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Gas Regional Investment Plan ENTSOG AISBL Avenue de Cortenbergh 100 2013-2022 B-1000 Brussels T +32 (0)2 894 51 00 info@entsog.eu www.entsog.eu

North West GRIP Main Report

Cluden

Energinet.dk Tonne Kjærsvej 65 DK-7000 Fredericia

Open Grid Europe GmbH Kallenbergstraße 5 45141 Essen

Interconnector (UK) Limited 8th Floor 61 Aldwych

bayernets GmbH Poccistraße 7 80336 München

Thyssengas GmbH Kampstraße 49 44137 Dortmund

Open Grid Europe GmbH Kallenbergstraße 5 45141 Essen

Fluxys Deutschland GmbH Graf-Adolf-Platz 12 40213 Düsseldorf

The Netherlands

Gastransport Nord GmbH An der Großen Wisch 9 26133Thyssengas Oldenburg GmbH

TIGF

Fluxys Deutschland GmbH

17 Chemin de la Plaine - 64140 Billère

Interconnector (UK) Limited

London

GRTgaz Deutschland GmbH Avenue des Arts 31 Zimmerstraße 56 10117 Berlin B-1040 Brussels

WC2B 4AE Nowega

Open Grid Europe GmbH Kallenbergstraße 5 45141 Essen

TIGF

Gasunie Transport Services b.v.

First Floor The Arena Building

85 Ormeau Road, Gasunie Deutschland Transport Services GmbH Gastransport Nord GmbH Pelikanplatz 5 GASCADE Gastransport GmbH NEL Gastransport GmbHBelfast,An der Großen Wisch 9 30177 Hannover Kölnische Straße 108-112 Kölnische Straße 108-112 26133 Oldenburg Gastransport Nord GmbH

The Netherlands Swedegas AB

BT7 1SH

Open Grid Europe GmbH Kallenbergstraße 5 Avenue Arts 31 45141des Essen Fluxys Belgium SA

Energinet.dk

Nowega GmbH

Tonne Kjærsvej 65

Nevinghoff 20

DK-7000 48147 Münster

48147 Münster Gastransport Nord GmbH An der Großen Wisch 9 26133 Oldenburg Premier Transmission Limited

Gasunie Deutschland Transport Services GmbH First Floor The Arena Building Pelikanplatz 5 85 Ormeau Road, 30177 Hannover Belfast,

BT7 1SH

Fredericia

Swedegas AB

GmbH

Gamlestadsvägen 2-4 B15 415 02 Göteborg

Fluxys TENP TSO S.p.A. Martin-Luther-Platz 28 40212 Düsseldorf

GRTgaz

Gaslink Independent System Operator Ltd. Gasworks Road, Cork

GRTgaz

LuxembourgLtd. S.A. Gaslink Independent System Creos Operator

Gasworks Road, Cork

Concourslaan 17

34119 Kassel

BT7 1SH

Nevinghoff 20 Gasunie Deutschland Transport Services GmbH Pelikanplatz 5 30177 Hannover

17 Chemin de la Plaine - 64140 Billère Premier Transmission Limited

An der Großen Wisch 9 34119 Kassel 9700 AD Groningen 26133 Oldenburg

Interconnector (UK) Limited

GASCADE Gastransport8th GmbH Floor Kölnische Straße 108-11261 Aldwych 34119 Kassel London

Gasunie Ostseeanbindungsleitung GmbH Pelikanplatz 5 30177 Hannover

40213 Düsseldorf

Pelikanplatz 5 30177 Hannover

Belfast,

Gasunie Ostseeanbindungsleitung GmbH Poccistraße 7 Pelikanplatz 5 80336 München 30177 Hannover

61 Aldwych

WC2B 4AESA Fluxys Belgium The Netherlands

85 Ormeau Road, GmbH Fluxys Deutschland Graf-Adolf-Platz 12 Belfast,

85 Ormeau Road,

Tonne Kjærsvej 65

Gasunie Transport Services b.v. Concourslaan 17

Transmission Limited

First Floor The Arena Building

Energinet.dk

8th Floor

9700 AD Groningen

Gasunie Ostseeanbindungsleitung GmbH BT7 1SH

Gasworks Road, Cork Premier

Gallows Hill, Warwick, CV34 6DA

WC2B 4AE

GASCADE Gastransport GmbH Premier Transmission Kölnische Straße 108-112 Limited 34119Floor Kassel The Arena Building First

Gaslink Independent System Operator Ltd.

Fluxys Deutschland GmbH National Grid National Grid Graf-Adolf-Platz 12 Warwick Technology Park Warwick Technology Park 40213 Düsseldorf

GASCADE Gastransport GmbH Kölnische Straße 108-112 34119 Kassel

London

40212 Düsseldorf

4AE

Gallows Hill, Warwick, CV34 6DA DK-7000 Fredericia bayernets GmbH

Kampstraße 49 44137 Dortmund

Graf-Adolf-Platz 12 Thyssengas 40213 Düsseldorf GmbH Kampstraße 49 Fluxys TENP TSO S.p.A. Martin-Luther-Platz 28 44137 Dortmund

Fluxys TENP TSO S.p.A. Martin-Luther-Platz 28 40212 Düsseldorf

Gasunie Transport Services b.v. 9700 AD Groningen

8th Floor 7 Poccistraße 80336 München 61 Aldwych

DK-7000 Fredericia

Gasworks Road, Cork Fluxys TENP TSO S.p.A. Martin-Luther-Platz 28 40212 Düsseldorf

Open Grid Europe GmbH Kallenbergstraße 5 45141 Essen

Concourslaan 17

Fluxys TENP TSO S.p.A. Martin-Luther-Platz (UK) 28 Interconnector Limited 40212 Düsseldorf bayernets GmbH

London

Tonne Kjærsvej 65 WC2B

Gaslink Independent System Operator Ltd.

Gasunie Ostseeanbindungsleitung GmbH Pelikanplatz 5 30177 Hannover

bayernets GmbH Poccistraße 7 80336 München

Energinet.dk

bayernets GmbH Poccistraße 7 80336 München

Thyssengas GmbH Kampstraße 49 44137 Dortmund

B-1040 Brussels

GRTgaz Deutschland GmbH Zimmerstraße 56 10117 Berlin

Swedegas AB

2, rue Thomas Edison, Strassen Fluxys Deutschland GmbH Graf-Adolf-Platz L-208412 Luxembourg 40213 Düsseldorf 6 rue Raoul Nordling 92277 Bois-Colombes Cedex - France

Gamlestadsvägen 2-4 B15

National Grid

415 02 Göteborg

Warwick Technology Park

Gamlestadsvägen 2-4 B15

Gallows Hill, Warwick, CV34 6DA

415 02 Göteborg Gasunie Transport Services b.v. Concourslaan 17 GRTgaz Deutschland GmbH Gasunie Deutschland Zimmerstraße 56 Pelikanplatz 5 10117 Berlin

30177 Hannover

9700 AD Groningen Energinet.dk GRTgaz Transport Services GmbH Swedegas ABDeutschland GmbH ONTRAS – VNG Gastransport GmbH The Netherlands Zimmerstraße 56 Maximilianallee 4 Tonne Kjærsvej 65 10117 Berlin Gamlestadsvägen 2-4 B15 Thyssengas GmbH 04129 Leipzig DK-7000 Fredericia Kampstraße 49 415 02 Göteborg

NEL Gastransport GmbH Kölnische Straße 108-112 34119 Kassel Creos Luxembourg S.A. 2, rue Thomas Edison, Strassen

GASCADE Gastransport GmbH Kölnische Straße 108-112 34119 Kassel Nowega GmbH


Table of Contents Foreword

2

I

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5

1.0 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6

2.0 North West Specifics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 A History of Cooperation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.1 TSO Cooperation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 The Role of Gas in the Regional Energy Supply Mix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4 The L-gas market in North West Europe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5 Odourisation in the North West European Transmission Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6 The Three European Energy Policy Objectives and the North West Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6.1 Competitiveness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6.1.1 Investment Climate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6.1.2 Current Gas Generation Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6.1.3 North West European Gas Hubs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6.2 Security of Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6.3 Sustainability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7 7 7 8 10 13 18 18 18 19 20 21 24 24

3.0 Supply & DemanD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Demand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.1 Annual Demand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.2 Renewables Impact on NW Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.3 Annual Demand Breakdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.4 Peak Demand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.1 Supply source diversification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.2 Supply source dependency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4 Unconventional Gas in North West Europe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5 Pipeline Capacity Entering & Exiting the NW Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

26 26 26 26 29 30 32 34 35 36 37 38

4.0 In Depth Analysis of TYNDP 2013-2022 Identified Issues in the North West Region ������������������������������������������������������������ 4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 ENTSOG TYNDP 2013-2022 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.1 TYNDP 2013-2022 findings from a regional perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Projects answering TYNDP 2013-2022 needs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.1 Related German-Danish border congestion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.2 Related to Sweden’s dependency on German-Danish border capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.3 Related to Luxembourg cross-border congestion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.4 Related to Southern France LNG dependency and North South transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

40 40 40 41 52 52 53 54 55

5.0 Background to North West European Infrastructure Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Open Seasons, Auction Processes and other means to identify market . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . demand in the North West Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.1 Belgium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.2 Denmark . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.3 France . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.4 Germany . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.5 Ireland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.6 Luxembourg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.7 The Netherlands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.8 The United Kingdom. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.9 Sweden. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 Project Matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ConclusionS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Disclaimer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

56 56

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List of Figures & Tables Figure 1 Figure 2 Table 1 Table 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Table 3 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Table 4 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 23 Table 5 Figure 24 Figure 25 Figure 26 Figure 27 Figure 28 Figure 29 Table 6 Figure 30 Figure 31 Figure 32 Figure 33 Figure 34.1 Figure 34.2 Figure 35 Figure 36 Figure 37 Figure 38 Figure 39 Figure 40 Figure 41 Figure 42 Figure 43 Figure 44

European Gas Grid in 1970 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . European Gas Grid in 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Highest flow days from Continental Europe to the UK (via BBL & IUK) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gas Share in Gross Energy Consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Share of Gas and Coal in Power Generation Fuel Mix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Annual Gas & Electricity Demand 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electricity Production and Consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gas Production and Consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cross Border Interconnection Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reserves of L-gas in Germany . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Production of L-gas in The Netherlands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L-gas and H-gas High Pressure Network in Belgium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L-gas and H-gas High Pressure Network in France . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . German L-gas market conversion areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overview of G-gas and L-gas market . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Distribution of future H-gas sources for Germany . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gas Demand up to 2050 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ICIS - Herens Tradability Index Q1 2012 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Total traded volumes on NBP, Zeebrugge, TTF, PEG, GASPOOL, NCG and NPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Price development on different European hubs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Day-Ahead Gas Prices in NW European Hubs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gas Prices and Capacity Utilisation (Spring 2013) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Renewable Energy Projections Europe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EU 27 & NW Europe Annual Gas Demand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NW Annual Demand Comparison between the TYNDP 2013-2022 & NW GRIP 2013 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NW Europe Annual Demand Evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wind vs. Gas Intermittency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Variable RES Indicators in Germany (for 2011) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . North West Europe Yearly Demand Breakdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DCI vs. Power Generation Comparison between the TYNDP 2013-2022 & NW GRIP 2013 annual ���������������������������������������������� North West Europe Peak Demand Outlook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Comparison of Design-Case - Peak Demand Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . North West Europe Annual Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Annual National Production Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Supply Source Diversification (Source TYNDP 2013-2022) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . North West Europe LNG Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Major Unconventional Natural Gas Resources Map of Europe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NW Region Pipeline Capacity, FID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Infrastructure Resilience under Reference Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Resilience to low LNG delivery under Design-Case Situation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Resilience to low LNG delivery under 14-­day Uniform Risk Situation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Supply Source Dependence on Annual Basis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Supply Source Diversification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . German Projects to Increase Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Luxembourg’s Proposed Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Projects for the merger of the North and South market areas in France . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Illustration of new IP linking Dunkirk LNG terminal to Belgium following . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Open Season, and possible sources for future L-gas replacement in Germany . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Map of the infrastructure projects in France . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Illustration of projects in Germany . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ireland/United Kingdom Interconnection System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Map of The Netherlands Transmission System Investment Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Annex A

Infrastructure Projects (.xls; .pdf extract version)

8 8 9 10 11 11 12 12 12 13 13 14 14 15 16 17 20 21 22 22 23 23 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 33 34 35 35 36 37 38 42 45 46 48 50 52 54 55 57 59 61 62 64

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Image courtesy of NW European TSOs

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Foreword It is my pleasure to welcome you to the second edition of the North West European Gas Regional Investment Plan (NW GRIP). The 2013 edition of the NW GRIP builds on the previous edition of the NW GRIP and also complements the Ten Year Network Development Plan (TYNDP) 20132022 published by ENTSOG in February 2013. This GRIP is the result of close cooperation between the Transmission System Operators (TSOs) in the nine countries which are covered in the North West European region. This continued cooperation between the TSOs has spanned the past few decades and is evident in the day-to-day operations of the gas network in this region. The coordination of this document was facilitated by Gasunie Transport Services (GTS). Stakeholders have been given an opportunity to engage in the development of this GRIP, through an official consultation and the responses received have further enhanced the quality of the document. The NW GRIP working group will also be launching a post publication consultation of the GRIP and welcomes further comments from stakeholders, which could improve future editions of the document.

Annie Krist Entsog Board Member Coordinator of NW GRIP Managing Director GTS

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1.0 Introduction This is the 2nd Gas Regional Investment Plan (GRIP) produced by the Transmission System Operators (TSOs) of North West Europe. This GRIP covers gas infrastructure projects and analysis from the following countries: Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Sweden and the United Kingdom.

Gas Regional Initiatives (GRI NW) platforms. The TSOs of the region also organised an official GRIP development consultation, as a means for stakeholders to engage in the development process. TSOs of the region would like to thank the stakeholders involved in this process and welcome continued engagement for future editions of the GRIP.

It is a legal obligation for TSOs, based on the European Directive 2009/73/EC Article 7 and further detailed by Regulation (EC) 715/2009 Article 12, to publish a Gas Regional Investment Plan every two years. This GRIP will contribute to the fulfilment of tasks listed in the Gas Directive and Gas Regulation. Every effort has been made to ensure that this GRIP is consistent with the TYNDP 2013-2022 produced by the European Network of Transmission System Operators for Gas (ENTSOG), with existing National Plans and with the Gas Regional Investment Plans from other regions.

Based in part on the feedback received, the main enhancements of this edition are: A more harmonised approach between the different GRIPs, thanks to more coordination with the other GRIPs within the ENTSOG framework The interaction with stakeholders has been developed with presentations/exchanges at GRI NW meetings along with the open stakeholder consultation which was held in April 2013 To provide more information on open seasons and other market based procedures which can trigger an investment and have recently occurred or are planned for the forth coming years Inclusion of projects from TSOs and non-TSOs Updates of gas demand forecasts in order to take into

The underlying report focuses at regional level on: The specifics of the North West European region Supply and Demand evolution Additional regional analysis of the results identified in the TYNDP 2013-2022 North West European Infrastructures which remedy the various issues in the region

The structure of the report covers these areas in detail. Furthermore, this report has taken into account the feedback received from stakeholders after the publication of the 1st GRIP in 2011. In addition to the feedback received after the first GRIP, stakeholders have had an opportunity to engage in the development of this GRIP through forums organised within the ENTSOG and

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account the latest developments, in particular from the power generation sector In-depth analysis of the infrastructure needs identified for the region through inter alia National Plans, Open Seasons, Auctions, the TYNDP 2013-2022, and based on the analysis of Hubs price spread A detailed presentation of the remedies responding to the identified needs of the region The TSOs of the region hope that this document will help the market to assess the need for gas infrastructure in the region and provide useful information to all stakeholders.


2.0 North West Specifics 2.1 Introduction The North West Specifics chapter gives a unique insight into how the gas network of the North West region has evolved over the years and the challenges it faces in the years ahead. The chapter will utilise the synergies from the ENTSOG TYNDP 2013-2022 methodology by analysing how the implementation of the three pillars of European energy policy have and could further impact the North West network.

Europe. Since the early 1960s international cooperation has been part of the daily business of TSOs from ensuring sufficient cross-border capacity to preventing and overcoming incidents. This strong international partnership in North West Europe has also been crucial for the high level of market integration and security of supply in the region. This is supported by the results of the TYNDP 2013-2022 published in February 2013, which shows very few market integration issues for the region The capacity offered by gas infrastructure projects (detailed in chapter 4) and is further highlighted by the directly contributes to the development of the statements in the Commission’s 2012 communication European internal energy market by enhancing all three ‘Making the Internal Market Work’1. aspects of the European energy pillars. With respect to competition, efficiently utilised infrastructure capacity The gas transportation grid in North West Europe was is one of the key drivers to hub liquidity. For security originally built to transport indigenous production from of supply, sufficient cross border capacity allows the Dutch and UK gas fields to regional demand centres, as free movement of gas to the market where it is needed can clearly be seen in figure 1. Due to declining levels of most. Finally, in a sustainable world, gas infrastructure indigenous production and increasing levels of national capacity can play a significant role in supporting and regional demand, the requirement to source gas renewable energy sources when circumstances require from further afield became a necessity. The North West a very reliable, clean and flexible source. This chapter region’s thirst for natural gas resulted in significant will conclude with an overview of the Groningen and low infrastructure projects being undertaken to bring gas to calorific gas regions and an outlook of these markets up the region from large suppliers like Norway and Russia. Figure 2 shows at a high level, how the European gas to 2022. network has evolved, showing the development of the transmission system in Eastern Europe, which facilitates Russian flows to the North West region. There has also 2.2 A History of Cooperation been considerable growth in the North Sea network The long and close collaboration between the TSOs in enabling Norwegian gas to flow directly into Belgium, North West Europe is strongly related to the historical France, Germany, The Netherlands and the UK. In order development of the gas grid in the region. The discovery to diversify supply sources even further, the North West of the giant Groningen gas field in The Netherlands in region has seen an increase in the number of LNG supply 1959 and the later discoveries of gas fields in the North terminals constructed, from which gas from all over the Sea triggered the spread of gas across North West globe can be supplied.

COM(2012)663, http://ec.europa.eu/energy/gas_electricity/internal_market_en.htm

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Figure Gas Grid in in 1970 Figure 22European Gas Grid in 2000 Figure 1 European Gas Grid 1970 Figure Gas Grid in 2000 22 European Figure 11 European Figure European Gas Grid in 1970 European Gas Grid in 2000 The above figures depict the development of of thethe gas grids in in Europe between 1970 and The above figures depict the development gas grids Europe between 1970 and 2 2 . It can bebe seen that major developments have taken place all all over Europe and that 2000 . It can seen that major developments have taken place over Europe and that 2000 2.2.1 TSO Cooperation the NW region is is one of of the regions with thethe longest history in in gas infrastructure. the NW region one the regions with longest history gas infrastructure.

TSOs are challenged to run their networks as efficiently as possible either through incentives or other mechanisms, 2.2.1 Cooperation 2.2.1 TSO Cooperation and as such TSO solving constraints on cross-border points is part of the day-to-day operational business of TSOs. Neighbouring dispatching centres work closely together, where required, optimising gas flows and operation of the TSOs challenged as as possible either through TSOsare challengedto torun runtheir theirnetworks networksas asefficiently efficiently possible either through network inare the region. incentives oror other mechanisms, and asas such solving constraints onon cross-border points is is incentives other mechanisms, and such solving constraints cross-border points part of of the day-to-day operational business of of TSOs. Neighbouring dispatching centres part the day-to-day operational business TSOs. Neighbouring dispatching centres The dispatching centres of the regionrequired, have variousoptimising means to deal withflows such cross-border issues.of Forthe example: work closely together, where gas and operation network work closely together, where required, optimising gas flows and operation of the network To swap gas (re-routing), not only bilaterally but also tri-laterally in in the region. the region. Operational Balancing Agreements (OBAs) The dispatching of of the region various means to to deal with such cross-border The Mutual assistance,centres for instance to the reduce fuelhave gashave dispatching centres region various means deal with such cross-border issues. For example: example: issues. ExchangeFor of personnel knowledge and knowhow

• • ToTo swap gas (re-routing), not only bilaterally butbut also tri-laterally swap gas (re-routing), not only bilaterally also tri-laterally The •longOperational established cooperation between the North (OBAs) West TSOs was formalised with the implementation of the 3rd Balancing Agreements • Operational Balancing Agreements (OBAs) Energy (Regulation (EC) for Nofor 715/2009) intoMarch 2011. Infuel most cases, the North West TSOs play a leading • •Package Mutual assistance, instance reduce fuel gas Mutual assistance, instance to reduce gas rd Energy Package. A knowhow few examples where the regional TSOs play an active role•when itExchange comes toof implementing theknowledge 3 knowledge personnel, and knowhow • Exchange of personnel, and part are: The established cooperation between North TSOs was formalised with thethe long established cooperation between the North West TSOs was formalised with The Thelong significant involvement of North West TSOs in thethe drafting andWest implementing of the European Network Codes rd rd Energy Package (Regulation (EC) No 715/2009) in March 2011. implementation of the 3 Energy Package (Regulation (EC) 715/2009) inlike March 2011. of the 3of the implementation The very active participation North West TSOs in the development of No ENTSOG documents the TYNDP InIn most cases, the North West TSOs play a leading role when it comes to to implementing most cases, the North West TSOs play a leading role when it comes implementing 2013-2022 Energy Package. A few examples where thethe regional TSOs play anan active part are: the 3rd3rd Energy Package. A few examples where regional TSOs play active part are: the • very significant involvement of of North West TSOs inWest thethe drafting implementing Some illustrative examples about the close cooperation of the North TSOs are theand recent UK Winter 2013 • The The significant involvement North West TSOs in drafting and implementing of the European Network Codes case, whereofthe UK European relied heavilyNetwork on continental supplies and the way in which the North West region dealt with the the Codes • The very active participation of of thethe North West TSOs in in the development of of • The very 2012, active participation North West TSOs the development ‘Cold Snap’ in February during which German North South transport was re-routed through The Netherlands ENTSOG documents like the TYNDP ENTSOG documents thestudies TYNDP and Belgium. Both examples are listedlike as case in the following section. Some very illustrative examples about thethe close cooperation of of thethe North West TSOs areare Some very illustrative examples about close cooperation North West TSOs the recent UKUK Winter 2013 case, where thethe UKUK relied heavily onon continental supplies and the recent Winter 2013 case, where relied heavily continental supplies and the way in which the North West region dealt with the “Cold Snap” in February 2012, the way in which the North West region dealt with the “Cold Snap” in February 2012, during which German North-South transport was re-routed through the Netherlands and 2 during which German North-South transport was re-routed through the Netherlands and Source: Fluxys Belgium Belgium. Both examples are listed asas case studies in in thethe following section. Belgium. Both examples are listed case studies following section. 8

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Case Study: UK Winter 2012/2013 Since 2000 the UK has significantly increased its import capacity, with the UK becoming a net importer of gas for the first time in 2004. The UK now has a diverse range of gas sources available, including domestic production, pipeline imports from continental Europe (IUK and BBL), pipeline supplies from Norway, LNG and storage. Security of Supply in the UK is delivered through an effective gas market. Due to the liquidity of the UK wholesale market in the event of high demand days, it is expected that gas would become available due to the increase in gas prices.

can work. Historical flows through IUK and BBL have been analysed by the Regulators (Ofgem, CREG & ACM) who are investigating instances where the flow of gas went against the price differential. There is a substantial body of work associated with this analysis which suggests ways to further optimise the flow of gas across the Interconnectors3. The table shows the top 15 highest ever flow days of gas from continental Europe to the UK (combined IUK and BBL flows)4.

