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Spring/Summer 2017 Edition

Dearest WATESOL Community, I want to take a moment to reflect on the active Spring 2017 season we’ve had with WATESOL events. Thanks to those who helped plan and who participated in our:  Action Research Workshop led by Dr. Polina Vinogradova  Proposal Writing Workshop  (First annual) Spring Mini Conference  Co-sponsored workshop with the Color Vowel Chart

We want to hear from teachers, administrators, teacher trainers, graduate students, and more. Come share your insights with us at the WATESOL Fall Conference. The submission deadline is June 15, 2017. See our website for more information: http://

The Newsletter Editors have worked collaboratively with WATESOL members to produce this edition. It is rich with content and meaning. I hope that it will inspire thought and It was wonderful to see new and familiar faces dialog. Have a wonderful summer. I hope to at these events. We hope that WATESOL can see you at the Fall Conference! continue to bring professionals together to share In peace, ideas and make connections. Heather Tatton-Harris Believe it or not, we’re already in full-planning (or just ‘HTH’) mode for the Fall Conference. This year we are trying out a new venue: Trinity Washington University in Northeast DC. Trinity is accessible by car, metro, and bus. We are thrilled to have INSIDE THIS Dr. Lourdes Ortega for our keynote speaker. I ISSUE am particularly excited about her topic: Reimagining English Competence for the Student Interaction ..................... 3 21st Century: A Multilingual SLA Perspective. I Action Research........................... 5 was lucky to hear her talk on a similar topic at Syrian Narratives ...................... 8 TESOL Toronto; her presentation inspired me to make shifts in my professional practice and to Reflections from TESOL .......... 13 stretch my thinking. Engaging Saudi Students ....... 15 We hope you will consider submitting proposals Gamification............................. 18 to our Fall Conference! We are looking for:  practice-oriented presentations, SPECIAL POINTS OF INTEREST  research-oriented presentations,  graduate student research presentations, Action Research Winner ............ 7  poster presentations, Upcoming Events ..................... 14  electronic village presentations, and Tech Tools Corner .................... 21  workshops 2017 Fall Conference ...... 22-23 Board Nominations …………24

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FROM THE EDITORS Dear WATESOL Community, It’s almost summer! Congratulations on your hard work this school year. This edition of the newsletter will provide you with some summertime inspiration for the coming semester. You’ll read about:  Effective student interaction  Action research as professional development  Contextualizing support for displaced Syrians  Reflections from TESOL 2017  Engaging Saudi students  Promoting learning through games Enjoy your well-deserved time off if you are granted it. Many thanks to this edition’s contributors! Your Newsletter Editors,

Stephanie Gallop, Lindsey Crifasi, & Silvia Hildesheim



Is your membership current?

Many thanks to the Mini Conference Presenters! 2017 was our first year trying out the "Mini Conference" concept. WATESOL members accepted to present at international conferences (TESOL, AAAL, and COABE) practiced in front of a local audience and WATESOL members were able to participate in national presentations without leaving the metro area! It was a win-win. Survey feedback was extremely positive. We plan to do this event again in Spring 2018!

Go to membership-benefits to ensure that your membership is active, or to join WATESOL. Contact

for questions.

Presenters included:  Melanie Baker, University of Maryland  Annelies Galletta, University of Maryland  Diego Hernandez, Montgomery College  Kristy Stoesz, Carlos Rosario Charter School  Jose Torres, Baltimore City Community College  Kaylin Wainwright, Carlos Rosario Charter School

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SAY MORE: STRATEGIES TO ELICIT STUDENT THINKING AND SUPPORT SUSTAINED INTERACTIONS Tabitha Kidwell|Univertsity of Maryland College Park| Megan Stump|Univertsity of Maryland College Park| Opportunities for student interaction are essential in the TESOL classroom. Rich and communicative dialogue with others helps students develop strong speech, pronunciation, and listening skills. Nevertheless, in many classrooms, the teacher does most of the talking. Class discussions often revert to a familiar discourse pattern: the teacher asks a question, a student answers, and the teacher offers an evaluation (“Very good!”). Below, we share some ideas to help you break out of this familiar pattern. These research-based techniques will help you elicit student thinking, limit teacher talk, and engage students in meaningful discussion.

