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Onotassiniik Wawatay’s Mining Quarterly

FALL 2013

ONOTASSINIIK.COM

EXPLORERS & DRILLERS

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The Negotiator

BOB RAE Tours Matawa

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Matawa students

UPGRADE EDUCATION

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First Nations

Grand Chief Har vey Yesno: STATE of the N ATION ONO Fall 2013 Layout.indd 1

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VOLUME 1, NUMBER 2

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Shawn Bell Bryan Phelan James Brohm Tom Scura Matthew Bradley Charles Brown Grant Keesic

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FALL 2013

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9 Chief Negotiator

Bob Rae has resigned as a member of Parliament to negotiate for Matawa communities a Ring of Fire deal with the province. Rae is reacquainting himself with First Nations he got to know when he was Ontario’s premier.

CONTENTS

COVER STORY

DEPARTMENTS 4 Quarterly Report

Cliffs suspends environmental assessment of its chromite project; De Beers considers a Victor mine extension; making the case for powering the Thunder Bay Generating Station with natural gas.

7 Claims

Mushkegowuk’s grand chief likes Quebec Cree model for resource benefits; Aboriginal help wanted to fill 145,000 future Canadian mining jobs; educated band members drive economic turnaround.

15 Best Practices

Growing cultural understanding in the Kenogami Forest.

photo: Laura Taylor/Shared Value Solutions & Matawa First Nations Management

Elder Corny Nate gives Bob Rae a history lesson in Eabametoong.

22 Profile

Todd Solomon appreciates working in the bush as a camp cook.

FEATURES 11 New Rules

Mineral exploration has been done a certain way in Ontario for more than a hundred years. Under new Mining Act rules for exploration plans and permits, First Nations have a say in how it’s done now.

24 Ontario

Geological Survey Explaining the clay banks of the Severn Rivers and ancient fossils near Kasabonika Lake.

16 Explorers & Drillers

Lac Seul and Webequie First Nations have invested in companies doing mineral exploration work in their territories. “We were looking to be included in the industry as opposed to just being consulted in the industry,” says Chris Angeconeb, Lac Seul’s general manager of economic development.

COLUMNS 6 Grand Chief Harvey Yesno talks to

Nishnawbe Aski Nation chiefs about resource development, roads and power.

20 Stepping Stone

Glen Wabasse of Webequie and Aroland’s Holly Mendowegan are two of more than 100 students to benefit from a “skills advancement” pilot program offered by Matawa’s Kiikenomaga Kikenjigewen Employment and Training Services.

8 ᑭᒋᐅᑭᒪᑲᐣ ᐦᐊᕑᐱ ᔦᐢᓄ ᐅᑕᓂᒧᑕᒪᐊᐧᐣ

ᐊᓂᔑᓇᐯ ᐊᐢᑭ ᐅᑭᒪᑲᓇᐠ ᑭᒋᒪᒋᒋᑫᐃᐧᓇᐣ, ᒥᑲᓇᑫᐃᐧᓇᐣ ᒥᓇ ᐊᐧᑌᓂᑲᓀᔭᐱᐣ.

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Stan Sudol writes about the untapped

potential of peat fuel for remote First Nations in northern Ontario.

WAWATAY’S MINING QUARTERLY

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QUARTERLY REPORT

Cliffs puts Ring of Fire project on hold Citing a list of holdups with its proposed Ring of Fire chromite project, Cliffs Natural Resources announced June 12 it was suspending its environmental assessment (EA) for the $3.3 billion mine. Bill Boor, Cliffs senior vice president, told Wawatay News the uncertainty over the federal EA process played a significant role in his company’s decision to halt the project. “Cliffs wants to work with First Nations on how we’ll co-operatively make sure we have an assessment that works for all of us, so we can assess this project in the best possible way,” Boor said. Matawa First Nations filed a judicial review against the federal government in 2011, calling for a Joint Review Panel assessment for Cliffs’ project rather than the existing comprehensive review. First Nations leaders argued this would force the environmental assessment into the communities to hear testimonies in local languages. A federal judge is expected to hear the judicial review this September. If Matawa wins the case, the current EA process would have to start over as a Joint Review Panel. Boor emphasized that the uncertainty over the federal EA process was only one reason Cliffs decided to temporarily suspend work on its project. He noted Ontario had not approved Cliffs’ terms of reference for the provincial EA, and that a number of agreements with the provincial government remained unfinished. Cliffs had also not been granted access to land it requires for an all-weather road to the mine site, with a related land dispute between Cliffs and KWG Resources awaiting a ruling from Ontario’s mining commissioner.

photo: De Beers Canada

Environmental assessment begins for Victor Mine extension The Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency has started environmental assessment for a possible De Beers Victor diamond mine extension. The proposed extension targets a diamond-bearing deposit, called “Tango,” about seven kilometres northwest of Victor. De Beers proposed a comprehensive environmental assessment of the Tango extension under federal legislation, with participation by Ontario government agencies. The Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency noted in a June 13 Wawatay News ad that it had started an assessment, while inviting public comment. DeBeers earlier indicated the environmental assessment would take about two years and be done at the same time as community consultation, further baseline environmental

studies, engineering and evaluation of the Tango extension. “If those activities prove favourable and are successfully concluded early in 2016, then De Beers will request development approval from our board of directors,” the company said in a news release, April 24. “The target date to begin processing ore from Tango Extension kimberlite is in 2018, as the Victor ore body is forecast to be exhausted by that time.” Located 90 kilometres west of Attawapiskat First Nation, Victor Mine opened in 2008. “The Tango Extension kimberlite, while smaller and lower grade than Victor, currently offers the best potential to extend the life of the mining operation,” De Beers said. It is projected to have production capacity of just over 9,000 tonnes per day, with a mine life of roughly seven years.

Collins supports natural gas conversion Peter Collins, grand chief for the Northern Superior region of Anishinabek Nation, supports conversion of the Thunder Bay Generating Station from coal to natural gas. Last year, the provincial government suspended work on this conversion while it looked at other options for meeting the energy needs of northwestern Ontario. The province will stop using coal-fired plants next year. MPP Bill Mauro (Lib—Thunder Bay-Atikokan) expressed concern this spring that the Ontario Power Authority had determined energy requirements could be met without the Thunder Bay plant, with construction of a new east-west hydro tie-line to provide some of the alternate energy.

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But according to a recent report by Thunder Bay’s energy task force, it will take both to meet growing energy demand. Converting the plant to natural gas is also the cheapest option, the task force argues, and it will allow for timely startup of proposed mines in the northwest. “I’m hopeful that they are going to be successful in terms of maintaining that as part of our energyproducing infrastracture in northwestern Ontario,” Mauro said June 20 at the Ontario Mining Forum in Thunder Bay. “Work continues on that and hopefully photo: Bryan Phelan we’re no too far off from having some resolution.” Added Collins, in a news release earlier that month Bill Mauro, MPP, Thunder from Anishinabek Nation: “This development is Bay-Atikokan. crucial to our economy, growth and sustainability.”

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PARTNERSHIPS

AZA, Aroland join Tashota exploration effort The First Nations of Aroland and Animbiigo Zaagi’igan Anishinaabek (AZA) have reached an agreement with the Tashota Group for a mineral exploration project northeast of Thunder Bay. Members of the Tashota Group – junior mining companies Markinch Resources Inc., Advandtel Minerals (Canada) Ltd., and Tashota Resources Inc. – are joint venture partners exploring for precious metals in the Beardmore-Geraldton Gold Camp. According to a May 8 news release from the group, its agreement with Aroland and AZA provides for the participation of the First Nations in economic aspects of the project, including related business opportunities, employment, and training and education initiatives. “This agreement marks the beginning of a collaborative relationship … based on respect for our rights, as well as environmental and economic sustainability,” said Chief Sonny Gagnon of Aroland.

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Flying Post, Mattagami sign MOU with Explor Two Nishnawbe Aski Nation communities signed a memorandum of understanding with Explor Resources on June 4. Flying Post and Mattagami First Nations agreed to co-operate with Explor in the development of the company’s Timmins Porcupine West gold property. “Explor looks forward to building a strong relationship with the First Nations that will be beneficial to both parties,” Chris Dupont, president and CEO of Explor, said in a news release. Under the MOU, the signatories will work together on issues such as environmental protection, employment and business opportunities, and education and training. Exlpor, a junior gold and base metals exploration company based in Quebec, also agreed to issue 500,000 common shares to both First Nations, subject to approval by regulatory authorities. An Explor drill program is ongoing at its 3,200-hectare Timmins Porcupine West property.

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WAWATAY’S MINING QUARTERLY

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There’s enough for everybody here Harvey Yesno, Grand Chief, Nishnawbe Aski Nation The following is excerpted from an opening address by Grand Chief Harvey Yesno at the Nishnawbe Aski Nation Chiefs Assembly in Mattagami First Nation, April 9, and his follow-up comments to chiefs about resource development and infrastructure, April 10.

I

t’s time to get down to business for Nishnawbe Aski Nation (NAN). The First Nations across James Bay Treaty 9 and the Ontario portion of Treaty 5 will not be bystanders or a stakeholder or an interest group as Ontario and Canada prepare to take our interest in the lands and resources to market. … I am committed to ensuring that there be a balanced treaty and economic approach. NAN First Nations and our future generations will benefit from the development in our territory as was intended at the time of the treaty. … How do we provoke the implementation of our treaties? We must develop a strategic approach that includes ensuring that our treaty partners, Canada and Ontario, are equally responsible to uphold the promises made at the time of the treaty. Canada and Ontario cannot opt out of addressing the needs and concerns of NAN. Ontario cannot wash its hands of the duty to consult and accommodate First Nations, nor can it download its responsibility to industry. … I ask you to consider the counsel of Elder Louis Waswa, who recently shared with me his concerns about the future of NAN. Elder Louis’ concern is the approach of government to divide First Nations by separately working with and striking agreements with each First Nation by First Nation. The treaty cannot be signed away one First Nation at a time. … The treaty can be the backbone and workhorse of our First Nations economy. The treaty has always been intended by our

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former leaders to be a perpetual agreement to share in the benefits of the land. … The driving force of regional infrastructure and the economy is usually industry. As industry is established and grows, so do the highways, the railroads, townships, hospitals, and grid lines. NAN First Nations require infrastructure investments in order to bring down the cost of living. And NAN First Nations must be involved in the planning of these developments. NAN First Nations must also have an opportunity to have ownership, participation and business opportunities that will emerge from these developments. ... NAN is ready to get down to business with our partners in government and industry, and we’re not accepting pocket change or handouts. NAN First Nations and our people will be part of the new and emerging economies of Canada and Ontario. … We must put forward not only our political position but our economic position. …

T

he engagement (with the federal and provincial governments) I’m trying … it’s not writing letters and passing resolutions because that’s been done – we’ve got hundreds of resolutions; we’ve got 160 different resource development resolutions. … So, my approach is to get to the decision-makers (including the prime minster’s office and the premier’s office). … We’re going to be talking about resource development and so on. Right now it is ‘the’ thing. To me, one of the top priorities I have is in regards to major infrastructure, transmission lines and all-weather roads into our communities. … We need to build all-weather roads. … If I’m pushing the government to build allweather roads in the North, I don’t want to be standing around here the next three or five years studying this and talking about it and passing more resolutions. My question is: “Do you want a road?” You give me an answer. Same with the (hydro) grid lines. There are some initiatives that are going on; have been going on, actually, for many years. … There’s also an opportunity for (power) generation. … There’s capacity that has been developed (by First Nations) in other regions. Road access communities have small construction companies, they’ve got engineering firms, design firms, project management. … We need to start partnering with those businesses. … We should be building our own enterprises, building that capacity, because those roads are going to cost a billion dollars, a billion and a half, … so there’s going to be a lot of jobs for construction. …

And same with transmission lines. … You can’t just create a business today that will have a $100-million contract because there are insurance issues, bonding issues, and so on. We need to wake up to that and start building capacity where it already exists in our communities. This is where I think all of NAN gets involved. For the 17 road access communities, if you have companies there that we can utilize for engineering, surveying, mapping or construction, well, the first thing we should do from the North is partner with them – build that business up so we can get those contracts. If you’re going to partner with somebody else, then you’re not really building any equity and creating wealth in our communities; you’re creating wealth in Toronto and other places. … We need to work together. There’s enough for everybody here. When it comes to revenue sharing, I think we all agree that the lion’s share will go to the community that’s closest to that economic activity. But there are just so many other things that can be done. We need to make that dollar circulate in our communities to grow our economy.