The next highest continental supply day came on 7th The UK faced a unique range of circumstances during January 2010, which was due to serve climate conditions the 2012/2013 winter and especially in March 2013, and is the now the 24th highest flow day from the which was the coldest in 50 years. The unseasonably continent to the UK. cold weather combined with low levels of LNG, caused by a tight global LNG market, and little demand-side Continental Rank Date response from power generation led to storage stocks Imports (mcm/d) being rapidly depleted. Therefore in March 2013 the 21-Mar-13 114.10 1st UK relied heavily on national production and pipeline 2nd 24-Mar-13 111.19 supplies from Norway and from continental Europe. rd 3 23-Mar-13 110.40 Whilst significant Norwegian supplies have been utilised th 4 20-Mar-13 104.43 in previous winters, it was the first time that continental th 5 25-Mar-13 101.83 supplies played such a key role in the UK supply mix. th 6 05-Mar-13 97.07 The combined flow of both IUK and BBL reached 114 th 7 07-Mar-13 94.24 mcm/d on 21st March 2013; the highest ever flow th 8 08-Mar-13 94.09 to the UK from continental Europe. In particular the th 9 26-Mar-13 93.66 Interconnector was used at full capacity for several days. 10th 22-Mar-13 92.76 This high water mark of continental flows to the UK was 11th 31-Mar-13 92.27 not a one-off, but rather a sustained flow pattern during 12th 13-Mar-13 90.02 March 2013, as can be seen in the table. Capacity that th 13 30-Mar-13 88.11 had never before been utilised was used when there th 14 14-Mar-13 85.87 was a significant financial incentive to flow gas into the th 15 27-Mar-13 84.19 UK market. 24th

This period of high interconnector usage based on a high price differential shows how well the market arrangements between the UK and the interconnectors

3 4

07-Jan-10

80.14

Table 1 Highest flow days from Continental Europe to the UK (via BBL & IUK)

https://www.ofgem.gov.uk/ofgem-publications/75776/interconnector-flows-further-analysis-next-steps-final.pdf Source: National Grid

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Case Study: German Cold Snap in February 2012 During February 2012, there was a long cold snap in Russia and in central Europe, especially in the South of Germany, Italy and France. The Russian situation resulted in considerably reduced gas flows of up to -30% from Russia entering the Net Connect Germany (NCG) market area at Waidhaus. In this period, exceptional temperatures of -20°C and below were recorded at weather stations in Southern Germany. These low temperatures led to high gas demand from end customers. As the cold snap continued over an unexpectedly long period and with exceptional low temperatures, some German distribution system operators (DSOs) registered historical peaks in capacity utilisation. In addition, transit flows increased compared to the average winter gas flows from Germany to France by 5 GWh/h (exit point Medelsheim) and from Germany via Switzerland to Italy by 6 GWh/h (exit point Wallbach)5. The German TSOs managed to fulfill the firm transmission contracts to the neighbouring TSO and DSO grids during this entire extraordinary phase, thereby ensuring the supply to German end consumers was maintained all the time. Nevertheless, a number of interruptible contracts had to be interrupted. In addition to the actions of the German TSOs, it has to be stressed that the cold snap was supported by the good cooperation of European infrastructure operators. On request, neighbouring TSOs from The Netherlands and Belgium were taking gas flows from North to South to ensure grid stability. The Dutch TSO, GTS, and the Belgium TSO, Fluxys Belgium, assisted OGE by taking in additional gas and supplying this gas back into the German system via the Southern Dutch and Belgian border (Bocholtz - ‘s Gravenvoeren - Eynatten). This is an example of a swap between neighbouring network operators and enabled an additional 100 million m3 to be transported in less than 14 days.

2.3 The Role of Gas in the Regional Energy Supply Mix The share of gas in the gross energy consumption varies considerably per country, as is illustrated in table 26. The table nevertheless highlights the important role gas plays within the North West region. The role of gas in the electricity generation merit order in the North West region is changing (see figure 3) due to the combination of relatively low coal and carbon prices together with more renewable energy sources coming on line. Nevertheless, as figure 3 illustrates, even in 2011 with these external factors in play, gas still played a significant role in the regions electricity generation mix. Yet the figures also show there are differences in each country’s electricity

5 6

10

2010 and 2011 Gas share in gross energy consumption source TYNDP 2013-2022 COUNTRY

2010

2011

Belgium

27,5%

25,7%

Denmark

20,0%

16,6%

France

16,1%

14,4%

Germany

21,9%

20,1%

Ireland

31,5%

29,3%

Luxembourg

26,3%

22,7%

The Netherlands

42,3%

42,2%

Sweden

2,9%

2,3%

United Kingdom

39,4%

34,4%

Table 26 Gas Share in Gross Energy Consumption

Source: Bundesnetzagentur: Bericht zum Zustand der leitungsgebundenen Energieversorgung im Winter 2011/12 Please note that figures for 2012 were not available at the time of writing

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generation mix. There are numerous potential reasons for these national differences, it could be because of political top down decisions or due to market based economics, or an increase in alternative generation sources. 70

60

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40 %   30  

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2010

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LU

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UK

% Gas  

% Hard  Coal  +  lignite  

Figure 3 Share of Gas and Coal in Power Generation Fuel Mix The annual gas demand compared with electricity demand for each Member State does show a different picture. In almost all NW European countries, the use of gas is significantly higher than the use of electricity. This is shown in figure 4. The exception is Sweden which has a relatively small gas market, and in France, where gas and electricity have an almost equal demand. When all NW European countries together gas and electricity demands are aggregated together and compared, the role of gas in the energy mix is some 60% higher than that of electricity.

Annual Demand  Gas  and  Electricity  in  NW  Europe  2011  

1000 900   800  

Gas gas

600 TWh

TWh

700

Electricity electricity

500 400   300   200   100   0  

BE

DK

FR

DE

IE

LU

NL

SE

UK

Figure 4 Annual Gas & Electricity Demand 20117

7

Source: Eurelectric and ENTSOG

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A difference A difference between between gas gas and and electricity electricity may may also also be observed be observed whenwhen looking looking at the at the location location of production of production and consumption. and consumption. Electricity Electricity production production and consumption and consumption is more is more localised localised (consumed (consumed in the in same the same country country where where it is it generated), is generated), compared compared to gas to which gas which is much is much moremore internationally internationally traded traded and and 5 and 56 and below. 6 below. It may It may also also be observed observed thatofthat long long haul haul transported. transported. This This is gas shown isand shown in Figure in Figure A difference between electricity may also be observed when looking atbethe location production and transport transport of gas of is gas much is much cheaper cheaper than than transport transport of electricity. of electricity. consumption. Electricity production and consumption is more localised (consumed in the same country where

it is generated), compared to gas which is much more internationally traded and transported. This is shown in figure 5 and 6. It may also be observed that long haul transport of gas is much cheaper than transport of electricity. Electricity demand  and  generation  [2011] Electricity  demand  and  generation  [2011]

TWh 1000 TWh 1000 900

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Gas demand  and  production  [ Gas  demand  and  production  [  2011  ]  2011    ]  

  900   800   700   600   500   400   300   200   100   0  

  800   700   600   500   400   300   200   100   0   BE   DK   BEFR     DKDE     FRIE     DELU     IENL     LUSE     NLUK     SE  

TWh 1000 TWh 1000

0 DK BEFR DK DE FRIE DELU IENL LUSE NL UK SE

UK

900

demand 2demand   011 2011

production production   2011 2011

UK

Figure Figure 55 Electricity 5 Electricity production production and consumption and consumptionFigure Figure 6 Gas Gas Production and Consumption and Consumption Figure Figure 6 6 Production

 

Electricity Production and Consumption Gas Production and Consumption This This has has a consequence a consequence for the for the cross-border cross-border interconnection interconnection capacity capacity whenwhen gas gas is is Figure Figure 7 below 7 below shows shows the cross-border the cross-border interconnection interconnection capacity capacity compared compared with with electricity. electricity. within within the North the North West West European European region region for location both for both gas and gas and electricity. electricity. Although Although this data data This difference between location of consumption and of production has a consequence forthis the cross-border should should be regarded be capacity regarded aswhen indicative, as gas indicative, it can it be can be seen that that there is more isbymore gas interconnection gas interconnection interconnection is compared withseen electricity on a there country country basis. Figure 7 below capacity capacity than than electricity electricity interconnection interconnection capacity. capacity. shows the cross-border interconnection capacity within the North West European region for both gas and electricity on a country byincountry basis. The in partinexplained bysize: the size: difference market size: The The difference difference is in ispart part explained explained by difference the by difference the isdifference market in market the gas the in market gas market is the is about about 60%is 60% larger larger thanlarger than the electricity the the electricity market market on an on anannual annual basis. basis. AAsecond A second explanation explanation is peak is gas market about 60% than electricity market onannual an basis. second explanation is the the peak the peak demand demand of gas of gas and and electricity electricity which which differs differs even even more more than than 60%. 60%. A third A third demand of gas and electricity which differs even more than 60%. A third explanation is the fact that most of the gas explanation explanation is the is fact the fact that that mostmost of the of gas the gas consumed consumed is not is produced not produced in the in same the same consumed is not produced in the same country. In all, gas interconnection capacities are more than ten times as country. country. high as electricity interconnections. Thecapacities gas markets are therefore much moretimes interdependent electricity In all, In gas all, gas interconnection interconnection capacities are more are more than than ten times ten as high as high as than electricity as the electricity markets. Although this dataThe should be markets regarded indicative, it can much bemore seenmore that there is more gasthan interconnection interconnections. interconnections. The gas gas markets are astherefore are therefore much interdependent interdependent than the the electricity electricity markets. markets. Capacity on  major  interconnec;on  points  in     capacity than electricity interconnection capacity.

NW Europe,  Gas  and  Electricity  

Interconnec;on capacity,  GW  

70 60   50   40   30  

Gas Electricity  

20 10   0   IE  to   UK  to  UK  to  NL  to  NL  to  DE  to  NL  to  BE  to   BE  to  UK  to  BE  to   FR  to   BE  to  DE  to  FR  to  DE  to  DE  to  DK  to  DK  to   SE  to  DE  to   SE  to   UK  

IE

NL

UK

DE

NL

BE

NL

Figure 7 Cross Border Interconnection Capacity8   8

12

UK

BE

FR BE   DE   FROM  -­‐  TO  

11

Source: ENTSO-E, TenneT and ENTSOG, 2013 figures

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North West Gas Regional Investment Plan 2013-2022

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DE

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DK

DE

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DE


2.4 The L-gas market in North West Europe Low calorific gas (L-gas) is produced in The Netherlands and in Germany. Dutch Groningen gas (G-gas), originating from the Groningen field is blended with High calorific gas (H-gas) to obtain L-gas which is exported to Germany, Belgium and France. Blending H-gas with nitrogen is also used to produce L-gas. Reserves of L-gas are in decline, both in Germany and in The Netherlands as can be concluded from the two graphs below (more information about production in North West Europe can be found in chapter 3).  

Natural Gas   Natural  Gas  

Likely reserves   Sure  reserves   Likely  reserves   Sure  reserves  

Figure 8 Reserves of L-gas in Germany9

Figure 8 Reserves of L-gas in Germany9 Figure 8 Reserves of L-gas in Germany9 Proportionally profiled production allowance Groningen accumulation (2011-2020) Expected supply Groningen accumulation based on production plan (from 2021 onwards)

Figure 9 Production of L-gas in The Netherlands10 Source: http://www.lbeg.niedersachsen.de/portal/live.php?navigation_id=657&article_id=865&_psmand=4

9

Figure 9 http://www.nlog.nl/en/oilGas/oilGas.html Production of L-gas in The Netherlands10 10 Source: Figure 9 Production of L-gas in The Netherlands10

                                                                                                                      9 North West Gas Regional Investment Plan 2013-2022        Source:                            http://www.lbeg.niedersachsen.de/portal/live.php?navigation_id=657&article_id=865&_psmand=4                                                                                     910

Source:http://www.lbeg.niedersachsen.de/portal/live.php?navigation_id=657&article_id=865&_psmand=4 http://www.nlog.nl/en/oilGas/oilGas.html Source:

10

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The following figures illustrate the L-gas markets and provides a detailed overview of the different production, storage and blending stations available11. A fair share of the Belgian market is supplied with L-gas. The high pressure L-gas network is indicated with the blue lines in figure 10.

Figure 10 L-gas and H-gas High Pressure Network in Belgium

Figure 10 and H-gas High Pressure Network InL-gas France, part of the Northern market in is Belgium supplied with L-gas. The high pressure L-gas

pipelines in France are indicated in yellow below.

                                                                                                                      11

The Dutch market is mainly supplied with G-gas. This market area will not be further detailed in this chapter

14

In France, part of the Northern market is supplied with L-gas. The high pressure L-gas pipelines in France are indicated in yellow (figure 11).

L-gas H-gas North of France

gas Figure L11 H gas L-gas and H-gas High Pressure Network in France

The Dutch market is mainly supplied with G-gas. This market area will not be further detailed in this chapter

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The German L-gas market is indicated by the yellow dots in North, West and Central part of the country. The number included in the yellow dots refers to the L-gas conversion areas, which are ranked according to the German Network Development Plan Gas 2013 (‘Netzentwicklungplan, NEP 2013’).

Figure 12 German L-gas market conversion areas

Figure 12 The current market demand for all L-gas countries (including the Dutch G-gas market) is German L-gas market conversion areas shown in the overview below. It indicates the different sizes of the markets, the countries producing L-gas, G/L-gas storage and the quality conversion facilities.

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Â

The current market demand for all L-gas countries (including the Dutch G-gas market) is shown in the overview below. It indicates the different sizes of the markets, the countries producing L-gas, G/L-gas storage and the quality conversion facilities.

Figure13 13Overview of G-gas and L-gas market Figure Overview of G-gas and L-gas market

It has become clear that the current L-gas market demand cannot be sustained. Other sources of gas will, in due course, replace the L-gas sources. This topic is being discussed on the Gas Platform with representatives of the involved Member States. For L-gas It has become clearNetherlands, that the current L-gas market demandofcannot be sustained. Other sources of gas will, in due coming from the a gradual conversion the markets in Germany is foreseen aroundthe 2020 to sources. be followed later is onbeing in Belgium andonFrance (circa 2025). The course, replace L-gas This topic discussed the Gas Platform with representatives of the conversion of the domestic market in the Netherlands is not likely to start before 2030, involved Member States. For L-gas coming from The Netherlands, a gradual conversion of the markets in Germany because the current appliances are not suitable to be switched to different gas qualities. is foreseen around 2020 to be followed later on in Belgium France (circa 2025). The conversion of the domestic Conversion of the markets will take several years seeingand as all appliances will have to be checked and adapted to a different gas quality range and adaptation of infrastructure is market in The Netherlands is not likely to start before 2030, because the current appliances are not suitable to be also required. As part of the requirement for future market conversion, the German NEP switched to different gas qualities. Conversion the markets will take years seeing 2013, takes into account a reduction of L-gasofimport capacities fromseveral the Netherlands of as all appliances will about per year starting Togas prepare the L-gas and is also required. As have to10% be checked and adaptedfrom to a 2020. different qualityGermany range andfor adaptation of decline infrastructure the reduction of indigenous production the conversion of some L-gas areas will start part of the requirement for future market conversion, the German NEP 2013, takes into account a reduction of L-gas around 2016.

import capacities from The Netherlands of about 10% per year starting from 2020. To prepare Germany for the

The TYNDP has not modelled the conversion of L-gas markets because the future need L-gas decline and the reduction of indigenous production the conversion of some L-gas areas will start around 2016. for L-gas substitution is neither a matter of resilience of the system nor can L-gas be imported from somewhere else, which is the core focus of the TYNDP 2013-2022. The conversion this market intomodelled H-gas markets will beofthe result of on-going The TYNDP of 2013-2022 has not the conversion L-gas markets separatelyintensive because the future need for interaction between governments, TSOs and suppliers. Currently, evaluations are carried L-gasregarding substitution neither a matter of resilience of the system the nor can L-gas be imported from somewhere else, out the ispossibilities for the substitution of L-gas; exact impact this may have yet been fully determined. whichonis infrastructures the core focus ofhas thenot TYNDP 2013-2022. The conversion of this market into H-gas markets will be the result

of on-going intensive interaction between governments, TSOs and suppliers. Currently, evaluations are carried out has not

Because the GRIP covers a ten-year-period, only conversion of the German L-gas market regarding possibilities the substitution of L-gas L-gas; the exactinimpact this France may have onthe infrastructures up to 2022the is dealt with infor this GRIP. The other markets Belgium, and G-gas market in Netherlands will be converted at a later stage. yet been fully determined. To prepare Germany for L-gas conversion the German L-gas TSOs established a working group in 2011 to analyse the future development of L-gas. The results of the working

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GRIPincluded covers a ten-year-period, only modelling conversion of draft the German up toNEP 2022 2013. is dealt within group Because have the been in the recent for L-gas the market German The this GRIP. The other L-gas markets in Belgium, France and the G-gas market in The Netherlands will be converted at Plan includes some of the consequences of this conversion which have already been a later stage. investigated. The selection of areas must be done carefully, cost efficiently and in compliance with SoS targets. To prepare Germany for L-gas conversion the German L-gas TSOs established a working group in 2011 to analyse

General for finding conversion in Germany are: the criteria future development of L-gas. The results areas of the working group have been included in the recent modelling draft • Usage of existing interfaces of H- and L-gas-networks for the German NEP 2013. The Plan includes some of the consequences of this conversion which have already been • Integration of existing L-gas transmission infrastructure for H-gas transports after investigated. The selection of areas must be done carefully, cost efficiently and in compliance with SoS targets. the conversion • Definition of network areas, where quality conversion at the time of conversion is General criteria securely for finding conversion in Germany are: controlled (numberareas of facilities, available experts, etc.) Usage of existing interfaces of Hand L-gas-networks • Secure need of exit capacity within the L-gas market for production units for full usage Integration of existing L-gas transmission infrastructure for H-gas transports after the conversion • Connection of H-gas within close proximity to highistransport capacities Definition of network areas,pipelines where quality conversion at the time of conversion controlled securely • Secure storages the L-gas system to facilitate the demand(number ofsource facilities, of available experts,within etc.) supply-balance Secure need of exit capacity within the L-gas market for production units for full usage • Consideration ofpipelines the impacts of proximity the separation of adjacent Connection of H-gas within close to high transport capacities networks for a partial conversion to H-gas Secure source of storages within the L-gas system to facilitate the demand-supply-balance • Maintain the security of supply for the L-gas-system Consideration of the impacts of the separation of adjacent networks for a partial conversion to H-gas • Additional H-gas capacities have to be taken into account

Maintain the security of supply for the L-gas-system Additional capacities have tofor be taken account market has also been analysed in the Identification ofH-gas H-gas sources the into German

previous NEP and is also subject to further studies in the new NEP. An extract is shown 12 and is also subject Identification of H-gas sources for the market been analysed in the previous NEP . from the scenario development ofGerman this NEP in has thealso schematic diagram below to further studies in the new NEP. An extract is shown from the scenario development of this NEP in the schematic diagram below .

Distribution of  future  H-­‐gas  sources  based  on  the  WEO  Study 12

Results of  WEO  Study  for  Europe 199

Western Europe

101

LNG

12

33,6

West 45,6

0

South-­‐ eastly

South

98

South-­‐ west

Pipeline

7

11,7

61,2 36,8 37,1

South/ Southeastly

Northeast 48,5

104,9

Additional Demand in  Germany 23%

Oude St., Bocholz,   Eynatten,   Medelsheim

Changes in  bcm  2010  -­‐>  2035

53%

Oberkappel, Wallbach, Überackern

24%

Prognosis aiming  on Demand   2035

Greifswald

Figure Figure 14 Distribution of future H-gas sources for Germany 14

2.5

Distribution of future H-gas sources for Germany

Odourisation in the NW European transmission systems

12

http://www.fnb-gas.de/files/nep_gas_2014_szenariorahmen_konsultationsdokument_2013-07-22.pdf

Natural gas is odour-free, but in order to identify any leaks on the distribution network and on internal facilities, odourised gas is distributed. The distribution of odourised gas is North West Gas Regional Investment Plan 2013-2022 I compulsory in all European countries. In most European countries, the odourisation takes

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2.5 Odourisation in the North West European Transmission Systems Natural gas is odour-free, but in order to identify any leaks on the distribution network and on internal facilities, odourised gas is distributed. The distribution of odourised gas is compulsory in all European countries. In most European countries, the odourisation takes place just upstream of the distribution networks. But in some countries, the odourisation process is centralised by transmission systems operators upon entry onto the system; this is the case in France, Ireland, Sweden and Spain. In the NW Region, this difference in gas odourisation practices is an obstacle, except in the case of force majeure, to flows from France to Germany and Belgium13. This topic is the subject of a particular point in the network code on interoperability. This code being drafted by ENTSOG was given to ACER in September 2013. Then the process of formal validation by ACER, the EC, the MemberStates, the Council and the Parliament will be followed. It will rely on the guidelines issued by ACER on 26th July 2012 which provide for the case where differences in odourisation practices present barriers to trade cross-border gas, operators will seek an agreement within six months.