Sufficient wait time If you begin to ask more complex questions, you will also need to give students time to think. Wait time is one of the simplest and most powerful practices a teacher can use. Tobin (1987) found that waiting longer than 3 seconds after asking a question was associated with increases in student achievement – but teachers often wait only one or two seconds! If students have not answered in that time, teachers typically jump in and answer the question themselves. If a student does offer a response, it is often from the most active class participants. This sends students the message that they don’t actually need to think about the questions that Open-ended questions are asked – either the teacher or the strongest Many of the questions teachers ask are display students will answer for them. Try to wait five questions – questions that ask students to seconds after asking a question, especially if it “display” knowledge that the teacher and most is a rich question that requires student students already know. It is sometimes thought. That may not seem like a long time, appropriate to ask this sort of question – for but it can feel like an eternity in front of the instance, to evaluate students’ understanding of class. It might be helpful to silently count to five something they read or provide the opportunity or take a deep breath. Providing wait time to practice basic interactional increases the likelihood that students will skills. Nevertheless, teachers resort to display actually think about the question, and their questions far too often. If you are confident answers will be more meaningful. If students still students know the answer, or if it is clearly have not offered an answer, try restating or printed in the book or written on the board, try rewording the question, allowing additional to ask more advanced questions. For example, ‘think time’ before helping with the answer. after discussing the weather, you could ask students how that type of weather makes them Limited teacher talk time An added benefit of wait time is that it gives feel and why, what activities they like to do in that type of weather, or if they have a memory teachers time to think about how the discussion is involving weather like what they see through the going – and time to consider how much they have been talking themselves. Teachers talk window. Bloom’s taxonomy is a useful tool to help teachers think about the questions they ask: 70% of the time in typical classrooms. If try to move beyond questions that ask students teachers are doing most of the talking, they are also doing most of the work! Could a student to remember and understand by asking take over leadership of the discussion, or could questions that require them to apply, analyze, evaluate, and create knowledge. (You can find students be having the same discussion in small groups? If so, let them! Doing so gives students more about Bloom’s Taxonomy here: https:// more opportunity to practice language skills direct the discussion to topics important to taxonomy/)

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Table 1: Teacher & Student Involvement in Discussion

them. If you have beginner students or young students, you may have to provide sentence frames and explicitly teach and model discussion norms. If you are worried about your students’ ability to direct a conversation, consider using an interaction system like literature circles (Daniels, 2002) or accountable talk (see educator_resources/accountable_talk)


Teacher & Student Actions


Teacher talk used to elicit student thinking Teacher questioning can be like a guessing game – students try to guess what the teacher is thinking and answer the way the teacher wants them to. It should be the exact opposite – teachers should use questions to determine what students are thinking. Questions are our most powerful tool to uncover and probe student thinking. You need to find out what students think so you can follow their reasoning and guide their learning. When a student answers a question, rather than evaluating their answer (often with that old standard, “very good!”), ask another question to delve deeper into their thinking process. You could ask “why do you say that?” or “how did you decide that?” or simply ask students to “say more.” Or you could redirect students to each other by asking “does anyone agree?” or “who has a different perspective?” Teacher talk is most powerful when it is prompting students to think more deeply or to engage with each other.


•Teacher does most of the talking •Students provide few responses •Teacher asks surface-level questions •Students can avoid thinking deeply or using new language •Teacher asks meaningful questions to elicit student thinking •Students must think about the content & use challenging language •Teachers elicits student thinking & builds on student responses •Students must listen to classmates •Teacher facilitates interactions among students •Students do most of the talking

2 3


References Daniels, H. (2002). Literature circles: Voice and choice in book clubs & reading groups. Portland, ME: Stenhouse. Tobin, K. (1987). The role of wait time in higher cognitive level learning. Review of Educational Research, 57(1), 69-95.

Tabitha Kidwell is a doctoral student in Applied Linguistics and Language Education at University of Maryland. She has taught students of all ages and levels on five continents. She teaches in the TESOL and World Languages M.Ed. program and conducts research on novice language Evaluate yourself teacher preparation. She Facilitating a class discussion is a challenging also enjoys running and practice even for advanced educators, and not wearing funny hats. every discussion leads to rich student interaction. Still, this is a great goal to work Megan Stump is a doctoral student in Applied toward. Think about a typical day in your Linguistics and Language Education at the classroom. What kinds of questions are University of Maryland. asked? Who is doing most of the She has taught courses at talking? Who is doing most of the the university level on thinking? Give yourself a score using the rubric writing composition, oral in table 1. What could you do to encourage communication and teacher more student interaction and to limit your own preparation, and peer talk time? Try to enact those practices, and tutoring for multi-lingual come back to this rubric after a week or a writers. Her research interests include teacher emotion and the practice month. How can you continue to grow as a of teacher educators. teacher?

