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MARCH 2008/09 THESIS REPORT

WAVERING ON THE SHOAL --Digestive and Breathing Systems in a Restless Lagoon

JI YAO 2009/6/10

Author: Ji Yao Contact: ji.yao@ucl.ac.uk

Tutor: Shaun Murray


Contents 1 Background of the Site...................................................................................................................1 1.1 Archaeological Significance .......................................................................................................1 1.2 The Wetland Centre at Present ....................................................................................................1 2 A New Landscape In Between of Geological Formations and Manmade Sites.............................2 2.1 An Ambitious Experiment...........................................................................................................2 2.2 The Experience That an Artificial Site Grants ............................................................................2 2.3 The Digestive System and the Breathing System .......................................................................3 3 Architectural Ecology ....................................................................................................................3 3.1 Environmental Morphologies .....................................................................................................3 3.2 Architectural Ecology .................................................................................................................3 4 The Methodologies ........................................................................................................................4 4.1 Turbulence as the Most Important Catalyst ................................................................................4 4.2 Digital Simulation of the Flow....................................................................................................4 4.3 Time-Based Research .................................................................................................................5 4.4 Transformation of Natural Power Architecturally ......................................................................5 5 The Design of the Digestive System..............................................................................................6 5.1 Physical Treatment......................................................................................................................6 5.2 Biological Control Methods........................................................................................................8 5.2.1 Biodegradation Process............................................................................................................8 5.2.2 Synthesis of Healthful Microorganisms...................................................................................8 5.3 The Restless Landscape ............................................................................................................10

6 The Design of the Breathing System ...........................................................................................10 6.1 Its Working Principle …………………………………………………………………………10 6.2 The Internal Structure………………………………………………………………………….11 6.3 External Devices………………………………………………………………………...……11 6.4 Breathing as a kind of Perfomative Design……………………………………………………12 7 Conclusion ...................................................................................................................................13 Bibliography: ..................................................................................................................................14


WAVERING ON THE SHOAL --Digestive and Breathing Systems in a Restless Lagoon

I WANDER'D lonely as a cloud/ That floats on high o'er vales and hills When all at once I saw a crowd/ A host, of golden daffodils Beside the lake, beneath the trees/ Fluttering and dancing in the breeze -- “Daffodils” William Wordsworth (1770-1850)

1 Background of the Site 1.1 Archaeological Significance The site in question is located in Barn Elms, southwestern part of the River Thames, somewhere between Castelnau and Putney. Since the ancient times and till the Victorian period, this area had been a piece of marshland used for ordinary farming and grazing all along, while the four clay-lined reservoirs had been supplying London's drinking water since then. (Jackman, 2001) In the late 1980s they became redundant with the completion of the fifty-mile Thames Water ring main, which allowed water to be piped from the Thames at Hampton to the River Lea reservoirs in north London. Nevertheless this site can still be seen as a symbolic place which has left and will leave traces that can evoke people’s memories of the industrial civilization of the Victorian Times. 1.2 The Wetland Centre at Present Since 1989 the reservoirs on the site were abandoned and converted into today’s London Wetland Centre, which is run by the Wildfowl and Wetlands Trust. An in-site lagoon was planned as an important refuge for notably smews, wintering wild fowls and other diving ducks, surrounded by walls of reeds and dotted by shingled islands. Visitors to the lagoon and its surrounding flourishing reeds may deem them as eternal sights, while in fact this wild paradise of Thames Valley comes from the utter imagination of wetland ecologist Kevin Peberdy. Source of the lagoon water is piped from the Thames River and reflowed to it following the rhythm of the tide, using reeds alongside the lagoon as filters. However, as lagoons are a delicate and somewhat atrocious ecosystem, water extracted from the Thames will bring lots of salts and alkalis which may be deposited into the lagoon. In a long yet foreseeable period of time, the site will face the potential ecological crisis of salinisation, sedimentation and erosion. Moreover, this lagoon is the gate between the River Thames and the Main Lake of the Wetland Centre, which contains most of the species of lives. Through here the water flows to every corner of the Wetland Centre. The lagoon serves a protective role in preserving the whole ecosystem. If the lagoon’s ecosystem is destroyed, all the wetlands will be affected, causing endless troubles to the ecosystem within the Wetland Centre.