2.6 The Three European Energy Policy Objectives and the North West Region As illustrated by the findings of National Plans and the TYNDP 2013-2022 the North West gas market is very mature. The networks are strongly interconnected and operational cooperation is part of the day-to-day business of TSOs. However, the North West region still faces challenges in the years ahead, challenges which may result in the need for additional investment. These challenges are best viewed through the prism of the three European energy pillars, competitiveness, security of supply and sustainability. 2.6.1 Competitiveness Ensuring a level playing field for market participants is a key tenet to achieving a complete internal energy market for gas. The North West region has pioneered liberalised gas markets as it has: The largest and most liquid hubs in Europe Functioning wholesale markets Increasing price convergence between national wholesale markets Hundreds of market players The most interconnected markets in Europe Relatively few cross border congestion issues outlined in the TYNDP 2013-2022 (which will be covered in chapter 4) Relatively diversified access to sources of supply outlined in the TYNDP 2013-2022 (which will also be covered in chapter 4) A key task for any TSO is to ensure that there is enough capacity available efficiently for market participants. By ensuring enough capacity TSOs allow the flow of gas to where it is most valued based on price signals. However, to ensure there is enough capacity available to meet market demand, TSOs require a market signal to build new capacity and a regulatory regime which allows for revenues to be recoverable through a stable and clear tariff regime.

An improvement of this situation will occur in 2015 with the creation of firm capacity from France to Belgium allowed by the installation of a new pipeline and an interconnection for non-odourised gas to be transmitted between Dunkirk and Belgium. It has to be noted that no French customers will be connected to these works, directly or indirectly 13

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In the following paragraphs the investment climate and the gas hubs in the North West region are described. 2.6.1.1 Investment Climate The North West region is still seen with a positive outlook for investors; however continued success in this regard is far from guaranteed and is becoming more and more of a challenge. Existing and future infrastructure projects will only come on stream if there is: A stable investment climate, ensuring that system owners are incentivised to invest in infrastructure projects and that investors can trust that they have a sufficient return on their investments A supportive regulatory framework (in the project’s definition, execution and operation phase) The degree of market development and the structure of natural gas transmission systems vary considerably within Europe. Therefore, regulatory regimes should put in place measures tailored to the specific investment needs, which different systems have utilised throughout their development. The TYNDP 2013-2022 listed five groups of ‘barriers to investment’, being the National Regulatory Framework, Permit Granting, Market, Financing and Political. This report focuses on three areas of particular interest to the NW region. National Regulatory Framework A supportive regulatory framework (in the project’s definition, execution and operation phase) facilitates a stable investment climate, ensuring that system owners are incentivised to invest in infrastructure projects and that investors can rely on a sufficient return on their investments. Market The move towards short-term capacity products at extremely low or even zero reserve prices means there is a risk of under-recovery of revenues for the TSOs. This may lead to an unstable tariff regime and potentially results in parties booking long-term capacity picking up additional costs due to those who ‘wait and see’ and benefit from discounted short-term products. The North West region has already seen the consequences of such a move on the commodity price in the UK. The ratio between UK entry capacity charges and commodity charges has changed from 90:10 to 70:30 in recent years14. There is also the long-term impacts, if market participants choose to use only short-term capacity, it will distort investment signals and could eventually lead to congested interconnection points across the North West region. Political Policy makers’ decisions have an impact on market confidence, especially in regard to reaching long-term environmental targets. It is therefore vital that policy makers offer consistent and predictable messages. Investment in gas infrastructure is a long-term financial commitment. Inconsistent or partially contradictory political messages can have a direct effect on whether the market feels confident to invest or not. Investors in gas infrastructure traditionally look for long-term low risk investments, where regulatory certainty allows them to recoup their investment over a long period of time. Negative messages regarding the future role of gas in the generation mix could deter investment in gas generation, which could lead to supply issues in the short and medium term.

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For further information please see: https://www.ofgem.gov.uk/ofgem-publications/59255/ngg-response-call-evidence-use-gas-interconnectors-gbs-borders.pdf

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2.6.1.2 Current Gas Generation Environment The present global market conditions combined with There is considerable uncertainty surrounding the the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) has led to an political ambitions to achieve the ambitious European increase in the use of coal for power generation over long-term environmental targets. This is illustrated by gas. The impact of this on the North West region in the the strongly diverging annual gas demand projections, as generation merit order has been the moth-balling and is expressed in figure 15 which is taken from the TYNDP closure of gas-fired power plants across the region15. 2013-2022, and summarises the long-term perspective Due to changes in the merit order, for example, one of for gas consumption as outlined by the Communication the most efficient gas power plants, Irsching 5, located ‘Energy Roadmap 2050’. in South Germany, has run into economical losses. As   reduced operating hours do not cover its costs, the It should be noted that the 5 alternative decarbonisation customers. customers. In the Netherlands In the Netherlands some 3 GWsome of gas-fired 3 GW of power gas-fired generation power will generation be mothwill be mothclosureuntil of the power plant up forthe discussion. in the Roadmap represent 16 5 divergent16options balled 2020 balled and until in2020 thewas UK and mothballing in UK mothballing also The occursscenarios due also to occurs the reasons due to the mentioned. reasons mentioned. closure was only avoided as Irsching 5 has a high for the achievement of the same target by 2050 (a There is considerable There is considerable uncertainty surrounding surrounding the political the ambitions to ambitions achieve to the achievefrom the1990 relevancy for the electricity system uncertainty in the Southern reduction ofpolitical CO2 emissions up to 80-95% ambitious European ambitiouslong-term Europeanenvironmental long-term environmental targets. Thistargets. is illustrated This isby illustrated the strongly by the strongly German region andgas a compromise between levels). In aFigure similar 15 exercise, Eurogas Roadmap depicts an diverging annual diverging annual demandgas projections, demand the projections, as plant is expressed as is in expressed inwhich Figure is15 taken which is taken from theE.ON, TYNDP from 2013-2022, TYNDP 2013-2022, and summarises and the summarises thealternative long-term the perspective long-term for gas for reduction gas operator the the German power TSO Tennet and energy scenario,perspective where the 2050 consumptionconsumption as outlined by as the outlined Communication by the Communication “Energy Roadmap “Energy 2050”. Roadmap 2050”. German regulator Bundesnetzagentur (BNetzA) was targets are achieved with an important contribution achieved. payment from power from gas. The energy consumption scenario outlined It should Abe Itcompensation noted shouldthat be noted the 5 that alternative the the 5 alternative decarbonisation decarbonisation scenarios inscenarios the Roadmap in the Roadmap represent 5 represent divergent 5 options divergent for options the achievement for the achievement of the same of target the same by 2050 target (a by 2050 (a TSO Tennet to the operator E.ON was agreed for keeping by the Eurogas Roadmap contemplates a substantial reduction ofreduction CO2 emissions of CO2 up emissions to 80-95% up to from 80-95% 1990 from levels). 1990 In levels). a similarInexercise, a similar exercise, the plant Roadmap running. compensation payment then scenario, improvement in the the sustainable of natural gas in the Eurogas EurogasThis depicts Roadmap an depicts alternative an alternative energy energywhere scenario, where 2050 reduction theuse 2050 reduction targets are targets achieved are with achieved an important with contribution important contribution from gas. The from energy gas. consumption energy gets passed on to end customers. In theanNetherlands long-term. This may be The achieved withconsumption the development scenario outlined scenario by outlined the Eurogas by the Roadmap Eurogascontemplates Roadmap contemplates a substantial a substantial improvement improvement in some 3 GW of gas-fired power generation will be moth- of Carbon Capture and Storage and the increaseinin the the sustainable the sustainable use of natural use gas of natural in the gas long-term. in the This long-term. may be This achieved may bewith achieved the with the 16 17 and Belgium balled until development 2020, and also the and UKCapture of natural gas use as a of transportation development of Carbon Capture ofinCarbon Storage and andStorage the use increase and the in increase the in natural the usegas of fuel. natural gas as a transportation as a transportation fuel. fuel. mentioned. mothballing occurs due to the reasons

Natural gas Natural in primary gasenergy in primary consumption energy consumption Share of gasShare in primary of gasenergy in primary energy Source:TYNDP Source:TYNDP 2013-2022 2013-2022

Source:TYNDP Source:TYNDP 2013-2022 2013-2022

Figure Demand 15 Gas up to Demand 2050 up to 2050 Figure 15 15 GasFigure

Gas Demand up to 2050 2.6.1.2

2.6.1.2 North WestNorth European West Gas European Hubs Gas Hubs

The North West The North regionWest hostsregion the most hosts liquid the most and largest liquid and hubslargest in terms hubs of in size terms or traded of size or traded 15 See for example: http://www.statkraft.com/presscentre/press-releases/statkraft-puts-another-gas-fired-power-plant-into-cold-reserve.aspx 16 volume in Europe. volume The in Europe. figure below The figure showsbelow the liquidity shows the is increasing. liquidity is Herens increasing. Tradability Herens Tradability https://www.ofgem.gov.uk/ofgem-publications/75232/electricity-capacity-assessment-report-2013.pdf 17 Index measures Indexdifferent measures types different of factors types describing of factorsthe describing degree of thehow degree liquidofthe how hub liquid is. the hub is. http://wathelet.belgium.be/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/Plan-Wathelet-pour-lélectricité.pdf

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North West Gas Regional Investment Plan 2013-2022


2.6.1.3 North West European Gas Hubs

The North West region hosts the most liquid and largest hubs in terms of size or traded volume in Europe. The figure below shows the liquidity is increasing. Herens Tradability Index18 measures different types of factors describing the degree of how liquid the hub is.

Figure 16 ICIS - Herens Tradability Index Q1 2012

Figure 16 hubs, ICISNBP -Heren Index Q1are 2012 Two19 virtual in the UKTradability and TTF in The Netherlands, the most mature hubs in Europe and they are used for financial risk management of gas portfolios. In addition, they have an open and easy access to trade with a wide range of participants, are transparent and have proven to be reliable in the market.

Two17 virtual hubs, NBP in the UK and TTF in the Netherlands, are the most m inTheEurope and they Germany are used risk management gas are portfolios. virtual hubs NetConnect (NCG)for and financial GASPOOL in Germany together with PEGs of in France less mature have than NBPan and TTF, yet theand tradedeasy volumes access on these hubs increasingwith year onayear. they open toaretrade wide range of partic transparent and have proven to be reliable in the market.

The physical hub of Zeebrugge Beach in Belgium is also in the upper range with respect to liquidity. Zeebrugge Beachvirtual is the market for trading physical gas either made available in the Zeebrugge area (from Norway, UK and The hubs NetConnect Germany (NCG) and GASPOOL in Germany LNG) or in coming from the Belgian market. In October 2012 NBP the newand virtualTTF, hub ZTP (Zeebrugge Trading Point) was PEGs France are less mature than yet the traded volumes launched together with the new Entry-Exit model in Belgium. After more than ten years, Zeebrugge Beach is one of are increasing year on year. the most active hubs in continental Europe and is used as a reference in a number of contracts.

to on

The physical hub of Zeebrugge Beach in Belgium is also in the upper range w Gaspoint Nordic in Denmark is still very small, but the volume is steadily increasing from very low levels. to liquidity. Zeebrugge Beach is the market for trading physical gas either mad inThethe Zeebrugge area (from Norway, UK and LNG) or coming the Belg liquidity of the North West European region’s hubs continues to increase. To measure liquidity, from churn ratios In October 2012 the volume) new virtual hub ZTP TradingthePoint) wa (traded volume divided by physical are often used as well as the(Zeebrugge number of active participants, HHI together the newof Entry-Exit Belgium. After more of the traded with quantities, the variety contracts the hubmodel offers, and in the price spread between bid and offer. than Zeebrugge Beach iseasy one ofaccess thetomost active hubs in continental Europe and i Unfortunately, it is not always to get these factors. reference in a number of contracts. 18 19

https://www.icis.com/compliance/documents/european-gas-hub-report-methodology-september-2012/ Some parts of the following text have been based on Patrik Heather: ‘Continental European Gas Hubs: Are they fit for purpose?’, June 2012

Gaspoint Nordic in Denmark is still very small, but the volume is steadily incre very low levels. 21 North West Gas Regional Investment Plan 2013-2022 I


The following table shows the total traded volumes on NBP, Zeebrugge, TTF, PEG, GASPOOL, NCG and NPG, and as it is seen, the traded volume continues to increase year on year20. Year

TWh

2010

9,609

2011

25,000

2012

25,480

Table 3 Total traded volumes on NBP, Zeebrugge, TTF, PEG, GASPOOL, NCG and NPS Day-ahead Prices 2006-2013 80

70

Day-ahead Prices 2006-2013 60 TTF NCG

70 €/MWh

€/MWh

80 50

GASPOOL

40

Zeebrugge NBP

60

PEG

30

NPG

50

NCG

20

€/MWh

TTF

GASPOOL

40

Zeebrugge

10

NBP PEG

30 0 1-7-2012

1-10-2012

1-1-2013

1-10-2012

1-4-2012

1-1-2012

1-7-2012

1-1-2012

1-10-2011

1-4-2012

1-7-2011

1-10-2011

1-7-2011

1-4-2011

1-4-2011

1-1-2011

1-1-2011

1-7-2010

1-10-2010

1-4-2010

1-1-2010

1-7-2009

1-10-2009

1-4-2009

1-1-2009

1-7-2008

1-10-2008

1-4-2008

1-1-2008

1-7-2007

1-10-2007

1-4-2007

1-1-2007

1-7-2006

1-10-2006

1-4-2006

1-1-2006

NPG

20

1-1-2013

1-7-2010

1-4-2010

1-1-2010

1-10-2009

1-7-2009

1-4-2009

1-1-2009

1-10-2008

1-7-2008

1-4-2008

1-1-2008

1-10-2007

1-7-2007

1-4-2007

1-1-2007

1-10-2006

1-7-2006

1-4-2006

1-1-2006

1-10-2010

10

Figure 17 Price0 development on different European hubs

More evidence to show that hubs have gained more importance, can be seen by looking at the close price correlations between the hubs, and how the price volatility continues to decrease as interconnection capacity is increasingly used to capture spreads between markets. In addition, the volume physically delivered on hubs compared to the total consumption of gas also continues to increase. In 2012, this proportion went beyond 80% looking at the numbers from UK, NL, BE, DE, FR, AT and IT21. Also, due to renegotiations of the long-term oil-indexed contracts, the hub gas prices have begun to decouple from the oil indexed price since 2009. Nevertheless, there are still situations where bottlenecks occur and price-spreads exist between the different hubs despite investments in cross-border capacities and improved service provided. Therefore, even in this already well-supplied region, new investments in gas infrastructure and the improvement of services could help decrease price spreads and volatility. By improving the competition between supply sources, this will support further market integration in the region. An example of where there is still diverging prices is PEG Sud. Figure 18 illustrates the convergence in the monthly average day-ahead gas prices of the North West European hubs. The graph shows for summer 2012 the close price correlations between the North West European hubs compared to some other European hubs. In general, the movements in the day-ahead prices are closely related, but PEG Sud shows a divergent pattern to the other North West European hubs because of the dependency on LNG of this region. Remedies to this situation are presented in chapter 4 section 4.2.1. Sources: ICIS Heren, ICE, APX-Endex, EEX, Nord Pool Gas and Powernext Source: Quarterly Report on European Gas Markets, Market Observatory for Energy, DG Energy, Volume 6, Issue 1, First quarter 2013

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Figure 18 Day-Ahead Gas Prices in NW European Hubs

Figure 18 Day-Ahead Gas Prices in NW European Hubs Another example of existing bottlenecks in the region is the German/Danish case. When

gas supplies from the North Sea are not deliverable to the Danish market, Denmark and Sweden solely Gas on supply from Germany. In spring 2013, two situations arose where Figure 18rely Day-Ahead Prices in NW European Another example of existing bottlenecks in Hubs the region is the German/Danish case. When gas supplies from the the day-ahead prices on Gaspoint Nordic had increased substantially above the price North are notofdeliverable to19 theshows. Danish Denmark Sweden solely on supply level in Sea Germany, as Figure Theregion figure shows thatrely exit capacity to from Germany. In Another example existing bottlenecks in market, the is also the and German/Danish case. When Denmark was close to full utilisation during the two spikes. The reason for this spike gas supplies from the North Sea are not deliverable to the Danish market, Denmark and spring 2013, two situations arose where the day-ahead prices on Gaspoint Nordic had increasedissubstantially above the missing of the from infrastructure the2013, Danish-German border. Sweden relyexpansion solely on supply Germany.around In spring two situations arose However, where theday-ahead priceplanned level inprices Germany, as 19 shows. Theincreased figure alsosubstantially shows thatspreads exit capacity to Denmark was close to full the on Gaspoint Nordic had above the expected price once the projects arefigure successfully implemented, the price are level in Germany, as Figure 19 shows. The figure also shows that exit capacity to to utilisation disappear. during the two spikes. The reason for this spike is the missing expansion of the infrastructure around the Denmark was close to full utilisation during the two spikes. The reason for this spike is Danish-German border.ofHowever, once the planned projects are successfully implemented, the price spreads are the missing thewhere infrastructure the Danish-German border. However, There could expansion be occasions the usearound of capacity is not correlated with the price expected to disappear. once theonplanned projects are As successfully the price spreadsbeen are expected spreads the regions hubs. previouslyimplemented, stated, analysis has already undertaken to the disappear. on UK and continental price spreads. This analysis also features thirteen responses from stakeholders who provide their detailed answer on as to why flow against the price There could could be where thethe useuse of capacity is not is correlated with thewith price the spreads There be occasions occasions where of capacity not correlated priceon the regions hubs. As differential could occur. spreads on the regions hubs. As previously stated, analysis has already been undertaken previously stated, analysis has already been undertaken on the UK and continental price spreads. This analysis also on the UK and continental price spreads. This analysis also features thirteen responses features thirteen responses from stakeholders who provide detailed answer as why flow against the price from stakeholders who provide their detailed answer on astheir to why flow against thetoprice differential could occur. differential could occur.

Figure 19 Gas Prices and Capacity Utilisation (Spring 2013)

Figure 19 Gas Prices and Capacity Utilisation (Spring 2013)

Figure 19 Gas Prices and Capacity Utilisation (Spring 2013)

24

 

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North West Gas Regional Investment Plan 2013-2022

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chapter 3 section 3.3 clearly highlights that the North West region will become more reliant on imported gas, Security of Supply is imperative for a well-functioning from 56% (1,700 TWh) in 2013 to 69% (2,061 TWh) in internal market. The TSOs of the North West region have, 2020. As North West Europe TSOs will need to facilitate over the years, supported developments at national and the increase in imported gas coming into the region, this European level for improving Security of Supply. Due is likely to require further investment in the North West to significant investment in gas infrastructure in recent gas network. years, the North West region has some of the most diversified supply sources anywhere in Europe. 2.6.3 Sustainability

2.6.2 Security of Supply

As a result of the January 2009 Russia/Ukraine crisis, Security of Supply rose to the top of the European energy agenda resulting in the publication of Regulation (EU) No 994/2010 in October 2010. This Regulation predominantly places obligations on national competent authorities, which are supported by TSOs of the North West region when required. This GRIP in no way intends to duplicate the work completed by competent authorities at a national level in the framework of the implementation of the Security of Supply Regulation.

The third and final pillar of the European energy policy is sustainability. The EU has led the world in developing binding climate change targets for 2020. The increase in renewable electricity generation sources will revolutionise the European energy mix. As the National Energy Renewable Action Plans for the countries of the North West region show in table 2, solar and wind generation on a yearly basis should increase significantly in the coming years.

