Issuu on Google+

Food Security and Thematic Program (FSTP) FOOD/SUDAN/2011/02

Increased Food Security and Sustainable Livelihoods for Poor and Marginalized Households in Western Bahr el Ghazal State, South Sudan

Baseline Survey Report

FINAL VERSION

September 25, 2012 1


Map of Bahr el Ghazal state and its location in South Sudan

2


Contents Executive summary ....................................................................................................................................... 5 1.0 Background ........................................................................................................................................... 13 1.1 Purpose and objectives of the Baseline survey ................................................................................ 13 1.2 Specific research questions............................................................................................................... 14 1.3 Steps taken to conduct the baseline survey ..................................................................................... 14 1.4 Brief description of the intervention for which baseline was under taken ............................. 15 1.5 Socio-Economic and Political Context ............................................................................................... 17 1.5.1 Western Bar-el-Ghazal State ...................................................................................................... 17 1.5.2 Bio-Physical Environnent ........................................................................................................... 17 1.5.3 Political Environment ................................................................................................................. 18 1.5.4 Population and Livelihood ......................................................................................................... 18 1.5.5 Governance System ................................................................................................................... 20 1.5.6 State Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Irrigation (SMoAF&I) ............................................ 20 1.5.7 The FSTP Target group ............................................................................................................... 21 1.6 Explanation and justification of the methods used, scope and limitations of the Baseline survey ..................................................................................................................................................... 22 1.6.1 Sampling..................................................................................................................................... 22 1.6.2 Field work ................................................................................................................................... 23 1.7 Analysis of the gathered information/data and presentation of the findings ......................... 25 2.0 Findings of the Baseline Survey ...................................................................................................... 26 2.1 Current status of the four result areas ........................................................................................ 26 The FSTP has four results areas: ...................................................................................................... 26 2.1.1 Production of staple crops ......................................................................................................... 26 3


2.1.2 Agricultural Diversification......................................................................................................... 31 2.1.3 Marketing Systems..................................................................................................................... 32 2.2 Capacity of partners to address food insecurity and climate threats ..................................... 34 2.3 Affordability and feasibility of an appropriate inputs cost recovery system for the target groups of the project. ........................................................................................................................... 35 2.4 Options for storage methods and facilities for perishable produce ........................................ 36 2.5 Cultural appropriateness and how best to improve animal-ploughing in the target area ... 36 2.6 How best the project can have effective and inclusive participation of stakeholders, partners and others to ensure inclusive participation in a Project Steering Committee (PSC) 37 2.7 Project processes actions and deliverables which can potentially exacerbate on the existing conflict in the project area. ................................................................................................... 38 2.8 Perceived needs and constraints in the target communities .................................................. 38 2.9 Monitoring and Evaluation ............................................................................................................... 40 3.0 Conclusions ........................................................................................................................................ 43 4.0 Recommendations............................................................................................................................. 46 The Evaluation Consultants ........................................................................................................................ 49

4


Executive summary This document is a presentation of the baseline survey report of the food security thematic program FSTP funded by the European Union and implemented by a consortium of five NGO led by ICCO, in two Counties of Western Bahr-el-Ghazal, in South Sudan—Jur River and Wau Counties. The survey was conducted in by months of August and September 2012, by a team of external consultants and staff of the partner organizations. The purpose of the survey was to assess the initial value of indicators at the beginning of interventions aimed at changing characteristics of individuals and systems. The 36 month project that was approved to start beginning 1 April 2012 but was delayed by three months, seeks to reduce the incidence of general and acute malnutrition among rural households in Western Bahr el Ghazal. In this regard the first planting season was missed. The Project results focus on increased production of mainly staple crops through the application and continued availability of improved seeds as well as better use of the traditional seeds. In addition, the project will also focus on the diversification of household diets by improving the access to micro-nutrients (kitchen gardens, fruit, poultry, etc.) and by increasing awareness on nutritional topics among the target group.

Key findings Production of staple crops The baseline survey confirmed the need for the project interventions as spelt out in the project document. Rural poor and vulnerable target populations are unable to produce sufficient quantities to meet their nutritional needs. While the average land holding is 4 fedans, only an average of 2.4 is normally cultivated per household. The main reasons for non-cultivation of land are lack of tools; lack of labor, and lack of seeds. The constraints and root causes are linked to poor, ineffective and unsustainable farming practices and focus on monoculture. Specific problem areas in this respect are: 1) insufficient technical know-how, poor access to improved technologies (only 12% of the farmers use improved seeds and planting materials for most of the staple foods) 2) poor access to resources such as land, quality agricultural inputs, business development services (BDS) and financial sources, and 3) insufficient organization of farmers, all resulting in low productivity and production. These constraints are further exacerbated by dependency on climate (rain-fed agriculture) and vulnerability to natural hazards such as frequent drought or erratic rainfalls linked to climate change that result in water logging and/or floods. According to the survey findings, only 2% of the farmers owned a plough; 67% owned a hoe; 5.7% owned a cultivator; 20% owned a rake; 3% owned a wheel barrow; 3% owned a shovel; 9% owned a pick axe; 48% owned an axe; 3% owned a cart.

5


Only 15.7% of the households had a vegetable garden. Of those who have a vegetable garden, 76.7% said they own it while 19% said it belonged to the community. In terms of access to water, only 11.5% had access to water. Of those who had access, only 40% had access to perennial water source and 53% had it within 0.5 km. Most households were severely food insecure, 83.7% had no food in stock in the past one month before the survey; 82% slept hungry; and 80% spent a whole day without food. Only 20.3% reported that they rarely had times when there was no food to be eaten; 21.2% reported they slept hungry rarely; and 25.4% reported they went the whole day and night without food rarely. Up to 72% of the households reported they had stock of food that could not last for more than a fortnight; and only 5% had stock that could last for more than 4 months. The average number of months where there was not enough food (hunger gap) is 3.

Agricultural diversification Because of smallholders’ focus on staple crops as the main food component, the diet is not diversified. There is limited knowledge on and awareness of nutrition and sanitation, resulting in malnutrition and other health-related problems. Over 72% of the farmers had no access to fruit trees like mangoes, oranges, lemon, pawpaw and guava. According to the findings of the survey, the food items/groups that household members had eaten the day before the survey (in the last 24 hours) during the day and night was analyzed to determine the dietary diversity. Only 27% of the households were able to diversify their foods. Agriculture is still the main source of livelihood for 51% of the respondents. Only 5.7% earned their incomes from livestock, 10% from trading, 6% from casual labor in agriculture; 4% from other casual labor and 14% from civil service/other employment. It was however learnt that crop farming communities had a system of keeping their livestock with cattle keeping communities outside the state. The average weekly household income is 70 SSP. Over 65% reported that their income had declined over the past month before the survey; while only 8% reported an increase. Food takes 55% of the household income. By the time of the survey, 35% of the respondents were in debt. The nature of the debt varied with 72% being cash and 91% being in form of sorghum that was borrowed.

Marketing Systems Farmers normally sell their produce in the local market centers along the major roads that are at the payam headquarters. Given the vastness of the payams and the numerous villages, coupled with lack of transport means, most farmers carry their produce on their heads and walk the long distance to the market. It is common to see many farmers first having to sit down and rest before spreading their goods on the road side. There is no organized market place in the rural payams. Months of maximum trade are January to April. Months of minimum trade are August to December.

6


Main conclusions Food security Nearly all targeted households (84%) are vulnerable in terms of food security and nutrition. Implication of this is that beneficiary selection should not be based on food insecurity, so other criteria should be used. In addition, the project interventions should initially aim at improving household food security and nutrition. At this stage, value addition is not necessary as households are still struggling with food security. Most households rely on sorghum as the staple food, so there is need to promote production of roots and tubers as they have more potential in terms of production per unit area and are important elements of ensuring food security. The use of hybrid seed is very low. Therefore the introduction of hybrid seed should not be a priority for improving food security and nutrition. The average acreage cultivated per household in very low (fedans). The use of ox ploughs is limited in most communities as most people are using hand held tools and implements. Since the project wants to increase the acreage per household, it is important to promote the use of draught animal power. Although the project plans to promote rearing of chicken, there is a challenge of limited access to veterinary services and drugs, which can affect the chicken flocks, especially with the deadly and quick spreading New Castle Disease (NCD). The promotion of kitchen gardens could start with urban areas where there are smaller plots and easy access to markets and better purchasing power. The growing of traditional vegetables should be encouraged in the rural areas, for improvement of diets. Recovery The input recovery should focus on seeds (in kind), through farmer groups. The recovery of cost of ox ploughs is not viable, considering the need for ensuring food security, rather than marketing of food crops. However, an MOU can be signed with the groups, so that recovery can be spread over a longer period. The sharing of ox- ploughs should take into consideration the need for clearing the land in time for timely planting, given the erratic nature of the rains. In this regard, the number of households sharing one plough should not be too big, at least 5 household per one plough and ox. Given that the average number of people per household who can work is 3, the labor implications for land opened up by ox ploughing, is limiting to the promotion of draught animal power. If more land is opened up, there will be labor crisis regarding planting, weeding and harvesting and post- harvest handling, especially for women, activities which will not be mechanized. It is the view of the consultants that the use of ox- cultivation should be selectively done with households that have adequate labor to carry out the post land preparation activities. This should be one of the selection criteria for beneficiary households in Kangi payam.

7


Food storage options The current production of perishable products does not warrant an intervention into storage methods and facilities. Even after the project interventions, it is unlikely that households will have excess perishable products that may require storage, considering the high need for diet diversity at household level. However, there is need to introduce simple storage methods of vegetables like blanching and drying for household use during the dry season. This is important for dietary diversity. In addition, for petty traders in marketing centers selling some vegetables and fruits, provision could be made for them to use simple ways of storage for foods that are not sold the same day, given the low purchasing power in the community. Cultural appropriateness of animal ploughing The use of animal ploughing does not contradict the cultural beliefs and practices among communities in the project area. Therefore introduction of ox ploughing is a welcome intervention. However, there will be a need for monitoring of the animals so that the oxen do not get eaten, as some may have the attitude that “who is thinking of working if we can eat meat for free”. Effective and inclusive participation of stakeholders At the moment, there are no terms of reference for the Project Steering Committee (PSC) and also no agreement has been reached on who should be on the PSC. Given that the project was approved in April 2012, it is not good practice to have it running for four months without this committee to provide guidance. As a result, some partners had already started activities without proper guidance, e.g. selection of beneficiaries without an agreed selection criteria. Given the diversity of stakeholders, ensuring effective and inclusive participation will remain a challenge to the project. One of the key stakeholders is the state government. Currently, the state government faces challenges of availability of qualified human resource, especially at the payam level. The second key category of stakeholders is the project local partners at the operational level. They also face similar challenges of inadequate skilled personnel. As of now, no capacity needs assessment of the partners has been undertaken. It should be noted that the project document stated that capacity building should be done in the inception phase, which is nearly ending at the end of September 2012. This activity should therefore be fast tracked to identify capacity gaps for preparation of capacity building plans. The international partners (ICCO and DORCAS) are currently seen as the “big brothers” who call the shots and make the final decision. There is therefore need for a change of attitude among the local and international partners, to foster equality in decision making. Even the smaller ones need to understand that they cannot survive without the two bigger brothers that simply have more capacity in dealing with EU than the smaller ones. Of course it is the WAY how you present yourself. ICCO and DORCAS need to be aware of that. They needed each other and ONLY together they can make a difference! The third category of stakeholders is the project beneficiaries. While it is a good idea to have beneficiaries directly involved in project management, most are not yet organized into viable groups and are also illiterate, limiting their potential contribution to the PSC. 8


Potential for escalating existing conflicts in the project area The survey established that the current conflict is not something to worry about concerning implementation of this project. The planned activities therefore have limited potential to escalate this conflict, if any. It is however recommended that a risk analysis should be part of the annual project review, considering the fluid unpredictable nature of conflicts.