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image of the lagoon

image of the floodgate

2 A New Landscape In Between of Geological Formations and Manmade Sites 2.1 An Ambitious Experiment This project aims to position itself within the site of the lagoon in between of geological formations and manmade sites. This site, which has a background of Victorian civilizations, has become a place of pilgrimage infused with romantic notions of the nature. It is this ambiguous and tensional perception of such a site that the project aims to address. Nowadays, with every piece of water stringently designed to suit the habits of dwelling fauna and flora, this artificial lagoon, like other waters in the Centre, also aims to become a collection of multifarious plants and ducks. Through the lagoon we can hardly find the traces since most parts of the reservoirs have been buried under the artificial ground, nor can we see in future what a flourishing lagoon this could be, it is only stagnant there with a handful of birdwatchers wandering around and could give rise to potential ecological problems. Perhaps an ambitious yet nostalgic experiment can be conducted here. On the one hand, the project purifies the not-so-fresh water from the Thames and improves the species structure of the ecosystem, creating a traditional grazing marsh, which will flood in the coldest days in winter for water birds to have a place to swim about. “The result is a miraculous demonstration of nature's forgiveness and resilience, its ability to bounce back and swiftly recolonise, to hide old scars and bring new life.� (http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/3014591/UK-Londons-wild-west.html) On the other hand, it uncovers the soil above tracks and traces of the reservoirs and displays a sense of history after years of being soaked and ground. Several devices are dispersed in the landscape functionally and formally, obscurely residing in the complicated and ever-changing environment. Meanwhile in this way they create an interactive landscape of a co-existence of reality, imagination and memory, thus enhancing the ecological and aesthetical properties of the said site. 2.2 The Experience That an Artificial Site Grants Just as Italian architect Aldo Rossi once said in the Architecture of the City, “there is something in the nature of urban artifacts that renders them very similar- and not only metaphorically-to a work 2


of art. They are material constructions but notwithstanding the material, something different” (Rossi, 1982). In his theory, understanding of a particular urban artifact of each single person varies. Merely looking at it from a distance or gaining second hand experience such as reading or listening, those people have got experiences fundamentally different from those who have or “live” the same artifacts. Inspired by his theoretical views, the project of mine on this manmade site deems to create an experience which is decided by visitors’ performance, and it deals with ecological environment, therefore making the site a more enjoyable place. 2.3 The Digestive System and the Breathing System Taking the above two subsections into consideration, the project on the site will be and also needs to be functional because of the necessity of preventing the ecosystem of the lagoon from salinisation and the traces of the reservoir from erosion. The part which deals with the prevention is called “the Digestive System” here. It aims to either sediment the hazardous particles, or convert them into the end products of microorganisms. The process will cater to the factors in the environment, such as tide, wind, rain and sunlight, using the sediments and microorganisms to built a restless landscape as well as play the part of ecology defender. The synthetic microorganisms and the mineral particles which are healthful to people are abundant in the lagoon water after it flows through the “Digestive System”. This could be a very considerable feedback from customers visiting the lagoon, making the site more attractive and prosperous. Moreover, the visitors’ performances will also be a continuing external element affecting the landscape. 3 Architectural Ecology 3.1 Environmental Morphologies Before sustainability and environment-oriented architects developed their keen interest in topics like energy conservation and climate change since the 1950s when the Second Industry Revolution has achieved its targets, most architectural designs were aiming at bringing the most stunning beauty and extreme comfort to human eyes. No one, perhaps except for those extremely ahead of their eras, will deem environmental protection as an ethical need toward their future generations. All were about one single adverb, NOW. It was just over half a century ago that critical concerns on issues of world climate and environment protection are becoming a more significant part of lives of ordinary people around the globe. Environmental morphologies are one of the concurrent theories that developed during these times. “It dealt with the design of aesthetic environments and spaces that typically employed passive means of modulating the environment, producing relatively direct relationship between form, performance and experience, in other words, it articulates in a performative manner.” (Hardy, 2008) 3.2 Architectural Ecology In this project, Architectural Ecology is utilized to assist a form of performative design. It attempts to reintegrate architectural form and performance as well as seeks techniques that follow the core ideas of ecological design. The concept of Architectural Ecology here will focus on group behaviors in a real-world environment, reintroducing a relationship between ecology and performance. To some extent, the project is already a product of human intervention. The project 3