Gas is abundant, affordable and available and it is The North West region has been relatively unscathed by the cleanest of the fossil fuels, thus placing it in recent gas supply crises which predominately impacted the ideal position to support the development of Eastern Europe. As was detailed in the case study about variable renewable energy sources. The change in the the 2012 Cold Snap (see section 2.2.1), this was not only generation mix of the North West region will impact the a challenge for infrastructure but also a supply problem. gas network of the region. The key aspect of this change The North West region has a substantially diversified in the North West network will be the requirement for range of gas supplies, and now has direct access to the more flexibility, allowing gas to quickly become available following different types of supply: when renewable energy sources are not generating National Production electricity22. The North West gas network will need to Russian Gas be reinforced and modified accordingly. Norwegian Gas LNG Due to the intermittent character of wind and solar Storage energy these sources are not always available where and when required by the market. Gas-fired power The North West region does however face Security plants supported by the gas system can provide back-up of Supply challenges ahead, especially relating to the capacity, and even when capacity is under utilised, gascontinued decrease in national production. Transmission fired power plants will still be vital in the generation mix, networks will need to become more flexible to ensure due to the intermittent nature of renewable generation. that supplies can be accessed from non-traditional Besides its back-up role, gas infrastructure offers routes and sources. The annual supply analysis in other advantages in a renewable energy supply. Gas 22 According to the 2009 study Trade Wind, ‘Integrating Wind Developing Europe’s power market for the large-scale integration of wind power,’ 200 MW of installed Wind Power in Europe in 2020 will result in a capacity credit of 14%, which means that only 14% of 200 MW is available under all conditions. For report, see: http://www.trade-wind.eu/

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Electricity production (GWh/y)

Gas-fired

wind on and off shore

wind on and off shore

Solar electric PV&CSP

Solar electric PV&CSP

Hydro Power

Hydro Power

2011

2010 NRAP

2020 NRAP

2010 NRAP

2020 NRAP

2010 NRAP

2020 NRAP

Belgium

22.866

991

10.474

304

1.139

362

440

Denmark

7.772

8.606

11.713

2

4

31

31

France

29.761

11.638

57.900

613

6.885

69.024

71.703

Germany

81.400

44.668

104.435

9.499

41.389

18.000

20.000

Ireland

14.435

4.817

11.970

0

0

701

701

Luxembourg

2.318

60

239

20

84

107

124

The Netherlands

71.200

4.470

32.408

73

570

127

184

Sweden

2.613

4.793

12.500

1

4

68.210

68.000

United Kingdom

126.835

14.150

78.270

40

2.240

5.100

6.360

Total

359.200

94.193

319.909

10.552

52.315

160.961

167.543

COUNTRY

Sources: Entsog TYNDP 2012-2022 and ECN Renewable Energy Projections as Published in the National Renewable Energy Action Plans of the European Member Stats 28112011

Table 4 Renewable Energy Projections Europe from renewable energy sources may be an important element of the future energy system because gas can be produced flexibly from biomass and waste and from a surplus of electricity (power to gas). Promising technologies like Power-to-Gas gain growing attention as they offer a huge potential to balance deviations in power injection from renewable energy systems. Therefore it is worth taking a closer look at this technology as it contributes to a higher degree in energy efficiency and to a sustainable environment. The integration of Power-to-Gas facilities brings benefits in different ways. On the one hand, this technology captures the flexibility of gas infrastructures by converting unused power flows into gas. Those gas flows can be transported through gas transmission systems and stored for later use during peak times. On the other hand, additional capacities coming from Power-toGas conversion lead to a declining dependency of gas

imports. Power-to-Gas leads to a higher flexibility for renewable power systems and a shrinking dependency on gas imports, it also offers a meaningful potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions for the fulfilment of the climate change targets. As demands on gas infrastructures are increasing, the integration of Power-to-Gas facilities into existing cross-border infrastructures is getting more important. Nevertheless, for the avoidance of financial risk, profound analysis and suitable locations have to be identified before large-scale investments decisions can be made. As the opportunities for the production of gas from renewable energy develop in the decades ahead, the gas system will have to handle this additional gas. Likewise, how will the gas systems of the region be effected if gas use (LNG/CNG) in the transportation sector becomes commercially successful?

North West Gas Regional Investment Plan 2013-2022

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3.0 Supply & Demand 3.1 Introduction

As shown in the North West Specifics chapter, the countries of North West Europe have a long history of gas utilisation and some of the most mature and liberalised gas markets in Europe. The following chapter shows the historical and potential development of demand and supply in the region. All figures used have been sourced from the Transmission System Operators (TSOs) of the region in 2013, unless otherwise stated.

3.0

Supply & Demand Chapter

3.1

Introduction

Demand As3.2 shown in the North West Specifics chapter, the countries of North West Europe have a long history of gas utilisation and some of the most mature and liberalised gas markets in Europe. The following chapter shows the historical and potential development of demand 3.2.1 Annual and supply in theDemand region. All figures used have been sourced from the Transmission System Operators (TSOs) of the region in 2013, unless otherwise stated. The importance of the North West region to the total EU gas demand should not be underestimated. Figure 20 Demand shows the annual gas demand of the North West region compared to the rest of the European Union. It shows that 3.2.1 Annual historically theDemand 9 countries of the North West region made up more than 58% of the total EU demand. 3.2

The importance of the North West region to the total EU gas demand should not be underestimated. The chart below shows the annual gas demand of the North West region compared to the rest EU of the Union. It shows that countries Whilst the total gasEuropean demand is expected to historically rise over the the9 next tenofyears, the North West regions annual the North West region made up more than 58% of the total EU demand. Whilst the total EU demand is forecasted to decline slightly, over the same period. So even with some of the most mature gas gas demand is expected to rise over the next ten years, the North West regions annual demand is forecasted to decline slightly, over the same of period. So evenpenetration with some of the markets in Europe, with unparalleled levels domestic and with the increased development of most mature gas markets in Europe, with unparalleled levels of domestic penetration and renewable electricity generation, the countries of the North West region are still expected to make up over half with the increased development of renewable electricity generation, the countries of the North West region expected to make up over of the total EU gas demand over of the total EU are gasstill demand over the next 10half years. the next 10 years.

North West Europe

6,000

Annual Demand (TWh)

5,000

Rest of EU 27

4,000 3,000 2,000

Figure 20 EU 27 & NW Europe Annual Gas Demand

2007

NW Europe 2007 NW Europe

2009

2008

2009

58% 2010 58% 2011

2012

58%

59%

59%

61%

58%

2010

59%2013 61% 2014 58%

57%

2011

2015

58% 2016

2017

56%

55%

54%

2013

59%2018 58% 2019 53%

52%

I

North West Gas Regional Investment Plan 2013-2022

2014 57% 2021

2020 52%

51%

2023

2022

2021

2020

2019

2018

2017

2012

28

26

58%

2008

2016

2015

2014

2013

2012

2011

2010

2009

2008

0

2007

1,000

2015

Figure 20 EU 27 & NW Europe Annual Gas Demand 2016

2017

2018

2019

2020

2021

2022

2023

56%2023 55%

54%

53%

52%

52%

51%

51%

51%

2022 51%

51%


The next chart shows a comparison between the TYNDP 2013-2022 figures and the figures provided by the TSOs for this GRIP. The chart shows the North West regions annual Figure 21 shows a comparison between the TYNDP 2013-2022 figures and the figures provided by the TSOs for this GRIP. demand projection. Both set of figures were supplied by the TSOs of the region, with the The chart shows the produced North West annual Both setinof2013. figures were supplied by the TSOs of the TYNDP figures being in regions 2012, and the demand NW GRIPprojection. figures produced

region, with the TYNDP 2013-2022 figures being produced in 2012, and the NW GRIP figures produced in 2013.

Whilst the data provided to the TYNDP in 2012 showed a slight increase in demand across the period, the 2013 projection shows a very small decrease in annual demand. The Whilst the data provided to the TYNDP 2013-2022 in 2012 showed a slight increase in demand across the period, the average difference between the two sets of data is 8% per year over the period, 2013 projection a very small in annual demand. Thesignificant average difference the two sets of data considering theseshows figures come just decrease a year apart it shows a fairly deviation. between It should be observed that TSOs developed their expertise mainly on daily capacities (since is 8% per year over the period, considering these figures come just a year apart it shows a fairly significant deviation. these determine network capacities) rather than annual volumes.

It should be observed that TSOs developed their expertise mainly on daily capacities (since these determine network capacities) rather than annual volumes.

4,000

NW GRIP 2013 TYNDP 2013-2022 History

3,500

Demand (TWh)

3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 2023

2022

2021

2020

2019

2018

2017

2016

2015

2014

2013

2012

2011

2010

2009

2008

2007

0

Figure 21 NW Annual Demand between the TYNDP 2017 2013-2022 & NW GRIP 2013 Comparison 2014 2015 2016 2018 20192013 2020

Difference (TWh)

-152

-178

-261

2013

2014

2015

2016

Difference (TWh)

-152

-178

-261

-266

Difference (%)

-5%

-6%

-9%

-9%

Difference (%)

-5%

-6%

-266

-281

2017

2018

2019

-281

-265

-265

-9%

-9%

-9%

-9%

-9%

-265

-265

2020

2021

2022

Average

-253

-257

-259

-244

-9%

-9%

-8%

-9%

-8%

-9%

-9%

2021

2022

average

-253

-257

-259

-224

-8%

-9%

-9%

-8%

Figure 21 NW Annual Demand Comparison between TYNDP 2013-2022 The North West region of Europe, with its longthe history of cooperation & NW GRIP 2013 in the gas industry, is still not one homogenous region. Uncertainty with regards to how annual demand will develop is shown by the diverging demand evolution at a national level. National specifics The North West region of Europe, with its long history of cooperation in the gas industry, is still not one homogenous also play a part in understanding how the utilisation of gas will develop over the next 10 region. Uncertainty withbelow regards to how annual developwith is shown by the diverging demand evolution year period. The map shows how localdemand factors will combined industry wide uncertainty, the evolution of gas There are significant national of gas will develop over at a nationalimpact level. National specifics alsousage play anationally. part in understanding how the utilisation differences on how much gas will be used on an annual basis during the next 10 years. the next 10 year period. The map below shows how local factors combined with industry wide uncertainty, impact TSOs of the region have different annual demand scenarios which are covered in their own

the evolution of gas usage nationally. There are significant national differences on how much gas will be used on an annual basis during the next 10 years. TSOs of the region have different annual demand scenarios which are covered 29 in their own national plans.

North West Gas Regional Investment Plan 2013-2022

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national plans. For example, two countries with significantly diverging expectations are Ireland and Demark:

Ireland: +20% Annual Demand Increase. The economic recovery, combined with favourable gas pricing and the expansion in the dairy industry is expected to drive For example, two countries significantly diverging expectations are Ireland andhas Denmark: growth in gaswith demand in Ireland. Historically Ireland relied heavily on oil for its Ireland: +20% Annual Demand Increase. The economic recovery, combined with favourable gas pricing and the 20 of Ireland’s total primary energy supplied by oil. With energy, with 56% expansion in the dairy industry is expected to drive growth in gas demand in Ireland. Historically Ireland has favourable gas pricing, gas fired power generation could also steer gas demand up. relied heavily on oil for its energy, with 56%23 of Ireland’s total primary energy supplied by oil. With favourable gas • Denmark: -20% Annual Demand Decrease. As part of the Danish governments pricing, gas fired power generation could also steer gas demand up. 21 pledge to be fossil fuel free by 2050 , Denmark leadspledge Europe thefuel development o Denmark: -20% Annual Demand Decrease. As part of the Danish governments to beinfossil free by electricity generation. Therefore there isgeneration. the expectation thatisannual gas , Denmark leads Europe in the development of renewable electricity Therefore there the 205024renewable usage decline over next years in Denmark a strong increase in expectation thatwill annual gas usage will the decline over 10 the next 10 years in Denmark due due toto a strong increase in renewable energy sources. renewable energy sources. •

Figure 22 NW Europe Annual Demand Evolution Figure 22 NW Europe Annual Demand Evolution

3.2.2

Renewables Impact on NW Region

There is considerable uncertainty regarding how annual gas demand will develop over the next decade in the North West region and across Europe. The growth in renewable powe Figure taken from Bord Gais website http://www.bordgais.ie/corporate/index.jsp?p=354&n=364 Taken from Energinet http://www.energinet.dk/EN/GAS/Udfordringer-for-gassen-i-fremtiden/Gasforbrug-og-leverancer-2013-2050/Sider/default.aspx

23 24

                                                                                                                      28

20

from Bord Investment Gais website I Figure Northtaken West Gas Regional Planhttp://www.bordgais.ie/corporate/index.jsp?p=354&n=364 2013-2022 Taken from Energinet http://www.energinet.dk/EN/GAS/Udfordringer-for-gassen-i-fremtiden/Gasforbrug-og-

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3.2.2 Renewables Impact on NW Region There is considerable uncertainty regarding how annual gas demand will develop over the next decade in the North

West regiontechnologies and across is Europe. Themore growth in renewable power technologies is however more certain. generation however certain. The impact of generation a large increase in renewable power generation will also increase gas demand volatility, and increase The impact of a large increase in renewable power generation will also increase gas demand volatility, and increase operational challenges for TSOs. For the networks to be able to respond and act in ways operational challenges for TSOs. further For theinvestment networks in to the be able to respond and act in they were not originally intended, networks will be required to ways they were not originally provide thefurther necessary flexibility. in the networks will be required to provide the necessary flexibility. intended, investment The example below is taken from the July 2011 Transporting Britain’s Energy (TBE) process The highlights example in figure 23extreme is takenevent from inthe July 2011 Transporting Britain’s Energy and a possible, 2020/21 (based on extrapolated 2007 data)(TBE) process and highlights a with total extreme wind generation 30 GW.(based Over aonperiod of 15 hours, wind factor possible, event inat2020/21 extrapolated 2007 the data) withload total wind generation at 30 GW. Over a decreased from 84% to 15%. If we assume all the reduction in generation from wind is period of 15 hours, the wind load factor decreased from 84% to 15%. If we assume all the reduction in generation met by an upturn of CCGT generation, then this equates to an increase in within-day gas from wind is met 90mcm/day. by an upturn of CCGT generation, then this equates to an increase in within-day gas demand of demand of roughly

100

90%

90

80%

80

70%

70

60%

60

~90mcm/d inc in gas demand

50% 40%

50 40

15 January

Hourly wind loadfactor

24

22

20

18

16

14

12

10

08

06

04

02

24

22

20

18

0

16

0%

14

10 12

10% 10

20

08

20%

06

30

04

30%

CCGT instantaneousgas gasdemands demand (mcm/d) CCGT instantaneouse (mcm/d)

100%

02

Load factor Load Factor

roughly 90mcm/day.

16 January

CCGT instantaneous gas demand

Figure 23 Wind vs. Gas Intermittency

Figure 23 Wind vs. Gas Intermittency Whilst this theoretical example

is an extreme event, it highlights how gas networks in North West Europe may have to deal with increasingly variable and unpredictable demand from CCGTs used as back-up for variable renewable energy sources. The example also Whilst this is an extreme event, highlights how gas networks in North West Europe may have shows the theoretical requirementexample for fast-acting capacity to itsupport intermittent renewable generation. to deal with increasingly variable and unpredictable demand from CCGTs used as back-up for variable renewable

energy sources. The example also shows the requirement for fast-acting capacity to support intermittent renewable

If a network does not have sufficient flexibility due to the lack of investment, there is a risk generation. that this could lead to constraints, which could end up impacting unduly on the endconsumer. There is a considerable amount of variable renewable energy sources coming on-line across the whole of North West Europe, especially with respect to the binding If a network does not have sufficient flexibility due to the lack of investment, there is a risk that this could lead to European climate change targets, the so called “20-20-20” targets. The table below constraints, could end up of impacting unduly on thethis end-consumer. is a considerable amount of variable highlights thewhich German example this, and the impact already has There on German generation requirements. renewableflexibility energy sources coming on-line across the whole of North West Europe, especially with respect to the 31 the so called ‘20-20-20’ targets. The table below highlights the German binding European climate change targets, example of this, and the impact this already has on German generation flexibility requirements.

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Wind + PV (MW)

Installed Wind & PV Capacity

All Installed Generation Capacity

Total installed (Wind & PV) capacity

54,065

100%

32%

Maximum generation

26,479

49%

16%

402

1%

0%

Average generation

7,374

14%

4%

Maximum increase within 1 hour

4,348

8%

3%

Maximum increase within 5 hours

13,907

26%

8%

Maximum decrease within 1 hour

-4,723

-9%

-3%

Maximum decrease within 5 hours

-14,966

-28%

-9%

Minimum generation

Table 5 Variable RES Indicators in Germany (for 2011) Due to the intermittent nature of some renewable energy sources, other more consistent fuels must be available for the generation mix. In 2011 German Wind and PV renewable generation was on average running at 14% of total installed renewable capacity on a daily basis. This highlights the requirement for conventional generation sources to help meet demand in the short to medium term. If gas is to act as an enabler fuel for renewable energy sources across the region, then gas infrastructure has to become more flexible. The German example in 2011 shows that over a quarter of all wind and solar PV generation capacities came on-line and off-line in five hour periods. This means the generation supply chain must be extremely flexible to provide back-up generation capacity at very short notice. The renewable generation peaks and troughs will only get larger as more and more variable renewable energy sources comes on-line, again further increasing the requirement for a highly flexible and well meshed gas infrastructure network across North West Europe. 3.2.3 Annual Demand Breakdown Figure 24 shows the annual demand breakdown of the North West region for the next ten year period. The chart is broken down into Domestic, Commercial and Industrial (DCI) demand compared to Power Generation demand for the region. It shows a projected plateauing in Power Generation demand in the region over the next ten years. It is important to stress the considerable amount of uncertainty around the Power Generation figures. Power Generation is market based and is heavily influenced by fuel price. Cheap coal combined with low carbon prices from the EU Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) have made it attractive to burn coal instead of gas. This has lead to a reduction of gas demand in the power sector over the last few years. With the introduction of auctioning as the default method for allocation of carbon allowances on the ETS, combined with the decommissioning of old oil and coal fired power plants, this could result in a change to the power generation merit order, and could mean an increase in gas demand in the generation sector in the coming years.

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From the historical data in figure 24 illustrates, that annual temperatures also heavily influence gas demand. This is due to the high percentage of households that rely on gas for heating, as demand increases when outdoor temperatures go down. This demand increases when outdoor temperatures go down. As weather conditions cannot power generation merit order, and could mean an increase in gas demand in the be forecasted on this time scale, such extremes are not included in annual demand forecasts. This should be borne generation sector in the coming years. in mind when comparing actual data and demand forecasts.

Figure 24 West Europe Yearly Demand Breakdown22 Figure 24 North North West Europe Yearly Demand Breakdown The next chart shows the demand breakdown between DCI demand and gas fired power generation between this GRIPDCI data and and the gas TYNDP The GRIPdemand compared Figure 25 demand shows thecompared demand breakdown between demand fired figures. power generation DCI demand over the period hardly deviates from the TYNDP data, there is only negligible between this GRIP data and the TYNDP 2013-2022 figures. The GRIP DCI demand over the period hardly deviates difference. The Power Generation comparison does however show a significant change from from the TYNDP 2013-2022 data, there is only negligible difference. The Power Generation comparison does howevthe TYNDP data to the GRIP data. The original TYNDP data shows a considerable increase er show changegeneration from the TYNDP to period, the GRIPwhich data. The original TYNDP 2013-2022 data in the use aofsignificant gas for power over2013-2022 the start data of the remains steady shows a considerable increase the use of gas gas for power generation overgeneration the start ofhowever, the period, which remains until the end of the period. Theinupdated GRIP demand for power the end of the period. Theand updated gas a demand for power generation however, has only a minor hassteady only until a minor increase in 2013 then GRIP shows continued plateauing of demand across the whole This change in the power generation demand to beThis change in the increase in 2013period. and then shows a continued plateauing of demand acrossaverages the wholeout period. 24% decrease overdemand each year of the to TYNDP Thiscompared power to TYNDP 2013power generation averages out toperiod be 24%compared decrease over each yearforecast. of the period generation decrease explains the total overall annual demand decrease for the region.

2022 forecast. This power generation decrease explains the total overall annual demand decrease for the region.

There are numerous reasons the projection for gas demand for power generation would Thereso aresignificantly, numerous reasons the projection for gas demand power2generation would change and these reasons are covered in for Chapter Section 2.3, butchange the so significantly, and thesewould reasons are covered in chapter 2 section 2.3, but the factors would include: factors include:

Low Carbon Price from EU ETS • Low Carbon Price EU ETS Abundance of cheap coalfrom displaced from the American merit order • Abundance of cheap coal displaced from the American merit order High global LNG prices • High global LNG prices Continued economic difficulties within Europe •

Continued economic difficulties within Europe

                                                                                                                      22

Please note, not all information in relation to the final 2012 breakdown was available at the time of writing.

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of households that rely on gas for space heating. This demand increases when outdoor temperatures go down. As weather conditions cannot be forecasted on this time scale, such extremes are not included in annual demand forecasts. This should be borne in mind when comparing actual data and demand forecasts.

Figure 25 DCI vs. Power Generation Comparison between the TYNDP 2013-2022 & NW GRIP 2013 2013

% Differences DCI

%Differences DifferencesPG PG   % % Differences DCI

2014

2015

2016

2017

2018

2019

2020

2014   2015   2016   2017   2018   2019   2020   -2% -1%     -1% -  1%   -1% -  2%   -2% -  1%   -1% -1%    -1% -1%   -1%   -2%   -2%   -  2%   -  17%   -17%-  19%   -19%-  26%  -26% -  28%  -28% -  29%-29%   -26%   -29%   -26%   -26%   -24%   -24%   2013

2021

-3% -  3%   -24%   -24%   2021

2022

Average   -3% -  3%   -  2%   -24%   -24%   -  24%   2022

Average -2% -24%

Figure 25 DCI vs. Power Generation Comparison between the TYNDP 2013-2022 & NW GRIP 2013 annual 3.2.4 Peak Demand

3.2.4 Peak Demand

Daily peak demand is of vital importance, as it is the main criteria for network design. Each national the North West region to becriteria able to peakEach daily demand Daily peaknetwork demand in is of vital importance, as it is has the main forhandle networkits design. national netto be fit for purpose. The chart below shows the historical regional peak demand days over work in the North West region has to be able to handle its peak daily demand to be fit for purpose. The the last 4 years. days do not necessarily correlate with peakThese demand days chart below showsThese the historical regional peak demand days over thenational last 4 years. days do not for the same period. The chart is also consistent with the ENTSOG TYNDP 2013-2022 as it necessarily correlate with national peak demand days for the same period. The chart is also consistent highlights the three high daily demand scenarios usedhigh in daily that demand publication, withused updated with the ENTSOG TYNDP 2013-2022 as it highlights the three scenarios in that figures. For further information on the different methodological descriptions please see the publication, with updated figures. For further information on the different methodological descriptions TYNDP 2013-2022. The TSOsThe ofTSOs the ofNorth West region theDesign-Case Design-Case the please see the TYNDP 2013-2022. the North West regionview view the as theasprimary primary daily demand as most it ensures the most robust development of the high dailyhigh demand scenario, as itscenario, ensures the robust development of the network. It is interesting network. It is interesting that theremain high consistently daily demand remain consistently that the high daily demand scenarios high scenarios during the duration of the next 10 high years, during the duration of the next 10 years, highlighting that even if annual demand is highlighting that even if annual demand is potentially declining in certain countries, high daily demand potentially declining in certain countries, high daily demand remains consistent. remains consistent.

