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refused to wear condoms. In our analyses we were not able to find any relationship between the use of condoms with a regular partner and any demographic variable such as age, place of birth or residence and migrant status. Only the educational level of the women had a slightly positive influence on the use of condoms with private partners.

sibly due to the emphasis given to the sexual means of transmission in this specific group. Boyfriends Almost every one of the women interviewed (over 98% in the 3 groups) declared that their clients always use condoms during vaginal, oral and anal sex. However, almost 70% of them said that they occasionally put two condoms on at the same time as extra precaution. They do that when they decide the penis is too big or too thick, or for anal sex, or if they suspect the client may have some disease. Also, a significant number of them (64%) affirmed that they never or rarely use condoms with their regular partners. Non-migrant women were more likely to have boyfriends or regular partners and to live with them. Over one-third of nonmigrant women declared that they always used condoms with these private partners. Fewer permanent and transient migrants declared the same. On the other hand, we also found a higher percentage of nonmigrant sex workers (40%) than migrant sex workers who admitted never using condoms with their boyfriends (see Table 2). The most common reason presented for not using condoms with a partner was that they are seen as a barrier to intimacy (43%). Another 43% declared that their boyfriends

While these results indicate the importance of educational programmes developed by NGOs, they also point to the inadequacy of campaigns directed at sex workers that focus exclusively on the use of condoms with clients. When we work with prostitutes and consider only their professional lives we ignore the fact that they face the same problems as other women in an intimate relationship.

When we work with prostitutes and consider only their professional lives we ignore the fact that they face the same problems as

There are no simple answers about how to handle the questions relating to gender identity and inequalities that arise in any heterosexual relationship. However, it is urgent to discuss new approaches in the AIDS educational and preventive work that take into consideration gender-related issues, especially now when AIDS infection rates among heterosexual women in Brazil are getting higher.2 Notes 1. A. Chacham and M. Maia, Sexual Practices and the Prevention of AIDS/STDs among Sex Workers in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. XXIV General Population Meeting – IUSSP. IUSSP, Salvador, 2001. 2. S. Diniz and W. Villela, Interfaces entre os programas de DST/AIDS e saúde reprodutiva: o caso brasileiro. In: Saúde, Desenvolvimento e Política. R. Parker, J. Galvão and M. Secron Bessa. ABIA, Rio de Janeiro, 1999. About the authors Alessandra Chacham and Mônica Maia are with Grupo MUSA in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Contact person Alessandra Sampaio Chacham MUSA Rua Itacolomito 83 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, 31010 Brazil Phone/fax: +55-31-34675875 E-mail: Web:

other women in an intimate relationship

Some online resources on sex work and health Hustling for Health: Developing services for sex workers in Europe European Network for HIV/STD Prevention in Prostitution (EUROPAP/TAMPEP), London 1999 English: Spanish: Also available in 8 other languages (check out: 100% Condom Use Programme in Entertainment Establishments WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific, 2000 English only: Sex Work in Asia WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific, July 2001 English only: Work in Asia.doc or:

Prostitution et Sida Infotheque Sida/AIDS Infothek, journal of the AIDS Info Docu Switzerland, Vol. 12, no. 6, 2000 French: German: Services in the window. A manual for interventions in the world of migrant prostitution Transnet - Transnational Empowerment of Local Networks project, 2001 English: (pdf) Italian: (pdf) Russian: (pdf) All links can be accessed through the Research for Sex Work homepage:

Female Sex Worker Projects in the Asia-Pacific Region: 3 case studies UNAIDS Case Study, November 2000 English only: