx Zoo, US, 2010–2012) Chair is taken over by the new immediate past president, Mark Penning; Rick Barongi is representing Council instead of Chris West; Sally Walker is replacing Fanny Lai. • Ethics and Animal Welfare Committee (Chair: Chris West, Adelaide Zoo, Australia, second term ends 2012) David Jones (North Carolina Zoo, USA) second term ends 2012 Theo Pagel (Kölner Zoo, Cologne, Germany) second term ends 2012 Jenny Gray (Melbourne Zoo, Australia) first term ends 2013 Clifford Nxomani (National Zoo, Pretoria, South Africa) second term ends 2012 Hideyuki Takahashi (Ueno Zoo, Japan) second term ends 2012 David Field (ZSL, UK) first term ends 2013 Jenny Gray replaces Fanny Lai; David Field replaces Amy Camacho.

• Finance Committee (Chair: Lena Lindén, Nordens Ark, Sweden, first term ends 2013) Oliver Pagan (Zoo Basel, Switzerland) second term ends 2012 Susan Hunt (Perth zoo, Australia) first term ends 2013 Jim Fleshman (Cameron Park Zoo, USA) first term ends 2013 Lena Lindén replaces Jörg Junhold as chair; Susan Hunt and Jim Fleshman are the new non-Council members The chairman and one member of the committee shall be members of Council. (Bylaws Art VI, Section 5) All members of standing committees have to be ratified during this Annual Administrative session (Art VI Bylaws). The proposals were moved by Mark Reed, and ratified by the participants by acclamation. Other Committees: • Marketing: Joanne Lalumière replaces Jörg Junhold as chair No changes for: • Associations: Chair Sally Walker • Conservation and Sustainability: Chair Rick Barongi • Population Management: Chair Dave Morgan • Aquarium: Chair Heather Koldewey • Science and Veterinary: Chair Heribert Hofer • Liaison CBSG: Rick Barongi • Liaison IZE: Joanne Lalumiere The Assembly took note of this change and the composition of other committees.


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ADM 66.1

JAZA Report on the tsunami effects in Japan by Shigeyuki Yamamoto and Yoshitaka Abe INF 66.1

attached

JAZA expresses its appreciation and thanks the world community of zoos and aquariums, including WAZA, regional associations and other bodies for their support. Japanese institutions are still in need of support, therefore any further help is much appreciated. The mode of cooperation in Japan was described as well as the strategic approaches of JAZA. Yoshitaka Abe presented a brief update about Fukushima Aquarium, which was opened again on 15 July 2011. In total there were 3 disasters affecting the institution and area, the earthquake, the tsunami and the radiation. Radiation is measured continuously and the level is regarded as secure for now.

Future Meetings WAZA Council already decided on locations till 2015, hence the following venues and dates were confirmed: • 2012 Melbourne, Australia (7–11 Oct 2012) • 2013 Disney Animal Kingdom, USA (13–17 Oct 2013) • 2014 New Delhi, India (9–13 Nov 2014) • 2015 Al Ain, UAE (11–15 Oct 2015) WAZA Council met on 2 October 2011 and decided on the location for the 2016 conference venue. Biddings were received and Council decided to hold the Annual Conference in 2016 in Africam Safari, Puebla, Mexico. The assembly took note of the dates and venues. Membership issues (report annexed, DOC 66.21 ) Membership Committee report was presented by Lee Ehmke, a detailed report is attached.

Finance issues

report annexed DOC 66.22

The Finance Committee report was presented by Jörg Junhold as chair of the Finance committee; details are covered in the attached report. It was highlighted that 2010 was an extremely successful year, leading to a plus of nearly 130,000 CHF compared to budget. The association is in a very healthy state due to good management. The current situation as of August 2011 is briefly described as well as the draft budget 2012. No decision was taken during this session, approval and further discussion was postponed to the 2nd Administrative session.


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DOC 66.19

65th WAZA Annual Conference Administrative Sessions, Cologne (Köln) Minutes of 19 and 21 October 2010 (all additional reports available in the proceedings on www.waza.org/member area)

ADM 65.1

Opening The Chair opens the session at 3.30 pm after the conclusion of the WAZA Congress. Reminder that it is a closed session.

Approval of minutes of the 64th Annual Conference

The chair thanks to the host for organising this year’s conference and for setting up a very interesting and promising programme. Special thanks go to the numerous volunteers of the Cologne zoo and the coordinators for all preparations (especially Julia Sander, Frauke Landsberg and Nathalie Conin).

The chair recalled that the minutes of the two administrative sessions in St. Louis, which were held on 6 October 2009 and on 8 October 2009 were published as part of the proceedings of the Annual Conference and again were made available as DOC 65.19 for this conference, in order to be formally approved. The assembly adopted the minutes. Manfred Niekisch acts as proposer and David Jones as seconder.

Apology was received from Mr. Jason Yeh of Taipeh Zoo.

Recording of Proxies

The Chair recorded the death of the following esteemed colleagues and asked all participants to rise in recognition and memory of them: • Peter Weilenmann, former Director of Zürich Zoo, 24 December 2009 • Reinhard Frese, former Director of Zoo Duisburg, 29 February 2010 • Mitsuko Masui, Director of Yokohama Zoological Gardens, 13 July 2010 • Amnart Cholvatana, Director of Songkhla Zoo, Thailand, 17 October 2010

Proxy forms were sent to all members on 16 August 2010, and the following 18 proxies were received, the Executive Director reads the names as follows: • Daryl Richardson of Dallas World Aquarium transfers the vote to Fanny Lai • Thomas Berling of Tierpark Nordhorn transfers the vote to Jörg Adler • Karen Fifield of Wellington Zoo Trust transfers the vote to Susan Hunt • Michael Fouraker of Fort Worth Zoo transfers the vote to Jeffrey Bonner • Richard Block of Santa Barbara Zoological Gardens transfers the vote to Jeffrey Bonner

• Andrzej G. Kruszewicz of Miejski Ogród Zoologiczny w Warszawie transfers the vote to Ryszard Topola • Alex Rübel of Zoo Zürich transfers the vote to Olivier Pagan • Gary Geddes of Point Defiance Zoo and Aquarium transfers the vote to Mark Reed • Jim Hubing of Henry Vilas Zoo transfers the vote to Mark Reed • Palmer Satch Krantz of Riverbanks Zoo transfers the vote to Mark Reed • Bert Castro of Phoenix Zoo transfers the vote to Mark Reed • Craig Dinsmore of Utah’s Hogle Zoo transfers the vote to Mark Reed • Randy Wisthoff of Kansas City Zoo transfers the vote to Mark Reed • Klaus Wünnemann of Tiergarten Heidelberg transfers vote to JensOve Heckel • Susanne Klomburg of Zoo Osnabrück transfers vote to Jörg Adler • Cameron Kerr of Taronga Zoo transfers the vote to Susan Hunt • Achim Johann of Natur Zoo Rheine transfers the vote to Thomas Kauffels • Suzanne Gendron of Ocean Park, Hong Kong transfers the vote to Joanne Lalumière


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DOC 66.19

Changes in Council and appointment of Committee members

Current Nominating Committee • Chair: Gordon McGregor Reid • Chris West (Adelaide Zoo, Australia) as Council member • Alex Rübel (Zoo Zürich, Switzerland) • Sally Walker (SAZARC, India) WAZA Council • Mark Reed (Sedgwick County Zoo, USA) Because of the retirement of Jo Gipps, the Nominating Committee –in conChair of Nominating Committee: sultation with the region concerned, Gordon McGregor Reid as immediate which is the Region II Europe and the past president will serve one more Near East, according to the WAZA year.(Immediate Past-President shall Bylaws- submitted the name of Lena serve as Chairman, Bylaws Art VI, Lindén of Nordens Ark to Council for Section 3). The appointed members ratification. Lena will serve on Council (Rübel, Walker, Reed) finish their till the next election (Bylaws Article IV, two year term and may not succeed Section 3). themselves or be considered for nomination (Art. VI, Section 3). The Co-opted members to Council are: following three appointees are proLesley Dickie, Kris Vehrs, Dave Morposed for ratification by the WAZA gan, Sally Walker. The presence of president (Art. VII, Section 3): Theo those regions is seen as an additional Pagel, Fanny Lai, Bob Cook. asset and input to Council.

Standing Committees Current Membership Committee • Chair: Lee Ehmke (Minnesota Zoological gardens, USA; first term ends 2011) • Rick Barongi (Houston Zoo, USA first term ends 2011) • Fanny Lai (Singapore Zoological Gardens, Singapore, 2008–2012) • Cesare Avesani (Parco Natura Viva, Italy, 2008–2012) • Kenichi Kitamura (JAZA, Japan, 2008–2012) • Patrick Garratt (Two Oceans Aquarium, South Africa, vacant) • Wolfgang Gettmann (Aquazoo Düsseldorf, 2006–2010) • Andrew Seguya (UWEC, Uganda) is proposed to replace Patrick Garratt and after the termination of two terms by Wolfgang Gettmann, Thomas Kauffels (Opelzoo) is proposed as successor, both have accepted the nomination. (Except chairman, new members have to be ratified during the annual administrative session – Bylaws Art VI, Section 2.)

Current Ethics and Welfare Committee • Chair: Chris West (Adelaide Zoo, Australia) • David Jones (North Carolina Zoo, USA) • Theo Pagel (Kölner Zoo, Cologne, Germany) • Amy Camacho (Africam Safari, Puebla, Mexico) • Clifford Nxomani (National Zoo, Pretoria, South Africa) • Hideyuki Takahashi (Ueno Zoo, Japan) • Fanny Lai (Singapore Zoological Gardens) Chairman and members finish their first term and are willing to serve a second two years term (Art. VI, Section 4)

Current Finance Committee • Chair: Jörg Junhold (Zoo Leipzig, Germany) • Oliver Pagan (Zoo Basel, Switzerland) • Joanne Lalumière (Granby Zoo, Canada) • David Field (ZSL, UK) First term ends for Oliver Pagan, but he is willing to stay on for a second term. (All have to be ratified during annual administrative session, Bylaws Art VI, Section 3) The participants took note of all the proposed changes, formal approval is sought during the 2nd Administrative Session.

Other Committees Conservation and Sustainability Committee • Chair Rick Barongi of Houston Zoo. Association Committee • Chair Sally Walker No changes for: • Marketing: Chair Jörg Junhold • Population Management: Chair Dave Morgan • Aquarium: Chair Heather Koldewey • Science and Veterinary: Chair Heribert Hofer The assembly took note of these positions.


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DOC 66.19

Change of WAZA Bylaws The document entitled “DOC 65.29 Amendment of Bylaws” was made available since 20 July on the list of conference documents on the WAZA website. All voting members have been informed accordingly on that same day by e-mail. After long discussions within WAZA Council since 2009 it was then decided to clean some of the language and adapt the bylaws to the current situation. According to the existing bylaws, the proposed text was made available to the membership and is also introduced during this session. The Article VII, section 6 of the bylaws reads as follows:

“Amendment of the Bylaws The Association’s Bylaws may from time to time be amended. Proposed amendments or revisions to the Association’s Bylaws may be initiated by the Council or recommended by a petition of no less than ten percent (10%) of the voting members. Amendments submitted by petition do not require the approval of the Council, but must be submitted at least ninety (90) days prior to the next Annual Meeting. Proposed amendments shall be placed on the agenda for discussion during the Administrative Session. If approved by a majority of the quorum, the Council shall distribute printed ballots by mail to all voting members of the Association, which must be returned to the Association’s office by the specified date. Approval of the proposed amendment requires a two-thirds (2/3) majority of the voting members of the Association.” The “major” changes in comparison to the existing bylaws are: • New domicile of WAZA is the IUCN Conservation Centre, 1196 Gland, Rue Mauverney 28, Switzerland • Consistent language throughout the document (eg. WAZA Annual conference, WAZA Executive office, corporate members)

• Clarification that voting members are the ones who have settled their annual dues • Members have to sign the WAZA Code of Ethics and Animal Welfare • All standing committee members have to be ratified by membership at the administrative session • Clarification of Council elections: President and president-elect serve as officers at Council and are ratified and the other Council members are elected by the membership Formal approval of this proposed change is planned for the 2nd Administrative session. Mark Reed questioned whether the passage in Art. III, Section 2 should stay as it is: “An Institution member must also be either an accredited or full institutional member of its recognized regional or national association where such associations exist.”

Future Meetings WAZA Council already decided on locations till 2014, hence the following venues and dates are selected and confirmed: • 2011 Prague, Czech Republic (2–6 Oct 2011) • 2012 Melbourne, Australia (7–11 Oct 2012) • 2013 Disney Animal Kingdom, USA (13–17 Oct 2013) • 2014 New Delhi, India WAZA Council met on 17 October 2010 and had presentations by Al Ain Wildlife Park and Resort, UAE and Barcelona Zoo, Spain bidding for the conference in 2015. WAZA Council is still having discussions and the decision will be announced during the 2nd Administrative Session.

Membership issues report annexed ADM 65.21

Membership Committee report was presented by Lee Ehmke, a detailed report is attached. Overview of membership categories was presented, naming Institutions, Associations, Affiliates, Corporates, Life members and Honorary members. Total members as of September 2010: 301, overview of members, new members and life members are in the attached report of the committee. Increase of number of corporate members is encouraging. New members were welcomed; presentations of the new members will follow during the conference.

Finance issues

report annexed ADM 65.22

The Finance Committee report was presented by Jörg Junhold as chair of the Finance committee; details are covered in the attached report. The 2009 finances and the relevant audit reports were approved and adopted unanimously. Also, the proposed draft budget for 2011 was presented, in order to cover inflation and raising costs a 3% increase in membership fees is proposed. This moderate increase should be used to cover staff costs. The current financial situation as of 31st August 2010 was also presented. Although some members have not yet paid the overall income situation and the economical expense situation is quite encouraging and satisfying. Approval of budget 2011 was planned for 2nd Administrative session on Thursday.


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DOC 66.19

Report back from Committees and Workshops

Committee on Population Management COM 65.3

The committee meeting report is annexed. The GSMP workshop Conservation and Sustaina- “Selection criteria for Global Species bility Committee ADM 65.1 Management Plan (GSMP) implementation” attained consensus of Presentation by Jo Gipps about the issue of selection criteria for WZACS, the World Zoo and Aquarium Global Species Management Plan Conservation Strategy, where a 5 year (GSMP) implementation very rapupdate/revision was discussed. It was idly. The unanimous sentiment was noted that in the current strategy that instead of the circumstance of especially climate change aspects criteria-specific WAZA- mechanisms are totally missing. Therefore this determining what species should had somehow to be included. An be globally managed, that already option would be to produce a leaflet existing regional management proon climate change response, add ingrammes should communicate with formation on climate change to each each other with the intent of closer chapter, but not changing the chapregional cooperation. In this manner, ters as such. Another option which the GSMP will be driven by de facto was discussed was to write a framing need bottom up from the regional preface by an external expert authorprogrammes, as opposed to top ity, whereas the preface and introduc- down from WAZA. The WAZA Comtion shall also be able to stand alone, mittee for Population Management in order to clarify the way forward was tasked with developing methoda working group was established. The ologies to secure regional commitresults of the workshop on the 5 year ment and articulation to this end. revision of WZACS are included in the attached document COM 65.1 .

Climate change workshop

“Future of Zoos”

report annexed WS 65.3

WS 65.1

A workshop on the “Future of zoos” was organised by Jenny Gray, Bob Wiese and Bob Cook. As a major outcome, sustainability has been identified as most important Issue for future and future conferences. Details are covered in the annexed workshop report Science and Veterinary Committee and workshop COM 65.2 & : presentation by Mark WS 65.2 Penning on behalf of Heribert Hofer, chair of the committee. Major results were presented, the full report is annexed.

Paul Pearce Kelly presented a summary in table format (see report), containing also the Climate Change Position Statement by the World Association of Zoos and Aquariums. He then also presented the revised resolution with some refinements. The climate change resolution text is annexed as RES 65.1 DOC 65.27 rev containing the resolution, entitled “Recognising the Severity of the Climate Change Threat and the Response Imperatives”. The resolution was unanimously adopted by show of hands (57 in favour, no abstentions and nobody against.) The announced new members of standing committees during the 1st Administrative Session were unanimously accepted by the membership (no abstentions, nobody against).

Associations Committee meeting report attached as COM 65.4

Marketing Committee meeting report attached as COM 65.5

Ethics & Animal Welfare Committee meeting report attached as COM 65.6

Aquarium committee missing.

WAZA Grant 2010 WAZA Council decided to grant the 2010 WAZA training grant to Wildlife Reserves Singapore for conducting a workshop on primate behavioral monitoring to enhance the capacity of Asian zoo professionals and to Vienna Zoo for training on Zoological collection planning and zoo management in Sri Lanka. WAZA wishes to especially thank the following institutions for having provided financial support this year: Ocean Park Corp. Hong Kong, Loro Parque, Tenerife, Spain and Łódź – Miejski Ogród Zoologiczny, Poland.

Amendment of WAZA Bylaws DOC 65.29 As introduced during the 1st Administrative Session, approval was sought by membership. There was no further discussion on the proposed change and it was subsequently unanimously accepted, with no objections and no abstentions. The new bylaws are annexed and final approval will be sought via mail ballot, according to Article VII, section 6.


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DOC 66.19

Adoption of Budget 2011 DOC 65.28 rev

Future Conference

Thanks to the host

After long discussions Council finally decided about the conference venue in 2015, it will be in Al Ain Wildlife Park and Resort (UAE).

Mark Penning thanks Theo Pagel for organizing the conference. The programme committee chair was then finally handed over from Theo Pagel to Miroslav Bobek.

The proposed budget for 2011, with a view to have 3% membership increase, was adopted unanimously, Jörg Junhold acting as proposer and Simon Tonge as seconder. No objection no abstention.

The assembly took note of the dates and venues.

Heini Hediger Award 2010 & INF 65.3 INF 65.2

Botanical Gardens cooperarion

According to the decision of WAZA Council Mark Penning announced that the winner of the Heini Hediger award of the World Association of Zoos and Aquariums 2010 was Bert de Boer, the formal hand over will take place at the gala dinner. The citation which was presented is annexed as well as the reply of the winner.

In order to find more synergies between zoos, aquariums and botanical gardens as well as find fields of common interest and cooperation, Dave Morgan will follow up in a working group together with Mike Maunder and Sara Oldfield.

Invitation to Prague 2011 Miroslav Bobek, director of Prague Zoo presented the invitation to Prague, where the conference will take place from 2–6 October 2011. A video has been presented with the title “Welcome to Mushroomia”, the humorous presentation was very well received. The Conference theme will be sustainability but the exact title is to be reviewed by the Programme Committee.

IUCN Species Congress INF 65.4

It was unanimously agreed (by vote) that this undertaking, which was sponsored by WAZA at the World Conservation Congress in 2008 in Barcelona, is an important issue for WAZA, which should be followed up with Simon Stuart of IUCN/SSC. The working group result of a CBSG meeting, led by Jeffrey Bonner is annexed.

AOB


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INF 66.1

The Report of JAZA Activities After the Disaster and Current Issues Shigeyuki Yamamoto – JAZA Chair (Japanese Association of Zoos and Aquariums)

On March 11, 2011, we had the Great East Japan earthquake and disaster. I would like to report about the situation of affected zoos and aquariums and our activity to support to them for half a year. Right after the earthquake, JAZA did the urgent transportation of feed for six affected institutions for 10 times. We also evacuated 38 species from the dysfunctional Aquarium Fukushima and none of them were died. These initial supports were done by the cooperation of JAZA member institutions, citizens and local governments. And there were various efforts to help the colleagues at the affected zoos and aquariums by the employees of JAZA member institutions.

JAZA started to ask for the donation for affected institution right after the disaster. We’ve received JPY 48,987,673, approximately EUR 462,000 as of the end of June 2011. JAZA established the donation distribution committee including outside intellectuals and distribute it to affected institutions. We ask for donation continuously today. Some of the affected zoos and aquariums had been closed after the disaster, but all of them could open their door once again for business on July 15. Looking back on the support activities, we could get the major lesson and issues for the future JAZA activities. 1. 2. 3.

4. 5.

the strength of linkage between zoos and aquariums the importance of information correction and transmission the establishment of the comprehensive disaster preparedness system the strength of being with local community the formulation of the vision of Japanese zoos and aquariums, and the development of the strategy to its implementation

Zoos and aquariums can save, support and tell the importance of linkage of life. Japanese zoos, aquariums and JAZA office have to contribute for the conservation of biodiversity, beautiful Japanese endemism and nature, and the people’s hearts as the Japanese treasure. Finally, I would like to express my sincere appreciation as the Chair of JAZA for the various great support and assistance to Japan from all over the world. Thank you very much.


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DOC 66.21

Membership Committee Report as of 31 August 2011 Lee Ehmke This updates developments since the Cologne Meeting 2010

Membership Committee Composition • Chair: Lee Ehmke – Minnesota Zoological Garden, USA (first term ends 2011) • Rick Barongi – Houston Zoo, USA (first term ends 2011) • Fanny Lai – Singapore Zoological Gardens, Singapore (2008–2012), VACANT since mid 2011 • Cesare Avesani – Parco Natura Viva, Italy (2008–2012) • Kenichi Kitamura – JAZA, Japan (2008–2012), replaced by Kazotoshi Arai – JAZA (in mid 2011) • Andrew Seguya – UWEC, Uganda, (first term 2010-2012), replaced by Stephen van der Spuy – Johannesburg Zoo (in mid 2011) • Thomas Kauffels – Opelzoo, Germany (first term 2010–2012)

Membership Development New Members As of June 2011 • Vogelpark Marlow – Germany • Istanbul Aquarium – Turkey • The Aquarium of the Bay – San Francisco, USA • Finetra – UK as corporate member As of February 2011 • Bioparque M’Bopicuá – Uruguay • Torre Design Consortium – USA as corporate member As of December 2010 • Jungle Cat World – Canada • Fondazione Bioparco di Roma – Italy

Membership Terminated 2011 Institutions • Safari Beekse Bergen – The Netherlands • Wildlife World Zoo – USA (is no longer a member of AZA) • Blank Park Zoo – USA Corporates • Vision XS announced to consider quitting for 2012 (tel. Chris Webster 25 Aug 2011).

Membership on Hold …

For clarification Zoo Dvůr Králové – Czech Republic: After a complaint was received by EAZA, WAZA Council decided the membership to be suspended until clarification is reached during an inspection visit in March 2011. At Council midyear meeting (7 April 2011 in Gland) lifting suspension status was decided. However, the dialogue about cooperation with EAZA and the zoo entered a process which will be reviewed by WAZA Council.


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DOC 66.21

Current Members 31.12.10 30.10.10 30.09.10 31.03.10 30.10.09 14.09.09 30.06.09 31.12.08 31.12.07

Institutions Associations Affiliates Corporate Total Institutions Associations Affiliates Corporate Total

253 24 15 11 303

253 25 14 11 303

31.8.11

31.3.11

255 24 16 13 308

253 24 16 12 305

253 25 14 9 301

249 24 13 7 293

247 24 13 5 289

249 25 14 4 292

245 25 14 3 287

244 25 17 2 288

236 24 13 0 273

Pending Applications Accepted for application and published in News 3/11 • Foz Tropicana Parque das Aves – Brazil (Manfred Niekisch) • Zoo Ohrada – Czech Republic • Texas State Aquarium – USA • International Animal Exchange – SA, as corporate

Documents incomplete/missing • Nashville Zoo – USA (Rick Schwartz), LE is following up • Zoopark Izhevsk – Republic of Udmurtia, via contact Hagenbeck, he is following up 25 May • Vancouver Aquarium – Canada (Clint Wright and John Nightingale), 27 May reminded • Zoomarine Portugal (Elio Vicente), reminded 19 May • National Aquarium Baltimore – USA (David Pittenger), reminded 27 May • Fota Wildlife Park – Ireland (Sean McKeown), reminded 27 May • Aquarium of the Pacific in Long Beach, California – USA (Jerry Schubel will come back to WAZA), reminded 27 May • Seattle aquarium – USA (Bob Davidson), reminded 27 May • Zoo Schwerin – Germany (next year 2012) • The Pittsburgh Zoo & PPG Aquarium – USA (Dr. Barbara Baker, CEO& President), Missing Memorandum & Datasheet, will follow by mail, Reminded 27 May

• Knowsley Safari Park – USA, sent info by e-mail on 13/10/10 • Kristiansand Dyrepark AS – sent info by e-mail on 13/10/10 • Monaco Aquarium – Monaco, letter dated 14 April by Robert Calcagno: not interested for now, in support of WAZA and will consider later

Code of Ethics missing None

Associations Interested …

Interest in Membership/ Membership Drive • AMMPA: Clint Wright (Vancouver Aqu) – interested in closer cooperation (GDI, 20 July 10) • Worth-Keeping: Anne Steen (MCG, 14 Oct 10) • West Midland Safari & Leisure Park (MCG 6 Aug 10) • Vector Foiltec (MCG 12 Aug 10) • Urumqi Zoo (MCG 6 Aug 10) • Pittsburgh Zoo (GDI 1 Jul 10) • Ocean Adventure (MCG 9 Sep 10) • Nederlandse Vereniging van Dierentuinen (MCG 8 Nov 10) • Lahore Zoo (MCG 3 Jun 10) • Kristiansand Dyrepark AS (GDI 13 Oct 10) • Knowsley Safari Park (MCG 13 Oct 10)

• Kattia Gómez Henríquez, El Salvador (MCG 15 Nov 10) • Kaliningrad Zoo, Lyudmila Anoka (MCG 6 Aug 10) • International Animal Exchange (UFO 22 Nov 10) • Indian River Reptile Zoo (MCG 30 Aug 10) • Dingle Oceanworld (MCG 5 Jul 10) • Cheetah Outreach (GDI 8 Sep 10) • Cango Wildlife Ranch (GDI 31 Aug 10) • Belinda Bordelon (MCG 7 Jul 10) • Honolulu Zoo (Manuel Mollinedo, 31 August 2011)

Personalia Directors of institutions left • UWEC, Dr. Andrew Seguya, new director appointed Mr. James Musinguzi as from January 2011 • Mr. Lars Lunding Andersen, Copenhagen Zoo, new acting Director (ad interim) Mr. Bengt Holst, as of July 2011, new Director appointed: Steffen Stræde as of 2 February, 2012. • Mr. Alex Gebauer, NaturschutzTierpark Görlitz left in January 2011. New acting Director Mrs. Karin Riedel until September 2011, then Dr. Sven Hammer as from October 2011 • Mr. Dan Wharton, Chicago Zoological Society has retired; new WAZA contact is Mr. F. William Zeigler (Vice President of Animal Care), update from May, 2011


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DOC 66.21 • Mr. Michael Boos is the new VicePresident of Busch Gardens, has replaced Mr. Glenn Young, update from May, 2011 • Africam Safari, Mrs. Amy L. Camacho left, new director is Mr. Frank Carlos Camacho and acts also as director at AZCARM • Zoo de Pont-Scorff, Mr. Alain Le Héritte left, replaced by Mrs. Véronique Halloui THOMAS in July 2011

Directors/Presidents of Associations/Affiliates left • ACOPAZOA: Ms. Adriana Girón Flórez left, new director is Ms. Carolina Falla, as of June, 2011 • JAZA: Mr. Kenichi Kitamura, JAZA, has retired, new Director Mr. Kazutoshi Arai, former Vice-Chair of JAZA, as of May, 2011 • AZCARM: Amy Camacho left and Frank Carlos Camacho is new director

Deaths • Mr. Amnart Cholwattana of Songkhla Zoo, Thailand

New Zoo Directors • Zoologická záhrada Bojnice (SK): Milan Sovčík replaces Vladimír Šrank who is now acting as Vicedirector and Manager for EC projects at the same zoo. • Tierpark Chemnitz (DE), new director since 1.6.11 Dipl.-Biol. Anja Dube • Mr. Michael Boos is the new VicePresident of Busch Gardens, has replaced Mr. Glenn Young, update from May, 2011 • Toshimitsu Doi replaces Teruyuki Komiya (7 years? to check with Ueno) at Ueno Zoological Gardens (Japan) as of 1st August, 2011. • Dr. Kouichi Murata was appointed new director at Yokohama Zoological Gardens”ZOORASIA” (Japan) as of 1st July, 2011 • Osvaldo Guaita was appointed as director at Buenos Aires Zoo (Argentinia)

Vacant Directors Positions

• Mr. Wolfgang Kiessling is the Founder and President of Loro • Songkhla Zoo (TH), Mr. Amnart Parque as well as Loro Parque FounCholwattana passed away before dation. He has served more than the WAZA Conference 2010 39 years as Managing Director since • Georgia Aquarium (US) Mr. Bruce Loro Parque will be celebrating its Carlson (aquarium’s Science Officer) 40th Anniversary next year and Mr. retires by 1st April 2011. Dr. Alistair Kiessling is still working every day Dove, Senior Scientist will act as inand all final decisions are discussed terim until late 2011/beginning 2012 with him. (ADove@GeorgiaAquarium.org) • Mr. Lars Lunding Andersen, Copen• Mr. David Windmill, Director at hagen Zoo, 17 years Edinburgh Zoo left, new ad interim MD appointed Mr. Hugh Roberts, as of June 2011 Hot Topics

Confirmed new Life Members at WAZA Council, Köln 2010 • Jo Gipps • Gordon McGregor Reid • Ivo Klika • Rudy van Eysendeyk

Life Membership granted at Midyear 2011 • Vladislav T. Jiroušek, Director Zoo Jihlava, President of UCSZ

Directors qualifying for Life Membership (TBC at Prague annual conference 2011) • Kenichi Kitamura, retires as of I June 2011 after more than 10 years of director of Maruyama zoo and as JAZA executive director for 7 years • Mr. Glenn Young, Busch Gardens, more than 10 years as VP. • Mr. Vladimír Šrank, Director at Bojnice ZOO from 1992–2009. Started in 1974 to work in the zoo! • Dan Wharton was Director of the Central Park Zoo from 1994 to 2007. From 2008–2011 at Brookfield Zoo as Senior Vice President for Conservation • Magnus Nilsson 10 years director at Kolmardens Djurpark.

Missing Code of Ethics by Current Members None

Membership dues 2011 outstanding AMACZOA, Chiang Mai Zoo, Dusit Zoo, DGHT, Everland Zoological Gardens, Finetra, Greifvogelzoo Bayerischer Jagdfalkenhof, Jardín Zoológico de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Khao Kheow Open Zoo, Nakorn Ratchasima Zoo, Parc Zoologique de Paris, Ragunan Zoological Park, Songkhla Zoo, Sydney Aquarium & Sydney Wildlife World, Taipei Zoo, Zoológico Nacional Parque Metropolitano de Santiago, Padmaja Naidu Himalayan Zoological Park, Vision XS. Gland, 31 August 2011


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DOC 66.22

Finance Committee Report Jรถrg Junhold


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DOC 66.22


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DOC 66.22


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DOC 66.22

WAZA Balance 2010 / Balance Account In Swiss Francs Assets

as per December 31, 2010

as per December 31, 2009

UBS account

376,941.56

420,272.48

Post account

15,684.01

18,090.88

539,855.00

531,569.00

10,694.80

0.00

619.98

839.45

0.00

8,438.25

943,795.35

979,210.06

as per December 31, 2010

as per December 31, 2009

176,085.86

268,139.55

767,709.49

711,070.51

943,795.35

979,210.06

Securities/Bonds Rental surety savings Withholding Tax (35%) Prepaid expenses

Liabilities Deferred income Capital resources: Balance 01.01.2010 Profit 2010 Balance value

711,070.51 56,638.98


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DOC 66.22

RECEIPTS 2009 and 2010

In Swiss Francs (1 CHF = 0,77695 € = 1,07892 US$ as of 4th March 2011) Receipts 2009

Receipts 2010

Membership fees

686’884.79

Membership fees

Sales & Services

19’283.40

Sales & Services

65‘540.36

Sponsoring

50‘000.00

Zoo Schweiz Membership fees 2008 Extraordinary Proceeds Credit interest Total

120.08 13’953.88 0.00 26’434.88 746’677.03

2009 Receipts in %

Pledges WAZA Grant Extraordinary Proceeds Credit interest Total

731’599.65

2‘147.65 13‘767.14 9‘230.20 872’285.00

2010 Receipts in %

EXPENSES 2009 and 2010

In Swiss Francs (1 CHF = 0,77695 € = 1,07892 US$ as of 4th March 2011) Expenses 2009 Salaries & Recruitment, Consultants Meetings

Expenses 2010 439’479.28 6’749.13

Salaries & Recruitment, Consultants Meetings

597’031.33 5’331.88

Travel

33’422.32

Travel

31’321.13

Projects & Grants

70’346.16

Projects & Grants

60’573.53

Expendable Goods & Maintenance

74’648.40

Expendable Goods & Maintenance

36’086.25

Equipment & Premises

43’712.85

Equipment & Premises

42’541.20

Marketing

13’280.29

Marketing

35’202.52

Bank Charges, Taxes Office Move Bern-Gland

6’863.04 0.00

Bank Charges, Taxes

2’104.13

Office Move Bern-Gland

5’454.05

Contingency for Council & Recruitment

172’961.03

Contingency for Council & Recruitment

Total

861’462.50

Total

2009 Expenses in %

2010 Expenses in %

0.00 815‘646.02


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DOC 66.22

INCOME AND EXPENDITURE 2010 COMPARED TO BUDGET In Swiss Francs (1 CHF = 0,77695 € = 1,07892 US$ as of 4th March 2011) INCOME

Budget 2010

Actual 2010

Comparison to Budget

721‘822.00

731’599.65

+9‘777.65

Sponsoring

20‘000.00

50‘000.00

+30‘000.00

Pledges WAZA Grant

20‘000.00

2‘147.65

-17‘852.35

Sales & Services

45‘800.00

65‘540.36

+19‘740.36

2‘000.00

22’997.34

+20‘997.34

809‘622.00

872‘285.00

+62‘663.00

Budget 2010

Actual 2010

Comparison to Budget

-529 226,00

-597’031.33

-67‘805.33

Meetings

-10‘000.00

-5‘331.88

+4‘668.12

Travel & Move Bern-Gland

-55‘000.00

-36’775.18

+18‘224.82

-100‘000.00

-60’573.53

+39‘426.47

Expendable Goods & Maintenance

-54‘200.00

-36‘086.25

+18‘113.75

Equipment & Premises

-40‘000.00

-42’541.20

-2‘541.20

Marketing

-69’550.00

-35’202.52

+34‘347.48

-4‘400.00

-2’104.13

+2‘295.87

-20‘000.00

0,00

+20‘000.00

-882‘376.00

-815‘646.02

+66‘729.98

Total Income

809‘622.00

872‘285.00

+62‘663.00

Profit/Deficit

-72‘754.00

+56‘638.98

+129‘392.98

Membership Fees 2010

Credit interest / Extraordinary proceeds Total Income

EXPENDITURE Salaries & Benefits

Projects & Grants

Bank Charges, Taxes Currency reserve & Sundry Total Expenses


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DOC 66.22

Income and Expenditure as of 31.8.2011 COMPARED TO BUDGET In Swiss Francs (1 CHF = 0,77695 € = 1,07892 US$ as of 4th March 2011) INCOME

Budget

Actual

758’965.00

734’049.63

Sponsoring

50’000.00

45’748.66

Sales & Services

16’300.00

3’476.3

2’000.00

659.45

0.00

68’368.33

827’265.00

852’302.37

Budget

Actual

0.00

-63’931.74

-554’937.00

-294’919.78

Meetings

-10’000.00

-2’072.69

Travel

-45’000.00

-23’763.94

Projects & Grants

-97’000.00

-53’211.70

Expendable Goods & Maintenance

-38’500.00

-17’392.32

Equipment & Premises

-42’624.00

-20’948.80

Marketing

-60’400.00

-18’923.72

-4’400.00

-2’647.32

-10’000.00

0.00

Total

-862’861.00

-497’812.01

Total Expenses

-862’861.00

-497’812.01

827’265.00

852’302.37

-35’596.00

+354’490.36

Membership fees 2011

Credit interest Donate for JAZA Total

EXPENSES Donate for JAZA Salaries & Recruitment, Consultants

Bank charges, Fees & Taxes Sundry

Total Income Expected Deficit/Profit

UBS account POST account UBS Bonds Rental surety savings Total Assets

546‘880.56 15’064.01 544’522.00 10’694.80 1’117’161.37


October 2011 | Prague

2nd Administrative Session Prague, 6 October 2011 Chair: Mark Penning | Rapporteur: Gerald Dick Start at 2.30 pm | End at 4.10 pm

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ADM 66.2

Report back from Committees and Workshops Workshop I

Associations Committee

entitled Secure Long-term Animal Report is annexed as COM 66.4 . Collections (Sustainable Collections), Sally Walker gave an oral report. the report is annexed as WS 66.1

Workshop II entitled “Animal Welfare, Legislation and Public Opinion”. A detailed report is annexed as WS 66.2 . Jenny Gray reported back from the workshop.

Workshop III Entitled “Business Prerogatives- Making Money and Saving Wildlife”, the report is annexed as WS 66.3 .

Conservation & Sustainability Committee Report is annexed as COM 66.1 . Rick Barongi gave a summary of the committee meeting and mentioned that it would be better to have the committee meeting at the beginning of the conference, thus enabling a better overlap with participants from the CBSG conference. As for the format of the meeting of the committee, using the mind mapping method might be envisaged for next year.

Science and Veterinary Committee Report is annexed as COM 66.2 . Report was presented by Heribert Hofer as powerpoint.

Aquarium Committee Report is annexed as COM 66.3 .

Marketing Committee Report is annexed as COM 66.5 . Jörg Junhold presented a report on the workshop as powerpoint.

Ethics & Animal Welfare Committee Report is annexed as COM 66.6 . No separate oral report was presented; Mark Penning summarized the discussion within Council, the idea of establishing a capacity for ethical issues within or outside WAZA needed further clarification.

WAZA Grant 2011 WAZA Council decided to grant the 2011 WAZA training grant to Amphibian Ark for the project “Training for sustainability of amphibian rescue programs in Ecuador” with financial support of €8,704. Additionally Copenhagen Zoo is granted €8,296 for the project “Expanding ex situ population management capacity in Asia: Building upon past training activities in Indonesia, China and Japan”.

Adoption of Resolution RES 66.1 annexed. The resolution on the Decade on Biodiversity was unanimously adopted. Manfred Niekisch served as proposer, seconded by Joanne Lalumiere. The vote was taken by show of hands: no objection, no abstention.

Adoption of financial report of 2010 Annexed as DOC 66.22 in 1st Admin session. The report of the Finance Committee with the auditor’s report for 2010 was unanimously adopted. Proposer: Mark Reed, seconded by Manfred Niekisch, against: none, abstention: none

Adoption of Budget 2012 Annexed as DOC 66.28. The proposed budget for 2012, with a view to have 3% membership fee increase, was adopted unanimously, Mark Reed proposed and seconded by Manfred Niekisch. No objection, no abstention.


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ADM 66.2

Extraordinary project budget for Decade on Biodiversity As an extraordinary project budget, 300,000 CHF may be spent over the next three years for the WAZA support of the UN Decade on Biodiversity. Jörg Junhold explained the unique opportunity to develop support material for awareness raising for zoos and aquariums and at the same time supporting the endeavours to find external additional sponsors. The good situation of the WAZA reserves allow for this extraordinary project support and maintain at least six months of executive office work in emergency case at the same time. The proposal was seconded by Lee Ehmke, objection: no, abstention: no, motion was carried unanimously.

Heini Hediger Award 2011 Mark Penning announced that the winner of the Heini Hediger award of the World Association of Zoos and Aquariums 2011 was Gordon McGregor Reid, the formal hand over would take place at the gala dinner on 6 October evening.

Invitation to Melbourne 2012 by Jenny Gray A promotional video was shown and all WAZA members invited to Australia in 2012. The Conference theme will be “Fighting Extinction”, also the slogan of the work of Melbourne Zoo.

Any Other Business Invitation to Budapest, 2nd Ivy conference, May 2012 The second meeting of old zoos, planned for 17–19 May 2012, will take place in Budapest zoo. The last meeting of this kind was 15 years ago; there are about 100 zoos older than 100 years and challenging topics like space matters and how can old zoos meet the expectations of the public? will be discussed. This conference is co-sponsored by WAZA and Tiergarten Schönbrunn –Zoo Vienna, ZSL, Melbourne Zoo and Lincoln Park Zoo. Miklos Persanyi showed a video as promotion for this conference.

Jack Lacroix Throp The Chair was made aware of the death of esteemed colleague Jack Lacroix Throp, director of the Birmingham Zoological Society till 1991. Participants were asked to rise in recognition and memory and spent a minute in silence.

Thanks to the host Mark Penning thanks Miroslav Bobek, director of Prague Zoo for organizing the conference. The programme committee chair was then finally handed over from Miroslav Bobek to Jenny Gray together with the conference flag. Thanks were expressed to Ivan Rehák, Martin Munzar, Vít Kahle, Zuzanna Anna Palzer, Jana Ptačinská Jivatová and Congress Business Travel Agency.