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Peak Demand Scenarios for the North West Region

Peak Demand (GWh / Day)

25.000

Actual

Forecast

20.000

15.000

10.000

5.000

0

2009

2010

2011

2012

Design-Case

2013

2014

2015

Uniform Demand

2016

2017

14-Day Demand

2018

2019

2020

2021

2022

2023

History

Figure 26 North West Europe Peak Demand Outlook

Figure 27 shows a comparison between the Design-Case peak scenario figures from the TYNDP 2013-2022 and the NW GRIP. The chart only shows a very small decrease in the peak demand of the region over the period. This further highlights the fact that whilst annual demand volumes may fluctuate and decline, the requirement for peak capacity remains almost unchanged and is a fundamental requirement for the safe and efficient operation of a network.

Figure 27 Comparison of Design-Case - Peak Demand Scenarios

Â

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3.3 Supply Whilst the North West region does have the vast majority of Europe’s indigenous gas resources, these resources are expected to gradually decline over the next 10 years. Figure 28 shows that the North West region will become more and more reliant on imports, with imported gas forecast to make up 64% of the total North West demand by 2023. The increased regional dependency on imported gas further highlights how investment is required for the regional gas system to be able to deal with this change in supply configuration. Transmission System Operators have limited access to supply information, as it is not a core business requirement; however such supply information could be useful for network planning purposes. With the need to replace declining national production with imported gas from outside the region, it is important to know where the gas will come from in the future, given the long lead time needed to complete gas infrastructure projects. The connection to new supply sources or the expansion of existing sources will require further investment during the next decade.

Import Dependency

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

2018

2019

2020

2021

2022

2023

48%

52%

51%

55%

60%

59%

58%

57%

58%

58%

58%

59%

59%

62%

64%

Figure 28 North West Europe Annual Supply25

On the supply side the only data that the TSOs can accurately provide is regarding National Production. The difference between the TYNDP 2013-2022 figures and the GRIP figures is stark. The TYNDP 2013-2022 shows a decline at the beginning of the period, followed by a strong downward trend towards the end of the period. In contrast the GRIP figures show a dip in National Production in 2013 followed by an arc in the supply curve. The chart below shows that 2017 is the year that both curves dissect. TSOs of the region expect to see a continued decline in National Production figures, but it is interesting to see that based on external factors this decline could be slowed down over the ten year period. 25 The North West Europe Annual Supply chart is made up from the National Production figures for the region from the TYNDP 2013-2022 and the regions Annual Demand. The chart assumes all National Production is used within the NW region

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downward trend towards the end of the period. In contrast the GRIP figures show a dip in National Production in 2013 followed by an arc in the supply curve. The chart below shows that 2017 is the year that both curves dissect. TSOs of the region expect to see a continued decline in National Production figures, but it is interesting to see that based on external factors this decline could be slowed down over the ten year period.

Figure 29 National Production Comparison

Figure 29 Annual National Production Comparison

3.3.1

Supply source diversification

3.3.1information Supply source Using from diversification the TYNDP 2013-2022 under the source diversification assessment (supply maximisation simulations), Table 4 shows how many NW balancing zone (12 in all) can be reached by the different supply sources on an average demand day. The situation Using information from the TYNDP 2013-2022 under the source diversification assessment (supply for 2013 (with FID projects) and for 2022 (with Non-FID projects) is summarised, each maximisation simulations), table 4 levels shows(5% how NW balancing Zone (12 in all) can be reached by the time for two different supply penetration to many 20% and >20% of the demand) different supply sources on an average demand day. The situation for 2013 (with FID projects) and for 2022 Non-FID Non-FID FID Projects FID Projects (with Non-FID projects) is summarised, each time for two different supply penetration levels (5% to 20% Projects Projects and >20% of the demand) Number of Number of Supply Source

Number of Number of Zones with Zones with Zones with 5% Zones with 5% 20% plus in 20% plus in to 20% in 2013 20% in 2022 If the FID and Non-FID projects of2013 the region aretorealised, then2022 there is a significant increase in the number

of Zones that can access different9 sources of gas. National 3 3 The biggest9increase comes from Russian supply, where Production in 2013 only 4 Zones could reach 20% of their demand covered by Russian supply, while 9 Zones could Norwegian 0 10 0 12 potentially reach that level by 2022. LNG

3

7

3

9

Russian

3

4

1

9

Algerian

0

1

2

2

FID Projects FID Projects Table 4 Supply Source Diversification (Source TYNDP 2013-2022) Supply Source

Non-FID Projects

Non-FID Projects

Number of Zones with 5% to 20% in 2013

Number of Zones with 20% plus in 2013

Number of Zones with 5% to 20% in 2022

Number of Zones with 20% plus in 2022

National Production

3

9

3

9

Norwegian

0

10

0

12

LNG

3

7

3

9

Russian

3

4

1

9

Algerian

0

1

2

2

38

Table 6 Supply Source Diversification (Source TYNDP 2013-2022)

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3.3.2 Supply source dependency The TYNDP 2013-2022 also completed a Supply Source Dependency analysis, which highlighted that there were only two Zones in the whole North West region which had a supply dependency equal to or above 20% (average demand). These two specific cases are: The German balancing Zone GASPOOL, which has a supply dependency on Russian gas of between 20% and 40%. This will be explained in more detail later in the report (chapter 4 section 4.2.1) The French balancing Zones of TIGF & PEG South which has a supply dependency on LNG of 40% and 60% respectively. This will be explained in more   detail later in the report (chapter 4 section 4.2.1)   It   is important to highlight that LNG by its global nature, is already a diversified source of supply. LNG will play a significant role in gas supply in the North West region in the coming decades, with six of the countries in the region having already built or are in the process of building reception terminals for LNG.

LNG Terminal Terminal In In Operation Operation LNG LNG Terminal Terminal with with FID FID Status Status as as per per the the TYNDP TYNDP 2013-2022 2013-2022 LNG LNG Terminal in Operations Operations with Non-FID Non-FID Capacity Capacity Enhanceme Enhanceme LNG Terminal In Operation LNG Terminal In Operation LNG Terminal in with LNG Terminal in Operations with Non-FID Capacity Enhancement Planned TYNDP 2013-2022 TYNDP 2013-2022 TYNDP2013-2022 2013-2022 LNG Terminal with FID Status LNG Terminal with FID Status as per the TYNDP as per the TYNDP 2013-2022 LNG Terminal with Non-FID StatusPlanned LNG Terminal with Non-FID Non-FID Status as as per per the the TYNDP TYNDP 2013-202 2013-202 LNG TerminalinInOperations Operationwith Non-FID Capacity LNG Terminal with Status LNG Terminal Enhancement as per the TYNDP 2013-2022 Figure 30 North West West Europe Europe LNG LNG Map Map Figure North TYNDP 2013-2022 LNG Terminal with FID Status as per the 30 TYNDP 2013-2022

Figure 30 Terminal with Non-FID Status as per the TYNDP 2013-2022 LNG LNG Terminal in Operations with Non-FID Capacity Enhancement Planned North Europe LNG Map LNG Map FigureWest 30 North West Europe TYNDP 2013-2022 3.4 Unconventional Gas Gas in in North North West West Europe Europe 3.4 Unconventional LNG Terminal with Non-FID Status as per the TYNDP 2013-2022 36

There are indications indications that that significant significant reserves reserves of of shale shale and and Figure North West Europe Map West There are 3.4 30 Unconventional GasLNG in North Europe (unconventional gas) exist in North West Europe. However, the (unconventional gas) exist in North West Europe. However, the I North West Gas Regional Investment Plan 2013-2022 uncertainty surrounding the economic viability of its its extraction. extraction. uncertainty economic viability There are indications that significant reserves of surrounding shale and the coalbed methane gasof


3.4 Unconventional Gas in North West Europe There are indications that significant reserves of shale and coalbed methane gas (unconventional gas) exist in North West Europe. However, there is a large amount of uncertainty surrounding the economic viability of its extraction. The TSOs of the North West region have a limited knowledge of how unconventional gas production will develop in the coming years, due to the uncertainty that surrounds the extraction process. Regardless of the fact that estimates on the amount of unconventional gas recoverable varies, the map below shows that almost every country in the North West region has the geology to potentially harvest unconventional gas in the future.

Figure 31 Major Unconventional Natural Gas Resources Map of Europe 26

The on-going decline of indigenous conventional gas production in the North West region and the continued growth of imports from outside the EU means that unconventional gas could be seen as a promising development in the future. With the well-meshed and integrated network of the North West region, it offers a ready-built transportation network, should unconventional production become a reality. Yet there are numerous regulatory and environmental hurdles to overcome before unconventional gas can become an influential supplier to the North West Region, including the fact that the region is densely populated. The perception that unconventional gas extraction could impact ordinary citizens means it has become a political issue. It is therefore important to follow the development of unconventional gas on a country by country basis within the region, with very diverging approaches being taken. Overall, there is a considerable amount of uncertainty surrounding the future of unconventional gas in the North West region. It is unlikely to have any significant impact on gas supplies of the North West region in the outlook of this GRIP. Yet in the longer term, should regulatory and environmental obstacles be overcome, there is the potential for unconventional gas to play a role in the North West gas supply mix. 26 The map was created and is copyrighted by the OECD/International Energy Agency, and taken from: World Energy Outlook Special Report: Golden Rules for a Golden Age of Gas Š OECD/IEA 2012, fig.3.7, p.121

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3.5 Pipeline Capacity Entering & Exiting the NW Region  Although the North West region is not a homogenous entry/exit system, it is useful to get a perspective

of how inter-linked region is non to itsEU neighbouring countries. Figure 32 isshows the amount of firm entry into Entry & Exit andthe from EU & countries. It shows that there substantially more and exitavailable capacity available dailyNW basis on the combined ofleaving the North region. The chart capacity entering on intoa the region than there is border capacity theWest region.

breaks down the capacity available into Entry & Exit and from EU & non EU countries. It shows that there is substantially more capacity available entering into the NW region than there is capacity leaving Due to the regions geographical and historical links with non-EU supplier countries like the region.

Norway and Russia, and the continued decline in National Production in the region, it is no surprise that theregeographical is a significant amount links of entry capacitysupplier into the region like from thoseand Russia, Due to the regions and historical with non-EU countries Norway countries. and the continued decline in National Production in the region, it is no surprise that there is a significant

amount of entry capacity into the region from those countries.

When you take away the non-EU countries exit and entry capacity, then there is still three times more entry capacity from EU countries coming into the region, than there is exit When you take away the non-EU countries exit and entry capacity, then there is still three times more capacity. This is related to the history of the region as a major demand centre, and how entry capacity from EU countries coming into the region, than there is exit capacity. This is related to the historically the European network was set-up to flow from east to west.

history of the region as a major demand centre, and how historically the European network was set-up to flowchart fromdoes East to The notWest. show any major yearly deviations in capacity figures, again highlighting

how mature the North West market is. The most significant capacity development is surrounding the not exitshow capacity to EUyearly countries whichinincrease 80 GWh/per Figure 32 does any major deviations capacityapproximately figures, again highlighting how mature day period, mainly a result of thecapacity increasing capacity on the French-Spanish the over Norththe West market is. Theasmost significant development is surrounding the exit capacity to border. EU countries which increase approximately 80 GWh/per day over the period, mainly as a result of the in-

creasing capacity on the French-Spanish border.

Non EU Firm Exit Capacity EU Firm Exit Capacity Non EU Firm Entry Capacity EU Firm Entry Capacity

Figure32 32NW Region Pipeline Capacity Figure NW Region Pipeline Capacity, FID

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Image courtesy of NW European TSOs

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4.0 In Depth Analysis of TYNDP 2013-2022 Identified Issues in the North West Region 4.1 Introduction In this chapter an explanation of the ENTSOG TYNDP 2013-2022 assessment process is given, followed by the findings of the TYNDP 2013-2022 for the North West region. The projects in the North West that mitigate the findings of the TYNDP 2013-2022 are briefly touched upon in these paragraphs. An in depth analysis of these projects concludes this chapter.

4.2 ENTSOG TYNDP 2013-2022 The 2013-2022 ENTSOG TYNDP 2013-2022 assesses the European gas system against various levels of supply and demand, and two different infrastructure clusters across a 10-year range. The TYNDP 20132022 analyses to what extent existing gas infrastructure plus FID-projects can fulfil various future capacity demands. If this demand cannot be met, the TYNDP 2013-2022 assesses, in a second step, if including non-FID projects also can fulfil this demand. When this is not the case a potential investment gap exists, because the market has not yet shown interest to solve the potential issue. This could have a negative impact on the ability of the respective Zones’ infrastructure to sustain the supply-demand balance which could lead to cross-border congestion. All the projects included in FID and Non-FID clusters are the result of executed auctions, open seasons, national plans or market initiatives. See chapter 5 (Background to North West European Infrastructure Projects) for a detailed description of processes relating to the origin of the projects. The TYNDP 2013-2022 analysis has been carried out on a top-down European level, using Entry/Exit Zones as basic blocks and cross-border capacity as the basic links between these blocks. Therefore the assessment is at cross-border level, combined with UGS and LNG terminals aggregated at Zone level. The characteristics of the Entry/Exit Zones have been established bottom up, where each TSO determined the capacity between the Zones using hydraulic calculations. A detailed description of the cases considered can be found in the Methodology chapter of the TYNDP 2013-2022.27 The results of the TYNDP 2013-2022 assessment give an overall indication of the level of infrastructurerelated Market Integration. For the purpose of the TYNDP 2013-2022, Market Integration was defined as a physical situation of the interconnected network, which under optimum operation of the system, provides sufficient flexibility to accommodate variable flow patterns that result from varying market situations.

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The four different assessments carried out by the TYNDP 2013-2022, which together result in the level of infrastructure-related Market Integration, are: I Resilience Assessment: potential investment gaps in the European gas system under normal Situations (Reference Case) and in Supply Stress through the calculation of Remaining Flexibility of each Zone of the system II Supply Dependency Assessment: the dependence of some Zones on a single supply source III Network Adaptability Assessment: the ability of the system to adapt to various supply patterns IV Supply Source Diversification Assessment: the capability of the system to enable its Zones to access different supply sources ENTSOG also executed two pilot assessments, Import Route Diversification and Import Dependency. Neither of these assessments resulted into relevant findings for this GRIP, and therefore was not included. 4.2.1 TYNDP 2013-2022 findings from a regional perspective The following paragraphs detail the TYNDP 2013-2022 analysis and list the findings of each TYNDP 20132022 assessment that are relevant to the North West region. For the purpose of this GRIP these findings are accompanied by a detailed description from the relevant TSO point-of-view. I Resilience Assessment - Reference Cases Results The Resilience Assessment performed in the TYNDP 2013-2022 focuses on testing the ability of the infrastructure to transport large quantities of gas under severe climatic conditions. In such situations there should be a high level of supply available on a short-term basis and the necessary infrastructures are in place to deliver gas to the relevant markets. The Resilience Assessment modelling shows how much flexibility is available in the European gas system even in situations of very high daily demand. Under the Reference Case in both the Design-Case demand situation (based on peak day planning assumptions of the TSOs) and the 14-day Uniform Risk Situation (high demand over a longer period), three Zones of the North West region have been identified where the Remaining Flexibility (percentage of entry capacity still available in the simulations) would fall below 1%. As indicated in red on the maps below, cross-border congestion was identified for Denmark, Sweden and Luxembourg. The TYNDP 2013-2022 also assessed the impact of supply disruptions, but these did not result in additional findings in the North West region. The Design-Case Situation and 14-day Uniform Risk Situation produce very similar results in terms of investment gaps and remedies. In both situations, the Reference Cases show the persistent effect of the

See http://www.entsog.eu/publications/TYNDP 2013-2022

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2013

2017 FID

2017 Non-FID

2022 FID

2022 Non-FID

Figure 33 Infrastructure Resilience under Reference Cases

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2013

2017 FID

2017 Non-FID

2022 FID

2022 Non-FID

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lack of decided projects in Sweden and in Luxembourg. In Denmark FID projects and in Luxembourg Non-FID projects exist that could completely mitigate the highlighted investment gaps before 2023. In Sweden’s case, the TYNDP 2013-2022 identified issues which can only be partly solved with existing FID or non-FID projects. I.A Resilience Assessment - Reference Cases - North West Europe The cross-border congestion identified for Denmark in 2013 is known to be related to the limited firm capacity at the German-Danish border. As illustrated by the TYNDP 2013-2022 (all assessments for the Zone after 2013 show a strongly increased flexibility) an FID project already exists to overcome the challenges of cross-border capacity, diversification and Security of Supply that have been identified in previous TYNDP 2013-2022 and GRIP reports. Cross-border congestion identified in Luxembourg can, as shown in the TYNDP, be completely mitigated by 2022, by including Non-FID projects. In a common Open Season process, launched by Creos with GRTgaz in spring 2013, a binding market survey for additional capacity of 9GWh/d or 40GWh/d from France to Luxembourg was not successful. Further studies and negotiations are ongoing. Fluxys Belgium is also evaluating to upgrade its infrastructure towards Luxembourg in order to increase capacity. The Luxembourg cross-border congestion is described further in section 4.3.3. The combination of a projected demand growth in Sweden compared with a low winter supply situation produced the results as per the TYNDP 2013-2022. It has, however, to be noted that the balance of Denmark and Sweden is currently ensured through the interruptible and short-term firm capacity offered from Germany to Denmark. The FID-project Ellund will therefore have a positive effect on the cross-border congestion identified for Sweden. This is illustrated in the TYNDP 2013-2022 for the year 2017 in which the remaining flexibility increases from <1% to 1-5% for Sweden and from <1% to >20% for Denmark. Nevertheless, Sweden is unlikely to significantly increase its flexibility without creating one more crossborder point. This fact is illustrated by the TYNDP 2013-2022. In 2022 the Swedish flexibility remains below 1% both with FID and Non-FID projects according to the TYNDP 2013-2022. In essence there is a need for a ‘second’ cross-border point to Sweden. There are two options identified: an increase of firm capacity to Sweden through Denmark and/or a tie-in to the transmission system from an LNG-terminal(s). Sufficient interconnection capacity through Denmark will also depend on the interconnection capacity between Germany and Denmark and on the Danish demand. LNG market growth will in turn only happen if it is appropriately matched with LNG supply. In addition, Swedegas regards a tie-in to the transmission system from an LNG-terminal(s) as an opportunity from a Security of Supply perspective. I.B Resilience Assessment - Low LNG delivery results Due to the globalised market for LNG, ENTSOG decided to provide a view of what the impacts would be if LNG were not to reach Europe. Figure 34.1 illustrates the effect of a minimum send-out of all LNG terminals under Design-Case and 14-day Situations in Europe. Zones having direct access to LNG are identified with a specific pictogram. Such simulations also provide information on the impact of local events as the technical disruption of the single LNG terminal of a country impacting the send-out, or some climatic conditions impacting LNG delivery to the terminals.

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Figure 34.1 Resilience to low LNG delivery under Design-Case Situation

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Figure 34.2 Resilience to low LNG delivery under 14-足day Uniform Risk Situation

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I.C Resilience Assessment - Low LNG delivery results - North West Europe The TYNDP 2013-2022 identified Sweden as a country with an LNG send-out above 20% utilisation, which is considered as the lower technical limit in the TYNDP 2013-2022. The LNG business in Sweden is, however, separated from the pipeline business. There is an opportunity to tie in an LNG terminal with the existing transmission system and such a decision is likely only if there is demand for new services enabled by a combination of a terminal and the grid. Security of supply will also be a factor in play as a tie in would effectively create a second entry point to Sweden which has been identified as a necessity for a long while, and even more so in the 2013 TYNDP. II Supply Dependency Assessment With the Supply Source Dependence Assessment, the TYNDP 2013-2022 aims to identify Zones whose balance depends strongly on a single supply source. Firstly investment gaps persisting under Average Daily Demand Situations were assessed; secondly Zones where Annual Balance relies strongly on a single source were assessed. II.A Supply Dependency Assessment - Average Day Results - NW Europe The TYNDP 2013-2022 supply dependency assessment under Average Day conditions identified capacity needs in the North West region for both the German GASPOOL and Net Connect Germany (NCG) connection with Denmark as well as the Denmark-Sweden connection. In 2013 FID situation there is some capacity from NCG and for GASPOOL to Denmark according to the collected TYNDP 2013-2022 data but this is not sufficient to balance Denmark and Sweden for the whole year (modelled as an average day with neutral storage) without use of short-term or interruptible capacity. As was noted before, the balance of Denmark and Sweden is currently ensured through the interruptible and short-term firm capacity offered from Germany to Denmark. By using additionally interruptible capacity this issue is mitigated on the shortterm basis. Likewise with the Reference Case, a lack of firm capacity on the German-Danish border is the cause of the identified situation. Therefore the already planned (FID-project) capacity extension from Germany to Denmark will also solve this identified issue in 2017. This assessment is based on full supply minimisation modelling seeking cases where a Zone will require a supply share of more than 20% from the minimised source. II.B Supply Dependency Assessment - Annual Basis results The second assessment related to supply dependency aims at identifying the Zones whose annual balance relies strongly on a given supply source. This dependency is measured as the minimum share of a given supply source required to balance the annual demand and exit flow of a Zone. This assessment is based on full supply minimisation modelling seeking cases where a Zone will require a supply share of more than 20% from the minimised source. Figure 35 identifies the Zones in the North West region that have a strong dependency on Russian gas and LNG, with different ranges depending on the minimum supply share of the predominant supply. There were no instances identified of a dependency on Algerian, Libyan, Norwegian and Azeri gas.