The engagement with “ governments I’m trying, it’s not writing letters and passing resolutions. We’ve got 160 different resource development resolutions. My approach is to get to the decision-makers.

Right now we’re, all of us are probably, mostly dependent … I would say almost 100 per cent are dependent on government transfers. … We need to do more. … If we put more money into your hands – you as representing your communities – whether that’s building up a business in your community or partnerships, owning real estate and companies, that’s where you’re going to get the autonomy and the independence to do more. … I’m concerned about the environment like you are. But I think there’s a greater evil in our communities, and that’s poverty. We cannot be on welfare. Welfare is not a treaty right. Welfare is basically just to keep your pulse going, keep you alive. And that’s not good. People want to work. Our kids want a future. They want something to look forward to. …

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CLAIMS “You’re looking at $120 billion, right in line with the oil sands or some of these other major developments. It has the potential to transform what was hitherto a very poor, underdeveloped area of Ontario and give people who live there, particularly First Nations people, a chance for a decent life.” envisiondigitalphoto.com

“At some point it becomes illogical to keep moving forward with anything if you don’t have access to the land you need … What I’m hoping for is that we can collectively agree on how we want this (environmental) assessment to work.” —Bill Boor, a senior vicepresident for Cliffs, in a Wawatay News interview about his company’s decision June 12 to suspend environmental assessment (EA) activities for its $3.3 billion chromite mine project in the Ring of Fire. Matawa First Nations have challenged in court the planned EA process, while favouring a more comprehensive, communitybased assessment.

—Tony Clement, lead federal minister for the Ring of Fire, predicts in April to The Huffington Post Canada the future value of the mining development, taking into account all economic activity generated by planned mines and a smelter.

“Five states of emergencies had to be declared within our region over the past three years. There will be many more coming if our communities are not allowed the same level of access to the benefits of resource development as are available to the Crees of Quebec and others.” —Grand Chief Stan Louttit, Mushkegowuk Council, responds in May to a story on CBC’s The National comparing the poverty of First Nations in Ontario, on the west side of James Bay, with the prosperity of the Cree communities across the bay in Quebec. CBC reported that the Quebec Cree receive $170 million a year from hydro development alone, along with royalties from mining and forestry.

“Most of these small underground mines are marginal at current gold prices and obviously built for a higher gold price environment.” Cliffs Natural Resources

–Jon Case, resource portfolio manager at Sentry Investments, comments in a Financial Post article noting that because of a drastic drop in the price of gold, small mines in Canada and elsewhere are in danger of closing. A record quarterly drop in gold’s price occurred April-June this year, tumbling to $1,225 US an ounce in late June. Gold reached a peak price of $1,900 US in 2011.

2013

Canadian Mining Industry Employment, Hiring Requirements and Available Talent 10-year Outlook

“Aboriginal people represent the greatest potential as a source of future labour supply for the industry.” —according to a 2013 Mining Industry Human Resource Council report, which predicts Canada’s mining sector will need to attract 145,000 new workers over the next decade.

“We looked at the people from Membertou who had gone away to get educated and asked them to come home.” —Chief Terrance Paul of Membertou explains part of the Mi’kmaw community’s strategy for creating a sustainable economy. In 16 years, Membertou went from having an annual budget of just $4 million, mostly from Aboriginal Affairs, to $108 million, mostly (about 95 per cent) not from Aboriginal Affairs, Frank Busch reported for Troy Media in June.

Wawatay News

We remain hopeful that as time goes by everyone – First Nations, industry and government – can adjust, adapt and grow so we can all reap the benefits of the mineral wealth in our territory. —Shawn Batise, executive director of Wabun Tribal Council, in comments to Onotassiniik about Mining Act rule changes that now require Aboriginal consultation at early stages of mineral exploration.

—compiled by Bryan Phelan WAWATAY’S MINING QUARTERLY

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ᑲᑭᓇ ᐅᔕ ᐊᐃᐧᔭ ᑕᑭᐅᒋᐃᐧᒋᐦᐊᑲᓄᐃᐧ ᐊᕑᐱ ᔦᐢᓄ , ᑭᒋᐅᒋᒪᑲᐣ, ᐊᓂᔑᓇᐯ ᐊᐢᑭ ᐅᑭᒪᐃᐧᐣ ᑭᒋᐅᑭᒪᑲᐣ ᐊᕑᐱ ᔦᐢᓄ ᐅᐅᐁᐧ ᐅᑎᑭᑐᐃᐧᐣ ᒣᑲᐧᐨ ᒪᑕᐧᑲᒥ ᑕᔑᑫᐃᐧᓂᐠ ᐊᓂᔑᓇᐯ ᐊᐢᑭ ᑲᑭᒪᐊᐧᒋᐦᐃᑐᓂᑫᐨ ᐃᐃᐁᐧ ᒣᑲᐧᐨ ᓂᑭᐱᓯᑦ ᓴᑲᓱ ᑲᐃᓇᑭᓯᐨ ᐁᑲᐧ ᐅᐅᐁᐧ ᓇᓇᑲ ᑭᒋᒪᒋᒋᑫᐃᐧᐣ ᑲᑭᐊᓂᒧᑕᐠ ᐃᐃᐁᐧ ᒣᑲᐧᐨ ᓂᑭᐱᓯᑦ ᒥᑕᓱ ᑲᐃᓇᑭᓯᐨ᙮ ᒥᐁᐧ ᐊᔕ ᐊᓂᔑᓇᐯ ᐊᐢᑭ ᓇᐣᑕ ᒋᑲᑫᐧ ᐃᔑᒋᑫᐨ ᐊᐦᐃᐠ ᒪᒋᑕᐃᐧᓂᐠ ᐅᒋ᙮ ᐊᐊᓂᔑᓂᐯᐃᐧ ᑕᔑᑫᐃᐧᓇᐣ ᐅᐅᒪ ᒉᒥᐢ ᐯ

ᑐᕑᐃᑎ 9 ᑭᒋᓇᑯᒥᑐᐃᐧᐣ ᐁᑲᐧ ᐃᐃᒪ ᑐᕑᐃᑎ 5 ᑕᔑᑫᐃᐧᓇᐣ ᑲᐅᒋᓴᑭᓯᑭᐣ ᐅᐅᒪ ᐅᐣᑌᕑᐃᔪ ᑲᐧᓂᐣ ᑕᑭᒧᒋᑲᓇᐊᐧᐸᑫᓯᐊᐧᐠ ᓇᐣᑕ ᒋᒥᒋᐃᐧᒋᑕᐧᐊᐧᐨ ᒋᐃᔑᓇᑲᐧᐠ ᓇᐣᑕ ᑲᔭ ᒋᒥᒋᐸᑯᓭᐣᑕᒧᐊᐧᐨ ᒋᐊᑲᐧᑭᒪᑲᓄᐊᐧᐨ ᐊᔕ ᐃᐧᐣ ᐊᐱᐣ ᐅᐣᑌᕑᐃᔪ ᐁᑲᐧ ᑲᓇᑕ ᐁᐊᐧᐁᐧᓇᒋᑫᐊᐧᐨ ᒥᓇ ᒪᒋᑕᐃᐧᓇᐣ ᐁᑲᓇᐊᐧᐸᑕᒧᐊᐧᐨ ᐃᐃᒪ ᑭᑕᑭᓇᐣ ᒥᓇ ᐱᑯ ᐁᐃᐧᔓᓂᔭᑲᑫᐊᐧᐨ ᒥᓯᐁᐧ᙮ ᓂᐸᑭᐱᓂᑎᐢ ᑫᒋᓇᐨ ᑲᑭᓇ ᑫᑯᐣ ᐊᐦᐃ ᐅᑕ ᑐᕑᐃᑎ ᑭᒋᓇᑯᒥᑐᐃᐧᐣ ᒥᓇ ᔓᓂᔭᑫᐃᐧ ᒪᒋᑕᐃᐧᓇᐣ᙮ ᐊᓂᔑᓇᐯ ᐊᐢᑭ ᑕᔑᑫᐃᐧᓇᐣ ᐁᑲᐧ ᒥᓇ ᐁᐧᑎᓂᑲᐣ ᑲᐃᐧᐊᓂᐱᒪᑎᓯᐊᐧᐨ ᑭᑕᓂᔑᓂᓂᒥᓇᓇᐠ ᑫᒋᓇᐨ ᑫᐃᐧᓇᐊᐧ ᒋᐅᑕᒋᐅᐊᐧᐨ ᐃᐃᒪ ᐊᓄᑭᐃᐧ ᒪᒋᑕᐃᐧᓇᐣ ᐊᔭᑭᐣ ᑭᑕᑭᒥᓇᐠ ᑕᐱᐡᑯᐨ ᐅᐅᐁᐧ ᐅᑕᓇᐠ ᑭᒋᓇᑯᑕᒪᐃᐧᐣ ᑲᑭᐃᔑ ᐊᔓᑕᒪᐊᐧᓂᐊᐧᑭᐸᐣ᙮ ᐊᓂᐣ ᑫᑐᑕᒪᐠ ᒋᒪᒋᐊᐸᒋᑐᔭᐠ ᐅᑫᐧᓂᐊᐧᐣ ᐅᑕᓇᐠ ᑭᑕᔓᑕᒪᑯᐃᐧ ᓇᑯᒥᑯᓂᓇᓇᐣ? ᐊᐦᐃ ᐅᔕ ᒪᐡᑲᐃᐧ ᐊᐧᐁᐧᓇᒋᑫᐃᐧᐣ ᑕᐅᓇᒋᑲᑌ ᐁᑲᐧ ᑲᔭ ᐃᑫᐧᓂᐊᐧᐠ ᑭᒋᓇᑯᒥᑯᐃᐧᓂᐠ ᑲᐃᐧᑕᓄᑭᒥᑯᔭᑲᐧ ᐁᐦᐊ ᑲᓇᑕ ᐁᑲᐧ ᐅᐣᑌᕑᐃᔪ ᑫᒋᓇᐨ ᑫᐃᐧᓇᐊᐧ ᒋᐊᐧᐸᑕᐦᐃᐁᐧᐊᐧᐨ ᑕᑕᐱᑕ ᑕᐱᐡᑯᐨ ᑲᐃᔑᔭᔓᑕᒪᑫᐊᐧᐸᐣ ᒣᑲᐧᐨ ᑭᒋᓇᑯᒥᑐᐃᐧᐣ ᑲᑭᒪᓯᓇᐅᑎᓯᓇᓂᐊᐧᑭᐸᐣ ᐱᐅᑕᓇᐠ᙮ ᑲᐧᓂᐣ ᑲᓇᑕ ᐁᑲᐧ ᐅᐣᑌᕑᐃᔪ ᑕᑭᓇᑲᐃᓯᐊᐧᐠ ᑕᐱᓇᑲ ᐅᑭᑫᐣᑕᓇᐊᐧ ᑫᑯᓀᓇᐣ ᑲᓄᑌᓭᔭᑭᐣ ᒥᓇ ᑲᒪᒥᑎᓀᐣᑕᒥᐦᐃᑯᔭᐠ ᐅᐅᒪ ᐊᓂᔑᓇᐯ ᐊᐢᑭ ᑲᑲᐯᔑᔭᐠ᙮ ᑲᐧᓂᐣ ᐅᐣᑌᕑᐃᔪ ᑕᑭ ᑲᓯᓂᒋᓯᐣ ᑕᐱᓇᑲ ᑫᐃᐧᐣ ᐅᑲᑎᐸᐦᐊᐣ ᒥᓇ ᐅᑲᐃᐧᒋᐦᐊᐣ ᐊᓂᔑᓇᐯᐣ ᒥᓇ ᐱᑯ ᐁᑲ ᒋᐊᐧᓂᑫᓂᑕᐊᐧᐨ ᐅᐅᐁᐧ ᐅᐸᐸᒥᓯᐃᐧᓂᐠ ᒥᓇ ᐱᑯ ᐅᒪᒋᒋᑫᐃᐧᓂᐠ ᐅᒋ᙮ ᑭᑲᑫᐧᒋᒥᐣ ᐁᐦᐊ ᑭᒋᐦᐊᔭ ᓫᐅᐃᐧᐢ ᐊᐧᐢᐊᐧ ᓂᑭᐊᔭᒥᐦᐊ ᓄᑭᒥᑫ ᐁᑭᐃᐧᑕᒪᐃᐧᔑᐨ ᓇᓇᑲ ᑫᑯᓇᐣ ᑲᒪᒥᑐᓀᐣᑕᒥᐦᐃᑯᐨ ᐅᐅᐁᐧ ᐊᓂᐦ ᓂᑲᐣ ᑫᐊᓂᐦᐃᓯᓭᐠ ᐅᐅᒪ ᐊᓂᔑᓇᐯ ᐊᐢᑭ ᑲᐃᔑᑲᐯᔑᔭᐠ᙮ ᑭᒋᐦᐃᐊᔭ ᓫᐅᐃᐢ ᐊᐦᐃ ᑲᑭᐦᑭᒋᒪᒥᑎᓀᐣᑕᒥᐦᐃᑯᐨ ᑕᐱᐡᑯᐨ ᐅᑭᒪᐃᐧᐣ ᐁᐸᐸᒥᓯᐨ ᐸᐸᐱᑭᐢ ᐊᓂᔑᓇᐯᐣ ᐁᐅᒋᐃᐧᑕᓄᑭᒪᐨ ᒥᓇ ᒋᒪᓯᓇᐦᐊᒥᓂᐨ ᓇᑯᒥᑐᐃᐧᓇᐣ ᐊᒥᐁᐧ ᐱᑯ ᐊᐱᐣ ᐁᐃᔑᓇᑲᐧᐠ ᐊᓂᔑᓇᐯᐠ ᒋᑎᐸᓂᓯᐊᐧᐨ ᒪᓯᓇᐦᐅᑎᓱᐊᐧᐨ ᓇᑯᒥᑐᐃᐧᓇᐣ᙮ ᑲᐧᓂᐣ ᐅᐅᐁᐧ ᑭᒋᓇᑯᒥᑐᐃᐧᐣ ᑐᕑᐃᑎ ᑲᐃᒋᑲᑌᐠ ᐯᔑᐠ ᐊᓂᔑᓇᐯᐃᐧ ᑕᔑᑫᐃᐧᐣ ᑕᑭᑕᑎᐸᓂ ᒪᓯᓇᐦᐅᑎᓱᐊᐧᐠ᙮