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ADM 66.2

Handing over of Presidency to Jörg Junhold Drazí kolegové, milí přátelé, Chères collègues et amis, Queridos colegas y amigos, дорогие сотрудники и друзья, Liebe Kollegen und Freunde, Dear colleagues and friends, Here I am – it is a privilege standing in front of you as your new president. I feel honoured and I am more than proud to lead the World Association of Zoos and Aquariums, our organisation. And first of all, I want to thank all of you for your confidence in me leading this wonderful community. Furthermore, I’d like to thank my distinguished friend and predecessor Mark Penning, who has been a wonderful president. But more about that at the gala dinner tonight. Over the last few weeks – when the date of the Prague conference and the handover was coming closer and closer – I have become aware that this probably would be one of the greatest moments of my life. I started contemplating – my personal life, and history, and I asked myself: “What can you add to this community within the next two years?” Born in Eastern Germany, I grew up in a communist country and all my memories of this time are linked to a phase of the century with a lot of limitations. In my whole life, I will never forget the peaceful revolution and the day when the German wall came down in autumn ’89. For those of you who don’t know – the beginning of this whole process started in my hometown Leipzig. And believe it or not – I had my last exam of my studies of veterinary medicine exactly on the day when the Eastern Germans changed their currency into Deutsche Mark.

All this occurred when I was 26 years old. All of a sudden, the whole world was open, with unlimited opportunities and my life was changed in a manner I would never have expected. Just two decades ago, people would have questioned my sanity if I had declared that I am going to lead a fast developing zoo in 20 years’ time and become president of a global association of zoos and aquariums at some point in my life. Why do I tell you this story of my personal life? The reason is that I strongly believe in the power of little wonders, visions and changing processes. These are the same 20 years that have coined and changed our organisation. The WAZA developed from an old boys’ club of the former IUDZG into a very professional, well perceived and globally acting organisation, united in global conservation. Having been part of the WAZA council for six years now I am proud of what we have reached together to be much more professional (e.g. institutional membership, Executive Office, now even directly located in the heart of IUCN, forming the Amphibian ark, first global campaign YOTF 2008). However, I am absolutely convinced that the current global challenges will ask even more of us in future. And I am likewise convinced that we have not yet used all potentials to the full in order to be regarded as a serious partner in global conservation. Even in rich western countries, like in my home country, politicians and/or zoo directors still have different opinions about it. And it really hurts me to listen to colleagues in my own country who say that field conservation cannot be our top priority. This still might be true for most of our daily work in the zoo, but it should always be our single, common goal to preserve wildlife.

But, let us face the future. What are the challenges of the near future and what can you expect from your new president? Considering the sheer number of topics, I would like to focus on 5 key areas: 1.

UN Decade on Biodiversity I am really delighted that this year’s annual conference has decided to give WAZA a leading role in implementing the strategic plan of the UN Decade on Biodiversity. To my mind, this is a huge, I would even say, a unique opportunity for our community as a whole. The zoo and aquarium community has to live up to high expectations. Each year, 700 million people visit the zoos and with our conservation breeding programmes we are not only predestined, it will be expected of us that we will actively contribute our share to achieving the AICHI targets, (especially the targets 1 – awareness raising – and 12 – fighting extinction) over the next 10 years. I am sure – those coming 10 years will decide which importance and which credibility the zoo and aquarium community will have within the global conservation society. Therefore, I can imagine well that we will turn all our future thoughts on conservation strategies, let it be climate change or sustainability, into an official part of the UN Decade on Biodiversity and that we will examine our priorities in that way. In 2012, we have the great opportunity to present the world how we would like to implement the UN Decade on Biodiversity inside the zoo and aquarium world at the IUCN World Congress in Korea and the COP 11 Congress of the CBD in India. We should also affirm our willingness to be at the IUCN’s disposal as an official partner in order to organise the first World Species Congress in 2015 together. The congress could take stock half way into the UN Decade on Biodiversity and pass strategies until 2020.


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ADM 66.2 2.

Sustainable animal collections We should never forget – Zoos and aquariums are the only institutions within the global conservation community that have the privilege to manage valuable wild animals in human care. However, over the last 2 years we have come to realise that our collections are not sustainable. No doubt, the reasons for that are manifold, but all scientific approaches to solving the problem seem to be focussing on one point. Regional thinking and the strict division of ex-situ and in-situ populations have to be overcome. We need a truly global co-ordination of our breeding programmes and the connection to the in-situ populations, according to the “One Plan Approach” that has been discussed during the CBSG meeting prior to our conference. The first steps towards GSMPs have been made last year following the simple rule “plan globally and manage regionally”. But something that sounds so simple often fails due to simple administration processes and bureaucracy in daily practice. One recent example: My own zoo has been trying to organise the transfer of Komodo dragons from the US to Leipzig in my zoo for months. And yet, despite that all partners agree content-wise, the responsible CITES authorities are arguing over the fact if an import or export permission is needed first. This is costing us months and it is frustrating for all parties involved. I could go on and on with a list of similar difficulties in interregional animals transfers. We need to improve this kind of our inter-regional collaboration. In order to reach sustainable animal collections we will also have to put our own strict restrictions of a breed and cull-policy or our co-operation with sincere animal dealers and the private sector to the test. Having said this, I am very aware that we will have to hold necessary conversations about this controversial topic.

I see WAZA in a leading role for the global co-ordination of these essential tasks and there is a very big responsibility. However, we have to be aware that our current resources and structures are probably not sufficient for that and we will have to explore new paths together. 3.

Ethical framework Over the last years, time and again, we have been thinking about the question how to set ethical standards on animal welfare of our global zoo community; let it be the question of “what makes a zoo a good zoo?”, complaints regarding drive fisheries in Japan or the assessment of a member’s violations of the ethical standards of its regional zoo association. We have to recognise that we cannot answer all questions satisfactorily with our existing Code of Ethics and that it is sometimes not easy to meet the attacks of animal rights groups in a professional way. We are in the middle of an interesting debate across cultural borders in an aim to find the lowest common denominator for it, let it be on the basis of an ethical framework, best practice or minimum standards. Drawing on the progress of this conference, I am convinced that we will be able to present the first documents during my presidency. It has turned out here as well that we will have to hold debates about priorities and additional resources, if we take it serious.

4.

Growth in membership, esp. China and South East Asia The development of member numbers of our organisation has been successful despite the global economic crisis. However, there are still regions in the world in which I see large potentials for growth, namely Asia, South America and also North America. We have often talked about what is the additional value of a WAZA membership? We have probably not yet sufficiently answered this question for the aquarium community. We still have some convincing to do here in future. Although I really wished to hear another question more often – How can I resp. my zoo contribute to strengthen the global zoo and aquarium community by becoming a WAZA member? In terms of member development I would like to focus on China and South-East Asia. Even if this is not going to be easy, we can build on first promising contacts. Furthermore, we will have to discuss if and how a sophisticated structure of member contributions can boost member growth.

5.

Communications We have achieved a lot in terms of communication and WAZA’s image in the last couple of years. This concerns the communication with members as well as within the global conservation community. All of which has contributed to the fact that WAZA’s strengths have come to be recognised. Apart from that, however, we are still largely unknown to the broader public.. I am absolutely convinced that it would make our work easier and would help us to get political and financial support, if we had a higher profile in the public. I would like to contribute to that during my presidency and hope for widespread support by all institutional members and the regional associations. Our 77th anniversary next year could surely be a chance for that as well.


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ADM 66.2 We are living in exciting times. Our nature and wild animals are in immediate need of help! And our community bears a large responsibility! But – the global financial and economic crisis hasn’t made the whole world easier. Sometimes I feel that concerns about our economic future have come to dominate the public debate over global environmental topics we have to face. However, that doesn’t change at all that we as the zoo and aquarium community are required to act in terms of global conservation.

I’m well aware that two years of my presidency are too short to find solutions to all of the challenges we face. But I can assure you that I will fight for our mutual aims to the best to my knowledge. And of course, I rely on you for your support. We have a powerful council and a powerful team in the executive office led by our dedicated Executive Director, Gerald Dick. Our relationship and mutual understanding with the regional associations have made great progress. We should continue to work on our common goals in this sense and, if required, accept existing differences with great respect and always with positive intentions. As always – at the end of the day it is the people, is it us, together, that can bring our organisation forward. Once again – Thank you for your confidence and I’m really looking forward to being your next president.

Let’s follow the ”new triple C approach” for this, created by Dave Morgan: COMMITTMENT, COMMITTMENT, COMMITTMENT… Let’s work together that little wonders and visions become reality! Thank you! Jörg Junhold


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WS 66.1

Secure Long-term Animal Collections (Sustainable Collections), Workshop Dave Morgan and Rick Barongi | 4 October 2011, 8.00–10.30 am

In light of growing concerns about the long-term sustainability of wild animal populations in human care, WAZA organised a two-day workshop in April 2011 on the sustainable management of zoo animal populations. Based on the report of this workshop and the 2011 edition of the WAZA Magazine focusing on sustainable population management (most papers have been presented at the previous and present WAZA Annual Conference, including this workshop), this workshop was organised to outline a vision for the future of population sustainability. The aims of the workshop were (1) to provide an understanding of the status of wild animal populations in human care in three major regions (Australasia, Europe and North America) with regard to the sustainability of these populations, (2) to illustrate and discuss possible ways forward on how to improve the sustainability of wild animal populations in human care globally and (3) to identify obstacles to the concept and practicalities of global population management and the mitigation of such problems.

(1) Status of regional populations: The Or as one respondent put it so aptly: results of population sustainability “There is no real obstacle. If we all assessments in three major regions want this, it can be done. So if there (Australasia, Europe and North is an obstacle, it would be that we America) were presented. do not really all want this.” (2) Progress since WAZA workshop: The progress made so far with regard to global population management, including the selection of priority species for which to establish Global Species Management Plans (GSMPs), was presented. (3) Towards sustainable populations: Possible ways forward to improve population sustainability globally were discussed. At the end of the workshop, participants were asked the following question: What do you see as being the most important obstacle to global population management? A total of 44 responses were received, which could be grouped into the following categories: (1) There is a lack of commitment, cooperation, communication, directions and global involvement (20 respondents). (2) There are issues with transporting animals in terms of restrictive (veterinary) regulations, CITES permits, practical constraints and costs involved (15 respondents). (3) There is a lack of resources with regard to staff numbers, capacity and skills as well as facilities and money (7 respondents). (4) Other obstacles (2 respondents).

Suggested solutions included making participation in global population management mandatory for WAZA membership, lobbying the respective authorities and providing more resources for global population management. The emerging view among workshop participants was that for global population management to be successfully implemented there needs to be more commitment, cooperation and communication.


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WS 66.2

Animal Welfare, Legislation and Public Opinion, Workshop Jenny Gray and Alex Rübel | 4 October 2011, 11.00 am–1.30 pm

Aim

Workshop

The aim of the workshop was to stimulate discussions on key welfare and ethics aspects that threaten the sustainability of zoos globally.

The workshop consisted of two parts.

Three presentations were made to set the scene and propose a way forward. The discussion documents are attached. Background • Ethical framework and undertakings – Proposal of a high level Changing perceptions of animal ethical framework with general welfare and the increased interest in undertakings which can be used to animal rights has an impact on zoo progress the ethical position of the operations. It is anticipated that this WAZA and the regions. (Annexure 1) pressure will increase in coming years • Uplifting zoos – proposed that and may even question the very exista universal minimum standrad for ence of zoos. Individual zoos and opkeeping animals in captivity be erational practices have come under developed. (Annexure 2) intense scrutiny in recent years. • Complaint management – provided a motivation that a full time It is important for the zoo community resource is required to move forto ensure that we have a defendable ward with a coordinated approach and consistent set of ethical princito welfare aspects. (Annexure 3) ples to evaluate operations and to develop ethical operating procedures. 2. An open workshop discussion followed. While no formal resolution Poor zoo operations pose a real was taken the general concensus threat to all zoo operations. We will of the meeting was guaged. not be judged by the best operations and practices but by the worst. As Discussions such there is a need to consider: • The mechanisms for handling comThe discussions indicated the sentiplaints against zoos. ment that welfare and ethics is a ma• Undertakings on how zoos can jor issue for WAZA and a strategic assist developing zoos to improve approach should be taken. It was held their standards. that WAZA could lead the process with the support and involvement of the regions, much like the current approach to conservation. It was advocated that resources are required to undertake this role. 1.

The workshop proposed that WAZA Council consider the following:

WAZA to lead a welfare intervention, focused more broadly than WAZA Zoos. 2. The ethical framework should be further refined for discussion and approval. It was noted that there are different practices in different regions and the associations must be involved. 3. Universal standard should be developed. Significant discussion was held on the concept of ‘minimum’ standards with disquiet being expressed with respect to the term. 4. An assessment of various countries legislations and trends in legislative changes was recommended. 5. Consider the recruitment of a full time role to progress welfare and in particular to examine options with respect to poor zoos that are not members. a. Determine where the zoos are, create a good data base, identify local players and partners; b. Create 10 year goals (like CBD) c. Low hanging fruit to create positive examples. d. Consider a clear separation between ethics and best practice, don’t mix; can we arrive at a universally agreed framework wrt treatment and care of animals. e. Communication between regions and associations. f. Complaint handling g. Assist with interventions and responses as WAZA institutions, leverage our relationships and governments. h. Three year deliverables Year 1 deliverables – lit review, problem identification, agency identification. Year 2 draft documentation Year 3 priorities completed 1.


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Annexure 1: Welfare and Ethical Framework Susan Hunt

Case studies that may be useful were identified. • India • Malaysia 7. Partners organizations were suggested. • Veterinary Medical associations; Vet universities; Zoo vets define terms and standards; language • Bioethics field – could learn from their experience • Earth charter – community dialogues; eco ethics; IUCN biosphere ethics; • Base standards on evidence and science rather than just opinion. • International laws on animal welfare – resources in Gland 6.

In the final discussions certain concerns were raised. These included the cultural issue of trying to deal with poor zoos, the costs of realistic standards it was felt that it may be challenging to create a ‘one size fit all’ model and finally the roles of WAZA and the regional associations are complex and will need to be well understood and articulated. To address the concerns it is proposed that: 1. from the perspective of Welfare post, the lines of communication between WAZA and the regional associations would be critical, and 2. the issue of minimum standards would have to be dealt with very carefully to ensure that they are not perceived as being best practice. The majority of members wants to see movement on all these fronts and expressed satisfaction at the direction being proposed.

Intent: To recommend the adoption of an overarching WAZA Welfare and Ethics framework for WAZA members.

Background

The attached draft reflects a recommended broad yet clear framework which sets out obligations for members in animal welfare and related ethical behaviour in relation to the custodianship of our animal collections.

At the WAZA Conference in Costa Rica in 2003, a Code of Conduct and Animal Welfare was adopted. This is attached at 1. The Code was reaffirmed in the World Zoo and Aquarium Conservation (WZAC) Strategy (2005) in its chapter on Ethics and Animal Welfare, a copy of which is attached at 2. There were 12 recommendations in the WZAC Strategy, which refer to animal management and welfare in transport, release to the wild strategies, minimum standards, adoption of husbandry standards and animal enrichment.

This does not make superfluous the regional and jurisdictional welfare statements and commitments or those adopted through the WZAC Strategy, Code or through regional associations, but aims to iterate at the global level the primary importance of animal welfare and care in zoo and aquarium operations.

In summary, WAZA’s emphasis in animal welfare and ethics has been that members should comply with the approach of the Code, WZAC Strategy, jurisdictional laws and adopt animal welfare and ethics processes within our own zoos and aquariums. In addition, each regional association has animal welfare and ethics guidelines and/or policies. The detail of these guidelines varies from specific frameworks of practice and standards to broad ethical institutional management.

Preamble

Present Situation Following issues raised by the WAZA Animal Welfare Committee in 2010 and 2011, WAZA Council requested that a draft Welfare and Ethical Framework be drafted for consideration and discussion.

DRAFT Welfare and Ethics Framework

The care and custodianship of animals is the primary united factor of zoos and aquariums. As modern conservation organisations, we value wildlife and are committed to the protection of biodiversity. Our animal collections are ambassadors for our work and our commitment to the preservation of wildlife globally. As a consequence the way we manage our collections and the experience and lives of our animal collection must be the best possible, replicating natural and wild environments and always providing for their needs. The high quality of the welfare of our animal collections provides a foundation for the conservation and education work undertaken by zoos and aquariums across the world.


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Annexure 2: Zoo Upliftment Dave Morgan Declaration of Zoo Welfare and Ethics 3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

Zoos will treat all animals with respect and with the utmost consideration of their welfare and interests. Zoos will eliminate practices and operations that cause pain and suffering to animals in their care. Zoos will build knowledge, respect and understanding of animals, thus empowering a changed attitude in the community to the value of animals. Zoos will apply their expertise and resources to ensure the preservation and long term success of species’ conservation. Zoos will contribute to reducing the impact that humans have on the natural world.

Undertakings 1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

WAZA, regional associations and individual facilities will adopt a Code of Welfare and Ethics which identifies the predominance of animal welfare.

6.

7.

Zoo and Aquarium Directors must acknowledge their duty of care to the animals in their care and ensure that their facility undertakes the highest levels of animal care, committing to continual improvement. Every facility must abide by jurisdictional laws in animal welfare as well as the WAZA and regional association standards and codes. At local, regional and global levels, zoos will actively work with other organisations to achieve agreed standards for keeping animals through partnering, exchange and training programs, information exchange and providing assessments and reports. As proponents of high welfare standards, Zoos will be transparent, cooperative and open about their operations and welfare standards. Zoos will undertake conservation work appropriate to the skills and resources of the institution, aligned with the WAZA Conservation Strategy, which directly contributes to conservation outcomes, through education programs, breeding, skills, funding or other means. Consistent with the profile of conservation organisations, zoos must manage resources sustainably, limit their environmental impact and act as examples to other organizations. Zoos will use their facilities and resources to educate and inform visitors and the community on the impacts of humans on the environment and empower them to change their behaviours.

Intent: a). To establish an ethical imperative for engagement in situations of poor animal welfare in zoos; b). to determine an internationallyaccepted standard of zoo practise

Background Estimates of the total number of facilities globally going by the appellation “zoo” range between 10-15 000; of these only approximately 1100 fall within the WAZA network and as a consequence within the sphere of influence of the WAZA code of ethics. It would seem that a significant number of zoos and zoo-type facilities internationally are not constrained by any form of formalised ethical framework. The poor standard of operation at many of these facilities impacts negatively on the image and credibility of WAZA zoos both in terms of conservation value and animal welfare maintenance. We are tarred with the same brush.

Present Situation Various methodologies to counter this have been pursued ranging from ignoring the issue or distancing from it, through to more proactive measures such as mentorship programmes with ailing zoos, and practical hands-on assistance. The concept of engagement through mentorship is not a new one and is indeed a recommended strategy of the World Zoo and Aquarium Conservation Strategy and is entrenched in WAZA documentation. A number of WAZA member zoos are participating in such supportive roles with other zoos, particularly those in the developing world. However the sheer number of zoos


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Annexure 3: Complaint Management David Jones in need of some sort of assistance/ guidance far outnumbers WAZA zoos willing and able to involve themselves. Although having the potential for high impact where it is deployed, as an overarching approach, mentorship is limited. An international set of norms and standards for zoo operation will assist WAZA and WAZA members in situations of poor zoo operation or animal welfare: • by providing leverage on local authorities and • establishing goals and objectives for mentoring situations

Recommendations 1.

2.

3.

Update and codify the WAZA 2007 resolution on assisting zoos in need; Develop a formalised system of mentorship within WAZA with a protocol for expected outcomes from a mentor relationship; Develop and disseminate a WAZA Standard of acceptable zoo practise

Reference • Morgan D R (2010): African Zoos; partnering a necessary renaissance Int. Zoo Yb. (2010) 44: 1–6

The WAZA and regional association offices, together with the Chair of the Ethics and Welfare Committee continue to receive complaints about zoos the world over from a variety of sources. Most of those we hear about are not members of any of the mainstream associations and most of the complaints tend to be focused, as one might expect on less-developed countries. Southeast Asia is particularly notable in probably having the most complaints made about zoos there. By far the majority of complaints come from individual members of the public, usually western travellers or long-time residents in these countries or through animal welfare NGOs. The great majority of complaints relate to inadequate accommodation, substandard living conditions and animals clearly in a poor state of bodily condition and health. Sometimes they relate to mistreatment, inappropriate use in animal shows or, as recently in the case of China, inappropriate management practices on both ethical and welfare grounds such as live feeding to big cats in order to create a public spectacle. The rare complaints that we get in connection either with WAZA members or members of the mainstream associations sometimes reflect husbandry and welfare issues, but more often relate to ethical concerns in dealings between institutions or individuals. There is no question and our networks in the responsible animal welfare community reflect this, that the public are becoming more discerning in respect to what they expect in animal management standards. Rightly or wrongly they do expect the major zoo players (WAZA amongst them) to take action both about individual cases and about the standards of animal management generally. Having sat on a number of boards, both in the animal welfare and conservation world, I know first hand that colleagues on those boards who have no connection with the zoo world, tend to judge us by the worst standards

they hear about, rather than the best. The good stories rarely ever reach their ears. The critical question for us in the mainstream zoo community is to define the impact public opinion has on the zoo world in general. Although we have a tendency to blame the more extreme welfare opinions and animal rights groups for being anti-zoo, in reality many of the people who have their doubts about welfare standards of animals in captivity have no association with these groups. We are at a point in zoo history where the zoo world is poised to become one of the major players in field conservation work. There is no question also that we play a very large role in informal education about the living world. There has to be some doubt though about whether the credibility of the zoo world can be sustained without a really aggressive effort to deal with zoo welfare standards globally. The question as to how we handle and follow up on complaints received is closely linked with another topic in this session, that of actually approaching and dealing with zoos in need of help. It is not difficult to define procedures (and indeed we have some in place already) to handle complaints about WAZA members or mainstream association members. Usually they get handled efficiently and have some reasonable closure. Much more challenging is how and whether WAZA should become more involved in not just dealing with the reactivity of responding to complaints, but moving to a more proactive role through the Ethics and Welfare Committee in finding ways, probably working with both individual zoo associations with regional and national governments and with the mainstream welfare organizations to improve standards of zoo management and animal care worldwide. This discussion will examine some of the sensitivities around this topic, make suggestions as to how we tackle it and look for debate from the audience to move us to a more proactive stance.