Perceived needs and constraints of the target community The project document has correctly identified the needs and constraints of the target community concerning food security and livelihoods. However, there are other needs beyond food security that communities are concerned about, which require an integrated approach and building of synergies with other development partners. These include access to health, education, clean water and infrastructure.

Recommendations Improving food security Recommendations for the project implementers The project should focus on providing inputs like seed for staple crops in rural areas and vegetables in the peri- urban areas, as well as hand held tools. The beneficiaries requested that tools should be provided by the end of September 2012 to enable them to clear the land in time for the May – June rains of 2013. The seeds for staple crops should be provided by April 2013 for timely planting in the May- June rains. Vegetable seeds should be provided by end of September for the planting season of October 2012. Selection of beneficiaries should be based on the agreed beneficiary selection criteria Farmers should be organized and trained before receiving inputs. Mechanisms should be set up for regular food security surveillance, using the baseline survey household questionnaire, to collect data for the log- frame indicators. Recommendations for the state government As a matter of urgency, the WBG state government should put in place extension workers in the rural payams of Kangi and Gete as their contribution to this project. The state government should improve market infrastructure in the payams, so that farmers can sell food in a hygienic environment. The state government should, as a matter of priority, target rural payams where this project is to be implemented, for faster land mine clearance, to enable farmers to open more land. Input cost recovery 9


The project should initially focus on the recovery of seeds. Recovery of the cost of the ox ploughs should be spread over a longer period of time, as the livelihoods of farmers are still precarious. In the meantime, the project should set up a system for recovering these costs in the third year of the project and beyond, after analyzing surveillance reports on the status of household food security. Options for storage methods and facilities of perishable produce For project implementers For household food security, simple techniques of food preservation and storage should be introduced, e.g. blanching and drying of leafy vegetables. For market oriented households, appropriate storage technologies should be promoted for produce that is not sold on the same day. In this regard, the project should work with the CUoSSFAES to research on traditional ways of food storage e.g. the use of pots. For the state government As part of the improvement of the market infrastructure, the state government should work in partnership with local market vendors to construct lockable stalls for storage of perishable goods, to reduce on burden of carrying them to and from markets. In addition, regular grading of roads would go a long way in easing access to markets, especially the Aweil – Wau road which passes through Kangi and Gete payams. Currently transport by road from Kangi to Wau takes 2 hours, instead of the 20 – 30 minutes. Cultural appropriateness and best way to improve animal ploughing For project implementers Since animal ploughing is culturally appropriate in the project area, the project should go ahead and its use in the targeted payams. The project should first identify farmers who have interest and trained oxen. The lessons learnt from OXFAM Intermon are critical and implementer should carefully consider them before purchasing the ploughs. For the state government The WBG state government should ensure that the farmers supported with ox ploughs are able to access veterinary care for the trained oxen. Effective and inclusive participation of stakeholders As a matter of urgency, the project should develop the mandate and inaugurate the PSC to guide project stakeholders. 10


A stakeholders’ meeting should be held to determine the composition of the members of the PSC and define the parameters for its operation. Conflict escalation Although there is no risk of conflict escalation, the project should carry out annual risk analysis in the target areas, in partnership with the state and development partners and also address the issue of grazing of animals from Dinka land in the Luo land especially when the Luo are about to harvest the crops. Perceived needs While food security is an urgent need, it is recommended that an integrated approach be adopted to address other pressing needs in the areas of education, health, water, sanitation and hygiene which are important for proper nutrition and improving livelihoods. The WBG should therefore coordinate the activities of all development partners in the state to address these perceived community needs. Non- conflict related aspects informing choice of interventions The effects of climate change on farming activities need to be addressed, focusing on soil and water conservation, as well as controlling flooding of crop fields. Considering the livestock population in the target communities, there is need to promote use of compost manure for improving soil fertility and crop productivity. The project needs to determine the role of local leader in project implementation, beyond community mobilization, for purposes of the sustainability of project interventions and impacts. The project needs to adopt a household based approach where the roles of men, women and youth in production and marketing are emphasized for improved household food security and livelihoods. Emphasis should be on sharing resources, benefits and decision making. The project should look at promoting non- agricultural livelihoods for the youth who were observed to be shunning agriculture. The sale of canned beer of high alcohol content of above 14% should be addressed to reduce incidences of domestic violence and drunkenness among the youth. Monitoring and evaluation The current log- frame indicators need to be revised to complete setting of targets for all indicators. All implementing partners should prepare their own log frames and M&E plans that mirror the project log frame. The qualitative indicators will require a score card as a tool for data collection 11


A comprehensive monitoring and evaluation training should be carried out among project implementers and government extension workers. Data collection tools for participatory monitoring should be developed before the project goes too deep into activity implementation. Capacity for project implementation and management A capacity needs assessment of partner staff and organizations should be undertaken and a capacity building plan developed before the end of November 2012.

The rest of the document is organized as follows. Section one provides the background to the baseline survey—the purpose and objectives and the methodology used, as well as a description of the intervention for which the baseline was taken. The political and economic and social context is also described in this section. The findings are presented in section two and the conclusions and recommendations in sections three and four respectively. Because of its volume, the annex is presented as a separate file although in the bound copy it is included at the end of the report.

12


1.0 Background 1.1 Purpose and objectives of the Baseline survey The baseline study was meant to assess the initial value of indicators at the beginning of interventions aimed at changing characteristics of individuals and systems. First, the survey was to establish baseline values of intended outcomes (based on the log frame) against which future measurements would be made of changes in behavior, systemic capacity and impact on the conditions of the households and individuals. Secondly, the study was meant to gather accurate data and analyze information that would assist project staff in designing or modifying appropriate interventions and to generate information for further refining the project log frame and M&E plan. The third reason for the baseline survey was to validate the needs and priorities of communities and institutions identified in the project document. Lastly, the survey was an opportunity to train staff and partners with methods associated with conducting baseline, subsequent monitoring and evaluation and other studies. In this regard, the following activities were carried out. 1. Measuring food insecurity at the project location through use of questionnaires (HFIAS and DDS), FGDs and key informant interviews. 2. A survey on affordability and feasibility of an appropriate inputs cost recovery system for the target group was part of the baseline exercise. 3. Training, in methodology and techniques of data collection and interviewing of Partners staff in addition to field exposure of 2nd and 3rd year university students of CUoSSFAES was done. The training was conducted by the two external consultants hired by ICCO. The baseline survey was a major exercise which involved preparation and (logistics) organization. 4. Explored options for storage methods and facilities for perishable produce, possibly resulting in a pilot project. 5. Assessed cultural appropriateness and how best to improve animal-ploughing in the target area. 6. Consulted/ Explored how best to have effective and inclusive participation of stakeholders, partners and others to ensure inclusive participation in a Project Steering Committee (PSC). 7. Established project deliverables which would exacerbate on the existing conflict in the area and proposed alternatives. 8. Identified perceived needs and constraints in the target communities

13


9. Reviewed the other non-conflict related aspects informing choice of interventions and project design and the factors that are expected to change and how to address and/or mitigate them. 10. Identified any other missing data and/or information that would be needed to execute the intervention and complete the baseline document.

1.2 Specific research questions 

What is the current food insecurity situation at the project location?

How affordable and feasible is the planned inputs recovery system for the target groups of the project?

What options exist for storage methods and facilities for perishable produce?

How culturally appropriate is the animal ploughing in the target area and how best can it be improved?

How best can the project have an effective and inclusive participation of stakeholders, partners and others to ensure inclusive participation in the Project Steering Committee?

What processes, actions and deliverables have the potential to exacerbate the existing conflicts in the project area so that alternative interventions can be planned?

What are the perceived needs and constraints of the target community?

1.3 Steps taken to conduct the baseline survey 1. Study planning and design was done by ICCO, partners and state local government at state level WBGS 2. Qualitative research was done to obtain input from participants on issues, questions to be asked and categories of anticipated replies 3. Quantitative research was done by defining the needs for quantitative data, deigning draft questionnaire, coding and editing questionnaire, pre-testing and reviewing draft questionnaire, finalizing questionnaire and preparing a draft tabulation plan. 4. Sampling was done by mapping the study population and compiling the sampling frame, designing sample and deciding on sample size and selecting the sample. 5. Training and field work involved selecting and training interviewers, conducting field data collection, supervising field work and checking and filing questionnaires. 6. During data processing, all questionnaires were checked before data was transferred to computer. Data cleaning was done and the computerized data was edited. 14


7. Data analysis involved producing tables based on tabulation plan, preparing charts and graphs, studying the tables and drawing conclusions from findings. It was then that the draft and final reports were prepared. 8. The next step will be to disseminate the findings. ICCO will print and distribute the report to targeted audiences, organize a workshop and discuss with the consortium partners, beneficiaries, donors and other stakeholders to communicate findings, get involvement in determining follow-up action plans; and prepare action plans to carry out recommendations.