8

ᐅᐅᐁᐧ ᐅᔕ ᑭᒋᓇᑯᒥᑐᐃᐧᐣ ᒥᐢᑕᐦᐃ ᑲᓇᑕᒪᑯᒥᐣ ᒥᓇ ᑲᐃᐧᒋᐦᐃᑯᒥᐣ ᐃᐃᒪ ᐊᓂᔑᓇᐯᐃᐧ ᔓᓂᔭᑫᐃᐧ ᒪᒋᑕᐃᐧᓂᐠ᙮ ᑲᔭᐡ ᑭᑐᓂᑲᓂᑕᒪᑫᒥᓇᓂᐠ ᐅᔕ ᐅᑭᐱᐊᓂᒧᑕᓇᐊᐧ ᐅᐅᐁᐧ ᑭᒋᓇᑯᒥᑐᐃᐧᐣ ᑲᑭᒪᓯᓇᐦᐃᑲᑌᑭᐸᐣ ᑫᑭᓇᐃᐧᐟ ᒋᐅᒋᑕᒪᓯᔭᐠ ᓇᓇᑲ ᑫᑯᓇᐣ ᑲᒪᒋᒋᑲᑌᑭᐣ ᐃᐃᒪ ᑭᑕᑭᓇᐠ ᐅᒋ᙮ ᐊᐦᐃ ᓇᓇᑐᐠ ᐊᓄᑭᐃᐧᓇᐣ ᒥᓇ ᔓᓂᔭᑫᐃᐧ ᐃᔑᒋᑫᐃᐧᓇᐣ ᐊᒥᐁᐧ ᐅᑫᐧᓂᐊᐧᐣ ᑲᑭᒋᐃᐧᒋᐦᐃᐁᐧᒪᑲᑭᐣ᙮ ᐊᐱᐣ ᒪᒋᒋᑫᐃᐧᓇᐣ ᐁᐅᓇᑌᑭᐣ ᒥᓇ ᐱᑯ ᐁᐊᓂ ᒥᔑᓇᑎᑭᐣ ᑯᑕᑭᔭᐣ ᑫᑯᓇᐣ ᐊᓂᔭᐊᐧᓄᐣ ᑐᑲᐣ ᑭᒋᒥᑲᓇᐣ ᒥᓇ ᐅᑕᐸᓂ ᐃᐡᑯᑌᐃᐧᑲᓇ ᒥᓇ ᑕᐃᐧᓀᓴᐣ ᒥᓇ ᑭᒋᒪᐡᑭᑭᐃᐧᑲᒥᑯᐣ ᐁᑲᐧ ᒥᓇ ᑭᒋᐊᐧᐡᑌᓂᑲᓂᔭᐱᐣ᙮ ᐊᓂᔑᓇᐯ ᐊᐢᑭ ᑕᔑᑫᐃᐧᓇᐣ ᑭᒋᐊᓄᑭᐃᐧ ᔓᓂᔭᑫᐃᐧ ᒪᒋᒋᑫᐃᐧᓇᐣ ᓇᑕᐁᐧᐣᑕᑲᐧᓄᐣ ᒥᐡᑯᐨ ᑭᐸᒥᐦᐃᑎᓱᐃᐧ ᒣᑎᓂᑫᐃᐧᓂᓇᓇᐣ ᒋᐊᒍᓭᑭᐣ᙮ ᐁᑲᐧ ᑲᔭ ᐊᓂᔑᓇᐯ ᐊᐢᑭ ᑕᔑᑫᐃᐧᓇᐣ ᑫᐃᐧᓇᐊᐧ ᒋᐃᐧᒋᐦᐃᐁᐧᐊᐧᐨ ᒥᓇ ᒋᐊᔑᑎᓇᑲᓄᐊᐧᐨ ᑲᐱᒥᐅᓇᒋᑲᑌᑭᐣ ᑭᒋᒪᒋᑕᐃᐧᓇᐣ᙮ ᐁᑲᐧ ᒥᓇ ᐊᓂᔑᓇᐯ ᐊᐢᑭ ᑕᔑᑫᐃᐧᓇᐣ ᑫᐃᐧᓇᐊᐧ ᒋᑎᐯᐣᑕᒧᐊᐧᐨ ᒥᓇ ᒋᐃᐧᒋᑕᐧᐊᐧᐨ ᒥᓇ ᒋᐅᒋᔓᓂᔭᑫᐊᐧᐨ ᐅᑫᐧᓂᐊᐧᐣ ᑭᒋᒪᒋᒋᑫᐃᐧᓇᐣ ᑲᐊᓂᒧᑌᑭᐣ᙮ ᐊᓂᔑᓇᐯ ᐊᐢᑭ ᐊᔕ ᑲᐧᔭᒋ ᐁᐃᐧᐃᐧᑕᓄᑭᒪᐨ ᐅᑭᒪᐃᐧᓇᐣ ᒥᓇ ᐱᑯ ᔓᓂᔭᑫᐃᐧ ᐅᐱᒧᒋᑫᐣ ᐁᑲᐧ ᑲᐧᓂᐣ ᐸᑭ ᒋᐅᑎᓯᔭᐠ ᔓᓂᔭᑫᐃᐧᓂᐠ ᐅᒋ ᓂᑲᐅᑕᐱᓇᓯᒥᐣ᙮ ᐊᓂᔑᓇᐯ ᐊᐢᑭ ᑕᔑᑫᐃᐧᓇᐣ ᒥᓇ ᓂᑕᓂᔑᓇᐯᒥᓇᓇᐠ ᑫᐃᐧᓇᐊᐧ ᑕᐃᐧᒋᐦᐃᑕᐧᐊᐧᐠ ᐊᐦᐃᐠ ᔓᓂᔭᑫᐃᐧᓂᐠ ᑕᐱᓇᑲ ᑲᓇᑕ ᒥᓇ ᐅᐣᑌᕑᐃᔪ ᐅᑭᒪᐃᐧᓇᐣ ᑫᐃᐧᓇᐊᐧ ᐃᐧᐸᐸᒥᓯᐊᐧᐠ᙮ ᐊᒥᐁᐧ ᐊᔕ ᒋᐅᓇᑕᒪᓯᔭᐠ ᐊᐣᑎ ᑫᐅᑌᑫᑲᐸᐃᐧᔭᐠ ᐊᐦᐃᐠ ᐅᑕ ᑲᔭ ᔓᓂᔭᑫᐃᐧᓂᐠ᙮ ᑲᐧᐨ ᓂᑲᑫᐧᐊᓄᑲᑕᐣ ᑲᓇᑕ ᒥᓇ ᐅᐣᑌᕑᐃᔪ ᐅᑭᒪᐃᐧᓇᐣ ᒋᐃᐧᑕᓄᑭᒥᑯᔭᑲᐧ᙮ ᑲᐧᓂᐣ ᐁᑕ ᒣ ᒋᒧᒋᒪᓯᓇᒪᐊᐧᑲᐧ ᓇᐣᑕ ᐅᓇᔓᐁᐧᐃᐧ ᓇᑯᒥᑐᐃᐧᓇᐣ