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Business Prerogatives – Making Money and Saving Wildlife, Workshop Jörg Junhold and Joanne Lalumiere | 4 October, 2.30–4.30 pm

Aim The aim of the workshop was to 1) create a more precise awareness about the issue of business’ influence on zoos and of zoos and 2) to stimulate the discussion on the topic to find some common ground about the better or not so suitable choices when it comes to allocate funds for the zoo and conservation.

Background As there are many different aspects of the topic how to generate funds for zoos and their conservation projects this workshop needs to narrow down to 2 specific questions:

Focus 1: Business orientation of zoos vs. conservation message

Focus 2: Ethical guidelines for sponsoring

Socio economic studies of single zoos and zoo associations about their members conclude that zoos have a huge economic impact on their communities in form of tax generation, touristic influence and generation of jobs. Zoos act as players in the leisure industry market and have to compete against other institutions.

As a WAZA survey has revealed the spent of member zoos for wildlife conservation is above US$ 350 million annually. Some of the bigger zoos run impressive foundations but even small zoos collect donations for field projects. Many zoos are cooperating with business partners to raise money or receive sponsoring.

In the past we have seen a rapid development of zoos not only in the issue of a massive improvement of the conditions of animal keeping but as well in a much more professional satisfaction of visitor needs. Questions like theming of cultural and natural landscapes with attached names (e.g. Yukon Bay in Hannover Zoo, Gondwanaland in Leipzig Zoo), professional animal shows, additional fun parks or leisure swimming pools (e.g. Granby Zoo), professional restaurants and shops etc. lead to concerned questions.

As for other environmental organizations too, the public will raise questions about the money that is coming from companies which seem sometimes not acting sustainable and responsible. This connection to a “bad company” can ruin the reputation of the concerned zoo or project. For example short time ago the WWF was criticised heavily for his cooperation with the palm oil industry.

Structure of workshop Introduction Business orientation of zoos Ethical limitations for sponsoring Conclusions

Presenter Jörg Junhold Joanne Lalumiere, Jörg Junhold Jörg Junhold, Joanne Lalumiere Jörg Junhold

Duration 5 minutes 10–15 minutes 10–15 minutes 5 minutes

Discussion 40–45 minutes 40–45 minutes


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Basic questions for part 1:

Basic questions for part 2:

Business orientation of zoos vs. conservation message

Ethical limitations for sponsoring

• Are business oriented zoos still recognised as zoos or is there a danger that they are seen as “fun parks with some animals for decoration purposes”? Animal right groups are raising this question sometimes. • Is the zoos’ message as conservation centre and responsible institution for good care of wild animals contradicted by a too professional and business oriented way of running the institution?

• Do zoos need ethical guidelines for sponsoring and cooperation with business companies and which ones? • Are there companies/institutions which need to be excluded as partners and how can we define the limits?

Jörg Junhold gave some ideas about sponsoring including examples of WWF and Leipzig Zoo. In more details he asked the following questions Joanne Lalumiere introduced into the to stimulate the debate: subject with examples of Granby Zoo • What are the strengths and weakthat includes a water park and a fun nesses of the zoo community conarea with rides for the whole family. cerning the business cooperation? • What makes them different / more attractive compared to other conThe discussion focused on the followservation organizations? ing main points: • • There was no real disagreement Is there a competition between zoos about “fun elements” in zoos as and other environmental organizatools for funding the rest of the zoo tions for sponsors? (plus conservation!) • How can zoos reach a common • Different examples how that can cooperation (not only accept money work (“shopping for conservation”, but influence the sustainability of evening events, etc.) were discussed the sponsoring company)? • It was felt that it is important to be • Are there cultural differences beinnovative, use all the tools that tween the continents? are suitable for families. There is no need to feel guilty if you make As key ideas about a politically correct profit! sponsoring he mentioned: • Big issue: are zoo’s ticket prices too • No green washing! low, not reflecting the real value • Sponsor and zoo should „fit togeththat is included in zoo visit? This er“ (e.g. local companies preferred, was a major point of the discussion service instead of money) and many people felt that we are • Transfer of positive image between underestimating the value of our zoo and company should exist services in comparison to leisure • Sponsoring money is no donation, parks, cinemas and fun parks! but a business issue (and not tax • Different examples that higher enfree!) trance fees are well accepted by the • Authenticity – credibility of sponpublic were discussed! The positionsor‘s aims towards the zoo is crucial ing of the zoo is important! • The discussion touched the following points: • It is a most difficult decision which companies (fields) generally to exclude as sponsors (e.g. tobacco?)

• Allow no influence on the zoos message and work by sponsors! • Should zoos be “more idealistic” than the ordinary citizen? • Sponsorships are of course correct, but in some regions more funding is possible through philanthropy / legacies (e.g. USA) • Many companies just want to have zoos’ services for their customers and staff, not intending any “green washing” • Example Kellogs and palm oil debate – money was refused (but it was a small amount only so no hard decision for the zoo)

… In the end participants were asked to hand in more suggestions for future workshops in the field of business orientation. The following topics were noted: • Failures of commercial initiatives in zoos • Ticket pricing models • Cost saving ideas • Mission statements that include also business mandate • Strategies for value “add-ons” for zoo visitors • Underfinanced zoo – how to make a turn around • Getting staff buy-in for profit requirements • Use of temporary exhibitions (e.g dinosaurs) – how mission compatible should they be? Do they work? • Hand raised animals for education/ outreach programmes – ethical issues and keeping conditions for “show animals” • Offsetting our carbon footprint – business strategies for that


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Conservation and Sustainability Committee Meeting Chair: Rick Barongi – Houston Zoo | Repporteur: Rick Barongi | 6 October 2011, 11.30 am–1.30 pm

List of Attendees 75 Attendees, including the following C&S Committee members: Jorg Adler, Rick Barongi, Bob Cook, Bryan Carroll, Gerald Dick, Markus Gusset, Jenny Gray, Heribert Hofer, Susan Hunt, Dave Morgan, Gordon McGregor Reid, Miranda Stevenson and Jonathan Wilcken. Absent Committee members: Jeff Bonner, Steve Burns, Onnie Byers, Bengt Holst, Kazutoshi Takami and Chris West.

Welcome and Introduction by Chair Rick Barongi posted the agenda for the meeting starting with the list of the 19 current members of the C&S Committee and one Advisor Jo Gipps (retired Bristol Zoo). A brief history and review of the charter – Created in 2002, not a formal standing committee. Founding Chair was Jo Gipps. In 2008 the word sustainability was added to the title of the committee. At that time this addition was focused on environmental sustainability and not the sustainability of our living collections. Charter of Committee: To drive the conservation and sustainability agenda of WAZA and its members and to provide a network for the (field) conservation committees of WAZA’s regional association members.

The Chair added that this translated to encouraging all WAZA members to integrate wildlife conservation and sustainable practices into every aspect of their operations and to quantify (measure) the input and output of these efforts. Notable achievements to date for this committee: • World Zoo and Aquarium Conservation Strategy (2005) • WAZA Conservation branded projects • Climate Change Statement • Conservation Resource website: www.unitedforconservation.org

Updates from Regional members and Conservation Partners: CBSG Update, Jonathan Wilcken: New framework for establishing One Plan approach and one continuum for Ex situ and in situ conservation efforts. Focus on Intensively Managed Populations (IPM’s) models and Global Species Management Programs (GSMP’s). Look at best models now (such as African penguins) and begin pilot programs in three major regions (AZA, EAZA and ZAA). Take into consideration many other variables besides genetics and consider where a species is found (both in wild and outside native habitat). Higher priority is being given to better longterm management of our captive collections. To achieve these strategies will take a new philosophy, with a new perspective, new tools and new priorities.

Conservation Database, Ann-Katrine Garn The World Zoo and Aquarium Conservation Database (WZACD) began back in 2001 as a MS Access database. It was initially an EAZA project and was called the EAZA in situ conservation database. Then in 2007 an online database was developed to facilitate greater input and reduce duplication. In 2010 an MOU was signed by EAZA, WAZA and CBSG Europe to develop a more global database. In 2011 a website was created to promote the database to a wider audience. The daily management is housed at the Copenhagen Zoo under the direction of CBSG Europe. There are two working groups for the database, the management board and the technical advisory group. Regional zoo associations have been invites to take part in the technical advisory board and to be part of developing the database into a global tool. The WZACD will need more funding by user institutions in order to remain viable and grow as a database. Regional zoo associations that decide to fund the database will get a seat on the management board. Visit http:// conservationdatabase.org/ for more information.


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COM 66.1 A pilot project called Building Bridges was also presented by Ann-Katrine. This project builds stronger lines of communication and coordination between EAZA members and IUCN Species Specialists Groups. The project will eventually be expanded to WAZA members. Examples from the Copenhagen Zoo and Houston Zoo were used as future models. The management group for this new approach is led by Ann-Katrine, Mike Hoffman (Senior Scientific Officer of IUCN) and Rachel Roberts (IUCN Executive Assistant).

WAZA Conservation Branded Programs and New Resource Website, Markus Gusset A brief update on the 214 WAZA branded conservation projects was presented along with a demonstration of the new WAZA conservation resource website: www.unitedforconservation.org. This website works closely with the EAZA conservation website to share information and user access. The conservation branded projects are meant as a marketing tool (not a conservation tool) to highlight the very significant role that zoos and aquariums play in field and biodiversity conservation. The challenge going forward is to develop better criteria to validate the impact of these programs.

Priorities and Next Steps A list of options for the C&S Committee to focus on for the long-term was discussed and then voted on by all the participants in the meeting. The list included: • WZACS – Six Year Revision and Resource Guide. • Conservation Contributions – Universal Criteria (inputs/outputs). • Sustainable Collections – IMP’s and GSMP’s and interface with CPM. • CBSG – One Plan Approach. • U.N. Decade on Biodiversity – Aichi Nagoya Targets. • MAVA Foundation – Endorsement/Supporting Material. • WAZA Website: www.unitedforconservation.org • Branded Projects – Regional or WAZA? • Networking with Regional Conservation Programs. • Other Priorities, Next Steps and Subgroups.

Next Steps True Consensus validation and Implementation, Strategies and Timelines. Melbourne 2012 – Different format for meeting. Mind Map and other interactive exercises. Focus on a business and communications approach to highlight our efforts. Have meeting at beginning of conference so more CBSG participation.

WAZA Conservation and Sustainability Committee – 2011

Current 19 Members and one Advisor: • Chair: Rick Barongi – Houston Zoo • Jörg Adler – Allwetter Zoo Münster • Jeff Bonner – St. Louis Zoo • Steve Burns – Zoo Boise, Idaho • Onnie Byers – CBSG • Bryan Carroll – Bristol Zoo • Bob Cook – WCS, Bronx • Gerald Dick – WAZA, Ex Officio • Jo Gipps – Advisor, Past Chair Outcomes: Top Priorities • Jenny Gray – Melbourne • Markus Gusset – WAZA (tabulated during the meeting) • Heribert Hofer – Leibniz Inst., 1. Selecting, Quantifying and DeBerlin scribing our Conservation Actions – • Bengt Holst – Copenhagen Zoo Database, Branded Projects. • Susan Hunt – Perth Zoo 2. WZACS – Rewrite or Update • Dave Morgan – PAZAAB, S. Africa 3. Support for Decade on Biodiver• Gordon McGregor Reid – Chester sity and Aichi Targets. Zoo (Ret.) 4. Strategies for bringing staff and • Miranda Stevenson – BIAZA public along the journey. Internal • Kazutoshi Takami – Osaka Zoo and External Communications. • Chris West – Adelaide Zoo 5. Sustainable Collections – Role of • Jonathan Wilcken – Aukland Zoo CPM with assistance from the C&S.


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Science and Veterinary Committee Meeting Chair: Heribert Hofer | Rapporteur: Lesley Dickie | 6 October 2011, 8.00–10.00 am

List of participants • Hofer, Heribert – Leibniz Institute for Zoo & Wildlife Research Berlin (IZW) | Direktor@izw-berlin.de • Reed, Mark – Wichita Zoo • Ogden, Jackie – Disney World | • Penning, Mark – uShaka Sea World | mpenning@saambr.org.za • Barongi, Rick – Houston Zoo | Rbarongi@houstonzoo.org • Dick, Gerald – WAZA | Gerald. dick@waza.org • Binod Narasimhan – Al Ain Zoo | Binod.narasimhan@awpr.ae • Castro, Bert – Phoenix Zoo | Bcastro@thephxzoo.com • Fleshman, Jim – Came… Park Zoo | Jimf@ci.kiao.ty.us • Junhold, Jörg – Leipzig Zoo | Jjunhold@zoo-leipzig.de • Knott, Carsten – International Congress of Zookeepers | Knott@ zootierpflege.de • Gamp, Monica – WAZA | Monica. gamp@waza.org • Oberwemmer, Frank – Leipzig Zoo | Foberwemmer@zoo-leipzig. de • Pearce-Kelly, Paul – Zoological Society of London – Ppk@zsl.org • Eric Stephens – Zoo Miami | Eeric@ miamidade.gov • Boyle, Paul – AZA | Pboyle@aza. org • Bar, Yehuda – Zoo Ramat-Can? Israel | Office@safari.co.il • Lalumière, Joanne – Granby Zoo | Jlalumiere@zoodegranby.com • Lanthier, Clement – Calgary Zoo | Clementl@calgaryzoo.ab.ca • Siriaroonrat, Boripat – Zoological Park Organisation Thailand | Eldsdeer@yahoo.com • Taylor, Steve – Cleveland Metroparks Zoo | Sht@clevelandmetroparks.com

• Arai, Kazutoshi – JAZA | Kazutoshi_ arai@granvista.co.jp • Van der Spuy, Stephen – Johannesburg Zoo | Stepehen@jbzoo.org.za • Fuentes, Ramiro – Universeum, Sweden | Ramiro.fuentes@universeum.se • Westin, Jan – Universeum, Sweden | Jan.westin@universeum.se • Divílek, Tomáš – Zoo Zlín | Divilek@ zoozlin.eu • Horský, Roman – Zoo Zlín | Romanhorsky@zoozlin.eu • Kaal, Mati – Tallinn Zoological Gardens | Mati.kaal@tallinnzoo.es? • Svampa, Gloria – Italian Association of Zoos and Aquaria | Gloria. sv@tiscali.it • Schmidt Christian R – Retired Frankfurt Zoo | Schmidtzoo@gmx. net • Jones, David – North Carolina Zoological Park | David.m.jones@ nczoo.org • Walker, Sally – South Asian Zoo Association | Sallyrwalker@zooreach. org • Stevenson, Miranda – BIAZA | Director@biaza.org.uk • Avesani, Cesare – Parco Natura Viva  | Direzione@parconaturaviva. it • Lindén, Lena M – Nordens Ark | Lml@nordensark.se • Tonge, Simon – Paignton Zoo etc | Simon.tonge@paigntonzoo.org.uk • Bryan Carroll – Bristol Zoo | Bcarroll@bristolzoo.org.uk • Pilgrim, Mark – Chester Zoo | m.pilgrim@chesterzoo.org • Field, David – Zoological Society of London | David.field@zsl.org • Kjellson, Bo – Borås Djurpark | Bo.kjellson@boraszoo.se • Hilsenroth, Robert – AAZV | Rhilsenrothaazv@aol.com

• Yestayev, Zhanat – Almaty Zoo (Kazakhstan) | Zh.yestayev@mail.ru • Wahlström, Jonas – Skansen-akvariet | Monkeybusiness@skansenakvariet.se • Simmons, Lee – Omaha Zoo | Lsimmons@omahazoo.com • Flesness, Nate – ISIS | Nate@isis. org • Andrews, Brad – Seaworld | Brad. andrews@seaworld.com • Molur, Sanjay – Zoo Outreach Organisation | Herpinvert@gmail.com • Cretney, James – Marwell Wildlife | Jamec@marwell.org.uk • Frost, Phil – Baton Rouge Zoo | Pfrost@brzoo.org • Miller, Eric – Saint Louis Zoo | Remiller@stlzoo.org • Vehrs, Kris – Association of Zoos and Aquariums | Kvehrs@aza.org • Maltzan, Julia Gräfin von – Deutscher Wildgehegeverband (German Association of Wildlife Parks) | Maltzan@wildlifevets.de • Bonal, B.S. – Central Zoo Authority of India | Bonalbishan@gmail.com • Dummui, Sophon? – Préséden Zoo? | • Pagan, Olivier – Basel Zoo | Pagan@zoobasel.ch • Tsao, Eric – Taipei Zoo | Duxo7@ zoo.gov.tw • Nagase, Ken – Osaka Zoo | k-nagase@city.osaka.lg.jp • Niekisch, Manfred – Zoo Frankfurt | Manfred.niekisch@stadt-frankfurt. de • Gusset, Markus – WAZA | Markus. gusset@waza.org • Hunt, Susan – Perth Zoo | Susan. hunt@perthzoo.wa.gov.au • Kelly, Dennis – Smithsonian National Zoological Park (US) | kellyd@ si.edu


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COM 66.2 The meeting was convened by Professor Heribert Hofer at 08.10 h. An attendance list was circulated. The proposed agenda was adopted: 1. Introduction (HH) 2. Follow-up on action points from WAZA 2010 (HH) 3. Intro: „The right to reproduce“ (HH) 4. EAZA Euthanasia statement (Lesley Dickie) 5. Reproductive health and contraception (Cheryl Asa) 6. Euthanasia as a form of population control (Mark Reed) 7. Euthanasia as a management tool – a recent AZA survey (Jackie Ogden) 8. Any other business Action items from the 65th WAZA meeting at Cologne for 2011 were summarised (Heribert Hofer):

Tuberculosis working group The Tuberculosis Working Group is an expert group of the European Association of Zoo & Wildlife Veterinarians (EAZWV). It conducted a round-table discussion on progress in current research at the International Conference on Diseases of Zoo and Wild Animals, Lisbon, Portugal, 01st June – 04 June 2011 (organised by EAZWV & IZW). An interim review on the current state of the art has been published (Lécu A, Ball R (2011) Mycobacterial infections in zoo animals: relevance, diagnosis and management. International Zoo Yearbook 45, 183-202). Key issues continue to be field tests of new diagnostic technics relying on immune response – the reliability of diagnostic procedures is still not clear.

Flight restraint in birds As agreed at previous committee meetings, we continue with an evidence-based approach to this issue. During the current period, the extirpation of feather follicles has finally been published as a chapter by Pia Krawinkel (Zoom Gelsenkirchen) in the most recent, 7th edition, of the definitive textbook on Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine (RE Miller & ME Fowler, Saunders, Philadelphia, May 2011, 688 pp).

Research agendas set by zoos EAZA and IZW jointly organised the 8th Conference on Behaviour, Physiology and Genetics in Wildlife, Berlin, Germany, 14-17 September 2011. Here, a workshop on “conservation research – the contribution of zoos” was highly successful. It was organised by Dr Zjef Pereboom (Center for Conservation Research, Antwerp, Belgium). The most recent edition of the International Zoo Yearbook Vol 45 (March 2011) contained a special section on Research in Zoos edited by Alistair Macdonald & Heribert Hofer, with five contributions on new strategies of cooperation with academic institutions, four contributions on stress, welfare and climate change, four contributions on reproductive and genetic technologies, three contributions on conservation medicine and epidemiology, and two contributions on population management and mate choice. The groundwork for the section on new strategies of cooperation with academic institutions was laid in the session of the Science and Veterinary Committee at the WAZA Conference in Adelaide on 20 Oct 2008.