1.4 Brief description of the intervention for which baseline was under taken

Overview of Program/project The 36 month project that was approved beginning 1 April 2012 but commenced three months later, seeks to reduce the incidence of general and acute malnutrition among rural households in Western Bahr el Ghazal. In line of the above, the following two interlinked specific objectives have been formulated: Specific Objective 1: To improve the food security and nutrition of particularly disadvantaged and marginalised people in Western Bahr el Ghazal. Specific Objective 2: Strengthened local institutions to better address food insecurity and climate threats. Concrete expected results of the intervention, leading to the achievement of these objectives are: increased production and diversification of agricultural production, increased awareness on nutrition issues, an improved and accessible marketing system and increased food access for vulnerable IDPs and returnees. A multifaceted approach will be applied and incorporates building capacities of partners, counterparts and stakeholders and the creation of a demand-driven service delivery to farmers prioritising community ownership while reinforcing and working through existing structures. It incorporates also a rights-based approach (claim-making capabilities of target groups) to food security. The project aims to collaborate closely with the government and other development actors within the context of the WBS Strategic Plan, which is currently in the making. Food insecurity among vulnerable populations exists as a result of physical unavailability of food, lack of social/ economic access to adequate food and inadequate food utilisation. There is limited choice available in Wau and surroundings but in general enough food is being imported from Uganda and Kenya. Food insecure target groups are not able to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for a healthy and active life. Household food security is the application of 15


the food security concept at family level with individuals within households as the focus of concern. Household food security has three cornerstones: sufficient availability of food, adequate access to food and proper utilization of food. Within this concept, the specific role of women is of utmost importance since they play a crucial role in agricultural production and in the composition of a nutritious diet for household members; besides, women and girls have specific food needs, especially during pregnancy and breast feeding. Results focus on increased production of mainly staple crops through the application and continued availability of improved seeds as well as better use of the traditional seeds. In addition, the project will also focus on the diversification of household diets by improving the access to micro-nutrients (kitchen gardens, fruit, poultry, etc.) and by increasing awareness on nutritional topics among the target group. Strengthening local and resilient food systems is central to a strategy of direct poverty alleviation. ICCO will do this by working in a multi-stakeholder context of civil society strengthening and capacity building of government counterparts, while at the same time contributing to an environment where the voice of target groups is heard by policy makers (avenues for empowerment). As such, the Catholic University of South Sudan, Faculty of Agriculture and Environmental Science (CUofSSFAES) in Wau will play an essential role as a research institute supporting demand-driven research questions with active exposure of its students to extension work. Besides it will enhance their role as advisors to local communities as well as future policy makers in the agricultural sector. Following ICCO’s holistic development approach, the project will take into account the whole value chain and focus also on the availability of reliable and updated market information in order to improve market access for the target group. Especially since the project focuses on women as a target group, it will take into account the specific role of women in the project as well as in the household food security situation. The project is consistent with the ICCO Alliance strategy plan 2011-2015 for Central and East Africa, with regards to Food and Nutrition Security (FNS). ICCO believes that the following issues need special attention: Insufficient availability of nutritious food; Limited access to (nutritious) food; inadequate nutritional outcomes and Poor public policy management processes ICCO envisions that communities in the target areas, including children, youth, men, women, PWD, PLWHA and aged, have access to adequate, safe and nutritious food in sufficient quantity to satisfy their nutritional needs FNS Envisioned impact, outcomes and strategies. The project will contribute to the following outcomes of the CEA strategy:  Outcome 1: Improved availability of nutritious food for the poor and vulnerable households  Outcome 2: Improved access to nutritious food for the poor and vulnerable households  Outcome 3: Enhanced nutritional outcomes for the poor and vulnerable households  Outcome 4: Improved enabling environment to ensure the right to food

16


1.5 Socio-Economic and Political Context

Local leaders are key in making decisions about the affairs of the payam. This includes both the traditional and government leaders.

1.5.1 Western Bar-el-Ghazal State The Western Bahr el Ghazal state (WBGS) lies in the western zone of Southern Sudan in a region, which formerly comprised of four states of Warrap, Lakes, Northern Bahr el Ghazal and Western Bahr el Ghazal. It has an area of 93,900 km² and its capital is Wau town. It is bordered by Warrap State to the east, Northern Bahr Ghazal and Southern Darfur to the north, Central Africa Republic to the west and Western Equatoria State to the south. The state is divided into three counties; Wau, Raga and Jur River Counties. The Counties are further divided into payams and each payam is divided into bomas. Western Bahr el Ghazal state is administered or governed by a state governor. A County is administered by a county commissioner and a payam is controlled by a payam administrator whereas bomas are presided over by executive chiefs or hereditary chiefs who are assisted by the goalers or heads of clans. It is a multi-ethnic, multicultural, multi-lingual, and multi-religious state founded on justice, equality and respect for human dignity and advancement of human right and fundamental freedoms.

1.5.2 Bio-Physical Environnent WBGS comprises all lands and areas that were under the administration of the former district of Wau of the former Bahr el Ghazal province that now constitute Western Bahr El Ghazal State, as their boundaries stood on January 1, 1956. WBG State is hilly with several rivers and perennial streams draining from the Nile-Congo watershed and other sources. The most prominent is the Bahr el Ghazal River, which drains to the Nile River. Its climate is tropical and is characterized by an average annual rainfall of 1,000 mm resulting in high humidity during the six months heavy rains ( May- October ) and temperatures 18-40 degree Celsius.. It ranges from arid to tropical wet-and-dry in the far southwest. Temperatures do vary with the season. 17


The rainfall also varies according to the length of the predominant air flows; the dry northeasterly winds from the Arabian Peninsula and the southwesterly winds from the Congo River basin. From November to April, the state has a dry season influenced by the dry northeasterlies. Vegetation is thick forest to wooded grassland. Subsistence shifting agriculture and pastoralism are the major sources of the livelihood for the majority of the people. Main crops are sorghum, maize, cassava, groundnuts, and simsim. People also keep few goats, sheep, and cattle. One of the major sources of income for the State was Wau Agro - Industry Plant, but the plant had been totally destroyed in war time. WBGS has both sandy, clay and laterite soils. They underlie the extensive moist woodlands. Crop production is scattered, and the soils, where cultivated, lose fertility relatively quickly under the common shifting cultivation practice.

1.5.3 Political Environment Western Bahr el Ghazal State government was formed along with the other nine States in the latter half of 2005. The State was carved from the greater Bahr el Ghazal region, which consisted of the current Lakes, Warrap and Northern Bahr el Ghazal states. It has three counties (Wau, Raja and Jur River) and 60 bomas. The civil war period in the 1990s and the need to protect the Wau-Khartoum rail led to bitter fighting between the Government of Sudan (GoS) and allied forces including the Mara heel on the one side and the SPLM/A on the other. This witnessed mass population displacement into IDP camps in west and north Sudan in the 1990s. In the process children and women were abducted into slavery, livestock and food was looted and assets belonging to villages along the railway line were destroyed. These events, compounded by drought generated huge IDP populations. Following a return of peace, many displaced are voluntarily returning necessitating the need to provide material and social services (particularly water).

1.5.4 Population and Livelihood WBG state is in a moderate to densely populated region. It is inhabited by 19 ethnic groups and clans: Keresh, Yulu, Foroge, Banda, Binga Kara, Balanda, Indri, Biogo, Azande, Golo, Mangayat, Bai, Bongo, Shere, Ndogo, the Luo (Udici and Kuajiena areas) and the Dinka (Marial Wau area). The Joluo who are part of Luo tribe are mostly found in Wau county, Wau North, Alelthony, Barwoul, Gaite Bar urood Udici, Kangi, Baryar,Dhe-kou, Wau South, Pambili, Kuarjieno, Waadlyiela, Aya, Mapel and Rocrocdong payams to the north respectively. Meanwhile the Jo Luo Bori ethnic group, or Pa-Bor who are actually part of the larger Luo Ethnic group of Western Bahr el Ghazal are found in Wau east in villages of RaffiI, Tirga, Bazia, Ayo, Gitten and Taban while JoluoThuri who are also part of Luo tribe are mostly found in Wau West in Raja and Deim Zubeir and other remotes areas respectively. Balanda tribe occupy most of the Wau, Bussere, Deim Zubeir, Bazia and Raja County respectively. Zande who are commonly found in Wau West, Bazia, Raja, Kalim, Getan Duniaka respectively. 18


Mboro who are leading a nomadic way are mostly found in Wau West Bussere, Bazia, Raja, Duniaka, Deim Zubeir. The Baai who are related to Balanda bviri are settled in Wau east, Rafili, Bazia ,Sopo, Kitongo, Raja and other places to the west. Gollo are found in Wau west, Deim zubeir, Raja and other remote areas in Western Bahr el Ghazal state. The Bongo people are along the main road from Wau to Raja and others in nearby villages. The Dinka who are mostly cattle keepers are found in Wau, Marialbai, Tharqueng, Marialajieth and other remote villages. The Sudanic (Fertit) occupy the western part of Western Bahr el Ghazal state. The exact population of WBG is not known as the insecurity has displaced the citizens internally and to the neighboring countries. However, the population in the accessible areas is estimated at about 400,000. This is expected to increase to over 500,000 after returnees. It is an area of swamps and ironstone plateaus, where livelihood is subsistence farming and cattle herding. It is subjected to frequent raids by Arab nomads from Darfur. The annual livelihood activity calendar is shown in Table 1. A substantial, but decreasing fraction of population is internally displaced or are refugees in neighboring countries. Table 1: Livelihood Calendar Farm activity Land clearing Planting Weeding Harvesting Threshing and storage Sales of 1 grain Purchase of grain Sale of livestock Purchase of livestock Fishing

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

June

July

Aug

Sept

Oct

Nov

Dec

M/F M/F M/F F M/F M/F M M M

Collection of wild Foods Hunting (honey) Movement to lowlands (toic) for fishing Movement to highlands from fishing

F

M M

M

Source: WBGS Strategic Plan

1

Male/ female M/F

Purchases and sales are separated because in many cases they are done either by the males or females

19


1.5.5 Governance System The CPA outlines the broad vision for a federal and decentralized reform to governance and creation of new institutions in southern Sudan. The 10 states of southern Sudan are autonomous units of governance and have their own constitution. Counties are the second tier of governance in each state. Payams and Bomas are administrative units within counties. Western Bahr el Ghazal state is divided into three counties; Wau, Raga and Jur River Counties. It is a multiethnic, multi-cultural, multi-lingual, and multi-religious state founded on justice, equality and respect for human dignity and advancement of human right and fundamental freedoms. This governance system needs a significant capacity building at all levels of government to allow for effective decentralization and equitable resource allocation. The state has governor, deputy governor and eight appointed cabinet ministers. There are also appointed advisors to the state government. The offices of the governor and the ministries have yet to develop functional administrative and management units with professional staff Source of legislation in the State are the state constitution, customs and values of the people, popular consensus, Interim Constitution of Southern Sudan, Interim National Constitution and other sources that conform to morality and public order. The signing of the CPA on 9th January 2005 in Naivasha, Kenya, the installation of the Government of National Unity (GONU) in Khartoum, the formation of the Government of the Southern Sudan in Juba (GOSS) and the adoption of the Interim Constitution of the Southern Sudan (ICSS) in 2005, have paved a way for the introduction and adoption of a decentralized system of governance in Southern Sudan with the following levels; 

The Government of the Republic of South Sudan (RoSS), which exercises authority in respect of the people and states in Southern Sudan.

The State level of Government, which exercises authority within the state and render public service through the level closest to the people.

The Local Government level within the state is the closest level to the people and consists of County, Payam and Boma in rural areas and City, Municipal and Town Council in the urban areas. All indigenous languages of the state are national languages. However, English and Arabic are the official languages at all levels of the government of the state. The Governance in the State promotes democratic principles and political pluralism, and is guided by the principles of decentralization and devolution of power to the people.