ᒋᒪᓯᓇᐦᐃᑲᑌᑭᐣ ᑕᐱᓇᑲ ᐊᔕ ᐅᑫᐧᓂᐊᐧᐣ ᑭᐃᐡᑲᐧᑐᒋᑲᑌᐊᐧᓄᐣ ᓇᐣᑕ ᐯᔑᑲᐧ ᒥᑕᓱᒥᑕᓇ ᑕᓯᓄᐣ ᐅᓇᔓᐁᐧᐃᐧ ᓇᑯᒥᑐᐃᐧᓇᐣ ᐁᑲᐧ ᐊᐊᐧᔑᒣ ᒥᑕᓱᒥᑕᓇ ᑕᓯᓄᐣ ᐊᐦᑭᐃᐧ ᒪᒋᒋᑫᐃᐧ ᐅᓇᔓᐁᐧᐃᐧ ᓇᑯᒥᑐᐃᐧᓇᐣ᙮ ᐁᑲᐧ ᐅᐅᐁᐧ ᓂᑐᑕᐣ ᐁᐦᐊᐠ ᑫᐃᐧᓇᐊᐧ ᓂᑲᑫᐧ ᐊᔑᑎᓇᐠ ᒋᐃᐧᑕᓄᑭᒥᑯᔭᑲᐧ ᑭᒋᐅᓇᒋᑫᐃᐧᑭᒪᐠ ᑐᑲᐣ ᑲᓇᑕ ᒥᓇ ᐅᐣᑌᕑᐃᔪ ᑭᒋᐅᑭᒪᐠ᙮ ᐊᐦᐃ ᒪᐊᐧᐨ ᑲᐃᐧᐊᓂᒧᑕᒪᐠ ᐊᐦᑭᐃᐧ ᔓᓂᔭᑫᐃᐧ ᒪᒋᒋᑫᐃᐧᓇᐣ ᒥᓇ ᐱᑯ ᑯᑕᑭᔭᐣ ᑫᑯᓇᐣ᙮ ᐊᒥᐅᐁᐧ ᒪᐊᐧᐨ ᑲᐃᐧᑭᒋᐊᓂᒧᑕᒪᐠ᙮ ᓂᐣᐅᑕᐃᐧᐣ ᐊᐦᐃᐣ ᐅᔕ ᑭᒋᒪᒋᒋᑫᐃᐧᓇᐣ ᒥᓇ ᐊᐧᐡᑌᓂᑲᓂᔭᐱᑫᐃᐧᐣ ᐁᑲᐧ ᒥᑲᓇᑫᐃᐧᐣ ᒋᐃᓇᑕᐧᒥᑭᐣ ᑭᑕᔑᑫᐃᐧᓂᓇᓇᐣ ᒪᐊᐧᐨ ᑲᑭᒋᓂᑲᐣᓀᐣᑕᒪᓂᐣ᙮ … ᑭᑲᐅᔑᑐᒥᓇᐣ ᐅᔕ ᒥᑲᓇᐣ ᒋᐃᓇᒧᑭᐣ ᑭᐁᐧᑎᓄᐠ᙮ ᑭᐡᐱᐣ ᐁᑲᒋᓂᓴᐧᐊᐧᐠ ᐅᑭᒪᐃᐧᐣ ᒋᐅᔑᑐᒋᐣ ᒥᑲᓇᐣ ᐅᐅᐁᐧᑎ ᑭᐁᐧᑎᓄᐠ ᑲᐧᓂᐣ ᐱᑯ ᒋᐃᐧᒧᒋᑲᓇᐊᐧᐸᑫᔭᐣ ᐱᓇᒪ ᓂᐦᓱᔭᑭ ᓇᐣᑕ ᓂᔭᓄᔭᑭ ᐊᓂ ᓂᑲᐣ ᒋᓇᓇᑲᒋᒋᑲᓂᐊᐧᐠ ᒥᓇ ᒋᒧᒋᐊᓂᒧᒋᑲᑌᐠ ᐁᑲᐧ ᑭᔭᐱᐨ ᓇᑯᒥᑐᐃᐧ ᐯᐸᓄᐣ ᒋᔕᔕᐳᓂᑲᑌᑭᐣ᙮ ᐅᐅᐁᐧ ᐅᔕ ᑲᐃᐧᑲᑫᐧᑌᔭᐣ: “ᑭᓇᑕᐁᐧᐣᑕᐣᓇ ᒥᑲᓇ?” ᑭᐣ ᐱᑯ ᓇᑲᐁᐧᔑᐦᐃᔑᐣ᙮ ᐊᐦᐃ ᑲᔭ ᑲᐃᑕᒪᐣ ᐊᐧᐢᑌᓂᑲᓂᔭᑊ᙮ ᐊᑎᐟ ᐅᔕ ᐅᑫᐧᓂᐊᐧᐣ ᐊᔕ ᐊᓄᑲᑌᐊᐧᓄᐣ ᐊᑎᐟ ᒥᓇ ᐱᑯ ᒥᔑᓂᔭᑭ᙮ ᐁᑲᐧ ᒥᓇ ᐃᔑᓇᑲᐧᐣ ᒋᑭᐸᐸᒥᓯᔭᐠ ᐃᐡᑯᑌᐃᐧ ᐱᒧᒋᑫᐃᐧᐣ ᒥᓇ ᐱᑯ ᒋᑭᐊᓂ ᑎᐯᐣᑕᒪᓯᔭᐠ᙮ ᐊᔕ ᒥᓇ ᑯᑕᑭᔭᐠ ᐸᐸᑲᐣ ᐊᓂᔑᓇᐯᐠ ᑲᑲᐯᔑᐊᐧᐨ ᐅᐅᒪ ᑭᑕᑭᒥᓇᐣ ᐅᐅᐁᐧᓂ ᐅᑐᑕᓇᐊᐧ᙮ ᐃᑫᐧᓂᐊᐧᐣ ᑲᐊᑲᓯᑭᐣ ᑕᔑᑫᐃᐧᓇᐣ ᐊᔕ ᒪᒋᒋᑫ���ᐧᓀᓴᐣ ᐅᑎᐯᐣᑕᓇᐊᐧ ᐁᑲᐧ ᒥᓇ ᐸᑲᐣ ᐊᐧᐃᐧᔭᐣ ᐅᑐᒋᐃᐧᑕᓄᑭᒥᑯᐊᐧᐣ ᐃᐃᒪ ᐅᐱᒧᒋᑫᐃᐧᓂᐊᐧᐠ ᐅᒋ᙮ ᐊᒥᐁᐧ ᐊᔕ ᒋᑭᒪᒋ ᐃᐧᑕᓄᑭᒥᑎᔭᑭᐸᐣ ᐅᑫᐧᓂᐊᐣ ᔓᓂᔭᑫᐃᐧ ᒪᒋᒋᑫᐃᐧᓇᐣ ᐊᓂ ᒪᒋ ᐊᓄᑲᑕᒪᑭᐣ᙮ ᐃᓯᓭᐸᐣ ᐊᔕ ᒋᑭᐅᔑᑕᒪᓯᔭᐠ ᐊᐣᑎ ᑫᑭᐅᑎᓇᒪᓯᔭᑭᐸᐣ ᑫᑯᓇᐣ ᑫᐃᐧᒋᐦᐃᑯᔭᐠ ᐁᑭᑫᐣᑕᑲᐧᐠ ᐅᑕ ᒥᐢᑕᐦᐃ ᒣᑎᓂᑫᐃᐧᐣ ᒋᐊᔭᒪᑲᐠ ᑭᒋᒥᑲᓇᐣ ᐅᔑᒋᑲᑌᑭᐣ᙮ ᒥᐢᑕᐦᐃ ᑲᔭ ᐊᓄᑭᐃᐧᐣ ᑕᐊᔭᒪᑲᐣ ᐊᐱ ᒪᑕᓄᑲᑌᑭᐣ ᐅᑫᐧᓂᐊᐧᐣ᙮ ᑲᐧᓂᐣ ᑭᒋᒪᒋᒋᑫᐃᐧᐣ ᑲᑭᐅᔑᑐᓯᐣ ᓄᑯᑦ ᑲᑭᔑᑲᐠ ᓇᐣᑕ $100 ᒥᓂᔭᐣ ᑕᓴᐧᐱᐠ

ᒋᐊᔭᒪᑲᐠ ᑲᔭ ᔕᑯᐨ ᓇᓇᑲ ᑫᑯᓇᐣ ᓇᑕᐁᐧᐣᑕᑲᓄᐣ ᑐᑲᐣ ᐁᐣᔓᓂᐢ ᒥᓇ ᑯᑕᑭᔭᐣ ᒣᑎᓂᑫᐃᐧᓇᐣ᙮ ᐊᔕ ᑭᑕᑭᑯᐡᑯᓯᒥᐣ ᐁᑲᐧ ᒋᑭᐊᓂ ᒪᒋᒋᑫᑕᒪᓯᔭᑭᐸᐣ ᐊᔕ ᒥᓴᐊᐧᐨ ᐅᑫᐧᓂᐊᐧᐣ ᐁᑕᑲᐧᑭᐣ ᐃᐃᒪ ᑭᑕᔑᑫᐃᐧᓂᓇᐠ᙮ ᓂᐣᐅᑕᐃᐧᐣ ᐁᐃᓀᐣᑕᒪᐣ ᐊᒥᐅᒪ ᐊᓂᔑᓇᐯ ᐊᐢᑭ ᑫᑭᐃᔑᐃᐧᒋᐦᐃᑕᐧᐸᐣ᙮ ᓂᓴᐧᓱᔕᑊ ᑕᓯᓄᐣ ᑕᔑᑫᐃᐧᓇᐣ ᒥᑲᓇ ᑫᐃᓇᐊᐧᑭᓯᐠ ᐁᑲᐧ ᑭᐡᐱᐣ ᔓᓂᔭᑫᐃᐧ ᒪᒋᒋᑫᐃᐧᓇᐣ ᐁᑕᑲᐧᑭᐣ ᐃᐃᒪ ᑲᐃᔑᑲᐯᔑᔭᐣ ᐊᒥᐁᐧ ᐅᑫᐧᓂᐊᐧᐣ ᒥᓇ ᐱᑯ ᐊᓄᑭᓇᑲᓇᐠ ᑫᑭᐅᒋ ᐃᐧᑕᓄᑭᒥᑯᔦᑲᐧ ᒥᓇ ᐱᑯ ᓇᓇᑲ ᑭᑕᐃᔑᐃᐧᒋᐦᐃᑯᐊᐧ ᐁᑲᐧ ᐃᐃᐁᐧ ᓂᐢᑕᑦ ᑫᑐᑕᒪᑭᐸᐣ ᑭᑕᐃᐧᑕᓄᑭᒪᒥᓇᐠ ᐊᐊᐧᔑᒣ ᒥᓇ ᒋᒪᒋᐃᐧᑐᔭᐠ ᔓᓂᔭᑫᐃᐧ ᒪᒋᒋᑫᐃᐧᓇᐣ ᒥᓇ ᓇᑯᒥᑐᐃᐧᓇᐣ᙮ ᑭᐡᐱᐣ ᐁᐃᐧᐃᐧᑕᓄᑭᒪᐨ ᐊᐃᐧᔭ ᑲᐧᓂᐣ ᑫᑯᐣ ᑭᑐᔑᑕᒪᓯᓯᐣ ᐊᐣᑎ ᑫᐅᒋᐃᐧᒋᐦᐃᑎᓯᔭᐣ ᐃᐃᒪ ᑭᑕᔑᑫᐃᐧᓂᐠ ᐊᐦᐃ ᐁᑕ ᑐᕑᐊᐣᑐ ᑭᒋᑕᐃᐧᐣ ᑲᐃᒋᑲᑌᐠ ᑭᐁᐧᓄᑎᓯᔭ ᒥᓇ ᐱᑯ ᑯᑕᑭᔭᐣ ᑭᒋᑕᐃᐧᓇᐣ᙮ ᐸᑯᓭᐣᑕᑲᐧᐣ ᐅᔕ ᒋᐃᐧᑕᓄᑭᒥᑎᔭᐠ᙮ ᑲᑭᓇ ᐅᔕ ᐊᐃᐧᔭ ᑕᑭᐅᒋ ᐃᐧᒋᐦᐊᑲᓄᐃᐧ ᐅᐅᒪ ᐅᒋ᙮ ᐁᑲᐧ ᑲᐃᐧᒪᒪᐃᐧ ᔓᓂᔭᑲᓂᐊᐧᐠ ᓂᑎᓀᐣᑕᐣ

ᒋᐃᐧᑕᓄᑭᒪᔭᑲᐧ ᐅᑭᒪᐃᐧᓇᐣ ᒣᑲᐧᐨ “ᓂᑕᓄᑲᑕᐣ ᑲᐧᓂᐣ ᒋᒧᒋᒪᓯᓇᐊᒪᐧᔭᑲᐧ ᒥᓇ ᒋᔕᔕᐳᓂᑲᑌᑭᐣ ᐅᓇᔓᐁᐧᐃᐧ ᓄᑯᒥᑐᐃᐧᓇᐣ ᑲᐃᑕᒪᐣ᙮ ᐊᐊᐧᔑᒣ 160 ᐅᓇᔓᐁᐧᐃᐧ ᓄᑯᒥᑐᐃᐧᓇᐣ ᑭᑕᔭᒥᓇᐣ. ᓇᐊᐧᐨ ᐅᔕ ᐃᑫᐧᓂᐊᐧᐠ ᐅᐊᐧᐁᐧᐅᓇᒋᑫᐠ ᑲᑲᑫᐧᐃᐧᑕᓄᑭᒪᑲᐧ᙮