Agenda items 4–7 comprised a continuation of the workshop on Euthanasia, surplus killing and other forms of population control at the WAZA conference in Cologne 2010. The purpose was to discuss the managerial and scientific implications of different modes of population control on the WAZA level. We took this initiative owing to recent legal and scientific developments: A German court case where conservation was considered an insufficient argument (not a legally reasonable cause) to kill hybrid offspring from two subspecies of tiger; „The right to reproduce“: Strong and accumulating evidence that a lack of reproduction or late reproduction causes reproductive pathologies, implying a serious welfare issue (as documented for elephants, rhinos, cheetahs, marsupials); The new EU by-product directive (04 March 2011) which includes the exception that zoo animals can be fed to other zoo animals. Specifically, today’s presentation and discussion comprised a followup with a recommendation by one regional association and three recent studies in 2011: • (1) The Euthanasia Statement of EAZA (Lesley Dickie), • (2) The consequences of contraception in canids – a summary of the presentation by Cheryl Asa (St. Louis Zoo), • (3) a talk on Balancing breeding with Offspring Disposition by David Powell (Bronx Zoo) presented by Mark Reed (Wichita Zoo, Kansas), and • (4) a talk on a Survey of AZA members on practicing management euthanasia by David Powell (Bronx Zoo) and presented by Jackie Ogden (Disney).


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Summary of discussion From this presentation and the ensuing lively, thoughtful and very constructive discussion, the following points and issues arose as summarised below: • The EAZA Euthanasia statement (Lesley Dickie) was approved by EAZA Council two weeks ago and will soon be available on the EAZA website. It fully supports case by case decisions of culling („management euthanasia“) as a population management tool. This includes situations where the alternative would be to send animals to a substandard institution and specifically refers to the „Spartacus principle“ – to be solidaric in public when one institution is singled out for criticism. • The toolbox of management options, e.g. contraception, not allowing to breed, and others can all be useful but they also have significant side-effects, with serious implications for welfare and fertility of the affected individuals. • The analysis of the development of populations of endangered species in AZA member institutions suggests that culling as a population management tool improves the chances to make zoo populations sustainable. The confidential survey of AZA member institutions indicates that culling is frequently used as a management tool – but with wide variation in terms of institutional policy, staff involvement and knowledge of public relations personnel.

A key issue is what a benchmark from free-ranging populations might be in terms of (juvenile) mortality, recruitment or sex ratios for the possible big herd management of, say, ungulates. Reporting of culling as a source of mortality within the ISIS database is therefore a prerequisite to understand development of zoo populations. There is a clear need for zoo associations to establish position statements and arguments for institutional policies. New options might have to be considered such as „retirement homes“ for infertile / geriatric individuals. Evolving societal beliefs about animals, accepted practices and their legal interpretation makes it a strategic issue for staff, educators and the public relations department.

Dr Hofer adjourned the meeting at 10.00 h.


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Aquarium Committee Meeting Chair: Heather Koldewey | Rapporteur: Heather Koldewey | 5 October 2011, 10.30–11.30 am

List of participants • Jeff Archer | Jeff.archer@oceanisgroup.net • Michael Boos | Michael.boos@buschgardens.com • Paul Boyle | pboyle@aza.org • Wenbeen Chang | wenbeen@nmmba.gov.tw • Ben Daughtry | ben@dynastymarine.net • Suzanne Gendron | Suzanne.gendron@ oceanpark.com.hk • Heribert Hofer | director@izw-berlin.de • Willem Manansang | willem@royalsafarigarden.com • Paul Pearce-Kelly | ppk@zsl.org • Mark Penning | mpenning@saambr.org.za  • Gordon McGregor Reid | g.reid@chesterzoo.org • Kieran Stanley | k.stanley@danpearlman.com • Miranda Stevenson | director@biaza.org.uk • Kevin Tanner | ktanner@zoo.org.au • Simon Tonge | Simon.tonge@paigntonzoo.org.uk • Jan Westin | Jan.westin@universeum.se • Robert Wiese | bwiese@sandiegozoo.org • Forrest Young | forrest@dynastymarine.net

Aquarium committee membership is as follows: Name Heather Koldewey – Chair Dennis Thoney – Vice Chair Jeff Archer Joao Falcato Wolfgang Gettman Max Janse Gordon McGregor Reid Simon Tonge Yoshitaka Abe Kazutoshi Arai Suzanne Gendron Brad Andrews Paul Boyle Mark Penning

Position Head of Global Conservation Programmes Director of Animal Operations; Chair of AZA Aquarium Sustainability Committee Group Curator Chief Executive Officer Director Aquarium Curator Director Emeritus Executive Director Executive Director Director Director Director Conservation Director Chief Executive Officer

Aquarium membership and general update New members were reported in the general meeting as Istanbul Aquarium, The Aquarium of the Bay (San Francisco, USA) and Texas State Aquarium. Heather Koldewey (HJK) to request WAZA office to inform her of new members so they can be copied in on aquarium-related discussions.

Action: HJK Support for our Japanese aquarium colleagues was reiterated following the appalling tragedy of the tsunami earlier this year.

Organisation Zoological Society of London Vancouver Aquarium

Region Europe

Oceanis Oceanario Lisboa Aquazoo Dusseldorf Burgers’ Zoo, Netherlands Chester Zoo (North of England Zoological Society) Paignton Zoo Aquamarine Fukushima Kamogawa Seaworld Ocean Park, Hong Kong SeaWorld AZA South African Association for Marine Biological Research

Australasia Europe Europe Europe

North America

Europe Europe Japan Japan China North America North America Africa

Turning the Tide Translation It was agreed to try to progress the translation of Turning the Tide. • Action: Suzanne Gendron – Bahasa Indonesian • Action: Jeff Archer – Thai, Korean, Arabic • Action: Joao Falcato – Portuguese (HJK to contact) • Action: Wolfgang Gettman – German (HJK to contact)

Developing an aquarium ‘audit system’ • Action: Jeff Archer to share the Oceanis system which is based on Turning the Tide to see if this can be turned into a more general tool for WAZA aquariums.


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Sustainability

• Criteria for suppliers: Felt that A-list ‘Practical Biosystematics Course for enabled much more control and Conservationists – Aquarium Fishes’ This is the key focus for implementawould be a clearer and safer option is a partnership between WAZA, the tion of Turning the Tide. Two areas than having A and B lists. The A list Zoological Society of London, North were discussed at the meeting: could include organisations that of England Zoological Society and also supplied the pet trade (this is Natural History Museum London. If much larger and steadier than the successful, there will be opportuniSustainable seafood public aquarium trade) but would ties to replicate it in other geographic retain the highest standards and regions, as well as to establish other HJK prepared a summary table of all complete control and knowledge of training courses on different taxosustainable seafood guides readily the supply chain. nomic groups. Gordon gave a short available (appendix 1). Issues of dis• Terminology should avoid accredita- presentation on the reasons behind crepancy and inconsistency in some tion and certification unless referthe course, the importance and value guides were discussed and Mark ring to established schemes e.g. of accurate taxonomy and collection Penning suggested producing an AZA accreditation, MAC certificamanagement in aquariums and zoos, ethical framework. It was felt this was tion. and the objectives of the course. an important area that the aquarium • The Marine Aquarium Council initiacommunity could take a lead role, tive to develop a sustainable and particularly as many aquariums are certified marine ornamental trade Conferences and meetings world leaders in the sustainable is in hiatus. Dennis Thoney is on seafood movement but there is less their Board is exploring how WAZA Husbandry symposia engagement in the zoo community. may engage in the next iteration • Action: All to update Appendix 1 of this initiative or other aquarium A successful symposium on freshwawith any additional sustainable trade certification schemes that are ter fish – linking in situ and ex situ acseafood guides emerging as a result of MAC. Action: tions was jointly run with IUCN FFSG, • Action: HJK to liaise with WAZA ofDennis Thoney. Wetlands International, Chester Zoo fice to look at best ways to promote • Extractive reserves: Some concerns and ZSL in November 2012. Proceedsustainable seafood among aquariif these were just set aside for only ings are currently in preparation. um members e.g. WAZA magazine one user group – this would not be articles, website. acceptable in Florida, for example, Planning is well underway for the although specific permitting for spe- ‘International Zoo and Aquarium Symcific fish may be possible for public posium on Syngnathid Husbandry, WAZA Aquatic Collection aquarium specific collection permits. Conservation and Management’ will Sustainability Action Plan • Desk based study would be best be held 2– 4 November 2011 at the John G. Shedd Aquarium, Chicago, starting point. Consider intern opUSA. This is being co-organised by Dr Dennis Thoney (WAZA Aquarium tions or running a workshop – fundProject Seahorse, ZSL, Shedd AquariCommittee Vice Chair) from Vancouing may be possible through Ocean ver Aquarium has now adapted the Park Conservation Foundation. um and Monterey Bay Aquarium. Aquarium and Zoo Aquatic Collection In-country workshops that explore We continue discussions with the Sustainability that was prepared for this idea should also be considered. the AZA to become a WAZA docuConcerns that they would be hard to IUCN Shark Specialist Group on the ment. This is provided in appendix monitor, hard to meet aquarium de- action plan for sawfish and aquarium community involvement in this initia2 along with a draft AZA Criteria for mands, expensive considering the tive. The IUCN Shark Specialist Group Approval of Commercial Animal Supcost and scale required. However, pliers (appendix 3). These documents marine protected areas are needed is hosting a workshop for sawfish in were discussed during the meeting, as a global conservation strategy May 2012 at the Zoological Society of with the following points made that and this may be one additional stra- London and there will be aquarium will be incorporated by the authors, tegic approach to increase ocean participation at this meeting. with input as outlined in the action protection. points below: • Legislation: CITES delays in paForthcoming meetings perwork and additional costs have Taxonomy training shifted dynamics of some trades e.g. programme (Note this is not comprehensive): effectively prohibited wild syng• 10–14 October 2011, EUAC, Strasnathids coming in from the wild. Lead by Gordon McGregor Reid, we lund, Germany. Other examples – Action – Forrest are developing a new taxonomy • 2– 4 November 2011 – International to provide. training course for zoo and aquarium Zoo and Aquarium Symposium on • WAZA has an MoU with CITES professionals. We have partnered Syngnathid Husbandry, Conservawhich should be reviewed to estabwith the newly formed EAZA Acadtion and Management. John G. lish how this might facilitate public emy who will organise and promote Shedd Aquarium, Chicago, USA. aquarium trade processes. Action: this course, provisionally scheduled HJK to liaise with WAZA office. for late 2012. This is course entitled


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COM 66.3 • 9– 13 April 2012 – Regional Aquatics • Other global conservation initiatives Workshop, John G. Shedd Aquarium, were discussed, particularly relating Chicago, USA. to shark finning. The Shark Alliance • 9–14 September 2012 – Internais one linkage and initial discussions tional Aquarium Congress, Two have already taken place with Pew. Oceans Aquarium, South Africa. Action: HJK to follow up with Pew. [note this clashes with the annual • Concern was raised about subAZA meeting]. Dennis Thoney has standard aquariums and it was proposed a session on sustainable agreed that this must be highacquisition. Also discussed the idea lighted to be part of the new WAZA of developing metrics of the ability welfare position. Action: HJK to of aquariums to affect change and liaise with Gerald Dick. to review the impact of our actions • Discussion was held around what e.g. conservation projects. can be considered ‘acceptable’ levels of mortality in aquariums that could be used for benchmarkAny other business ing purposes. This has been done by the Oceanis group and also by • Surplus lists. A request was made Oceanografic Valencia. Action: Jeff for a WAZA surplus list. These are Archer to talk to Pablo Areitio about usually managed through regional whether this might be feasible to associations. However, some standardise across aquariums. species which breed well in some • Concern was raised about the aniregions and not in others may be mal rights focus on mortality rates considered, notably elasmobranchs. in marine mammals in zoos/aquariMax Janse has compiled a Euroums. Heribert Hofer explained pean elasmobranch list and Joe that The Leibniz Institute for Zoo Choromanski a north American one. and Wildlife Research (IZW) Berlin, Would be worth considering the Germany, is currently compiling value of a global census. Action: information on sources of mortalHJK to discuss with Max and Joe ity in marine mammals held in zoos • Dynasty Marine said it would be in German speaking countries and keen to get involved in shipping other parts of Europe. This arose challenging programme species out of an exchange between animal between institutions. Importance welfare / animal rights activists of using experienced companies. and the zoos holding such animals Cairns Marine was also mentioned where the animal welfare / animal in this capavity. rights argued that keeping such ani• Discussed the idea of a global mals in captivity in zoo or aquarium aquarium listserve that could be imfacilities was unacceptable because, plemented by WAZA. Would need amongst other reasons, juvenile to check and avoid overlap with the mortality was far too high and IAF list and other lists. Action: HJK hence the populations unsustainto discuss with the WAZA office. able. • Corals – CBSG interested in poten• The group felt that a 2 hour meeting tially working more closely with the would be much more appropriate aquarium community on corals. Acfor the aquarium meeting at the tion: HJK to discuss with Onnie. WAZA conference. Action: HJK to • PPK highlighted two important discuss with WAZA office for 2012 new publications and informed meeting. the group that the WAZA Climate Change Task Force is preparing a position statement on ocean acidification. • An overview of the dire state of the oceans www.stateoftheocean.org/ pdfs/1906_IPSO-LONG.pdf • Veron, C. (2011) Ocean Acidification and Coral Reefs: An Emerging Big Picture. Diversity 2011, 3, 262-274; doi: 10.3390/d3020262

Appendix 1: Text and supporting information on sustainable seafood for zoos and aquariums WAZA Supports Sustainable Seafood Sustainable fisheries aim to help ensure that a wild, diverse and healthy ocean ecosystem will exist long into the future. This means fishing (or farming fish) in a way which allows fish stocks be harvested without compromising the ability of the population to replenish itself and without harming the environment. For example, this means not fishing during breeding seasons, not taking juveniles that haven’t yet had an opportunity to reproduce and by reducing the amount of non-target fish caught by accident (called by-catch). Zoos and aquariums need to work to ensure that they only use sustainable fish in both their catering outlets and animal departments to ensure that both animals and visitors enjoy a sustainable fish meal. In fact, many aquariums have taken a leading role in developing sustainable seafood guides and promoting these through best practice and communication campaigns. The ocean is critical to our planet’s – and, therefore, our own – well-being. It is home to 90% of the world’s living creatures, and seafood is the main source of protein for one-sixth of the human population. With over 80% of world fish stocks fully or over-exploited, we are depleting the fish and other marine life that we eat faster than their populations can replenish. At the same time, demand for seafood is increasing. As consumers, our seafood choices have the power to make this situation worse, or improve it. If you want to know how to choose sustainable fish yourself then use one of the locally available sustainable seafood guides (table 1).


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COM 66.3 Table 1: A compiled list of sustainable seafood guides available globally Country Australia

Austria Belgium Canada

Organisation Website Australian Marine Conservation Society www.sustainableseafood.org.au/Sustainable-Seafood-Guide-Australia.asp?active_ page_id=695 www.abc.net.au/science/features/fish/table.htm ABC www.wwf.at/de/fischfuehrer/ WWF www.wwf.be/_media/conso-guide-poissons_870023.pdf (French) WWF www.wwf.be/_media/viswijzer_854049.pdf (Dutch)

Denmark Finland France Germany

Seachoice, OceanWise WWF WWF WWF WWF

Hong Kong Indonesia Italy

WWF WWF WWF

Malaysia Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Russia Singapore

WWF Noordzee Foundation WWF WWF WWF Oceanario Lisboa WWF WWF

South Africa Spain

WWF/SAAMBR WWF

Sweden

WWF

Switzerland

WWF

United Kingdom

Greenpeace Marine Conservation Society The Good Catch Selfridges Fish Guide Blue Ocean Institute Eartheasy Environmental Defense Fund Monterey Bay Aquarium FishWise The Ocean Project

USA

It is important to spread the word and encourage others to make sustainable choices as well. Sustainability is also about spreading the load, so eat a variety of species rather than just one or two, and think about cutting

www.seachoice.org/ www.oceanwise.ca/about/sustainable-seafood www.hvaforenfisk.dk/ http://assets.panda.org/downloads/seafood_guide_finland.pdf http://assets.panda.org/downloads/guide_poisson.pdf www.wwf.de/themen/meere-kuesten/fischerei-und-fischzucht/jeder-kann-handeln/ neu-fischratgeber/alle-arten/ http://assets.wwfhk.panda.org/downloads/seafood_guide_hk_card_fold.pdf http://assets.wwfid.panda.org/downloads/seafood_guide_nov_2009_eng.pdf www.wwf.it/UserFiles/File/News%20Dossier%20Appti/DOSSIER/Mare/Sai%20che%20 pesci%20pigliare.pdf www.saveourseafood.my/sustainableSeafood/whereToGetGuide.html www.goedevis.nl/ http://assets.panda.org/downloads/fish_guide_nl.pdf http://assets.panda.org/downloads/norway_seafood_guide.pdf http://assets.panda.org/downloads/poland_seafood_guide.pdf www.oceanario.pt/cms/1562/?news=1003 www.wwf.ru/data/publ/fish_guide_for_web.pdf http://wwf.panda.org/who_we_are/wwf_offices/singapore/how_you_can_help/seafood_guide/download_the_guide_singapore_seafood_guide/ www.panda.org.za/sassi/ www.wwf.es/que_hacemos/mares_y_costas/nuestrs_soluciones/pesca_sostenible/ consumo_responsable/guia_de_consumo_responsable_de_pescado/ www.wwf.se/vrt-arbete/hav-kust/lsningar/ww-fs-fiskguide/1243694-ww-fs-fiskguidenr-du-ska-kpa-miljvnlig-fisk www.wwf.ch/de/tun/tipps_fur_den_alltag/essend/fisch/fischfuhrer/ (German) www.wwf.ch/fr/cequevouspouvezfaire/gestes_ecologiques/alimentation1/poissons2/ produits_de_la_mer_/?category=cat4 (French) www.wwf.ch/it/fare/consiglipratici/cucina/pesce/pesce/ (Italian) www.greenpeace.org.uk/forms/fishguide www.fishonline.org/ www.goodcatch.org.uk/ www.selfridges.com/en/StaticPage/ProjectOcean/#/Fish www.blueocean.org/Seafood/ http://eartheasy.com/eat_sustainable_seafoods.htm www.edf.org/page.cfm?tagID=1521 www.mbayaq.org/cr/SeafoodWatch/web/sfw_regional.aspx (regional guides) http://fishwise.org/our-methods http://theoceanproject.org/resources/conservation.php?category=Seafood Issues

down your overall seafood consumption. Always ask the person you buy fish from where and how their fish is caught – if they can‘t tell you or if you are not completely satisfied with their answer, don‘t buy the fish!


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Appendix 2 World Association of Zoos and Aquariums (WAZA) – Aquatic Collection Sustainability Action Plan Dennis Thoney – Vancouver Aquarium | Doug Warmolts – Columbus Zoo and Aquarium | Heather Koldewey – Zoological Society of London Public Aquariums and zoos exhibit over 3,500 fish and aquatic invertebrate species belonging to over 15 phyla. Individual fishes and invertebrates number 424,637 in North American aquariums alone (AZA, 2008, 2009, 2011). The ability to acquire these animals from the wild requires traveling to these areas, working with local residents, or purchasing animals through commercial dealers. Logistics associated with direct acquisition efforts are difficult and are becoming more so with new legislation requiring additional permits and procedures. However, most species can be obtained through commercial dealers or through governmental permit processes. The existence of a long-established network of commercial breeders of ornamental species has lessened the need to collect many of the tropical freshwater fishes from the wild. While breeding some marine species is an alternative, this is only successful for a small number of species and provide a tiny percentage of the individual fish and invertebrates that public aquariums require for their exhibits.

Collection versus Breeding of Aquatic Animals? The large diversity of aquatic animals needed for aquarium collections requires that several methods and/or sources be used to acquire them. Terrestrial zoological collections typically rely on managed breeding to replenish many animal collection needs, whereas aquatic zoological collections tend to rely more heavily on wild-sourced animals, including those obtained from commercial sources. In general, managed propagation is the preferred method of acquiring animals, but only if it makes sense

to do so. Many tropical freshwater species are bred commercially for the ornamental trade and are readily available. However, there is recognition that public zoos and aquariums need to do more to ensure that commercial breeders are using methods that are environmentally friendly and thus sustainable. Potential issues for commercial breeding facilities must be addressed that relate to water quality discharge, the use of chemotherapeutics, habitat destruction, the release of exotic species (Mohan, 2003), genetic modification, as well as social issues (ranging from the management of the facilities to biopiracy). Animals acquired from poorly managed aquaculture facilities can cause significantly more environmental issues than wild collection. Zoos and Aquariums need to develop an evaluation process for freshwater ornamental fish breeders that supply their institutions to ensure that their practices (environmental and social) are sustainable. In contrast to freshwater fishes, most marine species are difficult to breed or have a high cost associated with raising them often making the wild collection of animals a logistical requirement or financial preference. Some of the key issues relating to the development of widespread conservation-oriented captive propagation programs include: 1) the high taxonomic diversity in marine animals (fishes alone represent ~40% of all vertebrate species); 2) the resultant variety in their reproductive methods; 3) their diverse ecological, behavioral, physiological, and nutritional needs; and 4) our general lack of knowledge on their husbandry and medical care (Thoney et al., 2003; Olivotto et al., 2011). In contrast, several characteristics of marine fish and invertebrate

populations make them suitable candidates for sustainable harvest. For instance, most marine teleosts are ‘‘rselected,’’ meaning that they have an extremely high fecundity, and most marine teleosts have a wide distribution and the ability to disperse over long distances (Thoney et al., 2003). In locations considered for fish collection, appropriate management techniques should be employed to ensure that fishes and invertebrates are collected with as little impact on the ecosystem as possible. The collection of both freshwater and marine fishes and invertebrates for public aquariums and the hobby trade should be managed as sustainable fisheries to ensure long-term sustainability. The creation of refuges that supply propagules to harvested areas, the rotation of areas fished, speciesspecific size limits and seasons, and standardization of collecting, handling, and transportation techniques are techniques that should be considered to manage these fisheries and harvest areas (Thoney et al., 2003). Michael Tlusty of The New England Aquarium offered the following in assessing the benefits and risks of ornamental aquaculture production (Tlusty, 2001). “In general, aquaculture production of ornamental species should be pursued when species are difficult to obtain from the wild, breeding supports a conservation program, or there is some environmental benefit or elimination of environmental damage via the breeding program. Aquaculture production of ornamental species should be avoided when it would replace a harvest of wild animal that maintains habitat, a cultural benefit, or an economic benefit”.