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Legend Legend      

2013  

 

2017 FIG    

2017 Non-­‐FID    

 

2022  FID    

Figure 35 Supply Source Dependence on Annual Basis

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2022  Non-­‐FID    

 


II.C Supply Dependency Assessment - Annual Basis results - North West Europe With the inclusion of FID projects the dependency on Russian gas increases further in Germany (GASPOOL) and in Denmark in the period up to 2022. However, as indicated on the map, this effect is eliminated with the inclusion of non-FID projects. Dependency in these Zones is lowered to <20% already in 2017. The Annual Balance in the GRTgaz South Zone (FRs) and TIGF Zone (FRt) relies strongly on LNG. As illustrated by the TYNDP 2013-2022 findings, the dependency is mitigated by FID projects and with the inclusion of Non-FID projects can be fully lifted by 2022. It should be noted that LNG is by nature more diverse in its potential origin than pipeline sources; so the need raised by this dependency is not a Security of Supply issue but a market issue enhanced by the fact that LNG prices are global because of the maturity of the worldwide LNG market. III Network Adaptability Assessment The assessment of the Adaptability to Supply Evolution looks at the European infrastructureâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ability to face very different gas supply mixes resulting from short-term signals or long-term trends. This assessment has been carried out under the 1-day Average demand situation in order to identify the ability to balance every Zone when one of the supply sources move from the Reference Supply to Maximum Potential Supply or Minimum Potential Supply scenarios. Where no flow pattern enables reaching the Potential Supply scenarios, the limiting factor is identified. Among the results identified in the TYNDP 2013-2022, the following is a concern for the North West region: The limited ability to decrease LNG to Iberian Peninsula and South of France due to lack of inter connection with Northern Europe These limitations are mitigated with the projects identified. This GRIP highlights the French LNG issues, and the GRIP South (which fully covers the whole relevant region) will develop a more detailed and focused approach of these issues. IV Supply Source Diversification Assessment The assessment of the Supply Source Diversification at Zone level aims at determining the ability of each Zone to access each identified supply source. It has been carried out under the 1-day Average demand situation through Targeted Maximisation. The supply situation under the Targeted Maximisation cases reflects, source by source, the geographical reach of the Maximum Potential scenario. This assessment does not identify cross-border congestion but merely identifies how many different sources can be accessed by a Zone (with a minimum of a 5% share). Issues directly linked to the North West region are: The situation in Sweden and Denmark which currently have only one supplier, but which will evolve with the FID projects and even more with the Non-FID projects to 3 to 4 suppliers The situation of the Iberian Peninsula, which has limited access to sources, is related to the French Spanish border and North South French infrastructure and is, detailed in the GRIP South which covers this whole region

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Figure 36 Supply Source Diversification

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Image courtesy of NW European TSOs

NorthWest WestGas GasRegional RegionalInvestment InvestmentPlan Plan2013-2022 2013-2022 North

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4.3 Projects answering TYNDP 2013-2022 needs 4.3.1 Related German-Danish border congestion The cross-border congestion identified for Denmark in 2013 is known to be related to the limited firm capacity at the German-Danish border. As illustrated by the TYNDP 2013-2022, an FID project already exists to overcome the cross-border capacity constraints, diversification and security of supply that have been identified in previous TYNDP 2013-2022 and GRIP reports. The requirement for additional capacity from Germany to Denmark was identified through an Open Season by Gasunie Deutschland (GUD) back in 2009. The resulting infrastructure ‘Project Ellund’ consists of two steps. Step one increases capacity in Q4 2014 to a level of 310,000 m³/h and step two increases capacity from the end of 2015/beginning of 2016 to a level of 500,000 m³/h. Step two was labelled Non-FID by the TYNDP 2013-2022, but has become a FID-project in the meantime. The projects to complete step one are under construction, aiming to be operational from Q4 of 2014. This step comprises a connection to the Nordeuropäische Erdgasleitung (NEL) in Heidenau (South of Hamburg) and a compressor station in Embsen (South of Bremen). In step two, which gained FID status by GUD recently, reinforcement of the pipeline route towards Ellund will take place with an anticipated commissioning date at the end of 2015 to the beginning of 2016. This second step entails the construction of a new compressor station in Quarnstedt and looping of the Northern-most pipeline section Fockbek-Ellund. Once the projects related to step two are operational, the exit firm capacity at Ellund in Germany will be around 500.000 m³/h.

Ausbaumaßnahmen in Variante IIa, H-Gas-Gebiet, bis 2018 (Abb. 25)

Figure 37 shows the two steps for increasing transport capacity from Germany to Denmark at Ellund, as they appear in the draft German NEP 2013: Project 007-01/009-01: new compressor station in Quarnstedt Project 011-01: loop to DEUDAN pipeline from Fockbek to Ellund

Figure 37 German Projects to Increase Capacity

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4.3.2 Related to Sweden’s dependency on German-Danish border capacity Sweden is aware of its vulnerable supply position, illustrated in the TYNDP 2013-2022 by the low remaining flexibility even with FID and Non-FID projects as already discussed in section 4.2.1. The Ellund project is of fundamental importance to Sweden given the anticipated reduction of Danish North Sea production volumes. The project will improve the situation, and also reduce the risk for Sweden. However, Sweden is unlikely to significantly increase its flexibility without creating one more cross-border point. This fact is illustrated by the TYNDP 2013-2022. In 2022, both with FID and Non-FID projects, the Swedish flexibility remains below 1%. As the TYNDP 2013-2022 proposes, further capacity increases would have to be considered post 2020, such as the suggested tie-in from Norway to Denmark, LNG terminals in Sweden (see also section 4.2.1 I.C & II.B) and/or a successive increase from Germany through Denmark. An alternative remedial action would be to increase the firm capacity from Denmark to Sweden, provided that Danish consumption will decrease and consequently more volumes and capacity becomes available for Sweden. Notwithstanding the fact that the gas balance between Sweden and Denmark is currently ensured through interruptible and short-term firm capacity, the Swedish TSO, Swedegas, is aware that in essence there may be a need for a ‘second’ cross-border point to Sweden as discussed in section 4.2.1 I.A previously. Priorities regarding the Swedish long-term energy policies largely resonate with those of the other Nordic countries, which are all aiming for carbon neutral energy systems in 2050. Suggested pathways are described in IEA’s recent report (http://www.iea.org/etp/). Both Denmark and Sweden are also covered in the BEMIP GRIP (to be published). Image courtesy of NW European TSOs

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http://www.iea.org/etp/). Both Denmark and Sweden are also covered in the BEMIP GRIP (to be published).

4.3.3 Related to Luxembourg cross-border congestion

4.3.3

Related to Luxembourg cross-border congestion The TYNDP 2013-2022 Resilience Assessment identifies cross-border congestion in Luxembourg which The TYNDP Resilience Assessment identifies cross-border congestion in Luxembourg can be mitigated with Non-FID projects. The methodology for methodology calculating available firm capacity available at each which can be mitigated with Non-FID projects. The for calculating interconnection point (IP)interconnection of the Luxembourg ‘supply network’ is based on a simulation of peak firm capacity at each point (IP)only of the Luxembourg "supply only network" demand contractual cross-border pressures. is basedaton a simulation of peak demand at contractual cross-border pressures. Currently the sum of firm capacity, at contractual pressure, all of theTSO Luxembourg’s Currently the sum of firm capacity, at contractual pressure, on all of the on Luxembourg’s (Creos) IPs TSO (Creos) IPs doesn’t cover the needs of the Luxembourg national market demand, doesn’t cover the needs of the Luxembourg national market demand, as has been confirmed under as has been confirmed under TYNDP Resilience Assessment simulations. In order to fulfil TYNDP 2013-2022 Resilience Assessment simulations. In order to fulfil legal obligations and duties as the legal obligations and duties as the Luxembourg national TSO, Creos has acknowledged Luxembourg national TSO, Creos has acknowledged that investments are needed for additional pressure that investments are needed for additional pressure commitments or additional commitments or in additional infrastructure in order to increase firm for entry capacities for Luxembourg. infrastructure order to increase firm entry capacities Luxembourg.

As shown thethe TYNDP 2013-2022 assessment thecross-border cross-border congestion can can be mitigated by 2022, by As shownin in TYNDP assessment the congestion be mitigated 2022, by including Non-FID Two different infrastructure projectsinare by including Non-FID projects. Two projects. different infrastructure projects are under investigation orderunder to investigation in order to comply with the capacity requirements by the end of 2018. comply with the capacity requirements by the end of 2018. In a common Open Season process, during Spring 2013 Creos and GRTgaz launched the In a common Open Season process, during Spring 2013 Creos and GRTgaz launched the binding market binding market survey for additional capacity of 9 GWh/d and 40GWh/d from France to survey for additional capacity of 92018; GWh/dthis and 40 GWh/d from France toInLuxembourg, by the end of 2018; Luxemburg, by the end of was unsuccessful. order to comply with future this was unsuccessful. In order to comply with future capacity needs and to fulfil the provisions of Article capacity needs and to fulfil the provisions of Article 6 and 8 of Regulation (EU) No 6 and 8 of Regulation (EU) No 994/2010, Creosnegotiations has engaged inwith further with the national 994/2010, Creos has engaged in further thenegotiations national authorities.

authorities. Fluxys Belgium is also evaluating to upgrade its infrastructure towards Luxembourg in order to increase Fluxys Belgium is alsocapacity. evaluating to upgrade its infrastructure towards Luxembourg in order to increase capacity. Figure 38 shows the projects to increase Luxembourg’s cross-border capacity.

The map below shows the projects to increase Luxembourg’s cross-border capacity.

Figure 38 Luxembourg’s Proposed Projects Figure 38 Luxembourg's Proposed Projects 54

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4.3.4

Related to Southern France LNG dependency and North-South


4.3.4 Related to to Southern France LNG dependency and North South South of France be more widely receptive to other supplies andtransport to mitigate the price dependency of the Southern zone on the LNG market.

Firm transmission GRTgaz Northern Zone to its Southern Zone isthe currently South of France to capacity be more from widely receptive to other supplies and to mitigate price restricted to 230 dependency of the Southernconsumption zone on the LNG market. GWh per day. Historically, in the South East of France has been supplied with LNG from Fos. This situation has to be improved in order for the South of France to be more widely receptive to other supplies and to mitigate the price dependency of the Southern Zone on the LNG market.

Figure 39 Projects for the merger of the North and South market areas in France

Figure 39 South of France - Proposed Projects Figure 39 South of France - Proposed Projects

InInorder ordertotorespond respondtotothis thispotential potentialspread spreadbetween betweenPEG PEGSud Sudand andthe theother otherhubs hubsofofthe the North West North West region, solutions have been identified and are presented in the GRTgaz In order to respond to this potential spread between PEG Sud and the other hubs of the region,(“10-Year solutions network have been identified and are presented in thetransmission GRTgaz TYNDP 2013-2022 (‘10-Year TYNDP development on GRTgaz’s system”). North West region, solutions have been statement identified and are presented in the GRTgaz network development statement GRTgaz’s transmission system’). Even if some major decisions have Even if some major decisions haveon already been made (reinforcement of the core system TYNDP (“10-Year network development statement on GRTgaz’s transmission system”). in GRTgaz North zone, with “Arc de Dierrey” planned for 2015, and in the GRTgaz Even if some have already beensystem made (reinforcement the core already beenmajor madedecisions (reinforcement of the core in GRTgaz NorthofZone, withsystem ‘ArcSouth de Dierrey’ planned zone, with North ERIDAN planned in 2016) other planned decisions to and be taken reallySouth improve in GRTgaz zone, with “Arc de Dierrey” forhave 2015, in the to GRTgaz forsituation. 2015, andThe in the GRTgazoptions South Zone, with ERIDAN planned in 2016) other decisions have to be taken the zone, with ERIDANdifferent planned in 2016)are: other decisions have to be taken to really improve to •really the situation. The different optionsGRTgaz are: Forimprove aThe merger based on investments, estimated that additional the situation. different options are: investments of €1.8 billion are needed to complete the of the North• For a merger based on investments, GRTgaz estimated that additional For a merger based on investments, GRTgaz estimated that development additional investments of €1.8 billion are South corridor, withbillion commissioning at the the projects involved investments of €1.8 are neededinto2020 complete theearliest; development of the North needed tocorridor, complete thecommissioning development of North South corridor, with commissioning in 2020 at the are described inwith the map above (Source: GRTgaz TYNDP 2012-2021). South in the 2020 at the earliest; the projects involved described the mapto above (Source: GRTgaz TYNDP 2012-2021). • are A study of in methods manage bottleneck situations basedGRTgaz on contractual earliest; the projects involved are described in the map above (Source: TYNDP 2012-2021) • A study of methods to manage bottleneck situations based on contractual mechanisms by 2016, taking into account the completion of ERIDAN and the Arcby 2016, taking A study of methods to manage bottleneck situations based on contractual mechanisms mechanisms by 2016, taking account completion ERIDAN and the Arc of Dierrey, concluded on the into feasibility of the a merger, but of underlines the high levels intoofaccount theconcluded completion of ERIDAN and the of Dierrey, concluded onphysical the Dierrey, the of aArc merger, but underlines the highfeasibility levels variability of the on cost offeasibility such mechanisms; moreover some limitsof a merger, but of variability of the cost of such mechanisms; moreover some physical limits would remain thisofsolution would not allow access to naturalmoreover gas at a some more physical limits underlines the highand levels variability of the cost of such mechanisms; would remainprice. and this solution would not allow access to natural gas at a more competitive would remain and this solution would not allow access to natural gas at a more competitive price • competitive Currently a price. study is being carried out on a third approach; combining investments • Currently a study is being carried outon onaobjective a third third approach; combining investments Currently a study is mechanisms, being carried out combining investments and contractual and contractual with the of creating substantial additional and contractual mechanisms, with the objective of creating substantial additional capacity or even two zones. mechanisms, with themerging objectivethe of creating substantial additional capacity or even merging the two Zones capacity or even merging the two zones. A Cost Benefit Analysis on the different options is on-going in 2013, under the guidance A Cost Benefit Analysis options is on-going in 2013, under the guidance CostFrench Benefit Analysisonin onthe thedifferent different options is on-going ofAthe Regulator, order to choose the best option. in 2013, under the guidance of the French Regulator, in order to choose the best option.

of the French

Regulator, in order to choose the best option.

 

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5.0 Background to North West European Infrastructure Projects 5.1 Introduction All North West issues highlighted in the TYNDP 2013-2022 were detailed in the previous chapter (In Depth analysis of TYNDP 2013-2022 Identified Issues in the North West Region). Concrete measures (FID and Non-FID projects) to solve the identified capacity issues were examined, as is demonstrated by both the German/Danish and the Luxembourg issues. Due to the extensive TYNDP 2013-2022 modelling and the modelling carried out in national plans, no additional modelling is executed for this North West GRIP. As was illustrated by the findings of the TYNDP 2013-2022, the TSOs and non-TSO project promoters in North West Europe are well aware of the issues highlighted in the TYNDP 2013-2022. The processes leading up to the projects that will solve the issues have often started years ago. TSOs, for example, constantly analyse their networks, including border points. As a result the North West TSOs are well aware of congestions in the region. Generally, national plans go into far more detail than can be expressed in the TYNDP 2013-2022, because in national modelling all regional specifics are included. Moreover, in national planning, supply and demand are not matched under perfect market conditions, but all aspects related to the entry-exit market Zone model are included. Unlike the TYNDP 2013-2022, national planning therefore includes elements like arbitrage and other market behaviour, thus resulting in capacity issues other than those observed in TYNDP 2013-2022. The TYNDP 2013-2022 should nevertheless be regarded as a valuable addition to this detailed form of modelling from a pan-European point of view, which clearly indicates the relation between certain Zones and projects and includes all major cross-border congestions. There are various ways to initiate infrastructure projects by TSOs. Some projects are initiated by large import projects (like LNG terminals), others by large storage projects. Due to their size these projects have sufficient economies of scale to be carried out separately. Auctions, Open Seasons or more recently National Plans are additional ways to identify market demand and initiate projects by TSOs. The Supply Regulation 994/2010 also proposed the building of infrastructure based purely on security of supply requirements, again provides a different investment reason. In this chapter an overview is given of such initiatives in the different countries of the North West region. Storages and LNG-terminals are predominantly developed by third parties and TSO projects connect these facilities to the market. Another reason for major investments is the upkeep and maintenance of the aging of networks. As was written in the North West Specifics chapter, the oldest pipelines date back to the early 1960s. All these incentives to start investment projects are tested against strict legal obligations to economically develop gas networks and are accompanied by consultations between the different TSOs involved. In general, the daily analyses of the networks and the regular market consultations of the TSOs have over the years lead to a significant increase in cross-border capacity in North West Europe to support a well functioning market, whether this is related to market integration, diversification of sources or Security of Supply. As a result, related cross-border congestion is almost completely mitigated in the region.

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Furthermore in this chapter a Matrix is included which lists projects in the North West region and shows which interconnection points they impact. The matrix can also serve to gain access to the detailed project information (update Summer 2013) included in Annex A, where this information is clustered by country. To support consistency and readability the TYNDP 2013-2022 labelling of the projects is used. All new projects, which were not in the TYNDP 20132022, will be clearly marked. Furthermore, some projects have obtained the status of â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Project of Common Interestâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. These projects can be found at http://ec.europa.eu/energy/infrastructure/pci/doc/2013_pci_projects_country.pdf

5.2 Open Seasons, Auction Processes and other means to identify market demand in the North West Region 5.2.1 Belgium Over the past years, Fluxys Belgium has built up proven experience with Open Seasons through successfully concluding several market consultation processes. Throughout the previous decade, Open Seasons have been organised to capture market interest for new East West and North South transit capacity, for long-term capacity in storage and domestic market entry, and for additional LNG storage and send-out. The most recent Open Season was launched in 2010, as a joint initiative from Fluxys Belgium and GRTgaz to assess the level of interest in long-term transmission capacity from France to Belgium. The process was closed successfully in March 2012, with binding commitments as a result. To make that capacity available, GRTgaz will build a 26 km pipeline from the Pitgam compressor station to the French-Belgian border.

Figure 40 Illustration of new IP linking Dunkirk LNG terminal to Belgium following Open Season, and possible sources for future L-gas replacement in Germany

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Fluxys Belgium will build a new interconnection point in Alveringem (near Veurne) and lay a 72 km pipeline between Alveringem and Maldegem. Both transmission system operators aim to commission the new capacity in line with the commissioning of the Dunkirk LNG terminal in late 2015. Fluxys Belgium considers possible additional investment projects on its backbone system to cope with changing market conditions in the future. These are mainly linked to new supply sources covering demand in the region and in particular bringing LNG sources from Zeebrugge and Dunkirk to supply current L-gas regions in Germany with H gas in the context of the announced reduction of L gas export from The Netherlands as from 202028. 5.2.2 Denmark There is no legal obligation to organize an Open Season in Denmark as basis for system expansion. However in 2009 the Danish TSO, Energinet.dk, chose to follow the good practice guidelines from the EU that recommended the use of Open Season. As a result, the first, and so far the only, Open Season was organised in Denmark in 2009. The shippers were allocated all the capacity reserved in this Open Season, under the conditions precedent that they may match capacity with capacity available in the German system. There are no new Open Seasons planned, because there are no pending plans to further expand infrastructure in Denmark. However, as Energinet.dk had positive experience with the Open Season in 2009, it is likely that the Danish TSO will continue with this practice in the future. 5.2.3 France In France, many market consultations have been organized to develop cross border capacities for the past few years. Since 2005, GRTgaz has launched consultations and binding requests for additional capacities with each neighbouring TSO: The first one, in 2005, led to the creation of new entry capacity from Germany, growing from 120 GWh/d in 2008 to 620 GWh/d in 2009 After two consultations organized in 2009 and 2010, cross border capacities with Spain will be enhanced in 2013 at Larrau and in 2015 at Biriatou, in both directions In order to consolidate the integration of the French, Belgian and North European markets, Fluxys Belgium and GRTgaz have completed two consultations together, one in 2010 and the other in 2011. Both TSOs will develop their transmission networks accordingly: - capacity from Belgium to France will be increased in 2013 at Taisnières - and a new interconnection point will be created in 2015 at Veurne to provide non-odorised gas from the new Dunkirk LNG Terminal to the Belgian border The consultation conducted jointly by GRTgaz and FluxSwiss in 2012 to increase capacity out of Switzerland towards France by 2016-2018 has not been successful. GRTgaz and FluxSwiss now envisage proposing a product that would require less investment and better reflect current demand. Corresponding capacity could be commissioned by 2017, provided this requirement is confirmed before the end of 2013 The consultation conducted jointly in 2012 and 2013 by GRTgaz and CREOS Luxembourg in order to increase Franceâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s interconnection capacity towards Luxembourg failed to confirm the interest of market operators in the capacity proposed. However, the project could go ahead if Luxembourg confirmed its interest with a view to http://www.fnb-gas.de/netzentwicklungsplan/netzentwicklungsplan.html

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securing its supply (see Luxembourg section for more details) Having been requested by several shippers in the past, the increase in exit capacity out of France into Italy via Switzerland is subject to the feasibility of increasing capacity in Switzerland. In light of the uncertainties concerning the latter point and the period from contract to delivery of such works, the date of commissioning of such capacity is planned for the end of the ten year plan In addition to these market consultations, many projects are initiated by large import projects, in particular LNG terminals, or by large storage projects. Theseprojects projectsare arelocated located 41 and updated details areare given in the appendices. These in in thefigure following maptheir and their updated details given in the appendices. LNG-­‐F-­‐210

TRA-­‐F-­‐038

TRA-­‐F-­‐040

TRA-­‐F-­‐037

TRA-­‐N-­‐044 TRA-­‐F-­‐040  

TRA-­‐N-­‐048 TRA-­‐N-­‐258  

TRA-­‐N-­‐047

TRA-­‐N-­‐257

TRA-­‐N-­‐045 LNG-­‐N-­‐225  

UGS-­‐N-­‐002 TRA-­‐N-­‐046   TRA-­‐N-­‐043  

UGS-­‐N-­‐264

TRA-­‐F-­‐039 TRA-­‐N-­‐253   UGS-­‐F-­‐004   UGS-­‐F-­‐265   UGS-­‐N-­‐204  

TRA-­‐F-­‐250 TRA-­‐N-­‐041  

TRA-­‐F-­‐251 UGS-­‐N-­‐003  

TRA-­‐N-­‐256 TRA-­‐N-­‐254   TRA-­‐N-­‐255   LNG-­‐N-­‐223  

TRA-­‐N-­‐269

TRA-­‐N-­‐252 LNG-­‐N-­‐226  

LNG-­‐N-­‐227

Figure 41 Map of the infrastructure projects in France

5.2.4 Germany

5.2.4 Germany

The last Open Season within Germany was organized in 2009. As requested by the German regulator Bundesnetzagentur (BNetzA) in 2012, the Open Season process was replaced with the German NEP Gas where the TSO present their network development The lastresults Open– Season Germany was organized in 2009. As requested by the German regulator planning including within the findings obtained during their public consultation – and the determination of long-term capacity demands. It is based on a scenario framework, Bundesnetzagentur (BNetzA) in 2012, the Open Season process was replaced with the German NEP Gas where which has been consulted by the TSO and was confirmed by the BNetzA. The the TSO present their network development results includingtothe findings obtained during their public confirmation of the scenario framework implies planning that the TSOs are– required conduct cost-benefit analyses for the various versions of network access for storage facilities and consultation – and the determination of long-term capacity demands. It is based on a scenario framework, which gas fired power plants2.

has been consulted by the TSO and was confirmed by the BNetzA. The confirmation of the scenario framework implies that the TSOs are required to conduct cost-benefit analyses for the various versions of network access for storage facilities and gas fired power plants29.