ᐁᑲᐧ ᒥᓇ ᑫᑭᓇᐊᐧ ᑭᑌᐯᐧᑕᓇᐊᐧᑐᐠ ᐃᑫᐧᓂᐊᐧᐣ ᑕᔑᑫᐃᐧᓇᐣ ᑲᐅᒋᐯᔓᓇᑲᐧᑭᐣ ᐃᐃᒪ ᒪᒋᒋᑫᐃᐧᓂᐠ ᐁᑕ ᒋᔓᓂᔭᑫᐊᐧᐨ᙮ ᔕᑯᐨ ᒥᓇ ᒥᔑᓇᐧᔦᐠ ᑕᑲᐧᐣ ᑫᑭᑐᒋᑲᑌᑭᐸᐣ᙮ ᐅᐅᐁᐧ ᔓᓂᔭᑫᐃᐧᐣ ᐅᒋ ᑲᑭᓇ ᐅᔕ ᑕᔑᑫᐃᐧᓇᐣ ᒋᔓᓂᔭᑫᐊᐧᐨ ᐁᑕ ᑲᑭᐅᒋᒥᓄᓭᒥᐣ ᐃᐃᒪ ᐅᑕ ᔓᓂᔭᑫᐃᐧ ᒪᒋᒋᑫᐃᐧᓂᐠ ᐅᒋ᙮ ᐅᐅᐁᐧ ᓄᑯᑦ ᓇᐣᑕ ᐱᑯ ᑲᑭᓇ ᑫᑲᐟ ᑲᑕᓯᔭᐠ ᑭᑕᐯᓂᒧᑕᒥᐣ ᑭᐃᐧᒋᐦᐃᑯᓂᓇᐣ᙮ ᐃᐃᐁᐧ ᓂᑲᐅᒋᑭᐟ ᓇᐣᑕ ᑲᑭᓇ ᑫᑲᐟ ᑲᑕᓯᔭᐠ ᐅᑭᒪᐃᐧᐣ ᐅᐃᐧᒋᐦᐃᐁᐧᐃᐧᓇᐣ ᑭᑕᐯᓂᒧᐣᑕᒥᓇᐣ᙮ ᐊᐊᐧᔑᒣ ᐅᔕ ᑭᔭᐱᐨ ᓇᐣᑕ ᑲᑲᑫᐧᐃᔑᒋᑫᒥᐣ᙮ ᑭᐡᐱᐣ ᐁᒥᓂᑯᔭᐣ ᔓᓂᔭᐣ ᐃᐃᒪ ᑭᓂᒋᐠ ᐁᑲᐧ ᐁᐃᐧᑕᓄᑭᒪᔦᐠ ᑭᑕᔑᑫᐃᐧᓂᐊᐧᐠ ᓇᐣᑕ ᑲᔭ ᐁᐊᐧᐁᐧᔑᑐᔦᐠ ᔓᓂᔭᑫᐃᐧ ᒪᒋᒋᑫᐃᐧᓇᐣ ᐃᐃᒪ ᑭᑕᔑᑫᐃᐧᓂᐠ ᓇᐣᑕ ᑲᔭ ᑯᑕᑭᔭᐠ ᐁᐃᐧᑕᓄᑭᒪᔦᑲᐧ ᐁᑲᐧ ᐱᑯ ᒥᓇ ᐁᐊᓂ ᑎᐯᐣᑕᒣᑭᐣ ᐅᑫᐧᓂᐊᐧᐣ ᒪᒋᒋᑫᐃᐧᓇᐣ ᐊᒥᐅᒪ ᑫᐅᑎᓇᒣᐠ ᒋᐊᓂ ᑎᐸᓂ ᐃᐧᒋᐦᐃᑎᓯᔦᐠ ᒥᓇ ᐊᐊᐧᔑᒣ ᒋᐊᓂ ᐊᐦᐃᑐᑕᒪᓯᔦᐠ ᑫᑯᓇᐣ᙮ ᑫᓀᐣ ᓂᑭᒋᒪᒥᑎᓀᐣᑕᒥᐦᐃᑯᐣ ᑭᑕᑭᓇᐣ ᑕᐱᐡᑯᐨ ᑫᑭᐣ ᑲᐃᔑᒪᒥᑎᓀᐣᑕᒥᐦᐃᑯᔭᐣ᙮ ᔕᑯᐨ ᐯᔑᐠ ᑫᑯᐣ ᑭᐦᑭᒋᒪᒋᓴᐦᐃᑯᒥᐣ ᐊᒥᐅᐁᐧ ᑭᑎᒪᑭᓭᐃᐧᐣ ᑲᐃᒋᑲᑌᐠ᙮ ᑲᐧᓂᐣ ᒥᓇ ᐊᔕᑫᐃᐧ ᐃᐧᒋᐦᐃᐁᐧᐃᐧᐣ ᑲᒧᒋᐊᐯᓂᒧᐣᑕᓯᒥᐣ᙮ ᑲᐧᓂᐣ ᒥᓇ ᐅᐅᐁᐧ ᒪᔭᑦ ᐊᔕᑫᐃᐧ ᐃᐧᒋᐦᐃᐁᐧᐃᐧᐣ ᑲᒥᓂᑯᔭᐠ ᒋᐃᔑ ᐊᑲᐧᑌᐠ ᐃᐃᒪ ᑭᒋᓇᑯᒥᑐᐃᐧᐣ ᑐᕑᐃᑎ ᑲᐃᒋᑲᑌᐠ᙮ ᐸᑭ ᐅᔕ ᓇᐱᐨ ᒋᐃᐧᒋᐦᐃᑯᔭᐣ ᐃᓇᐧᑌ ᐅᐅᐁᐧ ᐊᔕᑫᐃᐧ ᐃᐧᒋᐦᐃᐁᐧᐃᐧᐣ ᑲᐃᒋᑲᑌᐠ᙮ ᐁᑲᐧ ᑲᐧᓂᐣ ᒥᓇ ᒋᐅᒋᒥᓄᓴᐦᐃᐁᐧᒪᑲᐠ ᐅᐅᐁᐧ ᐅᒋ᙮ ᐊᐃᐧᔭᐠ ᐅᔕ ᐊᓄᑭᐃᐧᐣ ᐅᑲᓇᑕᐁᐧᐣᑕᓇᐊᐧ᙮ ᑭᑕᔭᓂᓇᓇᐠ ᐅᔕ ᑕᐊᓂ ᐱᒪᑎᓯᐊᐧᐠ ᐁᐧᑎ ᐊᓂ ᓇᑲᐣ᙮ ᒥᓇ ᐱᑯ ᑫᑯᓇᐣ ᑕᐊᓂ ᐸᑯᓭᓂᒧᐊᐧᐠ ᒋᑕᑲᐧᓂᓂᑭᐣ ᒋᐊᓂ ᐊᐸᒋᑐᐊᐧᐨ᙮ … (Translated by Charles Brown, Wawatay Native Communications Society)

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Matawa names Rae chief negotiator; Ontario appoints Iacobucci Visits to First Nations top priority before formal Ring of Fire talks begin

photo: Laura Taylor/Shared Value Solutions & Matawa First Nations Management

Bob Rae sits beside Chief Eli Moonias of Marten Falls in a circle of community members.

Bryan Phelan Onotassiniik

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atawa Chiefs Council and the Ontario government have each chosen a high-profile lead negotiator for Ring of Fire talks.

Bob Rae, interim leader of the federal Liberal party until April, officially became Matawa’s chief negotiator May 10. Matawa, whose nine member First Nations will be affected by Ring of Fire mining development or its associated infrastructure, proposed “regional strategy negotiations” with the province during a meeting with Premier Kathleen Wynne in March. The chiefs also called on Wynne to appoint a senior negotiator for Ontario. Slow to respond, Ontario on July 2 announced Frank Iacobucci, a former Supreme Court of Canada justice, as its lead negotiator. He will report to Michael Gravelle, Ontario’s minister of Northern Development and Mines. According to the premier’s office, Iacobucci hopes to address these priorities in negotiations: environmental protection and monitoring; regional infrastructure planning and development; resource revenue sharing; and social and economic supports. Matawa chiefs had identified these same priorities in their spring meeting with Wynne. Even before Iacobucci’s appointment, Rae had visited several Matawa First Nations in preparation for discussions with Ontario. At first, Rae said he would remain a member of Parliament while working with Matawa but on June 19 he resigned as an MP. “It has become clear to me that the full scope of the negotiator’s job is no longer compatible with my also serving as a member of Parliament,”

Rae wrote two days later in a blog for The Huffington Post Canada. “Helping to improve the life of First Nations people has been a longstanding commitment of mine, and this opportunity to serve is one I felt I could not decline.” Located more than 500 kilometres northeast of Thunder Bay, the Ring of Fire holds the largest known deposit of chromite – used to make stainless steel – in North America. The region also holds potential for significant production of nickel, copper and platinum. “The Ring of Fire mining development will have a huge impact on the communities in the area and well beyond,” Rae wrote in his blog. “How positive that impact could be has yet to be determined, and will depend on the outcome of the discussions that are now underway and that will only intensify in the time ahead.”

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rom 1990-95, Rae served as NDP premier of Ontario. “Mr. Rae respects the First Nations communities and he visited most of them when he was NDP leader,” Chief Peter Moonias of Neskantaga told The Globe and Mail before Rae’s appointment with Matawa became official. “We know him from a long way back.” Voters elected Rae 10 times to provincial and federal parliaments. He had been the Liberal MP for Toronto Centre for the past five years. As a mediator in 2000, he helped bring about a negotiated solution in Burnt Church, New Brunswick to a dispute concerning Aboriginal fishing rights. More recently, in January this year, Rae led negotiations along with Deputy Grand Chief Alvin Fiddler of Nishnawbe Aski Nation that convinced Chief Theresa Spence of Attawapiskat to end a fast that began the month before. Those negotiations resulted in a promise from federal opposition parties and First Nation leaders that they

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continued from page 9 would push to have treaty rights issues dealt with at the highest political levels. Matawa’s proposal for a regional strategy “has to do with our treaty relationship with the government,” Raymond Ferris, Ring of Fire co-ordinator for Matawa, said in June during the organization’s regular Wawatay radio show. “Our Elders have always maintained that we need to be part of the decision-making that goes on in our lands.” At the time of that radio broadcast, Rae had already visited the remote First Nations of Webequie, Marten Falls and Neskantaga. Trips to Eabametoong and Nibinamik were scheduled for the following week, and to the remaining Matawa communities, accessible by road, for July. All-weather road access or hydro grid connection to the Ring of Fire will affect several First Nations, so they need to work together on those projects, Ferris said. “But they also have local initiatives, so the regional strategy will complement those. The issues they have within the communities are going to be all addressed – quality of education, quality of health, community infrastructure.” Ferris suggested First Nations would also want community hearings – “something that’s going have First Nations members come up to the microphone and state their concerns … (with) translations, so that all our people can understand.”

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ynne, meanwhile, described Iacobucci as the right person to lead negotiations for Ontario. “His experience with First Nations communities in northern Ontario is a tremendous asset to this

Wisk Air agreements include youth training important process,” the premier said. In February, Iacobucci presented a report about First Nations representation on Ontario juries after being asked by the province to study the issue. Iacobucci said the justice system as it relates to First Nations is in crisis and offered 17 recommendations for improvement. As a special advisor to Ontario’s minister of Natural Resources in 2008, he provided advice for a framework toward a longterm forestry agreement between Grassy Narrows First Nation and the province. Iacobucci also served as a federal representative in negotiations leading to a settlement of the Indian residential schools legacy. In his new role, Iacobucci hoped to be invited to Matawa communities closest to proposed resource developments before starting formal negotiations. “I feel passionately about involving First Nations in decisions about development in their communities and traditional lands, and ensuring they benefit from the economic opportunities to be realized from development in the Ring of Fire,” he said.

Three Matawa First Nations have reached agreements with Wisk Air Helicopters for involvement in helicopter services in their traditional territories, focusing on the Ring of Fire. Eabametoong, Marten Falls and Webequie signed memorandums of understanding with the company, it announced in a news release May 29. As a result, Wisk Air “will foster engagement, respect and transparency while supplying services to industrial groups working on First Nation land,” stated the release. “The agreements provide for joint oversight between Wisk Air and each First Nation for helicopter services in their territory.” Wisk also agreed to provide helicopter ground training for Aboriginal youth, plus training for forest firefighting and for drilling in mineral exploration. Wisk Air has been supplying helicopter services to mining and exploration groups in northwestern Ontario for 32 years.

Reviewing mining claims maps in Eabametoong. photo: Laura Taylor/Shared Value Solutions & Matawa First Nations Management

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Ontario’s new mineral exploration landscape

MINING ACT RULES NOW REQUIRE CONSULTATION ON ABORIGINAL AND TREATY RIGHTS

Bryan Phelan Onotassiniik

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bear somehow found itself dangling beneath a bridge, desperately holding on with its paws. At this point, we don’t know how it got there or what will happen next. Bernie Hughes, a director of Aboriginal relations for the Ministry of Northern Development and Mines (MNDM), uses the image to introduce his presentation on new Ontario Mining Act rules. “We needed to play some catch up with respect to all of the law that has changed in the last 20 years … in how resource

photo: Eric Lloyd Smith development works in relation to Aboriginal and treaty rights,” Hughes says. “The industry has done something in a certain way for perhaps over a hundred years. We’re now in a state of transition and a state of change.” Along with change comes difficulty, he adds, looking at the picture of the vulnerable bear.

The new rules, which took full effect April 1, apply to early mineral exploration activities that until then weren’t regulated. Proponents must now file exploration plans with the province, and Aboriginal communities that could be affected by proposed work will be given 30 days to

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continued from page 11 review a copy and provide comment. But MNDM encourages consultation with Aboriginal communities even before a plan is submitted, so the document can reflect those conversations. “By doing so, you may avoid delays encountered if the (MNDM) director of exploration finds that an exploration permit is required to deal with

to issue a permit must be made within 50 days. These are the latest in a series of changes resulting from an update of the Mining Act in 2009. Compliance was voluntary when the rules were introduced last November, but mandatory as of April 1. Before then, “there really wasn’t anything in Ontario to regulate early exploration … and that gave rise to a lot of issues on the land,

photo: Karen Hoar concerns raised about Aboriginal and treaty rights,” the ministry advises on its website. Exploration companies are expected to respond to questions or concerns about their plans and to engage directly with communities. Plans and permit applications should include any proposals to minimize potential harmful effects on Aboriginal and treaty rights, the ministry adds, such as changes to timing or location of activities. Under the new system, permits are also required if exploration activities – such as line cutting and trenching rock, mechanized drilling and surface stripping of overburden – will reach a certain threshold. Again, Aboriginal communities get to comment on the permit application, “and the proponent may be required to take additional steps to consult with communities,” MNDM states on its website. “Lack of response (from Aboriginal communities) will not prevent a decision by MNDM.” Under normal circumstances, MNDM decisions on whether

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especially a lot of frustration from the First Nations side,” Hughes says. In more than four years of consultation leading to the current regulations, “From the First Nations side we heard: ‘We don’t know who is on our lands’; ‘We’re not benefitting from the use of our lands’; and ‘We don’t have the capacity to work with industry,” recalls Hughes. Among the main points made by industry, meanwhile, were that companies didn’t know how to engage Aboriginal communities; that they needed a more certain exploration environment; and that they felt pressured to enter agreements with Aboriginal communities without understanding their rights. Along with its new regulatory system, MNDM’s response has included a policy for consultation with Aboriginal communities; a mining act awareness program offered online; and Mining 101 courses, technical support for the sharing of electronic files, and funded advisory positions for First Nations.