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Sustainable Collection Plan for Aquatic Organisms Collection from the Wild: With over 1,161 (161,478 individuals) species of invertebrates (mostly marine) (AITAG RCP) and 1,397 (109,321 individuals) species of marine fishes (MFTAG RCP), and 1226 (153,838 individuals) species of freshwater fishes in North American institutions alone, it will be necessary to continue collecting specimens from the wild if zoos and aquariums are to maintain diverse collections to inspire and educate their visitors. However, it is vital that we take greater responsibility for sourcing our animals and ensure that such harvests do not negatively impact wild populations. It is crucial that curators ensure that wild collections are conducted using sustainable and environmentally safe methods. These methods include, but are not limited to, making sure that animals are not overfished, collected without damaging habitat, transported safely and appropriately for the species, and quarantined properly to prevent disease outbreaks. The long and often complicated chain of custody from collector to curator is difficult to oversee for the dozens of animal suppliers, especially by any one aquarium when considering the international nature of most collections. Therefore, Curators need to work together with other organizations to ensure that animals are collected sustainably. “In all likelihood, moderate levels of collecting have minimal impact, especially for abundant species….. The challenge is determining the level at which moderate becomes excessive” (Helfman, 2007). It should be noted that collections for public aquariums are typically far below the moderate levels of collecting published by Helfman (2007). However, a precautionary approach must be adopted that considers other impacts on the species and the potential cumulative effects of aquarium collection. It is well established that the aquarium hobby trade has resulted in the declines in some species and/or populations due to unsustainable approaches to collection (Wood **).

Breeding Programs: North American public aquariums have bred or cloned more than 200 species of invertebrates (AITAG RCP) and bred more than 108 marine species of fish (MFTAG RCP) (number of freshwater fishes bred forthcoming when FFTAG RCP is completed, many more than marine fishes). Because of the limited staff resources or institutional budgetary constraints, most successes have been rather small scale and unable to supply animals outside of the public aquarium arena. Successes have been sporadic and are often the result of opportunistic work with unplanned spawnings that can be hard to reliably replicate. The animals bred have been limited mostly to freshwater species, small sharks, rays, live bearing marine teleosts (ie. Embiotocidae), and those marine teleosts that are nest layers and/ or with relatively large larvae (ie. Pomacentridae, Gobiidae, Pseudochrominae, Cottidae, Syngnathidae). Even though most marine species have proven difficult to breed, more than 57 ornamental fishes were listed by Hall and Warmolts (2003) as being purposely bred by public aquariums. This number is underestimated due to the small number of aquariums that responded to their survey. Unfortunately, the majority of marine tropical species are broadcast spawners with small larvae that require specialized diets (ie. protozoans, copepods, rotifers, Artemia) that change as they grow (Olivotto et al., 2011). The ability to supply properly sized and appropriate densities of food organisms that are are required at each ontogenetic stage has contributed significantly to the inability to raise these fishes. Water quality issues and diseases relating to the high concentration of food items also is a problem. In order to breed most coral reef fishes dedicated staff time and training, and facilities must be made available. Even then the effort and cost of raising these fishes has been much more than purchasing the fishes from dealers meaning there is limited incentive for zoos and aquariums to allocate considerable resources to breeding these species, particularly in the current financial climate. Several companies that have attempted to raise marine fishes for sale have not been financially viable and competing

with the cost of wild-caught animals is one of the major challenges (Koldewey and Martin-Smith, 2011). Olivotto et al. (2011) reviewed many of the successes and problems associated with marine ornamental aquaculture including spawning, larval rearing, plankton culturing for food, and rearing system design. Public aquariums need to expand their ability to breed fishes and aquatic invertebrates by providing adequate space, trained staff, and associated resources to establish stable long-term fish breeding programs. They also should take advantage of expertise and facilities through collaborations with universities and commercial aquaculturists. Any attempt to breed and raise any of these difficult species should be encouraged and documented. It is important to continue to research and develop methods that can be used to help with other difficult species and share this information within the community and in the literature. In addition to teleosts, large elasmobranchs also have been mostly acquired from the wild. Public aquariums have had poor success in breeding sawfishes and many of the large sharks. More effort should be put forth by institutions that hold elasmobranchs to develop and participate in managed zoo and aquarium programs. These fishes are much more similar to managed breeding programs for terrestrial animals because they are k-selected and are managed in much fewer numbers per institution. Because of this, they can be managed using the same population management tools and there are several North American and European studbooks for elasmobranch species. Special attention should be paid to providing as natural a habitat as possible to induce breeding (ie. seasonal photoperiod, temperature, and feeding, exhibit size). Institutions wishing to display certain elasmobranchs in the future must start to consider designing exhibits that better meet habitat requirements for successful reproduction rather than focusing solely on exhibition. In addition, research studying artificial insemination should be supported, following the example of the grey nurse shark program in Australia.


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Action Plan In order to continue our ability to acquire aquatic species into the future, it is important that public aquariums and zoos have a sustainable collection plan that reviews the issues and outlines a plan of action. The plan will require a multipronged approach that should include a decision tree and a cost-benefit analysis to help curators make the most appropriate decisions regarding the acquisition of aquatic specimens. The nine action items for the Aquatic Sustainable Collection Plan which support the AZA and EAZA regional collection plans are outlined below. Ensure that governmental regulations do not prevent public education and conservation facilities from sustainably obtaining fishes and invertebrates that are part of approved regional collection plans and/or conservation projects that benefit the species a. Set up system to monitor state, national, and international regulatory legislation that would affect the ability of facilities to obtain wild caught aquatic animals. b. Keep aquarium and zoo association’s government affairs departments informed of regulatory changes that affect the trade of aquatic animals c. Request that aquarium and zoo associations that have government affairs departments work with lawmakers and regulatory agencies to ensure that aquatic animals are available to our facilities d. Set up efficient international system for aquarium and zoo associations, facilities, and staff to provide input and/or support for important causes affecting the ability to obtain aquatic animals

1.

Develop a decision process to help curators make appropriate acquisition of aquatic animals (ie. decision tree) – decision making processes in existence should be reviewed. Develop an approved list of sustainable fish aquaculturists, collectors, and distributors, and encourage all aquarium facilities to purchase through them when appropriate. a. Develop criteria for certification list b. Develop a certification committee c. Develop methods to select and recruit suppliers to certification procedure d. Encourage members to use certified suppliers e. Develop a system of monitoring standards of certified suppliers f. Support and seek out in-situ conservation efforts to support local sustainable fisheries and prevent less sustainable ways of making a living g. Continue to support Project Piaba and other similar projects encourage purchase of these fishes h. Network with NGOs and fishers to establish new in-situ sustainability efforts especially for priority aquarium species i. Build partnerships with NGOs working on aquarium fisheries to explore the potential of a sustainable aquarium trade as a viable livelihood option for local communities. This may involve training in catching, handling and shipping fish and on the economics of the trade.

2.

Evaluate whether zoo and aquarium operated or collaboratively operated extractive reserves are viable a. Contact each institutional Board of Directors and other public aquarium supporters to determine if appropriate areas are available (should also be discussed in relation to 4b above) b. Establish committee to develop a strategy, build local partnerships, review legislation and costs, assess viability and evaluate logistics, associated with establishing an extractive reserve c. Determine the conservation costs and benefits of the extractive reserve approach 4. Promote practice of obtaining sustainably captive-reared fishes and invertebrates when available. a. Evaluate commercial culture operations to ensure that they are sustainable (ie. do not release exotic species, destroy habitat, or disperse toxicants, including antibiotics and nutrients) b. Encourage commercial culture operations to gain certification under international standards that exist for food fish/invertebrates c. Continue, and expand institutional support for rearing fishes and invertebrates at accredited institutions d. Work with universities and ornamental aquaculture facilities to pursue further research into the breeding and rearing of marine fishes and invertebrates, particularly difficult marine tropical fishes with small larvae 3.


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COM 66.3 Focus attention on improving our ability to breed sharks that will meet the needs of public aquarium exhibits, as identified through the regional collection plans. a. Evaluate environmental parameters required to trigger reproduction in specific species and select and institution to test methodology b. Develop techniques (ie. artificial fertilization) that will increase our ability to breed large sharks and sawfishes c. Outline elasmobranch exhibit design parameters that will increase the probability of successful reproduction d. Consider building a breeding center for elasmobranchs 6. Ensure that food fed to our collections is obtained using sustainable methods. a. Conduct an audit of all seafood used within the facility. b. b. Assess the sustainability using the local sustainable seafood guide, or by working with your local zoo/aquarium association to convene a local technical advisory group. c. c. Analyze each food item to determine if it is sustainable and remove all unsustainable products. Develop a system to monitor supplies over time and complete a full review on an annual basis. 7. Increase institutional commitment to in situ & ex situ conservation objectives a. Institutional commitment to give preference to animals from certified sources and support certification process b. Each institution commit to supporting (technically and/or financially) an in situ conservation initiatives under # 4, 5 & 6 c. Each institution commits to providing resources or space in support of # 7

5.

References • Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA). 2009. Aquatic Invertebrate Taxon Advisory Group (TAG) Regional Collection Plan (RCP), 1st edition. Peter Mohan, ed. Association of Zoos and Aquariums, Silver Spring, MD. (128 pp). • Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA). 2008. Marine Fish Taxon Advisory Group (TAG) Regional Collection Plan (RCP), 1st edition. Beth Firchau, ed. Association of Zoos and Aquariums, Silver Spring, MD. (150 pp). • Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA). 2011. Freshwater Fish Taxon Advisory Group (TAG) Regional Collection Plan (RCP), 1st edition. Cynthia Lee, ed. Association of Zoos and Aquariums, Silver Spring, MD. (in press). • Helfman, G. S. 2007. Fish Conservation, A Guide to Understanding and Restoring Global Aquatic Biodiversity and Fishery Resources. Island Press, Washington. 584 pp. • Hall, H. and D. Warmolts. 2003. The Role of Public Aquariums in the Conservation and Sustainability of Marine Ornamentals. Pages 307-323 in Marine Ornamental Species, Collection, Culture, and Conservation. J. C. Cato and C. L. Brown, eds. Iowa State Press.

• Koldewey, H., Martin-Smith, K. (2010). A global review of seahorse aquaculture. Aquaculture 302: 131152. • Mohan, P. 2003. Aquariums and the problem of aquatic nuisance species. AZA Annual Conference Proceedings, Columbus, OH, September 7-11, pp 211-214. • Olivotto, I, Planas, M., Simoes, N., Holt, G. J., Avella, M. A., and Calado, R. 2011. Advances in Breeding and Rearing Marine Ornamentals. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 42 (2): 135-166. • Thoney, D. A., D. I. Warmolts, and C. Andrews. 2003. Acquisition of Fishes and Aquatic Invertebrates for Zoological Collections. Is There a Future? Zoo Biology 22: 519–527. • Tlusty, D. 2001. The Benefits and Risks of Aquaculture Production for the Aquarium Trade. Aquaculture 205 (2002) 203–219.


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Appendix 3 AZA Criteria for Approval of Commercial Animal Suppliers | Draft May 25, 2011 The AZA Aquatic Collection Sustainability Plan requires that all AZA institutions acquire fishes using sustainable methods. Appropriate methods include but are not limited to making sure that 1) organisms collected from the wild are managed to ensure that wild populations are not negatively impacted; 2) organisms are transported using appropriate techniques to ensure maximum survival; 3) organisms are obtained legally with appropriate permits obtained; and, 4) aquaculture facilities supplying organisms are environmentally friendly in that they are not releasing chemicals, nutrients, and/or exotic organisms including pathogens into surrounding waters. To meet these goals the Aquarium and Zoo Aquatic Collection Sustainability Action Plan has created an approved list of commercial animal suppliers. The following criteria outline requirements for suppliers to meet in order to be considered approved by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA). The approved list will consist of two levels: an A-LIST that is more stringent in having additional requirements than the B-LIST.

A-LIST  Suppliers that meet all requirements of the B-LIST (below), can guarantee and demonstrate known sustainable chain of custody of aquatic animals from collection to final destination, and have sustainable conservation plans or culture fishes sustainably.

B-LIST Suppliers that follow all governmental and international organization regulations and can document that there are conservation measures in place to help ensure that animals they trade are obtained, maintained, and transported sustainably.

Specific Requirements: A-LIST

B-LIST

• A) All items listed for B-LIST below. • A) Have written documentation and labeling that clearly identi• B) Organization must have comfies each organism, its origin, and plete control of chain of custody transport processes. The organizafor animals sold. tion’s system of traceability can be 4. 1) May require that organization tested for accuracy and completecollects and transports all animals. ness. 5. 2) May require that organization 1. The region and country of origin work only with specific known colshall be noted for all organisms lectors and transporters. acquired. 2. The species name, date of ship• C1) Document that animals are ment, supplier name, and quantity cultured in a sustainable manner. transported shall be noted for all and/or organisms purchased. • C2) Written documentation that 3. Official trade documents shall be overexploitation from wild collecmaintained for two years. tion is prevented through existence of a conservation plan. • B) Clear written evidence of the 1. Document/provide copy of conserorganization’s animal husbandry/ vation plan health plan shall be observed and 2. Document any involvement in documented, including mortality species management in collection rates. area. 1. The organization shall have 3. Document any collaboration with documented policies that describe government management authorihow animals are managed in good ties to conserve resources. health throughout the handling, holding, and transport processes. 2. Organizations shall maintain mortality records for all shipments sent and received.


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COM 66.3 • E) Organization must be open to • C) No evidence shall exist showing • D) Documented procedures are inspection, if deemed necessary that the owner or the organization in place to ensure that potential by the review committee. failed to comply with any applicaenvironmental and social impacts ble law or regulation. are minimized. 1. The organization shall demon1. The organization shall comply strate that only acceptable collectwith local, regional, national, and ing methods are used to obtain international legislation as well as animals (ie. no cyanide). all administrative requirements 2. The organization is able to meet related to the use and trade of the minimum level of quality aquatic organisms. required by its buyers. 2. The organization shall comply with 3. The organization shall ensure that all export and import laws with all staff possess the necessary respect to the countries in which it skills to perform all required tasks. operates. 4. The organization shall demon3. Organisms shall be packed in strate sustainable financial and boxes and appropriately labeled operational management and so as to meet all applicable IATA have adequate knowledge of the requirements. marine aquarium trade. 4. All provisions of international 5. The organization shall ensure that agreements, such as CITES, shall its facilities and operations are be respected. conducted in a sustainable manner. 5. Illegal organisms shall not be purchased or sold by the organization at any point in time.


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Appendix 4 AZA Approved List of Commercial Animal Suppliers Draft May 16, 2011 Dennis A. Thoney, Ph.D. Application for Approval Use criteria outlined in AZA and EUAC Criteria for Approval of Commercial Animal Suppliers to mark questions yes or no. Include or attach supporting documentation for “yes” answers. Note: an inspection of your facility may be required to verify information provided using local AZA members.

Yes, procedures exists that clearly identify each organism, its origin, and transport processes. If yes, provide written procedure and any supporting documents

No, written procedure does not exist.

Yes, our organization has a conservation plan to prevent overexploitation of species at each collection site. If yes, provide conservation plan documentation.

No, conservation plan does not exist.

Yes, our organization has an animal husbandry/health plan as it relates to good health throughout the handling, holding, and transport processes. If yes, document health plan including quarantine, prophylaxis, and chemotherapeutics used.

No, health plan does not exist.

Yes, there is evidence that the owner or organization has violated a law or regulation relating to the ornamental fish trade or collection? If yes, provide documentation

No, the owner or organization has not ever violated a law or regulation relating to the ornamental fish trade or collection, provide documentation or letter from appropriate government agency indicating no violations

Yes, documentation is in place that demonstrates that procedures are in place that ensure that potential environmental and social impacts are minimized (ie, use of chemicals to collect fishes, staff training, fish quality, etc.). If yes, describe procedures and provide any documentation

No, documentation does not exist.

Yes, my organization, .............................................................., pledges that it meets and will continue to meet the criteria laid out for this approval to conduct business with AZA and EAZA members. Printed name of Applicant Signature of Applicant Date Company of Applicant


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Associations Committee Meeting Chair: Sally Walker | Rapporteur: Miranda Stevenson and Susan Hunt | 6 October 2011, 10.30 am–0.30 pm

List of participants • Jörg Junhold, WAZA • Mark Penning, WAZA • Gerald Dick, WAZA • Susan Hunt, ZAA • Kevin Tanner, ZAA • Simon Tonge, EAZA • Gloria Svampa, UIZA • Lesley Dickie, EAZA • Bo Kjellson, SAZA • David Field, BIAZA • Kanako Nishimoto, JAZA • Kazatoshi Arai, JAZA • Kris Vehrs, AZA • Markus Gusset, WAZA • Oliver Pagan, VDZ • Manifred Niekisch, VDZ • Bryan Carroll, ACOPAZOA • Jonas Wahlutrom, SAZA • Clifford Nxomani, PAAZAB • Andreas Knieriem, Tierpark, Munich • Julia D. Maltzan, Wildlife Vets, De • Joanne Lalumiere, CAZA • Dave Morgan, PAAZAB • Miranda Stevenson, BIAZA • Sally Walker, SAZARC

Agenda • Welcome • Introductions • Topics to be discussed - Decade on Biodiversity - Cooperation between Associations - Presidents attendance at Association meetings - Review of poll of Animal Welfare Committee’s in Associations - Matters arising • Meeting adjourned

Outcome of meeting The WAZA Associations Committee Meeting, conducted on 6 October 2011, 10.30–12.30, was attended by 23 persons, including WAZA officers, Regional Association Chairs and some Regional Association representative. The committee was honored to have the two WAZA presidents, at that time (current and pending) and the WAZA Executive Officer present.

The Associations Committee was set up in the first instant as a opportunity and forum for the WAZA President to interact with the Association Chairs and take their problems back to Council. The new President, Jörg Junhold, was asked to close the meeting with a few words to the Associations’ Chairs in anticipation of his impending presidency.

Susan Hunt reviewed the output of the Decade on Biodiversity / WAZA Working Group that took place at the recent CBSG meeting, and Susan and Gerald answered many questions. In brief, WAZA is seeking funding for a very big Decade project with its focus on measuring and delivering public awareness of Decade on Biodiversity. The Working Group discussed strategy for two sessions and came out with excellent ideas and suggestions. WAZA will update the progress of this project from time to time on its website. For Susan’s full report, please see Appendix 2.

A request was announced from Dr. Nadja Wielebnowski, Chair of the AZA Welfare Committee for the regional and national associations who have dedicated Welfare Committees. A simple poll was taken just before the WAZA meeting with a good return. Some associations do have a dedicated welfare committee and others address welfare specifically in other committees. See Appendix 2 for ways Associations deal with animal welfare issues in their zoo.

A resolution entitled “WAZA Recommendations on Cooperation between Associations” passed in 2005 was briefly discussed. Since this resolution is 7 years old and WAZA has evolved dramatically during that time, WAZA will develop an MOU on how to update the old document and move to a more practical format.


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Appendix 1 Summary of WAZA Decade on Biodiversity Working Group at CBSG, 30 Sept 2011 Susan Hunt

Discussion of the Decade of Biodiversity

3.

The meeting of the representatives of regional associations was briefed about the CBD Decade for Biodiversity (the Decade) and how zoos and aquariums may be able to participate and contribute to the goals of ‘Aichi Targets’ which underpinned the Decade (see attached). The outcomes of the workshop which was run at the Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG) immediately preceding the WAZA conference were outlined by Susan Hunt, from Perth Zoo who was also representing the Zoo and Aquarium Association Australasia. The major points of the briefing included:

4.