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ACTION RESEARCH AS PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT Becky Miskell|District of Columbia Public Schools| WATESOL held an all day Professional Development Workshop on January 28, 2017. Dr. Polina Vinogradova, Director of the American University TESOL Program led the workshop. The following is a summary of Dr. Vinogradova’s workshop. _____________________________________________________________________________ A method for conducting meaningful and informative action research was presented in a very popular and well-attended workshop by Dr. Polina Vinogradova. The workshop drew educators from K-12, Adult Education and Higher Education programs- all with an interest in conducting their own classroom research as professional development. In this interactive workshop, Dr. Vinogradova explained how values and beliefs influence teaching practices and inform the reasons for teaching decisions. She used an image of an iceberg showing teaching acts above the water, and values and beliefs below the surface. This was a powerful image to highlight that teaching practice, which is observable, is influenced by our beliefs, which are not readily observable. In order to explore this concept further, teachers then had the opportunity to work together in small groups to identify their own teaching acts and the beliefs that inform the practices they use in their teaching. This activity led to rich conversations during which colleagues found areas of common ground in both their practices and beliefs. Colleagues also identified and shared practices that they wanted to try but had not used widely and explained the reasons for their interest in these approaches. It was a valuable activity during which colleagues were able to reflect on their practices and beliefs, share ideas, and learn from each other. Dr. Vinogradova provided an overview of what action research is and why it is important. Action research is a form of professional development that is inquiry-based, cyclical and reflective. The benefits of action research are that: 1. It gives educators the opportunity to reflect on and assess their teaching. 2. It encourages and enables teachers to become better learners, better teachers and to achieve more reflective levels of professional practice. 3. It has the potential to generate improvements in teaching and in schools and programs. Action research is used in a variety of ways. For example, teachers can use action research to investigate classroom problems or challenges. It can also be a useful method for exploring new ideas, materials or methods and to test their effectiveness. Information from action research can also be used to make decisions and to provide feedback to fellow team members. Dr. Vinogradova outlined the key steps to take when implementing action research: 1. Plan 2. Act 3. Observe 4. Reflect.

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Planning includes reflecting on and analyzing current practice, scanning the literature, and discussing with colleagues. A tool that can be useful for planning is Dr. Vinogradova’s “Action Research Plan,” which was shared along with other tools at the workshop. Using this tool, educators identify topics of interest to explore further within the classroom. As they read, think and talk with colleagues, they narrow their topic and eventually identify specific research questions. Then they plan the “intervention”- what they will do. Some of the suggested topics for teachers to consider exploring in action research include classroom groupings, course design, materials and resources, learning strategies, classroom dynamics, assessment, and more. When designing an action research plan, key considerations include time, purpose and what is realistically possible. A highlight of the workshop was the opportunity for educators to begin planning a potential action research project. This began with a brainstorming session among colleagues about what was happening in their classrooms that they were concerned about and what they wanted to change. Participants then worked on identifying specific areas of investigation and on developing an explicit focus. Among the considerations when narrowing research questions participants learned to identify the population of the study. (All students? One class? A few students? A case study?) As colleagues brainstormed on research questions, they referred to the criteria on the “Research Question Checklist” (Vinogradova, 2017, adapted from Burns, 2010,) and in collaboration with their partners, they identified research questions that were general enough to allow for exploration but focused enough to define the study. For example, the research question should have the right scope (i.e. classroom or student focused), be open-ended, and unbiased (i.e. it does not predict a desired outcome before the data is in). Additionally, there should be logical connections between actions and outcomes. Furthermore, the question should relate to current research. The research question must also be ethical (e.g.. it must not make negative assumptions about student groups). Finally, research questions should be stated clearly and concisely. If these criteria are not met, the research question should be revised. It was especially helpful to have the opportunity to work through the process of identifying and fine-tuning research questions and to get feedback from colleagues from a variety of teaching contexts. Using the checklist helped participants move from general topics and ideas to focused, objective and relevant research questions. After identifying the research question, the intervention must be planned. What is the purpose of the action research? How will results be used? Who is the audience for the research? What evidence will be collected to answer research questions? Whose permission will you need (e.g., the school, a supervisor, students, parents, etc.)? Dr. Vinogradova outlined two approaches to data collection- observational and non-observational techniques. Observational techniques include note-taking and recording (video and audio) and may include the teacher as either a participant or non-participant. In contrast, non-observational techniques include interviews, surveys and questionnaires, and documents, such as work samples. Following data collection, the data must be analyzed. In her “Action Research Analysis” tool, Dr. Vinogradova outlined three steps for action research data analysis. The steps include 1) Describing 2) Interpreting 3) Evaluating results. In the first step, the teacher researcher describes what was done- that is, the “teaching acts” and