“There are things that we did that industry isn’t happy with, and there are things that we did that First Nations and Métis may … disagree with,” Hughes concedes. “But we feel that we have achieved a balance in providing a way forward.”

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he remarks from Hughes come in June at the Ontario Mining Forum, hosted in Thunder Bay by Insight Information. He’s on a panel discussing the engagement of Aboriginal communities under the modernized Mining Act. Two panel speakers who follow him are dissatisfied. Nishnawbe Aski Nation (NAN) chiefs-inassembly did not support the changes to the Mining Act and the “unilateral decisionmaking” that led to them, points out Les Louttit, deputy grand chief of NAN. “Although the regulations call for certain requirements for exploration, Ontario continues to ignore the NAN chiefs’ recommendation that First Nations must be consulted at the earliest stages, prior to exploration,” he says. Under the new system, there are still basic exploration activities that do not require a plan or permit. Examples include prospecting activities such as hand sampling and geological mapping; certain types of geophysical surveys; and gathering baseline data by taking photos or measuring water quality. Louttit also re-stated key NAN positions on resource development referred to generally by MNDM in its policy on consultation as “differing perspectives” between Aboriginal communities and provincial and federal governments. “These differing perspectives may raise issues that go to the broader and ongoing process of reconciliation and treaty interpretation which MNDM does not expect to resolve when discussing specific mineral exploration proposals,” states the MNDM policy. “Canadian courts have generally not recognized a legal right of First Nations to regulate activities of third parties off reserve or to otherwise require First Nation consent to proposed activities.” NAN wants government-to-government negotiations on resource revenue sharing, Louttit notes, while the MNDM policy cautions: “These are issues that are not appropriately addressed by proponents in the context of early exploration but which are better addressed by the Crown in more appropriate forums.” Still, the issue of compensation often comes up in consultations with First Nations, says Ewan Downie, CEO and president of Premier Gold Mines. As an example, he shows on the projection screen one exploration agreement proposed by a First Nation to Premier Gold, an exploration and development company, before they had met. Nineteen sections of the proposal involve payment to the First Nation, for consultants,

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“The industry

has done something in a certain way for perhaps over a hundred years. We’re now in a state of transition and a state of change.” —Bernie Hughes, MNDM

travel and honorarium, compensation for harmful effects and damage before any has occurred, archaeological work, environmental studies, and so on. “I’d have to be out of my mind to sign an agreement like this,” Downie says of the costs and similar expectations from other First Nations he thinks would result. Junior exploration companies don’t own or earn income from producing mines, he stresses. These juniors raise money for their search “for that next big discovery” by selling shares to investors, explains Downie, but mineral exploration is a “low probability business – 99 out of 100 projects eventually fail.” Facing new costs for consultation, “Small companies that have budgets of $100,000 or $200,000 can no longer afford to work in this province,” he says. MNDM policy, however, advises that exploration companies should be prepared to contribute to the capacity of Aboriginal communities to participate in consultation through, for example, “direct reimbursement to communities for their specific expenses related to the process” or “financial support for technical or other advice depending on the complexity of the project.” In Downie’s view, the modernized Mining Act contradicts the “spirit and intent” of court rulings on the Crown’s duty to consult by making it industry’s responsibility. Hughes acknowledges MNDM is delegating “procedural aspects” of consultation, but says the law allows this. Besides, he adds, exploration companies can best explain and adjust their own projects. What seems to rile Downie most is the ministry’s policy suggestion that “the willingness of project proponents and Aboriginal communities to formalize commitments through arrangements or agreements … can often help bridge the gap between the differing perspectives,” leading to more certainty and long-term support for a project.

While MNDM policy notes those arrangements should ideally be in proportion to the scope of the exploration project and “not place an excessive burden on the proponent,” Downie considers it “irresponsible of the Crown to allude to agreements” at such an early stage of development. Agreements at the exploration stages often take months to negotiate without guaranteeing any long-term benefits to communities, he says. “Often negotiations go on longer than the actual exploration program. It might be six to 12 months of negotiations for a one-month exploration program; you don’t find what you want and the company is gone.”

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nquestionably, Ontario’s mineral exploration industry experienced some serious difficulty when the new plans and permits regime took effect, just as the poor bear clinging to the bridge does in his predicament. A lot of exploration companies reportedly

didn’t understand what was required of them as of April 1, so their exploration work abruptly stopped until they could file the necessary paperwork and have it reviewed. Several companies said they discontinued projects in Ontario altogether because of the new regulations. At the Ontario Mining Forum in June, however, another panelist says little has changed for his company. “Some of these things that I’m hearing today about changes to the Mining Act really aren’t things that are that new to us,” contends Paul Semple, chief operating officer for Noront. “Maybe there’s a bit more paperwork involved. But before April 1, we identified drill sites, we showed our plans to the community and said ‘This is where we’re going,’ and in certain instances we brought appropriate people, Elders, up to look at the sites. We’ve always done that.” For the Wabun Tribal Council and the six Nishnawbe Aski Nation communities it serves in northeastern Ontario, the new regulatory system is both a blessing and a curse, says Shawn Batise, Wabun’s executive director. “It is a blessing because prior to this, we had no idea who was out on the landscape. Now we do,” he says. “It is a curse because despite MNDM’s assistance, we are overwhelmed with permit requests.” Wabun receives copies of all requests for consultations with its member First Nations and co-ordinates responses. For the first six weeks or so the new rules were in effect, “We were receiving 20-30 e-mails a week regarding notification and permit requests,” Batise says. In the weeks that followed, the tribal council was still getting up to 10 of those e-mails a week. “On average, processing one permit

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Peat fuel for Ring of Fire and First Nations?

Stan Sudol

Onotassiniik Columnist

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ne of the biggest issues for Ring of Fire mining development and surrounding Aboriginal communities is the enormously high cost – estimated at about $1 billion – of connecting the region to Ontario’s power grid. Currently, isolated First Nations depend on expensive diesel fuel that must be supplied by trucks on winter roads or flown in. Proposed mining operations are projected to need about 30 megawatts (MW) of power. Amazingly, most of the swampy lowlands and many parts of the Canadian Shield throughout northern Ontario contain a source of energy that has been used for centuries in Europe: peat fuel. This slowly renewing biomass energy source – distinct from fossil fuel – is formed from the partial decomposition of plants under very wet and acidic conditions. It is usually made up of two separate layers, with the top being lighter in colour, less decomposed and used primarily for horticultural applications, while the dark dense lower layer is excellent for fuel. Peat lands can be described as wet, spongy “floating carpets” of land and are often known as bogs, fens, mires, moors, or in Canada, muskeg. Peat can be processed into fuel-grade material with energy values equivalent to coal but with only 10 per cent of the black rock’s sulphur content, virtually no mercury and less ash waste and dust emissions. Canada has the world’s largest area of peat lands, estimated to be 41 per cent of the world’s total, half of which is located in northern Ontario. Yet none of this valuable

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resource is used to produce fuel peat. Sustainably harvested peat fuel provides five to seven per cent of energy production in Finland and about eight per cent in Ireland, the two largest users in Europe. The Irish company Bord na Mona completed a 150 MW peat-fuelled power station in 2005. Finland, with a population of slightly more than five million, is the largest user of this bio-fuel in the world, while Vapo Oy is the leading producer of peat-generated electricity and district heat in that country. In the early 1980s, the Ontario Geological Survey (OGS) studied about 88,000 square kilometres of northwestern Ontario peat lands as part of a province-wide program. By just focusing on the best deposits with no land-use conflicts, OGS estimated this fuel-grade peat resource had the energy equivalent of 330 million barrels of oil. By comparison, tiny Ireland, which in the 1950s depended on peat fuel for about 40 per cent of its power production, could comfortably fit into northern Ontario nine times over.

Canada has the world’s “ largest area of peat lands, estimated to be 41 per cent of the world’s total, half of which is located in northern Ontario. Yet none of this valuable resource is used to produce fuel peat.

Dr. Peter Telford, CEO of Peat Resources Limited (and the former manager of that 1980s government peat program), thinks peat bio-fuel could be an economic answer for many First Nations communities that generally need less than three to five MW of power generation for their electrical and heat requirements. “In some cases, the cost of electricity in Aboriginal communities that rely on fly-in diesel fuel supply can be over $3 per kilowatt hour,” Telford says, “while the cost of peat-fuelled power would be at a much more reasonable rate, therefore significantly reducing energy costs in these remote First Nations.” Peat Resources Ltd. has developed a wetharvesting approach – unlike the European dry-harvesting system that is not suitable to the colder climate of the northwest – whose low environmental impact has been confirmed by independent, government-

funded research at Lakehead and McMaster universities. Harvested peat bogs can also be rehabilitated as productive wetlands. The company has a pilot facility in Stephenville, Newfoundland that is rated to produce 5,000 tonnes a year of peat fuel pellets and is the right size for use in small remote communities. Its dry (25-30 per cent moisture level) fuel-grade peat pellets can be used in the generation of electricity by an off-the-shelf power plant. Samples have been shipped to many locations in Canada and the U.S., and as far as China. “The sustainable harvesting, production and use of peat fuel would also provide permanent new jobs for community members,” Telford notes. While Dr. Telford’s proposal is only focused on electricity and heat production, combining this power project – with its much cheaper and localized source of energy – with the construction of greenhouses that could supply freshly grown vegetables and fruit (an expensive rarity in most northern communities) could also be considered. Not only would there be jobs in the digging and processing of peat fuel and eventual land restoration, but in greenhouse food production as well. And the horticultural peat could be an ideal growing medium for agricultural activities in the greenhouses, as well as in outdoor gardens during the summer. Peat Resources Ltd. is currently looking for an interested First Nation community that would want to host a demonstration plant – one of the Ring of Fire communities would be an excellent choice – as well as public sector engagement and funding to make the project financially feasible. Once small peat fuel power plants are successfully operational in a number of First Nations – a high probability due to more than a half century of successful European experience – remote mining camps may start to see this abundant and economically priced fuel as a viable energy alternative. The potential of small (five MW or less) power facilities that use local energy resources, sustainably developed and managed by First Nations communities, would create employment and economic opportunity. It would also address the need for environmentally friendly alternatives to the very expensive diesel fuel currently used for off-grid power generation. Stan Sudol is a Toronto-based mining analyst, communications consultant and owner/editor of the RepublicOfMining.com website.