It was agreed that zoos could be a key player in delivery of Target 1 of the Aichi Biodiversity Target, By 2020 at the latest people are aware of the values of biodiversity and the steps they can take to conserve and use it sustainably. Zoos’ contribution to wildlife conservation would also directly assist in addressing Target 12, By 2020 the extinction of known threatened species has been prevented and their conservation status, particularly for those most in decline, has been improved and sustained.

6.

1.

2.

5.

7.

8.

On area of particular interest in conservation, was that of measuring the effectiveness of conservation awareness. This was an area in which zoos and aquariums were working and could also make a predominant contribution not only to the effectiveness of their own programs but also to the world conservation scene. The IUCN had expressed interest in building its expertise in this area. The CBSG workshop had recommended – and WAZA was now looking to establish a pilot program addressing Target 1 in the first instance. WAZA would approach the potential participant zoos/aquariums and would prepare formal information on the development of the pilots. Pilot participating organisations would be distributed throughout the World would reflect its environmental and societal context. It was recognised that ‘one size did not fit all’. Regional associations were asked to be aware of the program and WAZA sought regional association support for it as it may arise. It was meant as a positive initiative which would not result in additional work for regional associations. The focus would be between WAZA and the institution at the initial stage. However it was also not the intent to cut out regional associations and communication was encouraged. The issue of measurement of effectiveness would also be followed up as a special project focus and further information would be available through the WAZA office.

There was general discussion about the pilot initiative. Several associations offered to nominate zoos/aquariums in their regions to WAZA as they were familiar with the strengths and initiatives being undertaken within the regions. The Executive Director of WAZA, Gerald Dick indicated that he would follow up on these offers. It was confirmed that the measurement of conservation effectiveness was also an ongoing issue in which regional associations were well briefed. This should be used as appropriate by the WAZA office. There was a keen interest expressed in continuing communication about the pilot projects and the measurement issue with the regional associations.


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Appendix 2 Animal Welfare Committees and Regional and National Associations • ACOPAZOA has five committees: Veterinarian, Nutrition, Education, Collection and aquariums. Carolina Falla, Executive Director, ACOPAZOA. • AMACZOOA has welfare guidelines, but not a permanent committee. Yolanda Matamoros, Chair • DAZA has no welfare committee. Danish law on animal welfare covers the subject. There is a standing committee on ethics that serves welfare. Richard Østerballe, Chair, Danish Zoo Association • ZAA. Zoo and Aquarium Association has an Accreditation and Animal Welfare Committee and are developing a zoo animal welfare paradigm with external consultants as a strategic move toward a government strategy for animal welfare standards. Martin Phillips, Executive Director, Zoo and Aquarium Association, Executive Office | martin@zooaquarium.org.au

• BIAZA, British and Irish Association of Zoos and Aquariums. Welfare comes under our Living Collections Committee. Dr Miranda F. Stevenson, Executive Director, BIAZA | director@biaza.org.uk • AIZA, At the Iberian Association of Zoos and Aquaria (Spain and Portugal) we do not have a welfare committee itself. We have 5 committees or working groups: Veterinary, Education, Conservation, Aquariums, and Marketing. We have also a Technical Committee who is in charge on the maintenance of the Standards of the Association. All matters concerning animal welfare are discussed together by the Conservation Group, the Technical Committee and the AIZA Board. Olga Santacana, AIZA – Asociación Ibérica de Zoos y Acuarios | info@aiza.org.es | www.aiza.org.es • SAZA does not have a permanent animal welfare committee. Mats Höggren, Ph. D., Chair SAZ | mats.hoggren@kolmarden.com | www.kolmarden.com

• VDZ has ad hoc working groups established for specific purposes when • AZCARM has several committees a need arises. Complaints about that cover Animal welfare issues but animal welfare in member instituno permanent welfare committee. tions are dealt by the Board. Frank Carlos Camacho, Peter Dollinger, Director, VDZ Presidente – AZCARM | www.africamsafari.com.mx | • ALPZA has an Animal Welfare Comwww.azcarm.com.mx mittee with 3 subgroups: Animal Health, Nutrition, and Behavioural • JAZA has an Animal Ethics CommitManagement. tee which covers animal welfare. Andrea Caiozzi, Executive Director, Dr. Kanako Nishimoto, ALPZA | www.alpza.com | JAZA spokesman JAZA | direccion@alpza.com kanako-jaza@pony.ocn.ne.jp • ZPO, Zoological Park Organization of Thailand ZPO has an Animal Ethics and Welfare Committee for their 5 operating zoos. SEAZA also has an Ethics and Welfare Committee. Sumate Kamolnorranath, D.V.M., Director – Research and Conservation Division, Zoological Park Organization of Thailand

• PAAZAB does not have a permanent Welfare committee but does have a mandatory Operational Standard which has a strong focus on welfare and husbandry. Members are expected to be compliant according to this standard and are audited as such. PAAZAB has Ethics portfolio that convenes an ethics committee to discuss and rule upon contravention of our code of ethics. Dave Morgan, Chair, PAAZAB | www.paazab.com | paazab@paazab.com • EARAZA, Eurasian Regional Association of Zoos and Aquariums. The animal welfare issues are of great importance for all our members. EARAZA organizes training seminars for zoo staff, devoted to the problems of creating comfortable conditions for animals in captivity. The EARAZA Legislation Committee deals with the problems of keeping animals "ex-situ". EARAZA does not have a dedicated Welfare Committee but plans to discuss whether there is a need for one at our next meeting. Tatyana F. Andreeva, Executive Director of EARAZA • SAZARC discusses animal welfare and standards under the topic of zoo legislation which is the primary theme of our training and conference. Sally Walker, Director | sallyrwalker@zooreach.org • AZA has an animal welfare committee. Dr. Nadja Wielebnowski, Chair, AZA Welfare Committee.


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Marketing and Membership Committee Meeting Chair: Jörg Junhold (Marketing), Lee Ehmke (Membership) | Rapporteur: Frank Oberwemmer | 5 October 2011, 10.30-11.30 am

Members of Marketing Committee • Chair: Jörg Junhold – Zoo Leipzig, Germany • Vice Chair: Joanne Lalumiere – Zoo Granby, Canada • Jörg Adler – Zoo Muenster, Germany • Henrik L. Andersen – Zoo Odense, Denmark • Jeffrey Bonner – Zoo St. Louis, USA • Brad Andrews – AZA, USA • Cesare Avesani Zaborra – Parco Natura Viva, Italy • Phil Frost – Zoo Baton Rouge, USA • Carole Lecointre – WAZA Office, Switzerland

Members of Membership Committee • Chair: Lee Ehmke – Minnesota Zoo, USA • Rick Barongi – Houston Zoo, USA • Cesare Avesani – Parco Natura Viva, Italy • Stephen van der Spuy – Johannesburg Zoo, SA • Kazotoshi Arai – JAZA, Japan • Thomas Kauffels – Opelzoo, Germany

Agenda 1. 2.

Welcome Minutes of Marketing Committee meeting in Cologne and Marketing Committee Report to WAZA Council Introduction of Carole Lecointre, Marketing & Communication Feedback on International Marketing Conference 2011 Marketing and Communication Activities Campaign “Decade on Biodiversity” Discussion of Membership Fee Structure Discuss Membership Recruitment Other issues

Feedback on Marketing Conference

• 80 participants from 22 countries took part, the conference was presented by WAZA, EAZA and CASA as a commonly organised event. 3. • Good topics: social media, examples of successful events and tools. 4. • Get together of marketing and education people was rated as 5. important. • Open the field: include IZE and 6. WAZA Education Committee into the conference. 7. • Invite more experts as presenters from outside which present the 8. outside view onto our work. 9. • In general a very positive feedback of the participants! • Very good venue and preparation Welcome by Granby Zoo – big thanks go to Joanne Lalumiere and her team. Jörg Junhold welcomed the partici• The vote for a next conference in pants of this first common meeting of 2013 is positive. Marketing and Membership Commit- • Applications from Twycross Zoo tees. and Frankfurt Zoo to host the next conference were received.

Minutes The minutes of the last Marketing Committee meeting were adopted as published in the proceedings of the 65th Annual Conference held in Cologne 2010.

Introduction Jörg Junhold introduced Carole Lecointre as new Marketing & Communication Officer of the Executive Office. She took over this position from Ulrike Fox in spring 2011.


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Marketing and Communication Activities

Campaign “Decade on Biodiversity”

Carole Lecointre presented the activities of the last months.

Gerald Dick reported on the workshop for a WAZA engagement in the Decade.

A WAZA marketing survey was conducted online from May 23rd to June 6th and sent out to all WAZA institutional members. 84 answers were received. The main outcomes are: • 90% of the interviewees feel well informed by WAZA • 78% use the WAZA website • 88% read the WAZA News

Clarification of project design: • WAZA will apply for a major grant of the Swiss MAVA Foundation for a three years project to develop awareness tools about biodiversity • Pilot project with scope to offer outcome (tools) to the whole community • «Connect – Understand – Act» The highest ranked benefit of memmodel applies globally, tools and bership is “being a part of a global contents will vary in the countries/ community” and “information regions network” as well as “contribution to • Geographical and institutional strategic development”. representation in the working group that will be set up to work out the The WAZA News contain two new contents and tools sections: “My career” and an inter• Cultural sensitivity is of importance view with one staff member of a zoo. • Invite suitable and experienced institutions as project partners for The membership/image brochure was the workshops produced by Houston Zoo team and • Keep regions in the loop and conprinted. The website has as a new sider external partners tool the MarCom platform for discus- • Measuring of baseline and impact sion and communication of marketis important / for awareness target ing staff of members. Case studies zoo and aquarium community could develop indicators about marketing issues are published on this platform as well. Collection of survey questions (indicators) to survey the outcome of the Bristol Zoo and Chester Zoo have tools that are used by zoos to raise supported the setup of a resource visitor awareness: centre about conservation and sus• Knowledge (prior and after zoo visit) tainability materials and links (www. • Attitudes general and about zoo/ unitedforconservation.org). aquariums • Beliefs For the 77th Anniversary next year a small additional logo and a calendar • Values • Actions was produced. The WAZA anniversary book will be ready in beginning • Policy of 2012. • Self-assessment An additional survey beyond the corporate members was done on order to find out more about their needs. Advertising packages are developed according to the results. For the near future the presence of WAZA on social media is assessed as well as the creation of a website with links to all live cameras in zoos.

Membership issues Membership recruitment was discussed briefly. The new recruitment brochure (“Voice of the Global Zoo & Aquarium Community”) will help to answer the questions many zoos and aquariums have about the value and benefits of WAZA membership. The membership fees have been relatively stable for many years now and recent increases have been limited to inflationary adjustments due to the uncertain economic climate. Membership fees can be a problem for zoos in developing countries – how to address this issue? There is only “anecdotal” information of how low the fees would have to go so that zoos and aquariums from developing countries can more easily become WAZA members. On the other hand there is the need to increase the annual budget in order to increase the staff numbers in Gland to handle issues like animal welfare and conservation as well as transport of animals (international cooperation in the management of stocks). We need to develop a pricing strategy that takes into account the conflicting concerns of financial accessibility and program growth.

Other issues Question: is there a worldwide study available on the economic impact of zoos? There are regional studies available e.g. from EAZA that were done by a specialised company. These studies are very complex and need a lot of input to generate valid results. It was suggested that WAZA should collect all regional / local studies and present them in the member’s area of the website (after agreement of the regions of course).


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Ethics and Animal Welfare Committee Meeting Chair: David Jones | Rapporteur: Miranda Stevenson | 5 October 2011, 8.00–10.00 am

Committee Members• David Jones • Sally Walker • Susan Hunt • Jenny Grey • Clifford Nxomani • Lena Linden • Rick Barongi • Martin Phillips (not present) • Anne Baker • Dan Wharton (not present) • Dave Morgan • Paul Boyle • Heribert Hoffer • Miranda Stevenson • Theo Pagel • Mark Penning • Mauricio Faby Otte • Gerald Dick • David Field • Chris West

Two principal objectives were outlined: 1. The production of a comprehensive WAZA Ethics and Welfare handbook. 2. Develop the role of WAZA, the Associations and the mainstream zoo community in providing assistance to zoos in need of help.

Under these headings, the principal tasks would include: • The collection and collation of relevant published literature from the zoo, aquarium and other communities interested and involved in ethics and welfare issues. • Identification of species management manuals from around the world, both for incorporation of content in the handbook and for reference purposes. • Compilation of relevant government legislation that would be useful in Agenda and Format the preparation of the handbook. • Refine the complaints procedure for WAZA, Association members and All but two of the extended Comfor non-members. mittee membership was present • and approximately 100 more WAZA Compile a database of world zoos members participated in the meeting. and aquariums and their status and The principal purpose of the meeting where they are, noting in particular was to establish a program of tasks, the institutions where assistance is which the Committee would oversee required and where the most impact and from that decide on how those might be achieved. tasks would be carried forward and in • Identify zoological institutions and particular, to comment on and supindividuals within WAZA and the port the appointment of a full-time Associations that are willing and Ethics and Welfare Committee staff qualified to assist other zoos. member. • Define processes by which the mainstream zoo and aquarium world can assist other institutions. • Identify other interested partners such as animal welfare and conservation NGOs. Build a network of these partners. • Identify funding sources to support this work long-term.

General Discussion There was overall support for the idea of an Ethics and Welfare handbook. It was agreed that more detailed coverage of these topics was needed than currently appeared in the relevant chapter of the World Zoo Conservation Strategy document. The zoo and aquarium world and a wide range of other audiences, particularly animal welfare organizations and governments, needed a benchmark by which they could draw up legislation or provide relevant advice. Much of the discussion from the floor centred on whether such a handbook should define minimum acceptable standards or only accept best practice as a WAZA recommendation. The probability is that both these levels and possibly intermediate levels with timeframes for improvement might be appropriate. Assurance was given that there was no intention of repeating work that had already been done by the regional associations and others and that a prime purpose of the manual was to draw together the best content in the existing published material and to identify gaps which then needed further research and drafting.


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COM 66.6 In general it was felt that the complaints procedure being followed for WAZA and Association members was working well, but there needed to be a reassessment as to how complaints would be dealt with in relation to non-member zoos, where most of these complaints originate. Comment from the floor also recognized that there was considerable interest among individual institutions to assist, particularly with the secondment of staff, recognizing though that providing assistance in many parts of the world was a highly-specialised business and would probably need considerable training.

Recommendations from the Committee

The feeling from the floor and the Committee was as follows: • Strong support for the production of a WAZA Ethics and Welfare handbook. • A need to refine the complaints procedure, particularly in respect to non-member zoos (where most complaints come from). • A need for WAZA to work closely with the relevant regional and national associations in regard to these topics and to develop a network within the responsible animal welfare community and welfare and ethics “centres of excellence” The Post of WAZA around the world. Welfare Officer • A general recognition that we needed to take a leadership role in It was pointed out that in order to addressing the issue of substandard progress WAZA Ethics and Welfare zoos. work along the lines of the agenda • A recognition that we should look and discussion, there was a need into whether WAZA and the mainto establish a full-time position to stream zoo community could be coordinate and carry out much of this better organized to deal with zoo work, rather than rely on the volunand possibly wildlife emergencies teer activity of zoo directors and senmore efficiently than is the case at ior staff who had little time available the moment. for such detailed work. The Chairman • Strong support for the overall appointed out that this post would proach, including the recruitment require $100,000 a year for an initial of a full-time Ethics and Welfare three years and that the expectation Officer. was that public interest in supporting • A need to clarify the role of that post it would ultimately lead to such a post and to decide on how the incumbecoming permanent. He already bent would be managed. had commitment for about $60,000 per year for three years. The workplan of such a post would be based on the agenda outlined above. The occupant of the post could be considered a WAZA member of staff, but would be supervised by the Co-Chairman and probably based in North America or Europe.


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October 2011 | Prague

RES 66.1

Contribution of WAZA and its Members to the UN Decade on Biodiversity, 2011–2020

Background After the 2010 Year of Biodiversity and the successful CoP 10 of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) which was held in Nagoya, Japan (18–29 October 2010), the United Nations General Assembly proclaimed the period from 2011 to 2020 as the United Nations Decade on Biodiversity in its Resolution 65/161 with a view to contributing to the implementation of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011–2020.

The 66th WAZA Annual Conference APPLAUDES the United Nations Decade on Biodiversity 2011–2020 RECOGNISES that the CBD has established targets for the decade on Biodiversity, called the Strategic Plan and will develop a set of key indicators of success NOTES that the global Zoo and Aquarium community under the leadership of WAZA can significantly increase the impact of their individual conservation actions through the support, engagement and collaboration of major international partners such as IUCN and CBD UNDERSTANDS that WAZA Council supports this umbrella initiative with particular reference that professionally recognized zoos and aquariums can play key roles in achieving the targets regarding “raising awareness about the value of biodiversity” and “improving the status of threatened species” of the Strategic Plan of CBD FURTHER NOTES that the World Zoo and Aquarium Conservation Strategy provides clear direction for biodiversity conservation action in the zoo and aquarium community

ALSO NOTES that the participants at the 7th International Zoo Marketing Conference, held in Granby, CA, 13-16 June 2011 recommended that WAZA fully endorses the support of the activities within the Decade on Biodiversity, allowing that the initiative will enable flexibility for regional and local biodiversity programmes to be seen to synergistically contribute to the common cause to halt the loss of biodiversity 1. DECIDES that WAZA Members formally endorse the UN Decade on Biodiversity 2011-20 2. WELCOMES that a framework of actions be developed, together with appropriate tools, including targets, indicators and metrics, so that all WAZA member zoos and aquariums with their individual needs and special circumstances may contribute in a truly meaningful and yet distinctive way as part of a worldwide movement 3. RECOGNIZES that the WAZA Marketing Committee takes on the role of monitoring the “Awareness Raising” component of the initiative 4. NOTES that the next WAZA Marketing Conference’s main theme be focused on the first target about “Raising Awareness” providing an opportunity to showcase initiatives, results and challenges


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DOC 66.28 rev

WAZA Budget 2012 Values in Swiss Francs (CHF), 1 CHF= 0.814 € =1.085 $ US as of 6 Oct 2011 Income

Budget 2012

Budget 2011

808 180,00

758 965,00

20 000,00

50 000,00

Sales & Services

3 000,00

16 300,00

Credit interest

2 000,00

2 000,00

833 180,00

827 265,00

Budget 2012

Budget 2011

-562 000,00

-554 937,00

Travel

-45 000,00

-45 000,00

Projects, grants

-95 000,00

-97 000,00

Meetings

-10 000,00

-10 000,00

Equipment & Premises

-32 000,00

-42 624,00

Expendable goods & maintenance

-39 500,00

-38 500,00

Marketing

-60 800,00

-60 400,00

Bank charges

-2 500,00

-2 400,00

Taxes

-2 000,00

-2 000,00

Sundry

-10 000,00

-10 000,00

TOTAL

-858 800,00

-862 861,00

-25 620,00

-35 596,00

Membership fees* Sponsoring

TOTAL Income

Expenses Salaries & Consultants

SALDO/BALANCE

*3% increase As extraordinary project budget 300,000.- CHF may be spent over the next three years in support of the Decade on Biodiversity


219

October 2011 | Prague

INF 66.3

The 2011 WAZA Heini Hediger Award Presented by Jörg Junhold to Gordon McGregor Reid

The World Association of Zoos and Aquariums (WAZA) promotes effective stewardship of the natural world by encouraging its members to bring people close to living animals, applying and advancing conservation, science and education, and setting standards of excellence in animal welfare and environmental responsibilities. The Heini Hediger Award was instituted by WAZA in 1995 to recognise individuals who have rendered outstanding service to the zoo and aquarium community. This year, the WAZA Council has chosen to present this prestigious award to Prof. Gordon McGregor Reid.

Many of us know Gordon from his career at the Chester Zoo, first as Curator-in-Chief of Chester Zoo between 1992 and 1995, and then as Director General until last year. Many perhaps wondered what such a distinguished academic and aquarist would do with a zoo. To his credit, Gordon brought all of the skill acquired as academic, aquarist and field biologist to the North of England Zoological Society and Chester Zoo, which was well-primed for a leap into the 21st Century. He was able to draw some of the zoo profession’s best people, and provide private donors with immense confidence in the institution to make a difference with their generous gifts. With substantial funds in hand, the Chester Zoo was set to become not only one of the world’s outstanding zoos, but through Gordon’s insight and leadership, evolve into a significant player in global biodiversity conservation.

Gordon McGregor Reid is both a zooman’s zoo man and an academic’s academic, having kept and bred tropical fish as a wee boy, carried out research on freshwater and tropical fish for many years, and looked after aquatic exhibits in several Museums. He is highly respected both as a zoo professional and an academic by his colleagues and peers around the world, and has been honoured appropriately by having two newly discovered species of fish bear his name. He is the author of more than 200 published works including books, peer-reviewed scientific papers, and popular articles. Under Gordon’s leadership, the Chester Zoo has received more than 200 international, national and regional awards in areas such as breeding success, conservation, animal welfare, education, science, horticulture, environmental management, marketing, disabled provision, tourism, public relations, and business excellence – culminating in 2002 with the Queen’s Award for Enterprise in the category of Sustainable Development, and again in 2006.