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how students responded. In the second step, the teacher interprets the results. What beliefs informed teaching acts? What is the educational theory that informed teaching acts? Why did the students respond in the way they did? What is the evidence? In the third step, the teacher evaluates the meaning of the data. Were teaching acts successful? How do I know? What do I need to do to make changes and why? Finally, reflecting on what happened, talking with others, and considering next steps is key to action research and professional growth. Teacher reflection provides the scaffolding to identify teaching practices that work (or don’t work). It also allows educators to negotiate new strategies as a result of their learning. Finally, it is empowering in that it validates knowledge gained while teaching and encourages collaboration and the development of teaching communities of practice. The “Action Research as Professional Development” workshop was engaging, collaborative and practical. Through the workshop I gained a deeper understanding of how action research can support educators in answering real-life questions and challenges in their teaching. I also walked away with tools and strategies to use and a clear process for designing action research projects to answer the questions I would like to explore further in my practice. The workshop was a relevant, informative and valuable professional learning opportunity for ESL teachers at all levels. Reference Burns, A. (2010). Doing Action Research in English Language Teaching. A Guide for Practitioners. New York: Routledge. Becky Miskell is an ESL teacher at Dunbar Senior High School and Phelps ACE High School in the District of Columbia Public Schools. She has had many years of experience in the education of English learners in teaching and administrative roles in Fairfax County Public Schools. She has an M.Ed in Administration and Supervision from the University of Virginia and a B.S. in Languages and Applied Linguistics from Georgetown University. She lives in D.C.

Congratulations to the 2017 J. Michael O’Malley Action Research Grant Award Winner Amy Melendez Stay tuned for reflections in a future newsletter on Amy’s action research project! WATESOL Newsletter Spring/Summer 2017 - p. 7

UNDERSTANDING THE JOURNEY OF DISPLACED SYRIANS TO CONTEXTUALIZE SUPPORT Kinana Qaddour| With the Syrian conflict entering its seventh year, much remains unknown to a number of education stakeholders who seek to support displaced Syrians. A multitude of barriers exist for displaced Syrian children, youth, and their families, all of which impact their access to quality learning spaces. Cultural expectations and norms are rarely the primary cause, which may be a surprise to those unfamiliar with the Syrian context. Prior to the conflict, Syrian youth attended basic education in high numbers, and had a 97% attendance rate as of 2011 (1). While there is much to be said about the quality of education in Syria, particularly curricula with an agenda that enforced loyalty to an authoritarian, militarized state, the attack on educational provisions is one that has persisted and escalated as the conflict progressed. A critical approach to understanding is to engage qualitative data on how conflict has impacted Syrians’ education. There is wide access to the quantitative data--2.7 million out of school Syrian children and youth in neighboring countries, 40% of refugees without access to basic education (2), and over 4,000 attacks on educational facilities as of 2016, but certain are the daily implications for these children and youth, even as they have access to a safe future (1).

maximize the benefit of narratives that illustrate the experiences of Syrians. One, they can be a critical component of staff professional development in schools.