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Graham Strong

Onotassiniik Contributor When Ne-Daa-Kii-Me-Naan Inc. (Nedaak) became the enhanced Forest Resource Licence holder for the Kenogami Forest, it was widely seen as an opportunity to change how companies did business on traditional Aboriginal lands. “One of the mandates for Nedaak is to promote more Aboriginal opportunities,” says Deanna Hoffman, management forester with GCK Consulting, who works with Nedaak in the Kenogami Forest. She says Nedaak implements that mandate by hiring subcontractors who actively seek Aboriginal employees for the project. Nedaak’s tree planting contract in the forest, located about 300 kilometres northeast of Thunder Bay, showed those results this past May and June. The contract went to Haveman Brothers, a resource management company in Kakabeka Falls, in part based on their past history of working with Aboriginal communities and their willingness to increase Aboriginal representation on their work crews. “We’ve always placed a significant emphasis in Aboriginal involvement within our company, but we wanted to take it to another level,” says Justin Postuma, one of the managers in the region for Haveman Brothers. For this contract, Postuma says, the goal was to have 50 per cent of the workers on their tree planting crew and staff be of Aboriginal descent, a target that was achieved. However, overcoming cultural differences can be a challenge. “There is no question that our cultures are significantly different,” says Postuma. “That’s not a bad thing – it’s something that should be cherished. But it does create some barriers to communication. We wanted to find a way to get around those barriers and promote cultural understanding.” To that end, Postuma arranged a Cultural Sensitivity Gathering at the Haveman camp on Cordingley Lake. The event focused on four components, each with its own activities: the physical, including breakfast and warm-ups; the cultural, featuring a sharing circle, smudging ceremony, and medicine teachings; the emotional, covering Treaty 9 awareness and the implications of our past; and the intellectual, discussing where to go from here. Led by Cindy Crowe of the Waabi-ma’iingan Traditional Teaching

Lodge, the event was an opportunity for everyone to share stories about their cultures and to ask questions. It seems it had an impact. Jennifer Wu, a first-time tree planter from Toronto, says the sharing circle gave her a better appreciation of Aboriginal culture. “We get to experience and learn this culture firsthand, not just people telling us in the school system,” Wu says. “Even in the school system, though, there’s a lack of Aboriginal and First Nation studies.” Gary Kwandibens, who has worked with Haveman Brothers since 1989, says the Cultural Sensitivity Gathering was a great way to increase understanding between Aboriginals and nonAboriginals. “It helps the people who are working for us to gain a better awareness of where they are,” Kwandibens says. “The total environment, not just planting and working, but the people around them, so they understand a little bit of the social issues or even just the fact that this is the traditional territory of certain peoples.” Nine First Nations assert an interest in the Kenogami Forest. “It started out as a way to help tree planters from different cultures understand and work together with each other,” Postuma says of the cultural understanding activities, “but since then it has transformed into how we collectively impact our broader circles with the knowledge we now have.” Postuma adds that the Cultural Sensitivity Gathering and similar initiatives that promote communication aren’t always easy, but they’re worth it in the long run for a business that wants to thrive in northwestern Ontario. “Companies that aren’t flexible or willing to learn about the Aboriginal way of life quickly see the consequences,” he says. “We see it all around us in the North. Coming in with a bottom-up mentality of communication, understanding and transparency is the only way to effectively do business in this region. Haveman Brothers has been driving a considerable focus on Aboriginal involvement in the company. It’s the future, and companies will have to adapt to it or they won’t be able to compete in the future.”

BEST PRACTICES

Cultural understanding for better communication

Haveman Brothers arranged a Cultural Sensitivity Gathering for its tree planters to encourage greater understanding between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal workers. About half of the crew and staff come from First Nation communities in northwestern Ontario. photo: Graham Strong

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Lac Seul loon logo and background from a memorial plaque at the entrance to the First Nation.

Bryan Phelan Onotassiniik

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an Brodie-Brown’s first contact with Lac Seul First Nation stood out.

Then CEO of Tribute Minerals, a junior exploration company, Brodie-Brown hadn’t just sent a letter to the band. He had sent it voluntarily. “He was the first guy that I’d ever seen – the first company representative – approach a First Nation without being told to by the Crown,” recalls Chris Angeconeb, Lac Seul’s lands and resources coordinator at the time. The introductory letter arrived almost seven years ago. Exploring for base metals at Confederation Lake, in Lac Seul’s traditional territory, Tribute was “basically trying to drum up support for a micro-mine with small output; a little underground project,” Angeconeb says. Brodie-Brown says he expected new provincial rules for mineral exploration and consultation with First Nations would come eventually (regulations for exploration plans and permits, under a modernized Mining Act, finally took effect this spring). Instead of waiting, “We just decided to take

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a proactive role,” he says. He followed his letter with visits from Toronto to Lac Seul, where he wandered around the community, hosted information sessions for band members, and several times sat with chief and council to explain his company’s exploration activities. “We got to know them,” Angeconeb says of Brodie-Brown and Tribute. About a year after their conversations began, however, the value of base metals nosedived, Angeconeb notes, and never fully recovered – at least not yet. “We did find an asset in Confederation Lake,” adds Brodie-Brown, but “it was probably half the size it needed to be for it to have been a financial success for our investors.” Still, his working relationship with Lac Seul has endured.

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hen Brodie-Brown joined the exploration rush northeast to the Ring of Fire, he carried along his positive Lac Seul experience. “My point of view when I got there, based on my relationship and my friendship with Lac Seul … was that this was something I was going to take forward.” So when in discussion with Webequie he found the First Nation had an

unemployment rate of 95 per cent, “I flagged that as the number one barrier to any (mining) development happening in the Ring of Fire,” Brodie-Brown says. “You cannot have 95 per cent unemployment of local communities and think you can viably develop a billion dollars worth of assets. So we needed to address it straight on.” Brodie-Brown presented Webequie several options for getting involved with and benefitting from the mining industry. The band decided in 2008 to invest in a private drilling company he was associated with. At first, Webequie’s investment of almost $200,000 entitled it to an ownership share of a new entity, Cyr Drilling Ontario, and its two drill rigs. But when the company got so busy it had to lease several more rigs from a parent company, Cyr Drilling International, it made more sense to combine the companies. Webequie now owns 14 per cent of Cyr Drilling International, which operates 22 drill rigs, and has a seat on the company’s board. “We do have contracts in the Ring of Fire, but we’ve had contracts across Canada,” says Brodie-Brown, a Cyr vice-president, director and part owner. Benefits to Webequie so far, he says, have included dividend payment, and

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training and employment for members as driller helpers. “It’s a business for them like any other business. When ultimately the government is unable to develop these ideas, then we’ve just gone ahead with the ones we don’t need their assistance with.” Earlier this year, Cyr’s business had slowed to the point where the company had just one drill turning because of what Brodie-Brown called a “very stressed” mining environment tied to unfavourable global markets and lack of investment. “We all go with the ups and downs,” he says. “That’s just the general course of business.” Brodie-Brown also emphasizes the long industry track record of Cyr’s management. “Webequie has an investment in a team of professional drillers,” he says.

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ack in Lac Seul, Angeconeb and Sam Manitowabi, the First Nation’s former general manager for economic development, “were discussing ways we could be a direct recipient of benefits from the mineral industry. And the only real way we could figure out how to do it was to be an actual Ojibwe mining company – a junior exploration company,” Angeconeb says. They discussed the idea with BrodieBrown over a few months, and asked whether he could be involved as a director who would arrange investment for the proposed company. Instead, they decided a better option would be to re-make Tribute by changing its focus to gold exploration in Lac Seul’s traditional territory, having the First Nation invest and giving the company a new name: AurCrest Gold. Community members discussed and approved the investment made in 2011 – initially $500,000 for a 9.9 per cent ownership share of AurCrest (another $75,000 has since been invested in the company). Lac Seul also secured a board of directors position, to which it appointed Angeconeb. The First Nation could afford its investment because of past grievance settlements and profitable economic development ventures, Angeconeb notes. Unfortunately, the value of its shares “is much less now that what we invested at,” he says, because of poor market conditions that immediately followed. “Junior exploration is a very high risk investment because there’s no guarantee that your investment money is going to turn into a productive mine,” he adds – a point clearly made to Lac Seul members before they committed their money. “We were very open about it.” Depending on whom you talk to in the industry, the odds of a successful exploration project are anywhere from one in a hundred to one in a thousand, or worse. Of course, the high risk can also result in high reward. “It’s the one area where you could invest $100,000 and see it come

back at the discovery worth several million or more,” Brodie-Brown says. With plans to further explore a “significant” AurCrest gold discovery made last year, he and Angeconeb express optimism about’s their company’s chances of success. AurCrest’s Richardson Lake find, in Lac Seul traditional territory next to a promising Gold Canyon Resources development, is an area where there had been some basic mining activity before – “a two-man operation with ropes and buckets,” says Angeconeb, now general manager of economic development at Lac Seul. He’d like to Aurcrest follow the same path Rubicon Minerals has with its Phoenix Gold Project in Red Lake, which is expected to have a producing mine next year. “Taking the company from junior exploration to being a producer … is the ultimate goal,” Angeconeb says.

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making an investment of that type that isn’t all risk to them?’ ” Brodie-Brown says. “Various communities are at different stages of corporate development, where some can participate and some can’t.” To encourage more First Nations investment and ownership within the mining industry in future, he envisions what he calls a First Nations Wealth Fund – a pension fund with seed financing from the federal government. For now, “A lot of junior exploration companies are coming up and saying ‘We know we’re in your territory and we want to talk,’ which five or six years ago was unheard of,” Angeconeb says. And when he speaks about the “Lac Seul model” at mining conferences with Brodie-Brown, he hopes to contribute to more positive change in relationships between industry and First Nations. “It’s largely (about) recognition and understanding of each other,” he says. “If we can find a really significant mine site while we’re at it, so much the better,” he adds with a laugh. In May, the province approved a permit allowing AurCrest to carry out more advanced exploration at Richardson Lake, including airborne geophysics at a cost of about $70,000 and a multi-million dollar drill program. The immediate challenge

fter seeing the mutual benefits of the Lac Seul and Webequie partnerships, Brodie-Brown now considers these types of arrangements as key to any industry undertaking. “Industry should not be going anywhere without local support, and local support means local ownership,” he says by cell phone from Montreal, where this was a central topic at a conference he just attended. “Your money would tell the world that you’re interested in mineral assets being developed in your traditional territory, so much so that you’ve invested in the company – the drilling companies or the exploration companies – (so) that they may make that discovery,” he adds. It’s an important message in an industry that depends so much on From right, Chris Angeconeb with Lac Seul councillors for investor confidence. Frenchman’s Head – David Gordon, Elvis Trout and Floyd Vincent. Even to major mining companies, Brodie-Brown argues: “If the is to somehow raise the necessary funds local people aren’t vested in the asset from investors in a down market. when the discovery is made and you move In the meantime, posters hanging just in to pay a billion dollars for it, you can no down the hall from Angeconeb’s office longer afford to buy it because for all sorts promote mining programs at the Lac Seul of reasons, they can stop that investment.” Training Centre of Excellence: driller helper, Brodie-Brown has met with two other surface miner and underground common First Nations, Cat Lake and Slate Falls, core. whose territories overlap with Lac Seul’s, “You can get into (mining) all different to invite their investment in AurCrest. The ways and we’ve tried getting in every which area First Nations of Mishkeegogamang, way we could,” Angeconeb says. “There’s which shares the same watershed, and no sense the entire industry carrying on Wabauskang have also been offered the in the First Nation’s backyard if the First opportunity to buy shares. Nation isn’t involved. “The questions is, ‘Are they capable of WAWATAY’S MINING QUARTERLY

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Soils that cover rock Andy Fyon

Director, Ontario Geological Survey, Ministry of Northern Development and Mines

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he land now called Ontario is made of rock and covered with deposits of sand, gravel and clay left by glaciers millions of years ago.

Stop and look at pebbles lying in gravels near your community. Why do limestone rock pebbles, containing ancient fossils, occur in the Kasabonika Lake area? What force dropped large blocks of rock, called an erratic, across the land? Why are the banks of the Severn and Winisk rivers made of clay, and why are landslides so common in these areas?

Ice world Almost all the landforms and materials that make up the surface of the land are related to glaciers. An ice sheet of glaciers that covered Ontario formed more than two million years ago and was up to two kilometres thick. It was an ice world for a long time. The glacier moved slowly across the land. It acted like sandpaper as it bulldozed, scraped, polished, and grooved the rock basement. The glacier ground the rock into fine clay, which was mixed with larger pieces of bedrock. This material is called till and was deposited between the bedrock and the bottom of the glacier. In some places, isolated blocks of rock sit on the land. Rivers carrying sand and gravel flowed in tunnels beneath the glacier to form narrow ridges, called eskers, that snake across the land.

Climate warmed About 10,000 years ago, the climate warmed and the glacier started to melt. About 5,000 years ago, it had melted away. The melting glacier: • left many lakes, including the Great Lakes, and filled them with fresh water; • created river valleys that drain the land today; • created a new ocean that covered much of the Far North, which is now Hudson Bay and James Bay;

Powerful glaciers two kilometres thick dragged rocks of many sizes across Ontario’s land, sometimes depositing them hundreds of kilometres away.

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• left behind many different deposits of clay, sand and gravel; dropped rocks that it had carried from distant places hundreds of kilometres away; • created and exposed the landforms we see today that are habitats for plants, animals, fish, birds and people. These footprints left by the glacier tell a story of the journey from the ice world to our present landscape.