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Proceedings of 66th Annual Conference

INF 66.3 Gordon served as President of the Linnean Society of London – the world’s oldest learned Society for botany and zoology – and the place where Darwin and Wallace first presented on the ‘origin of species’. He has acted as a consultant for the World Wide Fund for Nature, Conservation International, Fauna and Flora International and many other agencies; and has extensive field experience in Africa, Central America, India and the Middle East. He continues to be active in the IUCN as a member of several specialist groups, and he is the Global Chair of the IUCN SSC Freshwater Fish Specialist Group. He served as Global Chair of the Amphibian ARK Project, and was elected by his peers to serve as President of WAZA.

In 2006 Gordon was awarded an Honorary Doctorate from the University of Chester in recognition of his outstanding achievements in conservation and science. Then, in 2008 Gordon was awarded a further Honorary Doctorate in Science from Manchester Metropolitan University in recognition of his contribution to the fields of education, business, culture and research. He was presented with an Honorary Fellowship of the Liverpool John Moores University in recognition of his outstanding contributions to conservation and zoological design, and has even received an Honorary Citizenship from the Government of Bolivia in recognition of work in conservation and ecotourism.

One cannot overlook Gordon’s extraordinary personal virtues, such as humility, generosity and tolerance, which have made him a bigger man while contributing to the potential of colleagues and friends. He has equal time and concern for the smallest NGO or professional organization as for the greatest and most prestigious international or governmental organization. It is these qualities which make the man and his achievements very special. It is with great pleasure that I call upon Prof. Gordon McGregor Reid to receive the Heini Hediger Award.


October 2011 | Prague

List of Participants

221


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Proceedings of 66th Annual Conference

Last Name Abdrakhimov Abe Adler Aguado Ainsworth

First Name Auyezkhan Yoshitaka Jorg Gabriel David

Al Hajeri

Ghanim

Alarcon Puerto Andrews

Antoni Brad

Arai

Kazutoshi

Archer Asa Avesani Zaborra Bairrão Ruivo Baker Ban Fischinger Bar

Jeff Cheryl Cesare Eric Anne Zdenka Yehuda

Barongi Barros

Rick Yara

Bell Boardman

Kevin Suzanne

Bonal Bonner Boos Boyle

Bishan Singh Jeffrey Michael Paul

Brtnička Busch Byers Carroll Castro Chang

Miroslav Daniela Onnie Bryan Norberto Wen-Been

Čolas Conde

Petr Dalia Amor

Cook

Robert

Cretney Daughtry

James Ben

Delord Dickie

Rodolphe Lesley

Divílek Doi Dumnui

Tomáš Toshimitsu Sophon

Ehmke

Lee

Erny Fiby

Cécile Monika

Field

David

Fleshman Flesness Frost Fuentes

Jim Nate Phil Ramiro

Company Almaty Zoo Aquamarine Fukushima Allwetterzoo Münster FundacionTemaiken Convention on Biological Diversity Al Ain Wildlife Park and Resort Barcelona City Council SeaWorld Parks & Entertainment Japanese Association of Zoos and Aquariums Oceanis Australia Saint Louis Zoo Parco Natura Viva srl Beauval Zoo Toledo Zoological Society Zoo Ljubljana Zoological Center Tel Aviv – Ramat Gan Houston Zoo Foz Tropicana Parque das Aves Lincoln Park Zoo Twycross Zoo – East Midland Zoological Society Central Zoo Authority Saint Louis Zoo Busch Gardens AZA (Association of Zoos & Aquariums) Zoopark Chomutov Vogelpark Marlow CBSG BRISTOL ZOO GARDENS Phoenix Zoo National Museum of Marine Biology & Aquarium Zoo Ostrava Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research Wildlife Conservation Society Marwell Wildlife Dynasty Marine Associates, Inc. Beauval Zoo European Association of Zoos and Aquaria Zoo a zámek Zlín-Lešná Ueno Zoological Gardens South East Asia Zoo Association Minnesota Zoological Garden AFdPZ ZooLex Zoo Design Organization Zoological Society of London Cameron Park Zoo ISIS Baton Rouge Zoo Universeum

City Almaty Fukushima Münster Escobar Montreal QC

Country Kazakhstan Japan Germany Argentina Canada

E-mail tair@nursat.kz abe@marine.fks.ed.jp adler@allwetterzoo.de cmarazzi@temaiken.org.ar secretariat@cbd.int

Al Ain

heba.hamza@awpr.ae

Barcelona Orlando

United Arab Emirates Spain United States

sito.alarcon@bcnregional.com brad.andrews@seaworld.com

Tokyo

Japan

kazutoshi_arai@granvista.co.jp

Melbourne Saint Louis, Missouri Bussolengo Saint Aignan sur Cher Toledo, Ohio Ljubljana Ramat Gan

Australia United States Italy France United States Slovenia Israel

jeffarcher@oceanisgroup.net asa@stlzoo.org assistant.dir@parconaturaviva.it eric@zoobeauval.com anne.baker@toledozoo.org info@zoo.si maya@safari.co.il

Houston Foz do Iguaçu – State: Paraná Chicago Atherstone, Warwickshire New Delhi St. Louis Tampa Silver Spring, MD

United States Brazil

pwarfield@houstonzoo.org yarambarros@yahoo.com.br

United States United Kingdom

kbell@lpzoo.org joanne.quimby@twycrosszoo.org

India United States United States United States

cza@nic.in Bonner@stlzoo.org michael.boos@buschgardens.com pboyle@aza.org

Chomutov Marlow Apple Valley, MN Bristol Phoenix Pingtung

Czech Republic Germany United States United Kingdom United States Taiwan

zoolog@zoopark.cz biologie@vogelpark-marlow.de onnie@cbsg.org bcarroll@bristolzoo.org.uk jdeiter@thephxzoo.com wenbeen@nmmba.gov.tw

Ostrava Rostock

Czech Republic Germany

director@zoo-ostrava.cz conde@demogr.mpg.de

Bronx

United States

rcook@wcs.org

Winchester Marathon

United Kingdom United States

jamesc@marwell.org.uk ben@dynastymarine.net

Saint Aignan sur Cher France Amsterdam Netherlands

eric@zoobeauval.com lesley.dickie@eaza.net

Zlín 12 Tokyo Bangkok

Czech Republic Japan Thailand

office@zoozlin.eu ueno-zoo@tzps.or.jp ampialaska@hotmail.com

Apple Valley

United States

lee.ehmke@state.mn.us

Saint Aignan sur Cher France Vienna Austria

afdpz@afdpz.org monika@zoolex.org

London

United Kingdom

claire.silva@zsl.org

Waco Eagan, MN Baker Gothenburg

United States United States United States Sweden

jimf@ci.waco.tx.us dorene@isis.org LCook@brzoo.org ramiro.fuentes@universeum.se


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October 2011 | Prague

Last Name Gajdos Gee Gendron Gilbert Giuntarelli Gray Gunarathna Habáň

First Name Laszlo Chris Suzanne Marie Larry Paolo Jenny Bhashwara Senanka Radomír

Hanson Harrison

Becca Bernard

Hilsenroth

Rob

Hofer

Heribert

Holečková Horský Hovorka

Dana Roman Martin

Hunt Janikowski

Susan Patrick

Johansen Jones Junhold Kaal Kauffels

Henrik David Jorg Mati Thomas

Kaufmann Kelly Kjellson Knieriem Knott

Andreas Dennis Bo Andreas Carsten

Koldewey

Heather

Kossl Král

Roman Bohumil

Kremsa Kubíková Kueck Kulcharoen

Vladimír Eliška Heike Nuntanit

Kurobe Labuschagne

Masami Willie

Lacy Lalumiere Lanthier Lehnhardt Leitinger Lindén Lupták Majerová Maltzan

Robert Joanne Clement Kathy Susanne Lena M Peter Kateřina Julia Grafin

Manansang Maunder

Willem Mike

McClintock Mihalovova

Keith Zuzana

Company Sosto Zoo WSPA Ocean Park Corporation Event Network, Inc. Bioparco di Roma Zoos Victoria National Zoological Gardens

City Sostofurdo London Aberdeen San Diego Rome Parkville Dehiwala

Country Hungary United Kingdom Hong Kong United States Italy Australia Sri Lanka

E-mail office@sostozoo.hu chrisgee@wspa-international.org suzanne.gendron@oceanpark.com.hk Larry.Gilbert@eventnetwork.com presidenza@bioparco.it jgray@zoo.org.au zoosl@slt.lk

Zoologická zahrada Olomouc Studio Hanson/Roberts Bernard Harrison and Friends Ltd American Association of Zoo Veterinarians Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research (IZW) Zoo Dvůr Králové Zoo a zámek Zlín-Lešná Zoologicka zahrada města Brna Perth Zoo PJA Architects + Landscape Architects Aalborg Zoo North Carolina Zoo Zoo Leipzig GmbH Tallinn Zoological Gardens von Opel Hessische Zoostiftung GoWILD KG Smithsonian National Zoo Boras Djurpark AB Tierpark Hellabrunn International congress of zookeepers Zoological Society of London Zoologická zahrada Ohrada Zoologická zahrada města Brna Zoologická zahrada Tábor Zoo Jihlava Zoo am Meer Zoological Park Organization Nagoya Higashiyama Zoo MNC President’s Affairs UAE

Olomouc

Czech Republic

reditel@zoo-olomouc.cz

Bainbridge Island Singapore

United States Singapore

bhanson@studio-hansonroberts.com info@bernardharrisonandfriends.com

Yulee, Florida

United States

rhilsenrothaazv@aol.com

Berlin

Germany

direktor@izw-berlin.de

Dvůr Králové n. L. Zlín 12 Brno

Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic

posta@zoodvurkralove.cz office@zoozlin.eu hovorka@zoobrno.cz

Perth Seattle

Australia United States

susan.hunt@perthzoo.wa.gov.au patj@pjarchitects.com

Aalborg Asheboro Leipzig Tallinn Kronberg im Taunus

Denmark United States Germany Estonia Germany

hj@aalborgzoo.dk David.m.jones@nczoo.org ataute@zoo-leipzig.de mati.kaal@tallinnzoo.ee thomas.kauffels@opel-zoo.de

Pischelsdorf Washington Boras Munich Kronberg

Austria United States Sweden Germany Germany

office@gowild.at KellyD@si.edu bo.kjellson@boraszoo.se knieriem@tierpark-hellabrunn.de knott@zootierpflege.de

London

United Kingdom

claire.silva@zsl.org

Hluboká nad Vltavou Brno

Czech Republic Czech Republic

info@zoo-ohrada.cz kral@zoobrno.cz

Tábor 1 Jihlava Bremerhaven Bangkok

Czech Republic Czech Republic Germany Thailand

Prof_V.Kremsa@centrum.cz director@zoojihlava.cz kueck@zoo-am-meer-bremerhaven.de nuntanit_k@hotmail.com

Nagoya Al Ain

Japan United Arab Emirates United States Canada Canada United States Spain Sweden Slovakia Czech Republic Germany

i-gotou@jfe-life.co.jp willie@ewbcc.ae

Chicago Zoological Society Zoo de Granby Calgary Zoo Disney’s Animal Kingdom Loro Parque Nordens Ark Zoo Bojnice Zoo Děčín – Pastýřská stěna Akademie für Zoo- und Wildtierschutz e.V. Taman Safari Indonesia Al Ain Wildlife park and Resort The Portico Group Zoo Bojnice

Brookfield, IL Granby Calgary, AB Bay Lake Puerto de la Cruz Hunnebostrand Bojnice Děčín Munich Cisarua, Bogor Al Ain, Abu Dhabi Seattle Bojnice

Indonesia United Arab Emirates United States Slovakia

rlacy@ix.netcom.com jlalumiere@zoodegranby.com marlenet@calgaryzoo.ab.ca Kathy.Lehnhardt@disney.com loroparque@loroparque.com lml@nordensark.se p.luptak@zoobojnice.sk katerina.majerova@zoodecin.cz maltzan@wildlifevets.de safari@tamansafari.com michael.maunder@awpr.ae kmcclintock@porticogroup.com z.mihalovova@zoobojnice.sk


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Proceedings of 66th Annual Conference

Last Name Miller Mo Molur Morgan Musinguzi

First Name Eric Eui Won Sanjay Dave James

Nagase

Ken

Nagel Narasimhan

Udo Binod

Nejedlo Niekisch Nishimoto

David Manfred Kanako

Niwelinski Nxomani

Aleksander Clifford

Oberwemmer Ogden Pagan

Frank Jackie Olivier

Pagel Papp

Theo Endre

Pearce-Kelly

Paul

Penning Persanyi

Mark Miklos

Pilgrim Planell Plasse Poživil Rabas Rabasová

Mark Boris Chelle Václav Přemysl Iveta

Rabb

George

Ratajszczak Reed Reid Ruebel Sangpong

Radoslaw Mark Gordon Alex Suriya

Sawyer

Robin

Schmidt Schmidt Schratter

Christian R. Dale Dagmar

Shin Simaroj

Nam-Shik Pimuk

Simmons Simmons Siriaroonrat

Lee Patricia Boripat

Sobieraj Šrank Stanley

Leslaw Vladimír Kieran

Stephens Stevenson

Eric Miranda

Company Saint Louis Zoo Seoul Grand Park Zoo Zoo Outreach Organisation PAAZAB Uganda Wildlife Education Center Osaka Municipal Tennoji Zoological Gardens Zoo Rostock GGmbH Zoo & Aquarium Public Institution In Al Ain ZOO Liberec Zoo Frankfurt Japanese Association of Zoos and Aquariums Plock Zoological Gardens National Zoological Gardens of SA Zoo Leipzig GmbH Walt Disney Parks & Resorts Zoologischer Garten Basel AG Zoologischer Garten Köln Nyíregyházi Állatpark Nonprofit Kft. Zoological Society of London SAAMBR/uShaka Sea World Budapest Zoo and Botanical garden Chester Zoo AICAS Disney’s Animal Kingdom ZOO Ústí­nad Labem formerly Zoopark Chomutov Podkrušnohorský zoopark Chomutov Chicago Zoological Society, retired Wroclaw Zoo Sedgwick County Zoo Chester Zoo Zoo Zurich Khao Kheow Open Zoo, Zoological Park Organization Conservation Centers for Species Survival retired Frankfurt Zoo Columbus Zoo and Aquarium Schönbrunner Tiergarten Ges.m.b.H. Seoul National University Zoological Park Organization Omaha Zoo Foundation Akron Zoological Park Zoological Park Organization Opole ZOO Zoo Bojnice dan pearlman Erlebnisarchitektur GmbH Zoo Miami BIAZA

City St. Louis Gwacheon-Si Tamil Nadu Pretoria Entebbe

Country United States South Korea India South Africa Uganda

E-mail REMiller@stlzoo.org parobkova@cbttravel.cz herpinvert@gmail.com paazab@paazab.com jmusinguzi@uwec.ug

Osaka

Japan

k-nagase@city.osaka.lg.jp

Rostock Al Ain

office@zoo-rostock.de binod.narasimhan@awpr.ae

Liberec Frankfurt am Main Tokyo

Germany United Arab Emirates Czech Republic Germany Japan

Plock Pretoria

Poland South Africa

anzooplock@data.pl vee@nzg.ac.za

Leipzig Lake Buena Vista Basel

Germany United States Switzerland

ataute@zoo-leipzig.de jackie.ogden@disney.com pagan@zoobasel.ch

Köln Nyí­regyháza

Germany Hungary

pagel@koelnerzoo.de office@sostozoo.hu

London

United Kingdom

paul.pearce-kelly@zsl.org

Durban Budapest

South Africa Hungary

mpenning@saambr.org.za persanyi@zoobudapest.com

CHESTER Zaragoza Bay Lake, Florida Ústí nad Labem Chomutov Chomutov

United Kingdom Spain United States Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Republic

m.brookfield@chesterzoo.org bvplanell@hotmail.com Chelle.Plasse@disney.com vaclav.pozivil@zoousti.cz premysl.rabas@seznam.cz director@zoopark.cz

Brookfield, Illinois

United States

georgerabb@sbcglobal.net

Wroclaw Wichita Chester Zurich Chonburi

Poland United States United Kingdom Switzerland Thailand

lutra@zoo.wroc.pl mreed@scz.org k.halliday@chesterzoo.org alex.ruebel@zoo.ch suriya@kkopenzoo.com

Front Royal

United States

SawyerR@si.edu

Kusnacht Powell Vienna

Switzerland United States Austria

schmidtzoo@gmx.net dale.schmidt@columbuszoo.org d.schratter@zoovienna.at

Seoul Bangkok

South Korea Thailand

nsshin@snu.ac.kr pimuk_s@hotmail.com

Omaha Akron Bangkok

United States United States Thailand

lsimmons@omahazoofoundation.org lpsimmons@akronzoo.org eldsdeer@yahoo.com

Opole Bojnice Berlin

Poland Slovakia Germany

ls60@zoo.opole.pl vladimir.srank@zoobojnice.sk office-ea@danpearlman.com

Miami, Florida London

United States United Kingdom

eeric@miamidade.gov director@biaza.org.uk

info@zooliberec.cz manfred.niekisch@stadt-frankfurt.de kanako-jaza@pony.ocn.ne.jp


225

October 2011 | Prague

Last Name First Name Svampa-Garibaldi Gloria

Wilcken

Company Italian Association of Zoos and Aquaria â&#x20AC;&#x201C; UIZA Motofumi JAZA Kevin Melbourne Zoo Steve Cleveland Metroparks Zoo Ampika Zoological Park Organization Pat WSPA Simon South West Environmental Parks Ryszard Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny L. Azeo Torre Design Consortium, Ltd. Kathy CBSG Miquel Barcelona Zoo Eric Taipei Zoo Stephen Johannesburg Zoo Kristin Association of Zoos and Aquariums Simone Zoo & Aquarium Public Institution Al Ain Christelle Safari de Peaugres Jonas Skansen-Akvariet Sally Raulston South Asian Zoo Association for Regional Cooperation (SAZARC) Jan Universeum Wisid Zoological Park Organization Robert Zoological Society of San Diego Jan W. Foundation for Multi-Lingual Visitor Information for Zooâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s, Aquaria & Botanical Gardens Jonathan Auckland Zoo

City Rome

Country Italy

E-mail gloria.sv@tiscali.it

Tai Tanner Taylor Thongphakdee

Tokyo Parkville Cleveland, Ohio Bangkok

Japan Australia United States Thailand

tai@momose.biz ktanner@zoo.org.au sht@clevelandmetroparks.com ampialaska@hotmail.com

Toronto, Paignton

Canada United Kingdom

tohill@wspa.ca helen.lawrence@paigntonzoo.org.uk

Lodz New Orleans

Poland United States

topola@zoo.lodz.pl a.torre@t-dcl.com

Apple Valley, MN Barcelona Taipei Parkview Silver Spring

United States Spain Taiwan South Africa United States

kathy@cbsg.org mtrepat@bsmsa.cat dwx07@zoo.gov.tw Stephen@jhbzoo.org.za kvehrs@aza.org

Al Ain

sumaya.viethen@awpr.ae

Peaugres Stockholm North Carolina

United Arab Emirates France Sweden United States

cvitaud@safari-peaugres.com monkeybusiness@skansen-akvariet.se sallyrwalker@zooreach.org

Gothenburg Bangkok

Sweden Thailand

jan.westin@universeum.se sumatekamol@yahoo.com

San Diego

United States

skbaker@sandiegozoo.org

Amsterdam

Netherlands

jwwijers@yahoo.com

Auckland

New Zealand

Frankfurt

Germany

jonathan.wilcken@aucklandcouncil. govt.nz kay@gkair.de

Wissenbach

Kay

Wunnemann Yamamoto

Klaus Shigeyuki

Heidelberg Tokyo

Germany Japan

Klaus.wuennemann@heidelberg.de s-yama@toyama-familypark.jp

Yesset Yestayev Young

Rustem Zhanat Forrest

Almaty Almaty Marathon

Kazakhstan Kazakhstan United States

rustem.yesset@hotmail.com rustem.yesset@hotmail.com forrest@dynastymarine.net

Zaharov Zoeger

Leonid Franziska

Saint-Petersburg Marlow

Russia Germany

leonid.zaharov@ru.knightfrank.com presse@vogelpark-marlow.de

Tohill Tonge Topola Torre Traylor-Holzer Trepat Tsao van der Spuy Vehrs Viethen Vitaud Wahlstrom Walker

Westin Wichasilpa Wiese Wijers

G.K. Airfreight Service GmbH Zoo Heidelberg Japanese Association of Zoos and Aquariums Almaty Zoological Park Almaty Zoological Park Dynasty Marine Associates, Inc. Knight Frank Vogelpark Marlow


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III

October 2011 | Prague © Tomáš Adamec Prague conference participants.


www.waza.org

ISSN: 2073-6576