Utilizing Syrian Narratives The experience of displacement has resulted in a number of impacts that have been quantified, yielding numbers and figures and millions of people without shelter and access to formal or informal education. Missing is the assessment of the qualitative impacts, much of which are best illustrated through the words of Syrians themselves. Narratives expand on the experiences of Syrian children, youth, and educators in a way that comprehensive reports cannot. There are a number of ways to

Below are a number of narratives that demonstrate the impact the crisis has had on educational access and quality. They are based on structured and unstructured interviews with internally displaced Syrians and refugees. These narratives and illustrations can be used collectively to achieve the following:  Train teachers who engage displaced students from Syria.  Engage students at the secondary level in order to expose them to the intertwined reality of education and conflict, as well as

All relevant school staff (teachers, counselors, administrators, psychologists) can participate in a session where implications based off of the narratives below are discussed. There should also be inquiry on how cross-cultural norms play a relevant role in any of the implications. It is important to note this is an opportunity to discuss that which amplifies voices of those who are displaced, rather than based on assumptions or numbers presented in research, alone. In other words, this is the time to engage case studies and multimedia presentations (documentary films, advocacy campaigns, etc., not limited only to quantitative data). This should be an opportunity for open discussions where cadres can leave better informed and prepared to provide a safe space for new students who have experienced immense trauma. In addition, there is a strong desire for a learning environment where attention is not drawn, carelessly, to new peers. Displaced students from any fragmented context have been consistently reminded of how they are different from their peers, teachers’ added value should be to disrupt this dangerous cycle.

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the growing weaponizing of education in the Syrian context.  Illustrate the impacts of the Syrian conflict on education. From Syria, West Patterns of displacement in Syria differ depending on the province or area within the country they have been displaced from. It is important to consider the unique experiences of IDPs and refugees. As American teachers, it is important to note that displaced Syrians in your classroom have likely sought multiple host communities before settling in one part of Syria, or host country, indefinitely. Syrians from Aleppo and Idlib provinces, in the north, moved to Turkey, while those in the center, such as Homs province, fled to Lebanon, along with those on the coast, such as Lattakia. Meanwhile, those in the southern province of Dar’aa fled to Jordan. With Syria divided into fourteen provinces, each community is unique and faces challenges stemming from identity, belonging, and socioeconomic, local divides that were only exacerbated by the conflict and subsequent displacement of its residents. In addition, a number of state-backed military actors and paramilitary forces sought these divides to further disrupt the social fabric within Syria. Attacking educational infrastructure is just one of the ways this has been conducted. Taking this into account, the following illustrations and images are a few samples I have gathered to bring narratives from the “refugee crisis” and its often ignored core, the Syrian conflict and internal displacement, accessible to educators and non-Syrian students alike, especially those who have Syrian peers directly impacted by the conflict. The outcome is an informed teaching cadre, student body, and a contextualized approach to teaching students in any classroom, be it in surrounding host countries, the United States, or Europe.

Narratives Idlib, Syria, 2013 We have moved from eastern Aleppo to Idlib, still present in whatever is left of our homeland. New teachers, new students who are also from East Aleppo, we are the same even though I feel lonely. Sniffles and violent coughs in a cold and damp atmosphere. We are content playing indoors with puppets, singing, occasionally listening to a song when the teacher has a phone. We remain underground for safety, swimming in a sea of fear, paranoia, and hesitancy. The teachers at the school bring us fruit each day, an apple or banana, I can’t remember the last time I had this at home, with my parents. I wish I could take one to give to my mom. Anseh Amal no longer asks us how our day was, what games we played, shows we watched, jokes we desire to share. What power do they have to guard us from what is beyond the walls? I overhear “what is the point, what does it matter if they learn, now?” *Teacher Aleppo, Syria, 2013 Notebook and pencils ready. Up early after eating a small breakfast of bread and, occasionally, olives. Gone are the fresh mint leaves, tomatoes, and cucumbers that were once Syrian breakfast staples. The siege has left us hungrier than ever. At night, with my mother, father and siblings close by in the same, windowless room, I fought to keep my eyes shut. We pray for a few hours to study in peace. I head out. A three-hour commute, albeit an extremely tense one, will give me time to review. Fear and anxiety of sporadic checkpoints have persisted for years. Some days it is limited to invasive questions and passport checks, other days we are robbed of belongings, humiliated, arrested without charge. We come as empty-handed as possible to checkpoints. Once, packages of bread I had picked up after class were taken at the checkpoint. Today is the first day of our

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biyearly exams, taken in January and July. *A series of deadly explosions hit Aleppo University on January 15, 2013. Over 80 students killed and 160 were wounded, bombs targeted the School of Architecture and residency halls of the university as students were taking tests (3).