Mapping soil geology People living on the land and geologists have contributed significantly to our understanding of the glacial deposits. Together, Aboriginal traditional knowledge combined with geological knowledge can tell the story about the history of the land. Geologists create geological maps of the land using their eyes, photographs from airplanes and satellites; by collecting samples of glacial deposits to study; and by digging into glacial deposits to see what material looks like beneath the surface.

Rivers carrying sand and gravel flowed in tunnels beneath glaciers to form narrow ridges, called eskers. Today eskers like this snake across the province.

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The different colours of the geological map tell a story of the land and show the distribution of different types of glacial deposits that cover the rock. The clay deposits tell us of an ancient ocean that covered much of northern Ontario. The presence of sandy ground covered by jack pine tells us of old beaches and large lakes that have disappeared. Scrape marks on the land were left by icebergs that floated on an ancient lake. Large hills called moraines contain a mix of clay, sand and gravel, and mark where the glacier stopped, much like the pile of soil in the front of a bulldozer blade.

What does this mean to you? Understanding geological history helps explain and predict land-related features. Glaciers created the geological habitats where polar bears den near Fort Severn and Peawanuck and the high moraine ridges where poplar trees grow. The old gravel beaches near Sheguiandah, Manitoulin Island, where First Nation people lived 9,000 years ago, were formed when the glaciers melted and the level of Lake Huron was much higher. Gravel aggregate used by communities to build roads and runways can come from eskers. Eskers can also be a source of pure groundwater suitable for drinking. Clay deposits that formed at the bottom of the ancient ocean, which covered much of northern Ontario, can present a landslide danger. Geological maps show areas of clay deposits, which helps communities understand the risk and prepare for potential landslides. Analyzing the chemistry of the glacial tills in an area can give clues about the presence of hidden mineral resources in an area. All of this information is available to consider during land-use planning or for community economy. The next time you walk across the land, imagine two kilometres of ice above your head. That picture may add to your understanding of the history of the land beneath our feet.

continued from page 13 request takes three to five business days for one person,” says Batise, “and this does not include the community consultation that is required.” As it has for other tribal councils, MNDM provided funds for Wabun to hire a mineral development advisor, along with an assistant, to handle some of the work. As of June, Wabun was considering an MNDM offer of funds for another position or two. Batise says the ministry expects as many as 600 notifications and permit applications just for the Wabun area – the busiest in the province for exploration and mining – in the first 12-18 months of the new system. Not helping matters, Batise says, are companies filing plans and applying for permits even though they don’t intend to drill in the near future, or ever. “They only want to make the property more marketable (and) having a permit in hand does that,” he explains. “I will say that MNDM has been accommodating thus far and if we have issues with permits around timing, processes, consultation issues, they have worked with us. For the most part industry has been positive to work through this as well.” His early, overall assessment of the new system? “Although not perfect or

New Opportunities for First Nations Youth will Build a Sustainable Future for Communities. Cliffs Natural Resources is committed to working with First Nations communities to enhance current training programs, and develop new training options for First Nations youth. Our goal is to ensure equal opportunities for employment on Cliffs’ Chromite Project for First Nations youth. These opportunities will assist in building a sustainable new future for communities.

Do you think geology rocks? Follow @OGSgeology to connect with Andy Fyon on Twitter. Subscribe to the Ontario Geological Survey (OGS) Facebook page for fun facts, articles and more from the OGS team: www.facebook.com/OGSgeology.

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what we would have preferred, it is doing what it intended, which is provide for early consultation with First Nation communities,” he says. “The fact that we are now aware of who is on our traditional territory is a good thing. Exploration companies that would not have otherwise approached us are now bound by legislation to do so.” According to Hughes, MNDM had as of mid May received 161 exploration plans and 280 permit applications. About half of the applications had been approved, others were being processed and 10-15 were on “temporary hold.” There are still difficulties to work through, he acknowledges, but there hadn’t yet been a need to use a dispute resolution mechanism available for industryAboriginal consultations. “The system is working,” Hughes says. Court decisions aside, “it was the right thing to do.” Hughes sees in the bear projected on the screen, trying to figure out how to get safely off the bridge, some of the same characteristics he thinks the mineral exploration industry has: some uncertainty and risk, sure – that’s the nature of the business – but also strength and determination. “There was a happy ending,” he says at the end his presentation. He clicks to his final slide, which shows the bear cradled in a rescue net. “The bear made it.”

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STEPPING STONE More than 100 enrol in Aboriginal skills advancement program Christian Quequish

Collins, a career development officer for ASAPP. Through ASAPP, “I finished off my remaining credits; I got my Onotassiniik diploma already,” says Wabasse, “so in the fall I’m planning to go straight into college. I’ve been accepted into Confederation for the eople sometimes find themselves haunted by their environmental technician program.” past: a misplaced shoe, a lost family treasure, Wabasse says he is interested in mining and getting involved in or in the case of Glen Wabasse of Webequie First the Ring of Fire development, after having held the mining portfolio Nation and Holly Mendowegan of Aroland First Nation, on Webequie band council. He chose the environmental technician a few missing high school credits. program, he says, because Webequie lacks the skills in that field to help the community once proposed mine operations start. Thinking ahead, if he Wabasse had worked in various positions in doesn’t gain employment right after his twohis community over about 15 years – mostly year college course, he plans to continue his office jobs and a couple of years as a band studies at Lakehead University. councillor – while sitting on two remaining Holly Mendowegan, 23, recently finished credits needed to graduate from high school. her remaining high school credits at ASAPP Given the demands of work, options to gain for graduation with her Ontario secondary those two credits were limited. “There were school diploma. She is seeking funding services available to do online or distance to take post-secondary studies as well, education but … you have to be on welfare or starting in forest ecosystem management at unemployed (to enrol),” Wabasse says. Confederation College and later continuing So about a year ago, he decided to take a at Lakehead. “I want a career in natural break from work and pursue his education. resources,” she says. While searching for general educational Mendowegan participated in mining development (GED) courses to earn his high photo: Christian Quequish school equivalency certificate, Wabasse Glen Wabasse: ‘I finished off my remaining workshops while at ASAPP. The effect Ring of Fire development is expected to have on was referred to Kiikenomaga Kikenjigewen high school credits.’ Aboriginal communities caught her attention. Employment and Training Services (KKETS) With her future expertise in natural resources, “I want to … work and its Aboriginal Skills Advancement Pilot Program (ASAPP) in alongside Aboriginal communities, to explain to them what’s Thunder Bay. happening,” she says. “My community is going to be affected by Matawa First Nations Management set up KKETS to ensure it – it’s right in the travel corridor to the site.” members of Matawa communities receive the training and education Mendowegan heard about ASAPP through a flyer by the store in they need to secure jobs, especially in their region’s growing Aroland. After persuading her friends and her boyfriend to attend an resources sector. Member First Nations of Matawa are Aroland, information session about the program, she travelled to Thunder Constance Lake, Eabametoong, Ginoogaming, Hornepayne, Long Bay to participate. She wasn’t initially accepted into the program, Lake #58, Neskantaga, Nibinamik, and Webequie. but says she kept showing up every day until she got accepted. (To ASAPP launched as part of KKETS in October 2012 to offer apply to ASAPP, interested Matawa First Nation members typically educational upgrading, general education diplomas and the option contact their First Nation employment community co-ordinator, to complete high school diplomas. an ASAPP career development officer or the ASAPP project co“We have high school credit accumulation, which we’ve linked in ordinator.) with the Lakehead Adult Education Centre, so this does actually get This is not Mendowegan’s first attempt to resume her education. them their high school diploma when they’re done,” says Andrea

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“When there were programs that came up offering upgrading, I got into every program that was ever offered in the reserve,” she says. “It’s not like I couldn’t complete it; it was either the funding ran out or the teachers left before any of us could complete it.” Mendowegan says she is happy to finally have her high school credits.

is finding housing for students, Holly Mendowegan: ‘I want a career she says. Due to flooding in in natural resources.’ Thunder Bay this year and last, it has been hard to find good accommodations at a reasonable price. “There’s also the social and emotional challenges that the students may encounter,” says Carolyn Zadnik, ASAPP project co-ordinator. “We have a ‘wraparound’ team to support students while they are here.” Adds Collins: “While they’re photo: Christian Quequish here, they don’t just learn about math, English and biology; … they’re taking selfhirty students graduated from ASAPP improvement workshops and learn on June 28. Ten of the graduates everything from self-concept to selfreceived their Ontario secondary school esteem and critical thinking.” diploma or general educational diploma, Tracy Shields, the math lead and an and six of them received their certificate instructor at ASAPP, says her involvement of academic requirements to go on to in the program has been an amazing post-secondary education. Other students journey. She witnessed students starting earned a certificate of accomplishment at a Grade 4 or 5 level in mathematics from the program. work hard to quickly progress to a Grade Zadnik says she is optimistic about the 11 or 12 level. pilot program’s future. “Things are going “I like that a lot of them seem to be well. We have a good success rate in terms enthused about math,” she says. “It’s of the number of students who initially very satisfying when somebody comes started the program and the number of in and they’re very scared, and then they students who will have completed it.” walk out and they’re very confident. What Two new classes – 40 students – I like about it best is when we concentrate started in early July. on the mathematics programs that are Overall, “We’ve surpassed our goal of going to take the students somewhere in 100 students enrolled,” says Zadnik. “And terms of their future; that they have what we actually have a wait list for the program they need to take them into college and as well, for after November 2013. So it will take them into university. That’s what I be interesting to see where the program like: open doors.” will head after that time.”

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s of June, Mendowegan was one of 109 students to have enrolled in ASAPP since the program began. “We are constantly doing intake for people who are interested in the program,” Collins says. Students receive a living allowance and don’t have to pay tuition or book fees, which are covered by ASAPP. The program gets funding from the Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities, and has established partnerships with Matawa Learning Centre and Lakehead Adult Education Centre. “We’re having a lot of successes,” says Collins. “We’ve had someone who has already moved on to an apprenticeship. We have more people who will be going on to trades. We also have people who will be moving over into mining training through the Ring of Fire Training Alliance strategy (involving KKETS, Confederation College and Noront Resources).” Successes at ASAPP have been achieved despite a number of challenges, such as students from the fly-in communities having to make the transition to living in the city, Collins notes. Another challenge for the program

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PROFILE

Solomon cooks for bush camps photo: Shawn Bell

Shawn Bell Onotassiniik

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veryone who spends all day working out of a campsite wants one thing when they return to camp at night: a good, hearty meal.

That is why the camp cook is usually considered the most important person in any bush or mining camp. Todd Solomon of Constance Lake First Nation has learned the importance of his job over the past two years. Solomon has worked as a bush cook at various mining exploration camps and firefighting camps since he first took up the profession following a 12-week training course in Constance Lake. But if there is one thing he has learned besides the importance of the cook on the camp’s well being, it’s that being a bush camp cook is no easy job. “I came into this job because I thought it would be easy,” Solomon recalls with a laugh. “Then I realized that getting up at 4 a.m. and cooking, cleaning and doing inventory all day adds up after awhile. It is lots of work.” When the camp cook course was offered on his reserve, Solomon says he initially took it “for something to do.” “I was going nowhere, and I was getting tired of sleeping and sitting around all day,” he says. “So I tried it out.” He was not expecting to find that he really liked cooking, or that

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learning the skills required of a good cook came easily to him. “In school I wasn’t able to learn from books,” Solomon says. “But when I see someone do it, I learn. I used to watch what everybody is doing, keeping my eye on them, and it stuck in my head afterwards. I find most First Nations people are like that.” Now, after two years of working in a number of camps, the role of camp cook comes easily. But at first it was not so simple. He had to refine his craft, learning and practising the skills to prepare meals for 50 or more people at a time. “At first it took me a couple of hours to peel a bag of potatoes,” he says. “Now I’ve cut it down to half that time.” Part of the appeal of the camp cook job for Solomon is being out in the bush. He says he has always enjoyed being on the land, and the friendly nature of the people at bush camps is something he appreciates everywhere he works. But he is also glad to be doing something with his time, and he is impressed with himself for taking the initiative to join the course and for sticking with the jobs despite the hardships he has faced. “When I took the course, I didn’t know where I’d be now. Sometimes you just have to go for it and see where it takes you. The reason I got this far is that I never said ‘no’ to a job. And this is a lot better than where I was.” And of course it is nice to be known as the most important person in a camp. “Most people I work with get along, since we have to live together. Plus, you never make a cook mad,” Solomon says with a laugh.

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