                                                                                                                      2

http://www.fnb-­‐gas.de/netzentwicklungsplan/netzentwicklungsplan.html   http://www.fnb-gas.de/netzentwicklungsplan/netzentwicklungsplan.html

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As a general approach, open seasons are substituted by the NEP. Nevertheless, Fluxys TENP GmbH has developed, in close cooperation with the BNetzA, a process that combines a binding commitment with an auction30. This process has been tested in the reverse flow open season and feedback has been given to both BNetzA and CEER in order to further optimise it, where needed. The reverse flow project consists in creating reverse flow capacity from Italy through Switzerland to Germany and Belgium in order to strengthen security of supply as it opens for Northwest Europe additional supply opportunities from Italy. It will also deepen market liquidity by fully connecting the gas trading places in Italy, Germany, Belgium and the UK. As mentioned in the scenario framework of the German NEP 2014 additional exit capacity at the interconnection point Oude Statenzijl/Bunde in the direction to The Netherlands and at the interconnection point Eynatten in direction from/to Belgium could be required. This is a consequence of the decrease of the Northern European natural gas production. As is elaborated under 5.2.7, additional imports of Russian gas will be transported via Germany to the markets in Germany, The Netherlands, Belgium, the UK and other North West European markets. Therefore new projects are expected to be developed in Germany. Gasunie Deutschland is developing a project to connect additional imports of Russian gas at the interconnection point Greifswald for markets in Western Europe (Germany, The Netherlands, Belgium, UK and France). The consequences for the infrastructure in Germany will be further analyzed within the German NEP 2014. With respect to additional imports of Russian gas at the interconnection Area Greifswalder Bodden for markets in Western Europe (Germany, The Netherlands, Belgium and UK -via The Netherlands and Belgium-), NEL Gastransport and GASCADE/Fluxys are also developing an infrastructure project which depends on the investment decision for the 3rd pipe of Nord Stream. The impact for the infrastructure in Germany will be further analyzed within the German NEP 2014. Scenario Frameworks of the German NEPs 2012 and 2013 showed additional demand to enhance the Southern Bavarian network and the cross border capacity from and to Austria. In the area of Haiming/Burghausen/ Überackern four cross border points exist, two interconnection points (Überackern and Überackern 2) and two cross border storage connection points connecting big storages located in Austria to the German TSO Network (Haiming 1/- UGS Haidach and Haiming 2/- UGS 7 fields). As no firm capacity could be provided for filling and withdrawal of the storages on German side of the border, responsible German TSO bayernets GmbH had already to reduce cross border capacity for gas transport at the IPs to shift this capacity to the cross border storage points. To restore and enhance cross border capacity between hubs of NCG and CEGH Baumgarten and to meet further demand of near future caused by enhancements of the Austrian storages as well as to address additional possible demand caused by Austrian pipeline project Tauerngasleitung (TGL), bayernets GmbH builds a new pipeline called ‘MONACO I’ from Haiming/Burghausen to Finsing (near Munich). MONACO phase II was planned to connect MONACO I further westwards from Finsing to Amerdingen. Coordinated national calculations in the course of German NEP planning 2013 showed, that a more efficient route of MONACO phase II might exist. If these calculations prove to be stable over time the alternative route will be build from Finsing to Arresting and the phase II project will be promoted by another German TSO instead of bayernets GmbH. The mentioned projects are schematically illustrated in figure 42. http://www.fluxys.com/tenp/en/TenpSystemInfo/SouthNorthProject/ReverseFlow

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Figure 42 Illustration of projects in Germany

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5.2.5 Ireland

5.2.5 Ireland

In Ireland two market tests were carried out in accordance which requires that TSOs shall enable permanent bi-directio border interconnections between Member States by 3rd D exemption is granted. The market tests carried out were:

• Physical Reverse994/2010 Flow at Moffat Interconnection In Ireland two market tests were carried out in accordance with Regulation which requires that TSOs Point ( out in August 2011) shall enable permanent bi-directional capacity on all cross-border interconnections between Member States by 3rd • Physical Reverse Flow on South North Pipeline betwee December 2013, unless an exemption is granted. The market tests carried out were: Northern Ireland (Market Consultation carried out in Ap Physical Reverse Flow at Moffat Interconnection Point (Market consultation carried out in August 2011) Both of these market testsand concluded with Gaslink Physical Reverse Flow on South North Pipeline between Republic of Ireland Northern Ireland (Market receivin Competent Authorities to providing physical reverse flow. The Consultation carried out in April 2012)

repeated later in 2013 in accordance with Regulation 994/2 conducting capacity auctions to meet the requirements of t Both of these market tests concluded with Gaslink receiving an exemption from the Competent Authorities to Code.

providing physical reverse flow. These two market tests will be repeated later in 2013 in accordance with Regulation Approximately 93% of the Irish gas demand supplied from 994/2010. Gaslink will also be conducting capacity auctions to meet the requirements of the ENTSOG CAM is Network through the Moffat Interconnection Point. The interconnector s Code. of gas demand to Northern Ireland from Twynholm and to th

Interconnector 2 (see map below). In addition to this, t a number of different to the Republic of Ir Approximately 93% of the Irish gas demand is provides supplied from gas imports from theservices UK through the Moffat interconnector system consists of a twinned pipeline system; Interconnection Point. The interconnector system also supplies 100% of gas demand to Northern Ireland section of single pipeline between Cluden and Brighouse Bay from Twynholm and to the Isle of Man market from 2 (see map below). In addition to this,risks the to the I ThisInterconnector single section of pipeline is one of the main interconnector system provides a number of different services to the Republic of Ireland. majority of and the Preven has been addressed in Ireland’s RiskThe Assessment prepared under EU Regulation 994/2010. interconnector system consists of a twinned pipeline system; however, there is a 50 km section of single pipeline

between Cluden and Brighouse Bay in South West Scotland. This single section of pipeline is one of the main risks to the Irish gas infrastructure and has been addressed in Ireland’s Risk Assessment and Preventive Action Plan which was prepared under EU Regulation 994/2010. Reinforcing the single section of pipeline is the best protective action. The requirement to reinforce this pipeline section has also been of significant note in the network development and capacity statements published by the Irish TSO and the National Regulatory Authorities. The twinning of the single section of the pipeline in South West Scotland has been put forward as a potential Project of Common Interest under the EU Regulation on Guidelines for Trans-European Energy Infrastructure.

Figure 43 Ireland/United Kingdom Interconnection System Figure 3  Ireland/United  Kingdom  Interconnection  System

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5.2.6 Luxembourg In close cooperation with the NRAâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s of France and Luxembourg, GRTgaz and Creos launched a binding request for additional cross border capacities from PEG Nord in France to the Balancing Point in Luxembourg in early 2013. The Open Season was designed in order to support two different infrastructure projects offering 9GWH/d and 40 GWH/d of additional capacities to the Luxembourg market. A binding commitment for long-term capacity has not been submitted. GRTgaz and Creos shall not pursue any further action in the context of the Open Season. However in order to comply with future capacity needs and to fulfil the provisions of Articles 6 and 8 of Regulation 994/2010 for Luxembourg, Creos has engaged in further negotiations with national authorities. 5.2.7 The Netherlands During the past decade an extensive investment program with cross-border impact has been carried out in The Netherlands (see figure 44). A pipeline connection with the UK was constructed and came into operation in late 2006. Various interconnections with neighbouring countries were enhanced in three Open Season processes. Import capacity of Norwegian gas in Emden was increased, an LNG terminal was constructed and many UGS projects were carried out. Total investments amounted to several billion Euros. In 2013 a fourth Open Season was conducted by GTS. The number of agreements for booking capacity in this Open Season remained limited. The outcome of this Open Season was that customer demand can be met by existing infrastructure, there is more demand for transport capacity with shorter terms and there is potential for growth of secondary trading in capacity. According to Dutch law, an Open Season has to be organised every two years. In the near future (expected in 2014), the interconnection capacity with Germany and Belgium will be further increased and the Bergermeer storage facility will be commissioned. Other projects which affect cross-border capacities may come about to provide sufficient capacity due to changed contractual situations. Furthermore, projects related to the Directive 2010/75/EU on Industrial Emissions are initiated (the Gas Compressor Optimisation Program) and due to the fact that some elements of the Dutch gas network are over 50 years old, projects related to the replacement of ageing assets to ensure that they perform efficiently are executed. New projects are expected to be developed. These are related to additional imports of Russian gas for the markets in The Netherlands and the UK and will require some reinforcement of the network in the Northern part of The Netherlands. Also additional imports of LNG are expected to materialize at the GATE terminal in Rotterdam. Some minor reinforcements will be necessary to accommodate these additional volumes. Another project is related to export of additional H-gas gas to Germany to compensate decreasing exports of L-gas (see chapter 2.3.1). In view of the proximity of the L-gas market to the Eastern border of The Netherlands, additional H-gas exports are likely to take place at the existing Bocholtz interconnection point or north of this point.

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The mentioned transmission projects are indicated in figure 44. Transmission Infrastructure   Projects   FID   non-­‐FID   new  flows  

Figure 44 Map of The Netherlands Transmission System Investment Program 5.2.8 The United Kingdom Every March, National Grid holds an annual long-term entry capacity auction process. In this auction, Firm NTS Entry Capacity is made available in quarterly tranches from Y+2 through to Y+16 (where Y = current Gas Year), and users bid at pre-defined prices steps. This auction process is where users signal for capacity at an entry point. If the market demand exceeds the capacity available, and subject to an economic test, National Grid may become obligated to release additional capacity on an enduring basis or substitution maybe used to wholly or partially satisfy an investment signal. NTS Exit Capacity is made available for Users to apply for at, a set indicative price, within the July Annual Application Window from Y+4, Y+5 or Y+6 or via an Ad-hoc process. Investment signals may be triggered through these processes and National Grid NTS produce an Exit Capacity Release Methodology Statement, which provides additional detail and is published on the company website. For information, National Grid is currently engaged with industry participants with a view to developing the arrangements for the long-term release of capacity and a modification to the Uniform Network Code has been raised accordingly31. In Northern Ireland, on an annual basis the TSOs are obliged to provide the Regulator with forecast volume and capacity requirements for all their network users in respect of the upcoming gas year and the following four gas years. This information is required by the last business day in June. Further details of the modification can be found via the following link: http://www.gasgovernance.co.uk/0452

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In addition to this requirement, network users are requested to provide their forecast volume and capacity requirements for an additional five years. The ten-year forecasts are used for network modelling and analysis. The results of this analysis, including possible investment scenarios, are published in the Joint Gas Capacity Statement. 5.2.9 Sweden Investments in Sweden’s transmission system have been very marginal since 2004. An Open Season process was carried out for the purpose of preparing for the Skanled project in 2009. A similar Open Season process for Swedegas’ LNG Göteborg project is expected to be finalised during Q4 2013.

5.3 Project Matrix The project matrix is a table where interconnection points and projects are cross-linked. It contains vertically all the interconnections points that are relevant for the North West region. This means borders between two countries of the North West region as well as borders on the edge of the region, if there is a project identified impacting that border. Whenever a project has an impact on the capacity of such a border, the name of the project together with the relevant country and TYNDP 2013-2022 label is indicated. Whether a project has an impact on an interconnection point of the region, is determined by the project promoter. One interconnection point can obviously be impacted by more than one project, as can a project have impact on the capacity of multiple borders. The focus of this project matrix is to show if interconnection points relevant for the region are influenced by specific projects. The project matrix can act as a navigation pane for stakeholders. By selecting interconnection points of interest, one can easily identify the projects that have an impact on the related interconnection point capacity. The country where the project is situated and the TYNDP 2013-2022 project label allow for easy navigation to the associated project details in Annex A. As not all projects (for example storage projects) will affect interconnection capacities, the project matrix will not necessarily contain all projects. On the other hand a detailed overview of each project relevant for the region is available in Annex A. Projects included in the GRIP 2013, but not included in the TYNDP 2013-2022 will be indicated as new in the matrix. Image courtesy of NW European TSOs

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Matrix CROSS-BORDER INTERCONNECTION POINTS NR

POINT TYPE

NAME LOCATION

System Operator 1

CC

2

cross-border

Zelzate

Gasunie Transport Services

NL

>

Fluxys Belgium

4

cross-border

Poppel (BE) / Hilvarenbeek (NL)

Gasunie Transport Services

NL

>

Fluxys Belgium

6

cross-border

Eynatten (BE) // Lichtenbusch / Raeren (DE) (Fluxys TENP)

Fluxys TENP

DE

>

Fluxys Belgium

Fluxys Belgium

BE

>

Fluxys TENP

Eynatten (BE) // Lichtenbusch / Raeren (DE) (GASCADE)

GASCADE Gastransport

DE

>

Fluxys Belgium

Bras

Fluxys Belgium

BE

>

Creos Luxembourg

Petange

Fluxys Belgium

BE

>

Creos Luxembourg

Blaregnies (BE) / Taisnières (H) (FR) (Segeo)

Fluxys Belgium

BE

>

GRTgaz

Blaregnies (H) (BE) / Taisnières (H) (FR) (Troll)

Fluxys Belgium

BE

>

GRTgaz

Bocholtz (Fluxys TENP)

Gasunie Transport Services

NL

>

Fluxys TENP

Bocholtz (OGE)

Gasunie Transport Services

NL

>

Open Grid Europe

Bunde (DE) / Oude Statenzijl (H) (NL) (GASCADE)

GASCADE Gastransport

DE

>

Gasunie Transport Services

Gasunie Transport Services

NL

>

GASCADE Gastransport

Gasunie Transport Services

NL

>

Gasunie Deutschland Transport Services

Gasunie Deutschland Transport Services

DE

>

Gasunie Transport Services

Bunde (DE) / Oude Statenzijl (H) (NL) I (OGE)

Gasunie Transport Services

NL

>

Open Grid Europe

7

cross-border

9

cross-border

11

cross-border

16

cross-border

Bunde (DE) / Oude Statenzijl (H) (NL) (GUD)

19

cross-border

Moffat

National Grid Gas

UK

>

Gaslink

19 (**)

cross-border

Moffat

Gaslink

IE

>

National Grid Gas

20 (**)

cross-border

Twynholm: Scotland - Northern Ireland (SNIP)

Premier Transmission Ltd

UK

>

Gaslink

22 (**)

cross-border

Medelsheim (DE) / Obergailbach (FR) (GRTgaz D)

GRTgaz

FR

>

GRTgaz Deutschland

Medelsheim (DE) / Obergailbach (FR) (OGE)

GRTgaz

FR

>

Open Grid Europe

Überackern (AT) / Burghausen (DE) (2)

bayernets

DE

>

Gas Connect Austria

Gas Connect Austria

AT

>

bayernets

23

cross-border

(*) A new project in the GRIP 2014-2023 data collection window, that was not yet in last TYNDP 2013-2022 (**) A possible new interconnection point, or a possible new flow direction on an existing interconnection point

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System Operator 2

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CC

CC

TYNDP CODE

NAME - PROMOTOR

BE

NL

TRA-F-268

System Enhancements FID update - Gas Transport Services - Gasunie Transport Services B.V.

BE

NL

TRA-F-268

System Enhancements FID update - Gas Transport Services - Gasunie Transport Services B.V.

BE

DE

TRA-N-207

Bretella - Fluxys

DE

DE

TRA-N-207

Bretella - Fluxys

BE

DE

TRA-F-289 (*)

Installation of Nord Stream onshore project - GASCADE Gastransport GmbH

DE

TRA-N-324 (*)

Expansion of Nord Stream connection to markets in western Europe - Exit Eynatten - GASCADE

LU

BE

TRA-N-206

Luxemburg Pipeline - Fluxys Belgium

LU

BE

TRA-N-206

Luxemburg Pipeline - Fluxys Belgium

FR

FR

TRA-F-037

Entry capacity increase from Belgium to France - GRTgaz

FR

FR

TRA-F-037

Entry capacity increase from Belgium to France - GRTgaz

DE

NL

TRA-N-313 (*)

H-gas transport from NL to D - Gasunie Transport Services B.V.

DE

NL

TRA-N-313 (*)

H-gas transport from NL to D - Gasunie Transport Services B.V.

NL

NL

TRA-F-268

System Enhancements FID update - Gas Transport Services - Gasunie Transport Services B.V.

NL

TRA-N-314 (*)

Transport from OSZ/Bunde to Julianadorp - Gasunie Transport Services B.V.

NL

TRA-F-268

System Enhancements FID update - Gas Transport Services - Gasunie Transport Services B.V.

NL

TRA-N-314 (*)

Transport from OSZ/Bunde to Julianadorp - Gasunie Transport Services B.V.

NL

TRA-F-268

System Enhancements FID update - Gas Transport Services - Gasunie Transport Services B.V.

NL

TRA-N-314 (*)

Transport from OSZ/Bunde to Julianadorp - Gasunie Transport Services B.V.

NL

DE

TRA-N-316 (*)

Expansion of Nord Stream connection to markets in western Europe - Exit Bunde-Oude - Gasunie Deutschland Transport Services GmbH

DE

NL

TRA-F-268

System Enhancements FID update - Gas Transport Services - Gasunie Transport Services B.V.

NL

TRA-N-314 (*)

Transport from OSZ/Bunde to Julianadorp - Gasunie Transport Services B.V.

IE

IE

TRA-N-060

Twinning of South West Scotland Onshore System - Gaslink

UK

IE

TRA-N-059

Physical Reverse Flow at Moffat Interconnection Point - Gaslink

IE

UK - N.Irl.

TRA-N-027

Physical reverse flow from Northern Ireland to Great Britain and Republic of Ireland via Scotland to Northern Ireland pipeline Premier Transmission Ltd

DE

FR

TRA-N-047

Reverse capacity from France to Germany - GRTgaz

FR

TRA-F-036

Arc de Dierrey - GRTgaz

FR

TRA-N-047

Reverse capacity from France to Germany - GRTgaz

FR

TRA-F-036

Arc de Dierrey - GRTgaz

DE

TRA-N-241

MONACO section phase I (Burghausen-Finsing) - bayernets GmbH

DE

TRA-N-240

MONACO section phase II (Finsing-Amerdingen) - bayernets GmbH

DE

TRA-N-241

MONACO section phase I (Burghausen-Finsing) - bayernets GmbH

DE

TRA-N-240

MONACO section phase II (Finsing-Amerdingen) - bayernets GmbH

DE

DE

DE

AT

DE

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NR

POINT TYPE

NAME LOCATION

System Operator 1

CC

23

cross-border

Überackern (AT) / Burghausen (DE) (1)

Gas Connect Austria

AT

>

bayernets

27 (**)

cross-border

Griespass (CH) / Passo Gries (IT) (FluxSwiss)

Snam Rete Gas

IT

>

FluxSwiss

28 (**)

cross-border

Wallbach (Fluxys TENP/FluxSwiss)

FluxSwiss

CH

>

Fluxys TENP

31

cross-border

Oltingue (FR) / Rodersdorf (CH)

GRTgaz

FR

>

FluxSwiss

31 (**)

cross-border

Oltingue (FR) / Rodersdorf (CH)

FluxSwiss

CH

>

GRTgaz

32

cross-border

Larrau

Enagás

ES

>

TIGF

TIGF

FR

>

Enagás

ETN (Enagás Transporte del Norte)

ES

>

TIGF

TIGF

FR

>

ETN (Enagás Transporte del Norte)

Ellund (GUD)

Energinet.dk

DK

>

Gasunie Deutschland Transport Services

Ellund (OGE)

Energinet.dk

DK

>

Open Grid Europe

33

cross-border

36

cross-border

Biriatou (FR) / Irun (ES)

36 (**)

cross-border

Ellund (GUD)

Gasunie Deutschland Transport Services

DE

>

Energinet.dk

37

cross-border

Dragør

Energinet.dk

DK

>

Swedegas AB

38 (**)

cross-border

Mallnow

GASCADE Gastransport

DE

>

GAZ-SYSTEM (ISO)

39

cross-border

Lasów

ONTRAS - VNG Gastransport

DE

>

GAZ-SYSTEM

42

cross-border

Opal (DE)/Brandov (CZ)

OPAL Gastransport

DE

>

NET4GAS

(*) A new project in the GRIP 2014-2023 data collection window, that was not yet in last TYNDP 2013-2022 (**) A possible new interconnection point, or a possible new flow direction on an existing interconnection point

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System Operator 2

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CC

CC

TYNDP CODE

NAME - PROMOTOR

DE

DE

TRA-N-241

MONACO section phase I (Burghausen-Finsing) - bayernets GmbH

DE

TRA-N-240

MONACO section phase II (Finsing-Amerdingen) - bayernets GmbH

CH

CH

TRA-N-230

Reverse Flow Transitgas Switzerland - Fluxys

DE

DE

TRA-N-208

Reverse Flow TENP Germany - Fluxys

CH

TRA-N-230

Reverse Flow Transitgas Switzerland - Fluxys

FR

TRA-N-046

Exit capacity increase to CH at Oltingue - GRTgaz

FR

TRA-F-036

Arc de Dierrey - GRTgaz

FR

TRA-N-045

Reverse capacity from CH to FR at Oltingue - GRTgaz

CH

TRA-N-230

Reverse Flow Transitgas Switzerland - Fluxys

FR

TRA-F-250

Artère de Guyenne (Phase B Girland Project) - TIGF

FR

TRA-F-039

Iberian-French corridor: Western Axis (CS Chazelles) - GRTgaz

FR

TRA-F-250

Artère de Guyenne (Phase B Girland Project) - TIGF

FR

TRA-F-039

Iberian-French corridor: Western Axis (CS Chazelles) - GRTgaz

FR

TRA-F-251

Artère de l'Adour (former Euskadour) (FR-ES interconnection) - TIGF

FR

TRA-F-039

Iberian-French corridor: Western Axis (CS Chazelles) - GRTgaz

ES

TRA-F-156

CS Border at Biriatou

FR

TRA-F-251

Artère de l'Adour (former Euskadour) (FR-ES interconnection) - TIGF

FR

TRA-F-039

Iberian-French corridor: Western Axis (CS Chazelles) - GRTgaz

ES

TRA-F-156

CS Border at Biriatou

DE

DK

TRA-F-015

Ellund-Egtved - Energinet.dk

DE

DK

TRA-F-015

Ellund-Egtved - Energinet.dk

DK

DK

TRA-F-015

Ellund-Egtved - Energinet.dk

DE

TRA-F-231

Extension of existing gas transmission capacity in the direction to Denmark - 1. Step - Gasunie Deutschland Transport Services GmbH

DE

TRA-N-232

Extension of existing gas transmission capacity in the direction to Denmark - 2. Step - Gasunie Deutschland Transport Services GmbH

SE

DK

TRA-F-015

Ellund-Egtved - Energinet.dk

PL

DE

TRA-F-292 (*)

Installing a reverse flow in Mallnow - GASCADE Gastransport GmbH

PL

PL

TRA-N-274

Upgrade of PL-DE interconnection in Lasów - GAZ-SYSTEM S.A.