1.5.6 State Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Irrigation (SMoAF&I) Agriculture Agricultural food production is an important preoccupation of the population and the State. Land is still a communal asset and agricultural production is largely subsistence although good surplus production is available for sale. Besides, the government is embarking on the development of State farms through extensive mechanized farming. The Ministry has four sub sectors; agriculture, forestry, livestock development and fisheries. Issues and challenges as stated in the State strategic plan  Inadequate capacity  Inadequate production inputs (drugs, seeds, tools, equipment). 20


     

Inaccessibility to agricultural land High incidence of pests and diseases Natural disasters (floods and droughts) Deforestation Lack of coordination among the partners Poor marketing system

Priority needs as per the state strategic plan  Increase food production through agricultural inputs (tools and seeds)  Increase in fishing inputs and livestock vaccination  Encourage communities to participate in own contribution to households food economy.  Land mines clearance so as to increase access to land and pasture in rural areas.  Introducing paddle grassing system so as to avoid animals destroying farms. Or else the government should come up with policies the pastoralists have to stay far until farmers finish their harvesting

1.5.7 The FSTP Target group The main target groups of the proposed intervention live in areas within the Ironstone plateau livelihood zone. Of the two counties targeted agriculture is the main livelihood in Wau County, while agro-pastoralism is mainly practiced in Jur River County. Although the rural communities in Wau County are predominantly sedentary farmers, the urban populations in Wau town and its suburbs have a sizeable number of returnees and IDPs. Western Bahr el Ghazal State ranks 3rd highest in terms of number of returnees from Sudan (17,000) and it are estimated that about 4% of the households in the state host either IDPs or returnees. Returnees have had to make drastic livelihoods changes for food and income sources while IDPs mainly depend on limited quantities of food aid, some of which they sell to earn a small income. Both groups are highly vulnerable with many of them involved in petty businesses, menial jobs and daily labor activities to earn meager incomes for survival. In Jur River County, in addition to crop farming, the communities also own some livestock, of which most of the cattle are kept with neighboring Dinka tribes. As the county with the least developed agricultural production in WBS, the communities normally supplement their household food and income during the lean/hunger gap period with income from livestock trade. Grains are either obtained with money earned from selling livestock or by direct exchange of livestock (especially goats) for grains. Therefore, livestock-grains term of trade is an important economic factor in this area.

21


Cultural activities are highly valued among the Luo of Jur County. People can spend a whole afternoon and night dancing with their traditional regalia. Even the disabled can participate.

1.6 Explanation and justification of the methods used, scope and limitations of the Baseline survey The Baseline survey included site visits to consult with the relevant field personnel and project stakeholders, and to collect information in accordance with the requirements stipulated in the Baseline survey work plan. This mission took two weeks in duration. All relevant field personnel were briefed on arrival and before departure from the field. Two day training was conducted for 20 research assistants. The data collectors were drawn from partner staff and second and third year students from Catholic University of South Sudan, Faculty of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences in Wau. All the data collectors were awarded a certificate of participation at the end of the exercise as an indicator that they acquired the skills. 1.6.1 Sampling Since there was no detailed beneficiaries list at the time of the survey, and the population is scattered and vulnerability level of targeted beneficiaries is heterogeneous, the consultant used two stage clusters sampling in the two counties and four payams where the project is planned to cover. Seven villages (bomas) were purposively selected from the four payams and then 40-45 households were randomly sampled from a list of households in each boma. In this case a minimum sample size for <= 1,500 was 300. Since there were more people in Wau County, a total of 180 households were sampled based on the proportion of population and a total of 120 households were also sampled from Jur River County based on the proportion of the population.

22


Table 2: Sampled households County

Payams

Bomas

Partners

Status of Community

Number of HH sampled

Wau County (Urban and peri-urban)

Wau North

Bilpham

DORCAS

IDPs

45

Agok

DORCAS

People living with Leprosy

45

Aweil Jedid

ECS/CARD

Returnees

45

Masna

ECS/CARD

Residents

45

Wau South Total Jur River (Rural)

Total

180 County

Gete-Udichi

Gete

DORCAS

Residents

40

Kangi

Kangi

CAD &ECS/CARD

Residents

40

Zagalona/Alelchok

DORCAS

IDPs/returnees

40

4

7

120

1.6.2 Field work 1 Administering questionnaires Two teams of 20 research assistants were deployed in the two counties to collect household data from sampled households for results 1, 2 and 3. Each team was supervised by one of the two consultants. The household food insecurity access scale (HFIAS) and household dietary diversity score (DDS) questionnaires was adapted through a review process by the informants, who were familiar with the conditions and experiences of household food insecurity (access) in the areas where the survey was conducted. These included partner staff, government officials, prominent community members, academics, and other knowledgeable individuals. The questionnaires were then pre-tested on 20 individuals that were representative of survey population but not part of the survey sample. Care was taken to standardize local units of measurements for various commodities and items during the pretesting of the questionnaire. In addition to the HFIAS and DDS questionnaires, a separate set of questions was prepared to capture information on the indicators in the project log frame at objective and result levels. The exercise took place just around the lean period or so called hunger gapâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;a perfect timing to establish vulnerabilities related to food availability and access, as this is the time (June-August) when most people have used up own food stocks/reserves, have planted but first harvests are not yet ready and people resort either to coping and/or alternative means e.g. sale of livestock and household items, etc.

23


2 Key informant interviews As much as possible key informant interviews in the two counties were conducted by the consultants using the semi-structured interview guide notes developed during the training. These included extension workers, farmer group leaders, partners (CAD, ECS-CARD and DORCAS), local NGOs/CBOs like OXFAM, WOTAP, FAO, local government authorities at county, payam and boma levels (Executive Directors of Wau and Jur River Counties, two county agriculture directors, DG state ministry of agriculture, director of planning, state minister of agriculture, representative in the ministry, Director of SSRRC Wau, and county extension workers of Jur River and Wau) taking note of gender representations in all these (see annex7 for list of people consulted/interviewed). A trend analysis was conducted to assess the external operating environment in which ICCO and its partners are working or will be working, how that environment is changing and the implications on their work. 3 Focus group discussions The trained researchers conducted FGDs with some selected groups of farmers, marketing committees, widows/women groups, ex-combatants, the physically challenged, and the jobless, especially youth, some lead/model farmers, IDPs and returnees in the sampled bomas. This helped to explore issues in more detail as part of the research on why certain things are happening or to understand change. Some PRA tools were used to help the communities to overtly analyze issues and to translate their analysis into a format that the researchers can understand. These may include calendars, ranking, mapping, etc. 4 Market price survey The market survey tool was used to collect information on price stability, supply and demand of goods and services, viability of cash-based interventions and availability and access to food in the selected four payams areas of Gete-Udici, Kangi, and Wau suburban (south and north). In relation to food access in these areas the consultants have noted that livestock also plays a role in incomes and therefore it was important to consider the terms of trade: Livestock to the major staples like sorghum. The focus was on commodity networks, market linkages and the price trends in these areas. An attempt was made to look at the market structures, conduct, and performance of different market tiers at village, Boma, Payam and County levels. 5. Beneficiary selection Criteria Diagnostic sessions were done on nutrition and market access issues during FGD. Beneficiary selection will be based on the baseline questionnaire. The selection criteria will be developed using the results of the baseline questionnaire. This will provide information on various vulnerability levels/forms, and also it will serve to gauge the interest of potential beneficiaries in proposed activities. The students/partners will benefit from collection, entry, organization and analysis of this data to select beneficiaries with guidance from the Consultants.

24


1.7 Analysis of the gathered information/data and presentation of the findings Data Analysis Quantitative data from questionnaires was entered into SPSS and processed to generate frequencies for the variables. Qualitative data was analyzed using qualitative data analysis techniques. Draft and final Baseline Survey Report The Consultant prepared and submitted a draft Baseline survey report for review by ICCO and partners within (2) weeks of returning from mission and this was in soft copy. Within one (1) week of receiving comments from ICCO and FSTP partnersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; comments on the draft report, the Consultant revised and submitted Twelve (12) copies in hard copy format of final Baseline survey report including a Baseline survey abstract/executive summary.

The stakeholders that attended the debriefing session at the end of the field data collection

25


2.0 Findings of the Baseline Survey 2.1 Current status of the four result areas The FSTP has four results areas: Result 1: Increased production of staple crops among rural target groups. CAD: Kangi Payam (Ajugo and Kangi bomas). Farmers groups include animal ploughing; (400 HH) ECS/CARD: Gete, Ajugo and Kangi bomas (660 HH) include ox ploughing DORCAS: Gete (330 HH) include ox ploughing Total 1390HHs Result 2: Increased agricultural diversification among target group IDP/returnee 650 HHs; Resident households 740, Total 1390 HHs in Wau and Jur River ECS/CARD and DORCAS Aid International Result 3: Improved marketing system in place in target areas DORCAS-led with partners Result 4: Increased capacity of Wau University, government departments and local NGOs to address food insecurity and climate threats ICCO-led Below we discuss the status of each of the four result areas at the time of the baseline survey.

2.1.1 Production of staple crops The baseline survey confirmed the need for these project interventions as spelt out in the project document. Rural poor and vulnerable target populations are unable to produce sufficient quantities to meet their nutritional needs. While the average land holding is 4 fedans, only an average of 2.4 is normally cultivated per household. The main reasons for non-cultivation of land are lack of tools; lack of labor, and lack of seeds. Table 3: Main reason why land is not cultivated Reason

Frequency

Percent

Lack of labor

2

57

30.6

Lack of seeds

48

25.8

Lack of tools to till the land

47

25.3

Lack of rain

12

6.5

Water logged soils

4

2.2

Lack of fertilizer

3

1.6

Fallow land

2

1.1

Others

9

4.8

Total

186

100

2

The people in the household that are able and willing to dig are few in most cases of households.