provides a structure for the organization of local flows of information, matter and energy, achieved by means of hybrid architectural prototypes, namely the Digestive and Breathing systems, equipped with sensory systems that allow them to evolve along with the dynamic environment. 4 The Methodologies 4.1 Turbulence as the Most Important Catalyst To realize the above-mentioned changes, turbulence is the most important catalyst. Firstly, turbulence in the water can stir up sediments on the riverbeds and dredge them away. In this way, we can prevent the lagoon from getting salinised. Moreover, the effect of turbulence enhances as it goes deep under the water. Secondly, turbulence which exists around the edge of the water-air interface can also spur up exchanges between air and water, charging oxygen into water and bringing probiotics (microorganisms which are helpful to human bodies) and minerals to the air. In addition, turbulence is all the more important to evolution of a miniature Ecosphere such as the lagoon. “Turbulence is an expensive resource to generate artificially. But turbulence is also a mode of communication, how different species and niches inform each other. Turbulence, such as wave action, is also needed to maximize the productivity of a niche. Sudden, unseasonable rainfall. Wind. Lightning. A big tree falling over. Unexpected events. Just as in a miniature Ecosphere, nature both mild and wild demands variance.” (Kelly 1994, p.152) Turbulence is an important catalyst in ecology, but it was not easy to duplicate turbulence in an artificial way. The existing wavering devices that were used to stir the lagoon water were expensive to manufacture yet still break down constantly. To make it worse, these low-efficiency devices may only make tiny regular waves, generating minimal turbulence. Therefore it is necessary to find an appropriate way to create the turbulence so that changes can be made to the miniature Ecosphere—the lagoon, although it may work slowly and obscurely. “Ours may always be a flashy type of creativity, but there is something to be said for a slow, wide creativity of many dim parts working ceaselessly.” (Kelly 1994, p.4) 4.2 Digital Simulation of the Flow Every day the Thames River ebbs and flows; and the flows of water in the lagoon change continuously. The premise of controlling the water is grasping the condition of currents in the lagoon at different time nodes. Here I use the software ECOTECT to simulate the flows, giving the parameters of geomorphological conditions of the site and velocities of the flows from the Thames particular values in the 24 hours of the day. In this way, the result of a time based current conditions can be attained and an analysis can be generated on matters of which part should be focused on mostly. image of the digital simulation of the flow 4


Water comes from the Thames through the point of “O”, and it will be blocked by the islands “A” and “B”. Along the bank in the north of the entrance “O”, water will pass through the zone between the bank and island “B” quickly. So this part should be controlled seriously to purify the polluted river. On the southern parts of islands “A” and “B”, the water coming in and the water going out will converge here. The current situation is complicated and turbulences will be generated. These places could be ideal sites to build the breathing systems for customers. 4.3 Time-Based Research The key point is how to capture the limited and unevenly distributed natural power in the whole site. I am adopting the time-based research methodology, using videos to record the areas where the bird activities are the most frequent and their boarding spots as well. These areas are places where energy is most obtainable and sufficient. Then a geometrical way will be used to project the ducks’ positions in the perspective pictures to the plane to record the tracks of the birds in the whole lagoon, which will be an important reference for how the system is distributed in the site.

From the image above we can see that the zones where ducks swim in most frequently are just where the water velocity is lower than other parts in the lagoon. The two graphs are corresponsive. It might seem coincidental for some people, while in fact it is just as it should be. Ducks’ activities usually appear in areas where the flows move slowly. So in the aforementioned areas where water passes by quickly and the current situation is complex, ducks’ kinetic energy is difficult to get and more concentration should be exerted on the utilization of energy from the reeds, tides and performances of the customers. 4.4 Transformation of Natural Power Architecturally The principal methodology of this project is transformation of natural power architecturally, which is just like what the IHPVA (International Human Powered Vehicle Association) aims to do. According to the organization’s own introduction, “the IHPVA serves as a source of information for all human powered land, water and air records and all other records pertinent to the pursuit of human power.” Although the projects of IHPVA may look conventional, the technology it applies is high-class, including expertise of hydrodynamics, aerodynamics, physiology and materials. In my project I will primarily follow the disciplines of IHPVA, but widen the research objects from human beings to humans, birds and plant residents of the lagoon. In order to adopt the most ecological and, most preferably, the least harmful method to influence 5


and fit the whole project into this landscape, I will try to utilize kinetic energy of wavering reeds and swimming birds to be transferred underwater or transformed into elastic or gravitational static energies, which are designed to be able to stored up and then released for later uses. Supported by the aforementioned energy supply, we can design devices to exert influence on and make alterations to turbulence and sediments positively. The device will also be able to control regional site temperatures, the energies released or stored during temperature alterations will be used to affect the distribution of water plants and microorganisms. Therefore in the long term, a new landscape is in the making. The key challenges that I am faced with when designing the natural powered devices are concerned with appropriate components design and material selection in order to allow power conduction with the minimum of force of resistance. Weight techniques may be the most significant factor we should concern in reducing the energy deterioration in the movement of the components. Consider pushing a beam to a certain height as an example, if the beam is half its weight, 50% less kinetic energy will be wasted. Transformation of natural power architecturally is overall mechanical, and it is the basis of the whole project. Its principle is to make sure that the system can run smoothly and achieve other functions. 5 The Design of the Digestive System 5.1 Physical Treatment The first step of the system is the procedure of absorbing, which consists of two kinds of treatments: physical treatment and biological treatment. Here the physical method can be called gravity sedimentation. Hazardous components of the Thames River can be separated and settle the sediments down. This process involves controlling the speeds of water for a necessarily long period to allow some of the hazardous particles to settle away from the water or adhere to fixed surfaces on the way where they flow. Sludge is allowed to be collected and compiled before it is removed to the riverbed, forming a new landscape. As time goes by, some settles down and some got carried away, shaping the curves of the bank slowly and continuously. The mineral particles which can pass through can still be utilized in later stages. Hydrologic Cells Based on the level of porosity, a hydrologic cellular structure is introduced to analyse different forms of sediments and decided by directional protocols using the Voroni packing system and cell configuration displays. Several basic elements are concerned in designing cellular prototypes, natural forces such as wind, water flow and sunlight, accumulation forms, namely, sedimentation and humidity and natural, erosion processes. Water level changes and land structure alterations are also connected with negotiations and dialogues between cellular prototypes and slowing-changing landscape. The hydrologic cells have two types of functional spaces, open and closed. They are used for the manipulation of water from the tidal Thames River and sedimentation on the shoal of the lagoon. The closed spaces hold up the water and sediment more solid particles. Relatively, the open spaces accelerate the speed of the water and take the sediments away. The hydrologic cells can be 6


time-based simulations which test the potential land configuration reforming and generating new ecosystems. image showing hydrologic cells Rhinoscript – 3D Voronoi Hydrologic cells are generated using Rhinoscript - 3D Voronoi. The area around the shoal is divided into a 10cm *10cm grid. Then point clouds are created based on this grid. Based on the rule of VoronoiďźŒevery point will generate a self-containing cell. The cells are honeycomb-shaped polyhedrons, sharing a surface with each neighboring polyhedron. The surfaces of the polyhedrons are polygons. In the programme, a curve will be created on each polygon, determined by the vertexes and mid-points of the sidelines as controlling points. Then the surface will cut the part inside the newly created curve off, using what is called Boolean calculation. Lastly, a thickness will be given to the remaining of the surface to form a component of supporting structure. A part of the script of the programme is as follows: Option Explicit Dim XX: XX = 0 Dim YY: YY = 1 Dim ZZ: ZZ = 2 Sub GenerateSkeleton() Dim strMCell strMCell = Rhino.GetObjects("Select YJ&#Z Cells", 16, vbTrue, vbTrue) Dim i For i = 0 To UBound(strMCell) Dim strCell: strCell = strMCell(i) Dim strSrf: strSrf = Rhino.ExplodePolysurfaces(strCell) -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Dim cellCurve If Rhino.Distance(cellPts(0), cellPts(3)) >= 3 Then cellCurve = Rhino.OffsetCurve(realNCurve, cellCenterPts, 0.3, Normal, 0) Else cellCurve = Rhino.OffsetCurve(realNCurve, cellCenterPts, 0.08, Normal, 0) End If ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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Public Function VectorCrossProduct(v1, v2) VectorCrossProduct = Null Dim x, y, z x = v1(YY) * v2(ZZ) - v1(ZZ) * v2(YY) y = v1(ZZ) * v2(XX) - v1(XX) * v2(ZZ) z = v1(XX) * v2(YY) - v1(YY) * v2(XX) VectorCrossProduct = Array(x, y, z) End Function -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Public Function IsVectorTiny(v) IsVectorTiny = vbFalse Dim tol : tol = 1.0e-12 If (Abs(v(XX)) <= tol) And (Abs(v(YY)) <= tol) And (Abs(v(ZZ)) <= tol) Then IsVectorTiny = vbTrue End If End Function ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.2 Biological Control Methods 5.2.1 Biodegradation Process “There are suspended growth systems such aerated lagoons, and anaerobic digesters where the microorganisms are suspended; and fixed film processes, which include filters and rotating biological contactors where the microorganisms grow on a fixed surface. Biological treatment has been very successful in the removal of organic pollutants and colloidal organics from wastewater.” (Cheremisinoff, 2001) “Activated sludge, biological filters, aerated lagoons, oxidation ponds, and aerobic fermentation are some of the methods available for wastewater of toxic waste, more care is needed since the biodegradation. Biodegradation occurs because bacteria are able to metabolize the organic matter via enzyme systems to yield carbon dioxide, water, and energy. The energy is used for synthesis, motility, and respiration.” (Cheremisinoff, 2001) The purpose of biodegradation is to process the organic pollutants and mineral particles into end products and material that will settle or microorganisms which are healthful for the human body when they are inhaled as people breathe air in simultaneously. “Nitrogen and phosphorus are essential in the oxidation process for the synthesis of new cells, and trace amounts of potassium and calcium are also required.” (Cheremisinoff, 2001) The Digestive System has surfaces which the aerobic microorganisms can grow on. Pollutants passing through the sediment zones will adhere to the surfaces and get biodegraded or be converted to probiotics, microorganisms beneficial for people visiting the lagoon. 8


5.2.2 Synthesis of Healthful Microorganisms The Digestive System is built using flexible supporting structures. The structures will be shaken by the tides, the reeds, the ducks and the customers wandering around. Above the water are flexible arms which are deposed along the bank. Some components of the arms are tied to the stems of the reeds or floating on the water near the bank. When wind comes, the reeds will flutter and the components on the stems will drag the parts of the arms which are next to the reeds move backward and forward. Through rotatable junctions the parts hung in the air will then move up and down. In a similar way, during the flood tide or the ebb tide, the parts floating on the water will change their positions to draught the entire arms wavering on the shoal.

image of the shaking arms Actually not only reeds or tides can support the energy to shake the arms, but also the swimming ducks around and customers enjoying themselves nearby will lead the system to flutter on the shoal. To let the customers get closer to the water and enjoy more on the site, the system also has a device which can project people to the islands in the lagoon from the bank. The action of projection can release a relatively large amount of energy which could be infused into the system. The injection of this energy make the arms shake intensely and last for a period of time. If there are enough customers projected to the island, the energy infused in will be very considerable. The amount of the sediments on the shoal being settled down and taken away is proportional to the frequency of the projections. Day after day, year after year, the bank of the lagoon changes the shape restlessly so that the water from the Thames will flow in response to the designation of the system and become controlled more appropriately along the new path characterized by the Digestive System. The end points of the arms hang on the surfaces where the converting process takes place. The movements of the arms will lead the surfaces to shake to generate turbulences beneath the water level. The turbulences can stimulate communications among micro species and increase the frequency of contacts between microorganisms and mineral particles to generate synthetic species of probiotics under the effect of sunlight and oxidation. Most of the probiotics will be taken away by the flow of water to every bit of the lagoon, and some will adhere to the surface. In the long term, the microorganisms may concentrate together and form new blurred spaces, becoming a layer between the nature and the traces of the reservoirs in the water.

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image of the Digestive System from the birds eye view 5.3 The Restless Landscape The whole system occupies a relatively large area on the east bank of the lagoon. It takes up the spaces both above and beneath the water level, positioned in the reeds and under the water. In the environment there are several factors, such as the weather, climate and tide, which can have an influence on the landscape and change constantly. Something which is moving, passing by, making a change and then going away all the time, left a particular pattern of wave in space. Fortunately, the system will restlessly represent the dynamic wave using a form of technique that generates a relationship between the extraordinary conditions and the â&#x20AC;&#x153;Digestiveâ&#x20AC;? function. 6 The Design of the Breathing System 6.1 Its Working Principle Contained in the air near the surface of the water, there are a lot of mineral particles and microorganisms. Especially when there is enough turbulence in the water, the exchange of materials between water and air will intensify. The system aims to inhale the air full of the exchanged materials from the water and let them be more available to the customers, just like what lungs do, inhale fresh air, exchange it with the processed oxygen-less air and exhale the oxygen-less air out of the lungs. This system will follow the working principle of lung: difference in air pressures between that in alveoli and the atmosphere is the reason that air is breathed in and out of the lungs. This pressure difference arises from the change of lung size caused by the contraction and relaxation of respiratory muscles. When the aspiratory muscle contracts, the thorax expands. Consequently the lung size increases, so that the pressure in lung drops below the atmospheric pressure temporarily and the lung inhales air outside which is called breathing (inspiration). In contrast, when the aspiratory muscle relaxes, the thorax becomes narrower. Subsequently the volume of the lung decreases, so that the pressure in lung gets higher than the atmospheric pressure temporarily and air in the lung will flow out, resulting in expiration. The Breathing System comprises of two parts: the internal devices and the external devices. The internal devices simulate the part of the lung, and the external devices play the part of trachea and aspiratory muscles.

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6.2 The Internal Structure The surface of the Breathing System is made of membrane and inside the membrane there are internal structures which uphold the weight of the surface. The surface can be seen as an â&#x20AC;&#x153;airbagâ&#x20AC;?. The internal structures are flexible to expand and contract to let the air in and out. I made a reference to the structure of alveolus which is similar to that of the aforementioned Voronoi cells. The only differences are the material and the values given to the parameters. The components of the internal structures are porous that the air can flow freely inside. The structure is made up of rubber. When external power changes the shape of the surface, the internal structure will contract or expand to cater to the change of the surface because of the flexibility of the rubber-made structure. In consequence, the volume of space inside of the membrane will change and the pressure of the air inside will plus or minus itself around the value of atmospheric pressure.