CZ

CZ

TRA-F-134

GAZELLE project - NET4GAS, s.r.o.

CH

FR

FR

ES

FR

ES

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NR

POINT TYPE

NAME LOCATION

System Operator 1

CC

61

cross-border

Haiming 2 7F / Haiming 2-7F (bayernets)

E.ON Gas Storage

AT

>

bayernets

bayernets

DE

>

E.ON Gas Storage

E.ON Gas Storage

AT

>

Open Grid Europe

Open Grid Europe

DE

>

E.ON Gas Storage

astora

AT

>

bayernets

bayernets

DE

>

astora

Haiming 2 7F / Haiming 2-7F (OGE)

62

cross-border

Haidach (AT) / Haidach USP (DE)

(**)

cross-border

Alveringem

GRTgaz

FR

>

Fluxys

(**)

cross-border

New IP France/Luxemburg

GRTgaz

FR

>

CREOS

(**)

cross-border

Le Perthus

TIGF

FR

>

Enagas

Enagas

ES

>

TIGF

(**)

cross-border

Porto-Vecchio

Interconnector GALSI

IT

>

GRTgaz

(**)

cross-border

Interconnector PL-DK

Gaz-System (ISO)

PL

>

Energinet.dk

Energinet.dk

DK

>

Gaz-System (ISO)

(**)

cross-border

Gormanston

BGE (UK)

UK

>

Gaslink

(**)

cross-border

Haiming-Oberkappel (OGE) - DE / Burghausen (Transit) - TGL

Tauerngasleitung GmbH

AT

>

Open Grid Europe

Haiming (bayernets) - DE / Burghausen (Austrian Hub) - TGL

Tauerngasleitung GmbH

AT

>

bayernets

(*) A new project in the GRIP 2014-2023 data collection window, that was not yet in last TYNDP 2013-2022 (**) A possible new interconnection point, or a possible new flow direction on an existing interconnection point

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CC

CC

TYNDP CODE

NAME - PROMOTOR

DE

DE

TRA-N-241

MONACO section phase I (Burghausen-Finsing) - bayernets GmbH

DE

TRA-N-240

MONACO section phase II (Finsing-Amerdingen) - bayernets GmbH

DE

TRA-N-241

MONACO section phase I (Burghausen-Finsing) - bayernets GmbH

DE

TRA-N-240

MONACO section phase II (Finsing-Amerdingen) - bayernets GmbH

DE

TRA-N-241

MONACO section phase I (Burghausen-Finsing) - bayernets GmbH

DE

TRA-N-240

MONACO section phase II (Finsing-Amerdingen) - bayernets GmbH

DE

TRA-N-241

MONACO section phase I (Burghausen-Finsing) - bayernets GmbH

DE

TRA-N-240

MONACO section phase II (Finsing-Amerdingen) - bayernets GmbH

DE

TRA-N-241

MONACO section phase I (Burghausen-Finsing) - bayernets GmbH

DE

TRA-N-240

MONACO section phase II (Finsing-Amerdingen) - bayernets GmbH

DE

TRA-N-241

MONACO section phase I (Burghausen-Finsing) - bayernets GmbH

DE

TRA-N-240

MONACO section phase II (Finsing-Amerdingen) - bayernets GmbH

BE

TRA-F-205

Alveringem-Maldegem - Fluxys Belgium

FR

TRA-F-040

Reverse capacity from France to Belgium at Veurne - GRTgaz

FR

TRA-N-044

New interconnection to Luxembourg - GRTgaz

LU

TRA-N-013

OS GRTgaz/Creos - Creos Luxembourg S.A.

ES

TRA-N-161

Iberian-French corridor: Eastern Axis-Midcat Project (Pipeline Figueras-French border) - Enagรกs S.A.

FR

TRA-N-252

FR-ES interconnection (MIDCAT) - TIGF

FR

TRA-N-256

Iberian-French corridor: Eastern Axis-Midcat Project (CS Montpellier and CS Saint Martin de Crau) - GRTgaz

FR

TRA-F-041

Eridan - GRTgaz

FR

TRA-N-253

Est Lyonnais pipeline - GRTgaz

ES

TRA-N-161

Iberian-French corridor: Eastern Axis-Midcat Project (Pipeline Figueras-French border) - Enagรกs S.A.

FR

TRA-N-252

FR-ES interconnection (MIDCAT) - TIGF

FR

TRA-N-256

Iberian-French corridor: Eastern Axis-Midcat Project (CS Montpellier and CS Saint Martin de Crau) - GRTgaz

FR

TRA-F-041

Eridan - GRTgaz

FR

TRA-N-253

Est Lyonnais pipeline - GRTgaz

FR

TRA-N-042

New interconnection IT-FR to connect Corsica - GRTgaz

IT

TRA-N-012

GALSI Pipeline - Edison

DK

PL

TRA-N-271

PL - DK interconnection (Baltic Pipe) - GAZ-SYSTEM S.A.

PL

PL

TRA-N-271

PL - DK interconnection (Baltic Pipe) - GAZ-SYSTEM S.A.

IE

IE

TRA-N-071

Physical Reverse Flow on South North Pipeline - Gaslink

DE

AT

TRA-N-035

Tauerngasleitung Gas Pipeline Project - Tauerngasleitung GmbH

DE

AT

TRA-N-035

Tauerngasleitung Gas Pipeline Project - Tauerngasleitung GmbH

DE

TRA-N-241

MONACO section phase I (Burghausen-Finsing) - bayernets GmbH

DE

TRA-N-240

MONACO section phase II (Finsing-Amerdingen) - bayernets GmbH

AT

DE

AT

DE

AT

BE

LU

ES

FR

FR

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NR

POINT TYPE

NAME LOCATION

System Operator 1

CC

System Operator 2

Haiming (bayernets) - DE / Burghausen (Transit) - TGL

Tauerngasleitung GmbH

AT

>

bayernets

Haiming (bayernets) - DE / Burghausen-Auerbach (Austrian Storage) - TGL

Tauerngasleitung GmbH

AT

>

bayernets

Haiming (OGE) - DE / Burghausen-Auerbach (Austrian Storage) - TGL

Tauerngasleitung GmbH

AT

>

Open Grid Europe

Matrix Intra-country balancing zone interconnection points NR

POINT TYPE

NAME LOCATION

System Operator 1

CC

108 (**)

intra-balancing zone

Drohne

Gascade

DE

>

Open Grid Europe

114

intra-balancing zone

Liaison Nord Sud

GRTgaz

FR

>

GRTgaz

Liaison Sud Nord

GRTgaz

FR

>

GRTgaz

PIR MIDI

GRTgaz

FR

>

TIGF

TIGF

FR

>

GRTgaz

115

intra-balancing zone

(**)

intra-balancing zone

Gernsheim

Gascade

DE

>

Open Grid Europe

(**)

intra-balancing zone

Stolberg

Fluxys TENP

DE

>

Gascade

(*) A new project in the GRIP 2014-2023 data collection window, that was not yet in last TYNDP 2013-2022 (**) A possible new interconnection point, or a possible new flow direction on an existing interconnection point

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System Operator 2

North West Gas Regional Investment Plan 2013-2022


CC

CC

TYNDP CODE

NAME - PROMOTOR

DE

AT

TRA-N-035

Tauerngasleitung Gas Pipeline Project - Tauerngasleitung GmbH

DE

TRA-N-241

MONACO section phase I (Burghausen-Finsing) - bayernets GmbH

DE

TRA-N-240

MONACO section phase II (Finsing-Amerdingen) - bayernets GmbH

AT

TRA-N-035

Tauerngasleitung Gas Pipeline Project - Tauerngasleitung GmbH

DE

TRA-N-241

MONACO section phase I (Burghausen-Finsing) - bayernets GmbH

DE

TRA-N-240

MONACO section phase II (Finsing-Amerdingen) - bayernets GmbH

AT

TRA-N-035

Tauerngasleitung Gas Pipeline Project - Tauerngasleitung GmbH

DE

TRA-N-241

MONACO section phase I (Burghausen-Finsing) - bayernets GmbH

DE

TRA-N-240

MONACO section phase II (Finsing-Amerdingen) - bayernets GmbH

CC

CC

TYNDP CODE

NAME - PROMOTOR

DE

DE

TRA-N-291 (*)

new net connection from Rehden to Drohne (new covenant from NEP2012) - GASCADE Gastransport GmbH

FR

FR

TRA-N-043

Val de Sa么ne project - GRTgaz

FR

TRA-F-036

Arc de Dierrey - GRTgaz

FR

TRA-F-041

Eridan - GRTgaz

FR

TRA-N-043

Val de Sa么ne project - GRTgaz

FR

TRA-F-036

Arc de Dierrey - GRTgaz

FR

TRA-F-041

Eridan - GRTgaz

FR

TRA-F-250

Art猫re de Guyenne (Phase B Girland Project) - TIGF

FR

TRA-F-039

New compression station at Chazelles - GRTgaz

FR

TRA-N-252

FR-ES interconnection (MIDCAT) - TIGF

FR

TRA-N-256

Developments to create an Eastern axis -MidCat- for the ES-FR interconnection - GRTgaz

FR

TRA-F-250

Art猫re de Guyenne (Phase B Girland Project) - TIGF

FR

TRA-F-039

New compression station at Chazelles - GRTgaz

FR

TRA-N-252

FR-ES interconnection (MIDCAT) - TIGF

FR

TRA-N-256

Developments to create an Eastern axis -MidCat- for the ES-FR interconnection - GRTgaz

DE

DE

TRA-F-289 (*)

Installation of Nord Stream onshore project - GASCADE Gastransport GmbH

DE

DE

TRA-N-208

Reverse Flow TENP Germany - Fluxys

DE

DE

FR

FR

FR

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Matrix CROSS-BORDER INTERCONNECTION POINTS WITH NON-EU (IMPORT) NR

POINT TYPE

NAME LOCATION

System Operator 1

CC

224

non-eu import

Greifswald / GOAL

Nord Stream

RU

>

Gasunie Ostseeanbindungsleitung

Greifswald / NEL

Nord Stream

RU

>

NEL Gastransport

Statpipe - NO / Harald platform - DK

Gassco

NO

>

Maersk Oil and Gas AS

(**)

non-eu import

System Operator 2

Matrix LNG ENTRY INTERCONNECTION POINTS NR

POINT TYPE

NAME LOCATION

System Operator 1

CC

300

LNG entry

Zeebrugge LNG

Fluxys LNG

BE

>

Fluxys Belgium

302

LNG entry

Isle of Grain

Grain LNG

UK

>

National Grid Gas

304

LNG entry

Montoir de Bretagne

Elengy

FR

>

GRTgaz

305

LNG entry

Fos Cavaou

Fosmax LNG

FR

>

GRTgaz

Fos Tonkin

Elengy

FR

>

GRTgaz

316

LNG entry

Gate Terminal (I)

Gate Terminal

NL

>

Gasunie Transport Services

(**)

LNG entry

Dunkerque LNG

GRTgaz

FR

>

GRTgaz

(**)

LNG entry

Fos LNG

GRTgaz

FR

>

GRTgaz

(**)

LNG entry

Gothenburg LNG

Swedegas AB

SE

>

Swedegas

(**)

LNG entry

Shannon LNG

Shannon LNG

IE

>

Gaslink

(*) A new project in the GRIP 2014-2023 data collection window, that was not yet in last TYNDP 2013-2022 (**) A possible new interconnection point, or a possible new flow direction on an existing interconnection point

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System Operator 2

North West Gas Regional Investment Plan 2013-2022


CC

CC

TYNDP CODE

NAME - PROMOTOR

DE

DE

TRA-N-321 (*)

Expansion of Nord Stream connection to markets in western Europe - Entry Greifswald - Gasunie Ostseeanbindungsleitung GmbH

RU

TRA-N-267

Nord Stream 3 - Nord Stream AG

RU

TRA-N-069

Nord Stream 4 - Nord Stream AG

DE

TRA-N-323 (*) Expansion of Nord Stream connection to markets in western Europe - Entry Greifswald - NEL

RU

TRA-N-267

Nord Stream 3 - Nord Stream AG

RU

TRA-N-069

Nord Stream 4 - Nord Stream AG

DK

DK

TRA-N-218

Tie-in of Norwegian off-shore natural gas transmission system to Danish off-shore natural gas infrastructure Maersk Oil and Gas AS

CC

CC

TYNDP CODE

NAME - PROMOTOR

BE

BE

LNG-N-229

LNG Terminal Zeebrugge - capacity extension & 2nd jetty - Fluxys LNG

UK

UK

LNG-N-290 (*)

Isle of Grain - Phase 4 Expansion - National Grid Gas plc

FR

FR

LNG-N-225

Montoir LNG Terminal Expansion - Elengy

FR

TRA-N-048

Developments for Montoir LNG terminal expansion at 12,5bcm - 1 - GRTgaz

FR

TRA-N-048

Developments for Montoir LNG terminal expansion at 12,5bcm - 2 - GRTgaz

FR

TRA-N-257

New line Between Chemery and Dierrey - GRTgaz

FR

LNG-N-227

Fos Cavaou LNG Terminal Expansion - Elengy

FR

TRA-N-269

Fosmax (Cavaou) LNG expansion - GRTgaz

FR

TRA-F-041

Eridan - GRTgaz

FR

TRA-N-253

Est Lyonnais pipeline - GRTgaz

FR

LNG-N-226

Fos Tonkin LNG Terminal Expansion - Elengy

FR

TRA-N-255

Fos Tonkin LNG expansion - GRTgaz

FR

TRA-F-041

Eridan - GRTgaz

NL

TRA-N-192

Entry capacity expansion GATE terminal - Gasunie Transport Services B.V.

NL

LNG-N-050

Gate terminal phase 3 - Gate Terminal B.V.

FR

TRA-F-038

Developments for the Dunkerque LNG new terminal - GRTgaz

FR

LNG-F-210

Dunkerque LNG Terminal - EdF

FR

TRA-F-036

Arc de Dierrey - GRTgaz

FR

TRA-N-254

Developments for the Fos faster LNG new terminal - GRTgaz

FR

LNG-N-223

Fos Faster LNG Terminal - Fos Faster LNG

FR

TRA-F-041

Eridan - GRTgaz

FR

TRA-N-253

Est Lyonnais pipeline - GRTgaz

SE

SE

LNG-N-032

Gothenburg LNG (preliminary) - Swedegas AB

IE

IE

LNG-N-030

Shannon LNG Terminal - Shannon LNG

DE

FR

FR

NL

FR

FR

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Conclusions This North West Gas Regional Investment Plan report The results from the TYNDP 2013-2022 must be seen as has developed from the first edition which was a minimum level since supply and demand in the TYNDP published in 2011. The report has been shaped in close 2013-2022 is matched under perfect market conditions. collaboration with stakeholders, especially through the No arbitrage or other market behaviour is included in good coordination between the NW TSOs and the North the TYNDP 2013-2022 analyses. Thus congestions, other West Gas Regional Investment Plan. than those observed in TYNDP 2013-2022 may well be possible and is, for example, also reflected by the The report provides, amongst other areas, an in-depth various projects in the Annex of this GRIP. regional analysis of the TYNDP 2013-2022 results. The solutions have already been identified at an earlier stage The Supply and Demand figures included in this report by the concerned TSOs and they have developed their show the enduring importance of gas in the energy investment plans to solve these issues: mix in NW Europe, but they also show the growing Cross border congestion on the Danish-German dependency on imports. Depletion of German and border has been identified by the Danish and German Dutch L-gas supplies will result in conversion of L-gas TSOs. This will be solved by a project whose project markets. This process will start in Germany before 2020 status recently moved from non-FID to FID due to depleting German supplies and will continue in The vulnerable supply position of Sweden is improved Germany after 2020 on a larger scale due to depleting by the above mentioned project but vulnerability Dutch L-gas supplies. remains. Solutions have been identified but no decision has been made The role of gas in the energy and power generation Cross border congestion in Luxembourg has been mix and the increase of intermittent renewable energy identified by CREOS, and solutions have been sources (RES) adds additional challenges to the flexibility examined with GRTgaz and Fluxys Belgium. Currently, in gas supply and gas infrastructure. no decision has been reached, partly due to the failed market consultation Further challenges to network development are the Firm transmission capacity from GRTgaz Northern ever decreasing long-term capacity commitments Zone (PEG Nord) to its Southern Zone (PEG Sud) is by the market. Any investment should be given long currently restricted to 230 GWh per day. In order to term predictable returns. In the absence of long-term respond to the potential price spread between PEG commitments, alternative ways have to be explored in Sud and the other hubs of the NW region, solutions order to provide sufficient confidence to investors. have been identified and studied, combining investments and contractual mechanisms. Currently, The TSOs of the NW region hope you have found this the different solutions are analysed with the French report useful and informative. The TSOs encourage all regulator (CRE) and the market players readers to get involved in the development of the next iteration of the North West Gas Regional Investment Plan, in order to improve the report further.

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Disclaimer GRIP co-authors have prepared this Report based on information collected and compiled from their internal source, from stakeholders and from other sources. GRIP co-authors do not audit or verify the truth or accuracy of any such third parties’ information. The content of the Report (hereinafter referred to as ‘Content’) is provided on an ‘as is’ basis. GRIP coauthors do not guarantee the accuracy, completeness or timeliness of the Content. GRIP co-authors are not responsible for any errors or omissions, regardless of the cause, for the results obtained from the use of the Content.

In no event shall GRIP co-authors be liable to any party for any direct, indirect, incidental, exemplary, compensatory, punitive, special or consequential damages, costs, expenses, legal fees, or losses, including, without limitation, lost income or lost profits and opportunity costs, in connection with any use of the Content. All analyses and forecasts are mere statements of opinion as of the date they are expressed and not statements of fact or recommendations. When making decisions of any nature, any party shall rely exclusively on its own information, forecast, skill, judgment and experience and not on the Content. Image courtesy of NW European TSOs

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Glossary Abbreviation ACER ACM BBL BNetzA CAM CCGT CEER CNG CRE CREG CREOS DSO ENTSOG ETS FID Gaslink GB GRI NW GRIP GRTgaz GTS GUD GWh HHI H-gas IEA IP IUK L-gas LNG Mtoe NBP NCG NEP NPG NRA

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Full Name The European Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators Dutch Energy Regulator Balgzand Bacton Line Bundesnetzagentur, the German Regulator Capacity Allocation Mechanism Combined Cycle Gas Turbine Council of European Energy Regulator Compressed Natural Gas Commission de Régulation de l’Energie, French Regulator Belgian regulator for electricity and gas Lexembourg’s TSO Distribution System Operator European Network of Transmission System Operators for Gas Emissions Trading Scheme Final Investment Decision Irish TSO Great Britain Gas Regional Initiative North West Gas Regional Investment Plan French TSO Gasunie Transport Services (The Netherlands) Gasunie Deutschland Giga Watt hours Herfindahl-Hirschman Index High calorific gas International Energy Agency Interconnection Point Interconnector UK Low calorific gas Liquefied Natural Gas Million Tonnes of Oil Equivalent UK gas hub NetConnect Germany (Gas hub in Germany) Netzentwicklungsplan (the German Network Development Plan Gas) Nord Pool Gas National Regulatory Authority

North West Gas Regional Investment Plan 2013-2022


Abbreviation NW NW GRIP OBA OGE Ofgem PEG SoS TTF TSO TWh TYNDP 2013-2022 UGS ZTP

Full Name North West North West Gas Regional Investment Plan Operational Balancing Agreement Open Grid Europe (A German TSO) UK energy regulator French gas hub Security of Supply Title Transfer Facility, the Dutch gas hub Transmission System Operator Tera Watt hours Ten Year Network Development Plan Underground Gas Storage The Belgian gas hub

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ENTSOG AISBL Avenue de Cortenbergh 100 B-1000 Brussels T +32 (0)2 894 51 00 info@entsog.eu www.entsog.eu

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