26


The constraints and root causes are linked to poor, ineffective and unsustainable farming practices and focus on monoculture. Specific problem areas in this respect are: 1) insufficient technical know-how, poor access to improved technologies (only 12% of the farmers use improved seeds and planting materials for most of the staple foods) 2) poor access to resources such as land, quality agricultural inputs, business development services (BDS) and financial sources, and 3) insufficient organization of farmers, all resulting in low productivity and production. These constraints are further exacerbated by dependency on climate (rain-fed agriculture) and vulnerability to natural hazards such as frequent drought or erratic rainfalls linked to climate change that result in water logging and/or floods. According to the survey findings, only 2% of the farmers owned a plough; 67% owned a hoe; 5.7% owned a cultivator; 20% owned a rake; 3% owned a wheel barrow; 3% owned a shovel; 9% owned a pick axe; 48% owned an axe; 3% owned a cart. In addition, as a result of inter and intra state conflicts3 essential knowledge about agricultural practices has disappeared and productive assets were destroyed, severely affecting livelihoods in the area. Insecurity, strife and poor governance, handicapping effective and inclusive policies, further add to the problem. Most of the people in the two counties have stayed long in the IDP camps in the North, and long period of relief hand-outs most likely has affected the culture of food production in the state. Target populations lack coping mechanisms such as cereal banks or storage facilities to ensure food availability in case of shortage. In spite of their key roles in ensuring food security at household level (sourcing of input, production, marketing, processing, storage, etc.), the space for participation of women in production and decision-making around food security for the family is very limited. Sorghum, groundnut and maize are the most produced crops in the target rural area but agricultural yields and quality are extremely low and hardly sufficient to feed a household, especially the poorest and most vulnerable ones. In the season before the survey, the average household production of maize was 75 kg; sorghum was 106 kg; beans were 24kg; cow peas were 33 kg and groundnuts was 269 kg. Most farmers use very rudimentary agricultural techniques and many farmers lack even the most basic agricultural tools such as hoes and picks. There is a huge lack of knowledge about more efficient production methods, like mixed cropping, soil-moisture conservation techniques and ox-ploughing4. Besides, households are focused on their own immediate needs and donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t produce for the external market. The cultivated areas are therefore limited and there is no substantial surplus in the target areas. The farmers are subsequently very vulnerable to external shocks. In case of unpredicted adverse weather conditions, which increasingly occurred during the last years, their cultivated area will not be sufficient to even feed their own households during the hunger period in which case they have to resort to sell off part of their livestock to overcome this period. Formerly the local varieties of sorghum (major staple food) were well adapted to the environment but nowadays the long 3

Part of these conflicts emerges due to returnees that have difficulty in claiming (back) their original land. Many people are returnees or IDPs who are not familiar with the production of local crop varieties. Many were not even farmers before they came to this area. 4

27


variety often produces less than usual or even fails completely due to prolonged dry spells in the rainy season. Only 15.7% of the households had a vegetable garden. Of those who have a vegetable garden, 76.7% said they own it while 19% said it belonged to the community. In terms of access to water, only 11.5% had access to water. Of those who had access, only 40% had access to perennial water source and 53% had it within 0.5 km. Table 4: Production of non- staple food crops by household Food crop

Percent of HH producing the crop

Average household production in previous season

Tomatoes(Kg)

77.3

143.6

Carrots (Kgs)

0

0

Cucumber (Kgs)

33.3

20

Onion/Shallot(Kgs)

42.9

30

Cowpeas (Kg)

71.4

10.4

Ground nuts (Kg)

97.9

202.7

Okra (Kg)

98.2

51.4

Irish Potato(Kg)

0

0

Sweet potato(Kg)

33.3

0

Pumpkins/squash(Heads)

98.1

42.8

Rape (Bundles)

0

0

Peas(Kg)

20

0

Beans(Kg)

87.9

15.6

Spinach (bundles)

0

0

Butternut (Kg)

20

0

Pawpaw (Kg)

42.9

2

Banana (Kg)

20

15

Cassava (Kg)

42.9

25

Avocado (Kg)

0

0

Orange/Lemon (Kg)

50

38

Source: Baseline Survey 2012

28


The rains started satisfactorily in May and continued intermittently even during the survey period. Rainfall from August onwards was generally good to very good, and best in the west. There was, however, considerable local variation in rainfall distribution. Sorghum varieties in WBGS are mostly tall and of long maturation (up to >200 days). Crops that were well established during the first rains should give a reasonable harvest in December and January. Later plantings from late July and early August will probably also give good returns if the rain continues. Cassava is most plentiful in the west, both bitter (up to 3 years maturation) and sweet (about one-year maturation) varieties are grown, mostly in mixtures to give continuity of production. Production this year is as usual. Constraints include shortage of planting material and ubiquitous infection with cassava mosaic. Groundnut production is satisfactory this year, especially on lighter soils, no significant disease problems were reported. There are also several small household patches of Bambara nut which are doing very well in Gete-Udici Payam. Sesame production is variable. Crops sown in May at the beginning of the rains were being harvested at the time of the survey, while those sown later at the end of July and the beginning of August are expected to give a good harvest as well. Sorghum is affected by stem-borer, but levels are similar to those of other years. Smut is present at low levels. Striga is very common, especially in Raja and was observed in Wau County during this survey. Most cassava is infected with cassava mosaic; it appears to be especially serious in Raja, where the crop is most plentiful. FAO provided seed and hand-tools for distribution to farmers through Peace Corps in 2011. Intermon Oxfam has also been active, with EU finance, in providing seeds (cereals, vegetables and cassava planting material), tools, fishing gear, goats, ox ploughs and bee-keeping equipment in Wau County. In addition, WBGS is recorded as having a high ratio of cattle per head of population - 3.5:1, compared with 1.3:1 for the whole of South Sudan and 1.9:1 for NBGS. However, these numbers refer to cattle brought in seasonally (from June to November) from South Darfur, NBGS, Warrap State and Central African Republic. The indigenous households of WBGS are not predominantly cattle-owners, especially those in Wau County. The condition of cattle and goats is currently very good and pasture and water are generally plentiful. Vaccines are often reported to be in short supply. WBGS has a high percentage (15%) severely food insecure people as compared to a country average of 10.6%. In total, WBGS has high numbers of vulnerable groups. Causes of food insecurity are attributed to a combination of structural effects (such as low productivity and income, low human capital, poor market integration, the burden of waterborne diseases) exacerbated by exposure to multiple shocks (such as high food prices especially during the hunger gap period in and around September). The table below proves that the project has chosen the right target group.

29


Table 5: Food security status in the project location August 2012 (baseline)

State

WBGS Wau and Jur River County project areas

Projected population (2012)

394,360

-

% rural population

57%

-

Projected rural population (2012)

225,294

-

%

%

severely food insecure

moderately food insecure

15.0%

38%

-

46%

21

42

23

14

% Mildly food insecure

% food secure

Source: FSTP Baseline Survey August 2012-09-08

A severely food insecure household is one that has graduated to cutting back on meal size or number of meals often and or experiences any of the three most severe conditions (running out of food, going to bed hungry, or going a whole day and night without eating), even as frequently as rarelyâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;any household that experiences one of these three conditions even once in the last four weeks is considered severely food insecure. According to this survey, 83.7% had no food in stock in the past one month before the survey; 82% slept hungry; and 80% spent a whole day without food. Up to 20.3% reported that they rarely had times when there was no food to be eaten; 21.2% reported they slept hungry rarely; and 25.4% reported they went the whole day and night without food rarely. Up to 72% of the households reported they had stock of food that could not last for more than a fortnight; and only 5% had stock that could last for more than 4 months. The average number of months where there was not enough food (hunger gap) is 3. Food storage is an important aspect that will need attention as well as marketing of products. A moderately insecure household sacrifices quality more frequently by eating a monotonous diet or undesirable foods sometimes or often, and/or has started to cut back on quantity by reducing size of meals or number of meals rarely or sometimes. But such a household does not experience any of the three severe conditions (running out of food, going to bed hungry, or going a whole day and night without eating). According to this survey finding, 41.7% reported having eaten sometimes the food they did not want to eat; and the same percentage reported often eating the food they did not want to eat. A mildly food insecure (access) household worries about not having enough food sometimes or often, and/or is unable to eat preferred foods, and/or eats a more monotonous diet than desired and/or some foods considered undesirable, but only rarely. But it does not cut back on quantity nor experience any of the three most severe conditions (running out of food, going to bed hungry, or going a whole day and night without eating). According to our survey, only 20.6% of respondents were rarely unable to eat preferred food. A food secure household experiences none of the food insecurity (access) conditions, or just experiences worry, but rarely. According to our survey, only 12% said they did worry about food and of those that worry, only 14% said they did so rarely.

30


2.1.2 Agricultural Diversification Vulnerable communities are unable to purchase food, due to poverty, limited livelihood options and lack of savings culture. Even if households dispose of some small income, food is either not available in the local markets, or access to markets is hampered by factors such as distance, poor infrastructures (roads and communications) and dysfunctional markets. Market imperfections also limit their ability to sell agricultural surplus, if any, and consequently to earn an income that would permit them to buy (more diversified) food items. Sale of surplus is also commonly affected by cultural belief that those who sell food are considered as people who can cause hunger in homes. So this makes it difficult for some people to sell the surplus food they have.

Food diversity includes vegetables and other cereals like maize, apart from sorghum that is the main staple.

Because of smallholdersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; focus on staple crops as the main food component, the diet is not diversified. There is limited knowledge on and awareness of nutrition and sanitation, resulting in malnutrition and other health-related problems. Over 72% of the farmers had no access to fruit trees like mangoes, oranges, lemon, pawpaw and guava. According to the findings of the survey, the food items/groups that household members had eaten the day before the survey (in the last 24 hours) during the day and night was analyzed to determine the dietary diversity.

31


Table 6: Household dietary diversity Food category

Percent of hh

A

Cereals (maize porridge, rice, sorghum, millet pasta, bread, or other)

76

B

Roots and Tubers (cassava, potatoes, sweet potatoes or other)

7.7

C

Pulses/ legumes/nuts (beans, peas, groundnuts, simsim, or other)

46

D

Vegetables and leaves

73.6

E

Fruit

9

F

Meat, poultry, offal (beef, goat, lamb, poultry)

24

G

Fish and sea food

9.3

H

Milk/dairy products (milk, yogurt, cheese or other)

9.3

I

Eggs

3

J

sugar, sugar products, honey

27

K

oil/fats (oil, fat or butter)

20.7

L

Condiments (spices, tea, coffee) or other miscellaneous food

22.7

Source: Baseline Survey 2012

The average household dietary diversity is 27. That means only 27% of the households are able to diversify their foods. Agriculture is still the main source of livelihood for 51% of the respondents. Only 5.7% earn their incomes from livestock, 10% from trading, 6% from casual labor in agriculture; 4% from other casual labor and 14% from civil service/other employment. It was however learnt that crop farming communities had a system of keeping their livestock with cattle keeping communities outside the state. The average weekly household income is 70 SSP. Over 65% reported that their income had declined over the past month before the survey; while only 8% reported an increase. Food takes 55% of the household income. By the time of the survey, 35% of the respondents were in debt. The nature of the debt varied with 72% being cash and 91% being in form of sorghum that was borrowed.

2.1.3 Marketing Systems Farmers normally sell their produce in the local market centers along the major roads that are at the payam headquarters. Given the vastness of the payams and the numerous villages, coupled with lack of transport means, most farmers carry their produce on their heads and walk the long distance to the market. It is common to see many farmers first having to sit down and rest before spreading their goods on the road side. There is no organized market place in the rural payams. Months of maximum trade are January to April. Months of minimum trade are August to December. 32


Vendors in Kangi Market center display their merchandise on the road side.