image of the alveolus

image of the internal structure

6.3 External Devices To keep the Breathing System running, external power is needed to pull or push the airbag to change the volume inside. The external power can be obtained from two main sources: one is the energy from nature such as wind and tide; the other is the power from customers sitting, rolling or jumping inside of the space surrounded by the airbag. The first energy source comes from using the everyday device on a daily basis. The device comprises of bellows tied to the stems of reeds. When the wind blows, the reeds will wave and the stems change their positions. Consequently, the power will be conducted by a series of bearings and cables to pull or push the bellows. The bellows moving back and forth then can change the airbagâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s pressure. Comparing to the first one, the other energy source is intermittent but stronger. The Breathing System has semi-surrounded spaces to attract the customers in, people inside can breathe through the valves on the airbag while they are sitting or rolling on the membrane. Besides the airbag, the Breathing System has some additional devices such as the object making turbulence. This object is deposed in the water not far away from the water level. It will also utilize the natural power to let its components in the water rotate or oscillate to stir up the turbulence which will increase the exchange between water and air. Moreover, the turbulence making object is installed under the water on the concrete wall which was built to store water during the Victorian times. During the action of oscillating, a lot of light tracks will be left on the old wall. Afterwards, mud settles on the tracks and microorganisms grow on the wall from inside 11


the tracks, continuously characterizing a new landscape. An additional device needs to be mentioned is a series of pipes which can be seen in the image below. One end of each pipe is inserted into the airbag, while the other is hung above the surface of the water. In each pipe there is at least one controlling valve, and the valve can only be turned around to the direction of the airbag. That means if the pressure in the airbag is lower than the atmosphere outside, the air can pass the valve to the airbag. But if the pressure in the airbag is higher than the atmosphere, the air will be blocked by the valve from going outside, only people’s breathing can take away the healthful air outside.

image of the Breathing System 6.4 Breathing as a kind of Performative Design “Performative design does not, as the name might suggest, mean focusing solely on meeting performance criteria through the manipulation of form. Instead, it means deeply considering the wide array of building performance issues simultaneously with other aspects of the design right from the earliest, the most formative conceptual stages.” (Marsh, 2008) Since the Breathing System is for the benefit of customers, the performance of people should be the basis of the design. The customers are permitted a greater intimacy with the project, becoming participants. People’s breathing activities as well as their weights on the membrane can change the shape of the airbag. When people’s actions take place in different positions in the system, the whole surface of the membrane will undulate just like the breathing lung, absorbing and releasing space. Moreover the project also deals with the performance of the nature. It employs air, sun, water and wind to augment the performance of breathing. The kinetic models and devices illustrate the restlessness of the environment or the tracks of the customers.

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7 Conclusion A new landscape will be formed in between of geological formations and mandate sites in the lagoon of the Wetland Centre, using methodologies of turbulence, digital simulation, time based research and transforming natural power architecturally to conduct an ambitious experiment. By means of digestive and breathing systems, which in turn, the project turns the site a restless landscape that responds to the changing conditions. It is organic and constantly on the move. It will prosper, downgrade and move to a new position very slowly.

This design is both high-speed landscape and low-speed landscape. The terms of high speed and low speed do not contradict yet they are comparable to each other. The high speed landscape is making instant and sensitive response to changes in the environment, just like the images above illustrate. The devices waver in different conditions: low tides, high tides and rainy days. The low speed landscape, as displayed in the three images inserted above, is changing above and beneath the water on a sequential basis in a relatively long period of time, say one year. The changes seen in the low speed landscape are just the combined results of high speed landscape, where devices waver restlessly.

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WAVERING ON THE SHOAL  

THE DIGESTIVE AND BREATHING SYSTEMS IN A RESTLESS LAGOON

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