Non-agricultural products are sold by traders in makeshift shops. All agricultural outputs are sold locally. There is no distinction between cash and food crops as the latter is sold to get some money to buy non-food items. All commodity prices are higher this year than at the same time last year. Prices are normally lower during the hunger gap as people lack resources to purchase food although traders normally have the capacity to respond to any increase in demand. One reason for this is the closure of the border by Sudan. Consequently less food is coming in from the north. On the other hand prices have eased since a peak in September, indicating an easing of the border restrictions and/or more smuggling. Terms of trade have not altered significantly, with livestock prices rising roughly in concert with crop prices. Table 7: Price trends for key livestock Animal

SSP, October 2010

SSP, October 2011

SSP, August 2012

Medium-sized bull

1200

1500

2000

Cow

800

1200

1500

Sheep (ram)

300

450

500

Goat in Wau County

70

175

150-500

Goat in Jur River County

100-150

200-300

80-190

Bartered cow

-

-

200 kg of grain

Chicken in Jur River County

-

-

10-35

Source: baseline Survey 2012.

33


Table 8: Prices of key food crops Crop

Unit of measure

Kangi

Gete

Zagalona/Alelcok

Wau

Bilpharm Jadit

Aweil Jadit

maize

kg

15

20

12

-

-

-

Maize flour

kg

-

-

8

-

Okra

bundle

1

1

1

1

1

1

Groundnuts

Kg

4

10

16

-

4

-

Unshelled gnuts

heap

-

-

1

1-2

-

-

Hard nuts

kg

-

25

-

-

-

-

Beans

Kg

10

20

4

-

-

-

Yam

bundle

1

-

-

-

-

-

Sweet potatoes

heap

-

-

-

2-5

-

-

Sorghum seeds

Kg

25

25

16

-

-

-

Sorghum flour

kg

-

-

-

20

6

2

simsim

kg

20

20

-

-

-

-

Water melon

head

-

-

-

6

-

-

Source: market survey. Please note that the blank spaces meant no data meaning either the commodity was not available in the market at the time of the survey or like in Kangi, it is not sold in the markets.

2.2 Capacity of partners to address food insecurity and climate threats The causes of food insecurity are well known in the project areas. The planned activities can improve food security if successfully implemented and monitored by the partners and other stakeholders. This calls for skills in monitoring and evaluation. The project has planned to train partners in M&E. The project has also planned training for farmer and women groups. There will be a need to conduct organizational assessment of all the partners and the targeted CBOs and develop capacity development plan. In the absence of organization assessment (OA) report, it was difficult to determine the capacity of partners to address food insecurity. However, the project proposal gave a brief outline of the capacity of the partner organizations and these organizations were approved by EU. There is a need to build capacity so that the partners are better positioned to address issues of food insecurity. The OA will provide the baseline status of the capacity of partners and capacity development indicators will be developed with a score card as the monitoring tool. The score card will be self administered by the partners and ICCO 34


will review this annually for the consortium partners while the consortium partners review annually the capacity of the farmer groups in partnership with the local extension workers of government.

2.3 Affordability and feasibility of an appropriate inputs cost recovery system for the target groups of the project. Cost sharing and recovery aims to reduce the dependency of target groups on external sources of assistance and encourage households to take charge of their destiny. The project consortium highlights the principle of building capacity of target groups to gain self-sufficiency before the project comes to an end. Cost recovery is built into all the four results of the project where cost recovery mechanisms are introduced to encourage and motivate beneficiaries to be economically active and independent. The most common response to the issue of input cost recovery was that it was feasible, considering that it was already being done by FAO. According to the Food Security Coordinator of WOTAP which is currently implementing a Year project funded by FAO, recovery of seed has not been problematic. Stakeholders viewed input cost recovery as a way of making farmers less dependent on aid. However, there were some concerns, namely:  The project is targeting poor people, who might not be able to pay back. The project target being vulnerable households like those that lack productive assets like land and or livestock has implications on their ability to pay back, yet they are the most food insecure. Selection criteria should therefore include access to productive assets, whether owned, borrowed or leased.  Recovery of seeds is not as difficult as recovery of the cost of tools & equipment which are more expensive. Although the project intends to recover only 20% of the cost of tools, there are implications on the marketability of agricultural products promoted by the project, as beneficiaries will need cash, as opposed to recovery of seed which can be in kind. The project could first test recovery using seeds as people get used to it and then introduce recovery on tools.  Crop failure due to drought or floods and reducing soil fertility. This has implications on the mitigation measures like soil and water management structures to reduce the effects of droughts and or floods, as well as the use of manures to improve fertility.  Limited farm land, especially among the peri- urban displaced communities. This has implications on the type of agricultural activities to promote among the displaced communities in and around Wau town. It was however noted in Aweil Jadit, one of the areas hosting displaced communities that although people had small plots in the periurban community, some had access to larger pieces of land outside town where they could farm. The project could target such households as well. Suggestions for successful implementation of this strategy included the following:  

Cost recovery will need a lot of sensitization. Front line workers should understand the process very well before going out to introduce the idea on the farmers The process of selecting and mobilizing farmers and farmer groups with capacity and interest in the project and good leadership 35


    

It is important to get the commitment of local leaders (e.g. chiefs), for the system to be acceptable in the communities. This was echoed in Kangi payam. Types of crops grown should be profitable to enable farmers pay back Marketability of the produce is important for one to get cash for paying back. The management of the project by the partners, including timely delivery of inputs to farmers and a strong monitoring system are crucial to farmers’ ability to pay back It is important for the project to avail water for production and fertilizer to guard against crop loss.

2.4 Options for storage methods and facilities for perishable produce It was noted that the current production of vegetables and fruits is still low to necessitate prolonged storage. Reasons for limited production were limited tools for tillage and lack of water for irrigation. Suggested options for storage methods include: 

Spreading the fresh produce in a shady place (e.g. house) on the ground, to keep it aerated

Covering the produce with grass in a cool place until time for marketing

Transporting it in containers with adequate ventilation e.g. cartons

Washing the produce after harvest to avoid rotting

Selling off the produce as soon as possible after harvest to avoid rotting

2.5 Cultural appropriateness and how best to improve animal-ploughing in the target area Most respondents indicated that there was no cultural barrier to using oxen for ploughing, as this has already been done by OXFAM, which has so far trained farmers and 50 oxen. The Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Irrigation also has trained staff in the technology who can assist in the farmer training. Some concerns raised about ox ploughing however included: The view of some stakeholders that pastoralists might not be willing to use the oxen as they think this would be a punishment to the animals. However, it was also noted that some agropastoralists in Jur River County were already using the technology. Type of plough supplied is of concern, as previous experience of OXFAM with heavy ploughs was inappropriate for the nature of the soil and the woody environment that does not allow for easy maneuvering. The effort of removing trees is prohibitive before ploughing the land, as trees make it hard to maneuver the oxen and ploughs

36


Some crop farmers who own more land do not have livestock, which would necessitate supplying oxen as well Difficulty of keeping the oxen from roaming in other peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s crop fields which would lead to conflict. This may call for zero grazing units for the oxen in order not to let them wander around. This needs to be discussed with the elders.

Proposals for successful implementation: There is need to provide oxen to the crop farmers who do not have cattle. However, it is also possible to have them rent an ox and an ox plough at 150ssp for a fedan, instead of buying oxen. Whatever the case, the oxen have to be restricted in these areas to avoid crop damage. Setting up a demonstration farm where farmers can come and learn more about the technology, but with conditions attached. Only those that can participate in the demo garden who are motivated to train others and participate actively will have to be selected.

Animal ploughing could be promoted in the Dhe-Beehr area where there are fewer trees Provide donkey ploughs as donkeys are easier to keep, since they can feed on anything. However, it was noted that donkeys do not have a divided hoof and cannot turn fast in muddy ground. Some youth could be organized and supported to start a rent an ox with plough instead of providing too many beneficiaries with animals

Ensure that the farmer groups take the responsibility of taking care of the oxen. This will be applicable only to those few who are made responsible for the plouhing teams.

Help farmers to remove trees from the fields to make the ploughing easier.

2.6 How best the project can have effective and inclusive participation of stakeholders, partners and others to ensure inclusive participation in a Project Steering Committee (PSC) Some concerns for participation of stakeholders were mainly about the inadequate government staff in local governments, as there are no extension officers at Payam level in both counties. This was attributed to lack of funds, the current government austerity measures including a freeze on recruitment and poor facilities at payam level. It was however noted that trained personnel were increasing as the university is training technical people. In addition, administrative structures are in place, up to Boma level. 37


While farmers in some bomas were willing to form groups to participate in the project, it was apparent that farmers in Agok, Masna and Bilpham were reluctant to work in groups. This could be attributed to the transient nature of the communities. Ways of stakeholder participation suggested include the following:   

 

 

Carrying out an organizational scan for benchmarking of partners. Providing transport for extension workers in the counties to work with project implementers for sustainability of the project. Farmer group committees and the partners should work together to make the project work. The chief can mobilize the people and the committee members can help the farmers to make sure the project succeed. The PSC should be able to listen to farmers’ ideas and challenges they are facing in order to improve implementation. The PSC should have farmer representation, community leaders and government officials as this will ease flow of information and effectiveness of the implementing agencies. Having a PSC will help the community to separate NGOs that claim they are working and are not being monitored. Training farmers in groups but supporting them to work on their individual farms

2.7 Project processes actions and deliverables which can potentially exacerbate the existing conflict in the project area. Stakeholders were of the view that there were no activities that could worsen the existing conflict between Sudan and S. Sudan. Rather than exacerbate the conflict, there was concern that border conflicts could affect the flow of project resources. On the other hand, the conflict was viewed as an opportunity for farmers in the state to work harder to overcome food shortage due to the closure of the boarder. Internal conflicts were noted among the Dinka and Luo in Jur River County concerning the grazing of animals. As farmers in the project expand their acreage and grow more crops, they will want to ensure that their crops are not destroyed by the Dinka animals. The Dinkas normally bring their animals to the Luo land for grazing in the months when the Luo are about to harvest their crops and the animals end up destroying the crops. If this issue is not addressed, it may escalate the conflict.

2.8 Perceived needs and constraints in the target communities 

Farmers have limited knowledge and technology for modern farming. This could be attributed to the fact that there is no government extension staff at payam level, which affects farmers’ access to information and new technologies. There is a high infestation of tsetse fly and worms affect livestock, reducing farmers’ livelihood options. However, farmers cannot access the necessary veterinary services which are lacking in the payams. 38


    

There is a high infestation of crop pests and disease which is attributed to the limited access to agrochemicals. High weed infestation increases the work load of farmers. The rainfall patterns have changed and rains are now unreliable, coming as late as July, instead of April/ May. This has effects on the hunger period, increasing food insecurity. All focus group discussions with farmers revealed that famers lack adequate tools and seeds for growing enough food to take them throughout the year. In addition, there was also lack of improved seeds. It was noted that the seed distributed by development agencies sometimes fails to germinate. There is therefore need to test seed before it is supplied to farmers. During the dry period, cattle from the pastoral communities moves through the crop farming areas in search of grass and water, destroying crops. This is a source of conflict between the crop farmers and the pastoralists. There is need to develop a mechanism for solving these conflicts.

The soil fertility is declining, leading to reduced yields per unit area. However, there is currently a GOSS ban on fertilizer use. They need manure from the zero grazing units in which the oxen for ploughing can be stored.

Areas cultivated are small, with estimated average area cultivated at 0.5 acres per household. This means that farmers cannot produce adequate food for the whole year, making their households more vulnerable. In rural areas of South Sudan land is plentiful and there is no lack of land at all. Through more effort, farmers will be able to get access to more land and they need to be taught to farm bigger areas effectively.

There is a shortage of hired labor in rural communities, as most of the people in the village have gone to town. For example in Masna, the focus group revealed that most youth have gone to Wau town where they are employed by Chinese company which pays them better. This has implications on the amount of land that can be opened up for cultivation by each household.

There is only one rainy season and the staples produced are inadequate, including groundnuts, sorghum and maize, to last the whole year. There is very limited maize produced in the state. However, it was learnt that there are short term varieties of groundnuts and sorghum that can take people through the hunger gap. And the maize that is planted does not produce optimally due to bad soil preparation prior to planting.

There is also need for post harvest handling training, as some of the sorghum goes to waste because of poor storage facilities There is frequent flooding in the state, which affects crop yields

Nutrition 

People in the state lack basic foods for proper nutrition. Poor diet, consisting mostly of sorghum and okra, one meal per day, supplemented by meat and wild leaves. Gathering 39


and hunting has been disrupted by insecurity. There is dry fish in the dry season but milk is not sufficient. There is need for nutrition education Socio- economic and political challenges 

Large households among some communities, some with more than 10 wives and high number of children who cannot be cared for properly

Targeting women is problematic due to lack of decision making power and heavy work load and also due to the role the husband is playing in food security and the perceptions of a high number of men towards agriculture. Laxity of government, leaving food security issues to NGOs There are no established food markets in the payams, Wau is the only established one Many NGOs go to asses in communities and never return to help. Fear that town is expanding towards farmers’ fields, leading to eviction Sicknesses and diseases like pneumonia, unsafe drinking water, Lack of health facilities for women to deliver—The GOSS stopped the TBAs from assisting women with delivery. High water table, leading to sanitation related problems. This affects production

     

2.9 Monitoring and Evaluation The FSTP log frame has indicators for the overall objective, specific objectives and the four result areas. The consultant noted that some of the indicators are not one-dimensional. The consultant has therefore suggested modifications. Qualitative indicators will need to be assessed using scorecards. Besides, each individual partner is to prepare its own log frame that mirrors the FSTP one. However, there is need to develop an overall detailed monitoring, evaluation plan and reporting system for the project. This could be done during the M&E training planned to take place in the first two months of the project. The consultant subjected the framework into a results chain to establish the logic and adequacy of the interventions. The conclusion is that the planned activities are adequate to achieve the results and the results are adequate to achieve the planned outcomes/objectives. In table 9, the consultant has provided the baseline information based on the planned targets for each of the indicators of the log frame.

Table 9: Baseline and target numbers of Log-frame indicators Intervention Logic

Overall objective

To reduce the incidence of general and acute malnutrition among rural households in WBS

Objectively verifiable indicators of achievement

Baseline (2012)

Target (2015)

Prevalence of underweight children <5 (MDG FS indicator) as compared to the baseline

n/a

TBD

50% increase in the proportion of HHs with a balanced dietary diversity that meets their nutritional requirements during the hunger gap

27

41

40


Intervention Logic

Objectively verifiable indicators of achievement

Baseline (2012)

Target (2015)

To improve the food security and nutrition of particularly disadvantaged and marginalized groups in WBS

Reduction of the hunger gap period by 1 month after 3 years

3

2

Increase in number of meals per day during the hunger gap

1

TBD

Improvement in meal composition, food handling and preparation particularly FHHs

Use scorecard

TBD

Strategic planning process results updated with annual plans at various levels

0

TBD

Participation of State institutions(policy makingimplementation), local civil society and research institutions in this process

Use score card

TBD

Use scorecard

TBD

50% increase in cultivated acreage (fedans) for the main staple crops after 3years

1.5

2

Proportion of HHs with increased acreage (yr 2) as per baseline (Av. Acreage per HH)

2.37

4

25 % Increase in staple crops production per fedan at the end of yr 3

No data

TBD

Sorghum (kg) per household

116

145

Groundnuts (kg) per household

269

336

Maize (kg) per household

75

94

Proportion of HHs who have surplus for the market (to determine target)

13

TBD

75 % of beneficiaries applying skills in improved horticulture and poultry keeping

0

TBD

75 % targeted beneficiary households having earned income from poultry and vegetable sales

0

TBD

Key nutrition messages understood and safe practices on hygiene and food utilization are adopted by targeted households

0

TBD

75% of targeted farmers have access to market information after 3 yrs

0

TBD

Specific objective 1 Strengthened local institutions to better address food insecurity and climate threats

Specific objective 2

This specific objective focuses specifically on a capacity strengthening agenda However, the specific objective cuts through all result areas.

Result 1

Increased production of staple crops among rural target group CAD: Kangi Payam (Ajugo and Kangi bomas) Farmers groups include animal ploughing; (400 HH) ECS/CARD: Gete, Ajugo and Kangi bomas (660 HH) include ox ploughing DORCAS: Gete (330 HH) include ox ploughing Total 1390HHs Result 2

Increased agricultural diversification among target group IDP/returnee 650 HHs Resident HHs 740 HHs Total 1390 HHs in Wau and Jur River ECS/CARD and DORCAS

Result 3 Improved marketing system in place in target areas DORCAS-led with partners

Population and target group able to voice their right to FS in public hearings and consultations

At least an increase of 20% of products sold on markets after 3 years

TBD

20 % selling price increase after 3 years

TBD

41


Intervention Logic

Result 4

Increased capacity of Wau University, government departments and local NGOs to address food insecurity and climate threats ICCO-led

Objectively verifiable indicators of achievement

Baseline (2012)

Target (2015)

Sorghum

22

26

Maize

15

18

Groundnuts

10

12

Beans

11

13

Stakeholders fully operate marketing system after 3 years

0

TBD

Selected plans / initiatives resulting from capacity building have been realized

Use scorecard

TBD

Documented occasions when communities have voiced their concerns in front of GOVT and actions undertaken by officials

Use scorecard

TBD

Delivery of quality services to farmers following from research

Use scorecard

TBD

42


3.0 Conclusions Food security Nearly all targeted households (84%) are vulnerable in terms of food security and nutrition. Implication of this is that beneficiary selection should not be based on food insecurity, so other criteria should be used. In addition, the project interventions should initially aim at improving household food security and nutrition. At this stage, value addition is not necessary as households are still struggling with food security. Most households rely on sorghum as the staple food, so there is need to promote production of roots and tubers as they have more potential in terms of production per unit area and are important elements of ensuring food security. The use of hybrid seed is very low. Therefore the introduction of hybrid seed should not be a priority for improving food security and nutrition. The average acreage cultivated per household in very low (fedans). The use of ox ploughs is limited in most communities as most people are using hand held tools and implements. Since the project wants to increase the acreage per household, it is important to promote the use of draught animal power. Although the project plans to promote rearing of chicken, there is a challenge of limited access to veterinary services and drugs, which can affect the chicken flocks, especially with the deadly and quick spreading New Castle Disease (NCD). The promotion of kitchen gardens could start with urban areas where there are smaller plots and easy access to markets and better purchasing power. The growing of traditional vegetables should be encouraged in the rural areas, for improvement of diets. Recovery The input recovery should focus on seeds (in kind), through farmer groups. The recovery of cost of ox ploughs is not viable, considering the need for ensuring food security, rather than marketing of food crops. However, an MOU can be signed with the groups, so that recovery can be spread over a longer period. The sharing of ox- ploughs should take into consideration the need for clearing the land in time for timely planting, given the erratic nature of the rains. In this regard, the number of households sharing one plough should not be too big, at least 5 household per one plough and ox. Given that the average number of people per household who can work is 3, the labor implications for land opened up by ox ploughing, is limiting to the promotion of draught animal power. If more land is opened up, there will be labor crisis regarding planting, weeding and harvesting and post- harvest handling, especially for women, activities which will not be mechanized. It is the view of the consultants that the use of ox- cultivation should be selectively done with households that have adequate labor to carry out the post land preparation activities. This should be one of the selection criteria for beneficiary households in Kangi payam.

43


Food storage options The current production of perishable products does not warrant an intervention into storage methods and facilities. Even after the project interventions, it is unlikely that households will have excess perishable products that may require storage, considering the high need for diet diversity at household level. However, there is need to introduce simple storage methods of vegetables like blanching and drying for household use during the dry season. This is important for dietary diversity. In addition, for petty traders in marketing centers selling some vegetables and fruits, provision could be made for them to use simple ways of storage for foods that are not sold the same day, given the low purchasing power in the community. Cultural appropriateness of animal ploughing The use of animal ploughing does not contradict the cultural beliefs and practices among communities in the project area. Therefore introduction of ox ploughing is a welcome intervention. However, there will be a need for monitoring of the animals so that the oxen do not get eaten, as some may have the attitude that “who is thinking of working if we can eat meat for free”. Effective and inclusive participation of stakeholders At the moment, there are no terms of reference for the Project Steering Committee (PSC) and also no agreement has been reached on who should be on the PSC. Given that the project was approved in April 2012, it is not good practice to have it running for four months without this committee to provide guidance. As a result, some partners had already started activities without proper guidance, e.g. selection of beneficiaries without an agreed selection criteria. Given the diversity of stakeholders, ensuring effective and inclusive participation will remain a challenge to the project. One of the key stakeholders is the state government. Currently, the state government faces challenges of availability of qualified human resource, especially at the payam level. The second key category of stakeholders is the project local partners at the operational level. They also face similar challenges of inadequate skilled personnel. As of now, no capacity needs assessment of the partners has been undertaken. It should be noted that the project document stated that capacity building should be done in the inception phase, which is nearly ending at the end of September 2012. This activity should therefore be fast tracked to identify capacity gaps for preparation of capacity building plans. The international partners (ICCO and DORCAS) are currently seen as the “big brothers” who call the shots and make the final decision. There is therefore need for a change of attitude among the local and international partners, to foster equality in decision making. Even the smaller ones need to understand that they cannot survive without the two bigger brothers, that simply have more capacity in dealing with EU than the smaller ones. Of course it is the WAY how you present yourself. ICCO and Dorcas needs to be aware of that. They needed each other and ONLY together they can make a difference! The third category of stakeholders is the project beneficiaries. While it is a good idea to have beneficiaries directly involved in project management, most are not yet organized into viable groups and are also illiterate, limiting their potential contribution to the PSC. 44


Potential for escalating existing conflicts in the project area The survey established that the current conflict is not something to worry about concerning implementation of this project. The planned activities therefore have limited potential to escalate this conflict, if any. It is however recommended that a risk analysis should be part of the annual project review, considering the fluid unpredictable nature of conflicts.

Perceived needs and constraints of the target community The project document has correctly identified the needs and constraints of the target community concerning food security and livelihoods. However, there are other needs beyond food security that communities are concerned about, which require an integrated approach and building of synergies with other development partners. These include access to health, education, clean water and infrastructure.

45


4.0 Recommendations Improving food security Recommendations for the project implementers The project should focus on providing inputs like seed for staple crops in rural areas and vegetables in the peri- urban areas, as well as hand held tools. The beneficiaries requested that tools should be provided by the end of September 2012 to enable them to clear the land in time for the May â&#x20AC;&#x201C; June rains of 2013. The seeds for staple crops should be provided by April 2013 for timely planting in the May- June rains. Vegetable seeds should be provided by end of September for the planting season of October 2012. Selection of beneficiaries should be based on the agreed beneficiary selection criteria Farmers should be organized and trained before receiving inputs. Mechanisms should be set up for regular food security surveillance, using the baseline survey household questionnaire, to collect data for the log- frame indicators. Recommendations for the state government As a matter of urgency, the WBG state government should put in place extension workers in the rural payams of Kangi and Gete as their contribution to this project. The state government should improve market infrastructure in the payams, so that farmers can sell food in a hygienic environment. The state government should, as a matter of priority, target rural payams where this project is to be implemented, for faster land mine clearance, to enable farmers to open more land. Input cost recovery The project should initially focus on the recovery of seeds. Recovery of the cost of the ox ploughs should be spread over a longer period of time, as the livelihoods of farmers are still precarious. In the meantime, the project should set up a system for recovering these costs in the third year of the project and beyond, after analyzing surveillance reports on the status of household food security. Options for storage methods and facilities of perishable produce For project implementers For household food security, simple techniques of food preservation and storage should be introduced, e.g. blanching and drying of leafy vegetables.

46


For market oriented households, appropriate storage technologies should be promoted for produce that is not sold on the same day. In this regard, the project should work with the CUoSSFAES to research on traditional ways of food storage e.g. the use of pots. For the state government As part of the improvement of the market infrastructure, the state government should work in partnership with local market vendors to construct lockable stalls for storage of perishable goods, to reduce on burden of carrying them to and from markets. In addition, regular grading of roads would go a long way in easing access to markets, especially the Aweil â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Wau road which passes through Kangi and Gete payams. Currently transport by road from Kangi to Wau takes 2 hours, instead of the 20 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 30 minutes. Cultural appropriateness and best way to improve animal ploughing For project implementers Since animal ploughing is culturally appropriate in the project area, the project should go ahead and its use in the targeted payams. The project should first identify farmers who have interest and trained oxen. The lessons learnt from OXFAM Intermon are critical and implementer should carefully consider them before purchasing the ploughs. For the state government The WBG state government should ensure that the farmers supported with ox ploughs are able to access veterinary care for the trained oxen. Effective and inclusive participation of stakeholders As a matter of urgency, the project should develop the mandate and inaugurate the PSC to guide project stakeholders. A stakeholdersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; meeting should be held to determine the composition of the members of the PSC and define the parameters for its operation. Conflict escalation Although there is no risk of conflict escalation, the project should carry out annual risk analysis in the target areas, in partnership with the state and development partners and also address the issue of grazing of animals from Dinka land in the Luo land especially when the Luo are about to harvest the crops.

47


Perceived needs While food security is an urgent need, it is recommended that an integrated approach be adopted to address other pressing needs in the areas of education, health, water, sanitation and hygiene which are important for proper nutrition and improving livelihoods. The WBG should therefore coordinate the activities of all development partners in the state to address these perceived community needs. Non- conflict related aspects informing choice of interventions The effects of climate change on farming activities need to be addressed, focusing on soil and water conservation, as well as controlling flooding of crop fields. Considering the livestock population in the target communities, there is a need to promote use of compost manure for improving soil fertility and crop productivity. The project needs to determine the role of local leader in project implementation, beyond community mobilization, for purposes of the sustainability of project interventions and impacts. The project needs to adopt a household based approach where the roles of men, women and youth in production and marketing are emphasized for improved household food security and livelihoods. Emphasis should be on sharing resources, benefits and decision making. The project should look at promoting non- agricultural livelihoods for the youth who were observed to be shunning agriculture. The sale of canned beer of high alcohol content of above 14% should be addressed to reduce incidences of domestic violence and drunkenness among the youth. Monitoring and evaluation The current log- frame indicators need to be revised to complete setting of targets for all indicators. All implementing partners should prepare their own log frames and M&E plans that mirror the project log frame. The qualitative indicators will require a score card as a tool for data collection A comprehensive monitoring and evaluation training should be carried out among project implementers and government extension workers. Data collection tools for participatory monitoring should be developed before the project goes too deep into activity implementation. Capacity for project implementation and management A capacity needs assessment of partner staff and organizations should be undertaken and a capacity building plan developed before the end of November 2012. 48


The Evaluation Consultants Alice Mango, the Team Leader, has expertise in training, gender, organizational development, including diagnosis and functional analysis, strategic planning and human resource development. She is especially skilled in participatory rural appraisal techniques, needs assessment and curriculum development. Alice has over 15 years of agricultural extension experience and 8 years of training in the agricultural and water sectors and has designed and implemented several training programmes in that respect. She is skilled in conducting socioeconomic research, policy analysis, project evaluation and report generation and is particularly experienced in participatory gender analysis. She also has skills in project and programme design and in conducting formal evaluation of development programmes/ projects. Alice has worked with and is familiar with issues in the agriculture, health, social development and water and sanitation sectors in Uganda. Alice has worked as a team leader in many jobs. Alice has considerable experience in policy and program design, management, and evaluation in community development projects, rights based approaches and socio-economic empowerment. Alice coordinated all the baseline survey activities and maintained contact and communication with ICCO FSTP Program Manager. She was also responsible for the technical aspects of the survey including the following:        

Measuring food insecurity at the project location through use of questionnaires (HFIAS and DDS), FGDs and key informant interviews. Carrying out survey on affordability and feasibility of an appropriate inputs cost recovery system for the target groups of the project. Carrying out training, in methodology and techniques of data collection and interviewing of Partners staff in addition to field exposure of 2nd and 3rd year university students. Exploring options for storage methods and facilities for perishable produce and Assessing cultural appropriateness and how best to improve animal-ploughing/traction in the target area. Find out from the communities which other feasible methodology or activities could benefit them more than what is stated in the proposal. Find out about cultural sensitivity of the state interventions to be implemented. Sustainability after the project phase-out

Dan Opio, Team Member, holds a Masters Degree in Economics from Miami University, Oxford Ohio, USA. Dan has proven experience in conducting quantitative and qualitative baseline surveys and in reviewing and evaluating bi-lateral development programs and donor funded NGO programs. He has extensive knowledge in the relevant sectors ICCO focuses on. He also has good analytical skills and excellent computer and report writing skills in English. Dan has conducted baseline surveys and reviewed programs in health, education, food security and capacity building for many organizations and is well versed with rights-based approaches. He was responsible for the following:

49


   

Reviewing non-conflict related aspects informing choice of interventions and project design and factors that are expected to change and how to address and/or mitigate them; Consulting/ exploring how best the project can have effective and inclusive participation of stakeholders, partners and others to ensure inclusive participation in a Project Steering Committee (PSC). Identifying and establishing project processes, actions and deliverables which can potentially exacerbate on the existing conflict in the project area so that alternative interventions can be planned. Identifying perceived needs and constraints in the target communities, and Providing reference point data and/or information for measuring or assessing level of achievement of the 4 key result areas; in relation to the profile of refined outputs and monitoring indicators relevant to the programme objectives; provide linking with monitoring and reporting for assessing programme progress, impact and changes attained (review of the log frame). Identify existing conflicts which might easily be exacerbated by this project

Roles and responsibilities ICCO The ICCO FSTP Program Manager will represent the Lead Agency during the Baseline survey; he will be central in coordinating the Baseline survey process in close consultation with the Consultant(s), implementing partners, LGAs and other stakeholders in the project. Implementing partners and representatives from state government ministry of agriculture and county extension workers were involved during the Baseline survey by attending meetings with the Consultant(s), providing field staff to coordinate and direct the Consultant(s) to project sites, providing necessary data and information needed for the Baseline survey. The ICCO FSTP program manager is responsible for:     

Overall responsibility and accountability for the Baseline survey; Guidance throughout all phases of execution Approval of all base line deliverables; and, Co-ordination of the implementing partners and the government line ministries during the process of the base line survey. Day to day administration during the period of the base line survey

Stakeholders Through consultations and/or briefing sessions, the key stakeholders/implementing partners (CARD, CAD, and Dorcas, CUofSS-FAES) participated in review of the TOR, the proposed assignment i.e. clarifications on its expected focus, approaches, methods and field techniques and feedback on proposed detailed field work activity plan. The partners also provided their 50


feedback on the designed baseline collection protocol (guidelines & tools) and participated in the pre-testing of the tools and their refinement for use in the field. The Partners’ staff also participated in the field data collection and interaction with the interview respondents in the targeted area or community at large. The Partners also attended and participated in a final review meeting at the end of the filed visits and data collection exercise. The SMOAF&I did not participate in the last meeting as it was held on a Saturday but provided overall guidance and oversight during the entire process. Consultant The Consultant was responsible for:      

Conducting the Baseline survey; The day-to-day management of operations in the field during the period of the survey; Regular progress reporting to ICCO FSTP Program Manager and ICCO Country Program Manager The development of results; and, The production of deliverables in accordance with contractual requirements. Training Partners’ staff in the methodology and techniques of data collection and interviewing (staff to understand the importance and relevance of baseline data in relation to project plans) – to engage Partners staff in data collection, information and/or data collection, validation/triangulation of information for data analysis) Guiding the team of interviewers/data collectors in the field

Some members of the evaluation team

51


List of data collectors s/no

Name

Gender

Organization

1

Joseph Mwirigi

m

Dorcas Aid

2

Dominic James

m

Dorcas Aid

3

Olumu Augustine

m

Dorcas Aid

4

Michael Ayawa

m

Dorcas Aid

5

Samuel Yamba

m

CAD

6

Jambia David

m

CAD

7

Peter Malong

m

CAD

8

Kuol Kuot Dimo

m

ECS-CARD

9

James Umuor

m

ECS-CARD

10

Andrew Apiny

m

ECS-CARD

11

Lucia Valentino

F

CUoSSFAES

12

Gatdet peter

m

CUoSSFAES

13

Philip Marrial Kuol

m

CUoSSFAES

14

Agnes Joseph

F

CUoSSFAES

15

Aguil Tong Akeen

F

CUoSSFAES

16

Bibiana Butrus

F

CUoSSFAES

17

John Matuak

m

CUoSSFAES

18

Francis B. Philip

m

CUoSSFAES

19

Felix Emirio

m

CUoSSFAES

Lead Agency: Interchurch Organization for Development Cooperation (ICCO), Field Office South Sudan/Sudan, AIC Compound, Hai-Tarawa, Juba, South Sudan

52


ICCO Food Security Baseline Survey