I always shared a room with my sister, so I rarely spent time alone. Now, I share a room with three of my aunts. We take turns sleeping on the mattress, which I don’t mind. I wonder about those children in movies we used to watch, with time alone, thinking, sitting on their beds in their own rooms.

Az-Zarqa, Amman, Jordan, 2013 We live outside of the city, isolated from the Jordanians. We are surrounded by Syrians, seen only as Syrians, or, more accurately, refugees that are burdening yet another nation. We heard our neighbors once we are ruining their country, there is no space for us. We brought crime and violence, “a girl was harassed by a Syrian man in a taxi the other day!” Before the Syrians came to this neighborhood, Jordanian-Palestinians lived here. They have moved on to better schools and communities now.

When I attended school last year, we packed into classrooms, wondering who our teacher would be for that day. Maybe one of those volunteers? My brother and older sister take a class that is supposed to prepare them for work after the camps. But when will it be “after” the camps? It has been three years already. He is learning how to work as a computer technician, and my sister as a seamstress.

My older brother, Amir, finished two years of high school but the schools here won’t let him attend unless he repeats those two years. “I’ll take a test to prove that I finished those two years!” He argued in an office full of people claiming their hands are tied. But they said without proper “proof”, a certificate or transcripts, they cannot. Back to work he went. He thought had a future where he could be respected as a dentist, “now we are nothing.”

Reyhanli, Turkey, 2015 Twice a year, we have visitors from America, from Europe, they tell us. “We care about you and the children in America are thinking of you”, showing us letters, drawings, and posters they have made. We exercise, practice ways we can “be a team” as the teacher tells us. We get to carry cameras and take photos, play football (soccer), listen to stories in English and Arabic. They encouraged us to paint “how we feel” by making a contribution to a colorful mural that will “last forever”, they promised. Dentists come to clean our teeth, something we haven’t had done in a while. As an eventful day of games, songs, storytelling winds down, they return to their hotel and we return to our camp. After one week, they leave. We yearn for them to come back. They move on, but we are still here and feel alone, again.

Zaatari Refugee Camp, Jordan, 2014 The camp is like a maze. Walking through it alone is a risk. Maybe the guys passing will make a joke, a push, or even a look, which could be just as invasive as a touch. My brothers keep me near, or I simply stay inside. My parents have been meeting with people, maybe a khitbeh* is soon. Some days we go to school, others we stay inside or spend that time in line, on distribution days, waiting for bread, rice, and sometimes clothing. We endure both the heat and the cold.

Antioch, Turkey, 2015 They teach us both Turkish and English, but learning either is difficult. We feel lost, which language is more necessary? We are going back to Syria soon, so we should study English. But, what if we have to stay in Turkey longer?

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Maybe Turkish lessons should be the priority. playing English games on computers, and little We have not had the chance to attend public else. schools in Turkey, they speak and teach almost no English, and private schools are too expensive, my parents have told us. We are in small schools with other Syrians, usually from the same city. In our neighborhood, even the store owners who are Turkish speak Arabic, so we feel as though we could belong here, eventually. Michigan, United States, 2016 Cairo, Egypt, 2014 I listened as the students commented, Public schools in Cairo already struggle to disagreed, criticized. I felt uncomfortable. accommodate the needs of Egyptian students. Tense. Is this allowed here? I spend most of my The teachers discipline, both Syrian and time in the classroom learning English, but my Egyptian students, harshly. Their accent is, at counselor recommended I take an elective “I times, difficult to understand. My younger can enjoy.” But when I did attend, per brothers and sisters understand, but for me it recommendation of the school counselor, was a challenge. “Contemporary Issues”, I felt out of my element. I looked around the room to mimic what the In order to pass the yearly exams, other students were doing, underlining and teachers would pressure families to circling words and sentences on the paper. So hire them as private tutors. Not many new vocabulary words. I could doing so means we will be given potentially contribute, but my hands felt tied. I lower grades. The classrooms were would second guess my analysis. Did I loud and chaotic, with little understand it correctly? The short group supervision. My siblings and I used to reading-- how does one “read” in a group? -take the bus to school, but after a seemed relevant, but it was challenging; do I few dangerous incidents on our commute, it work alone or work with others? “What do you became too dangerous for me to ride the bus think” they asked--- but speaking on behalf of without someone from my family to supervise people in the Middle East, as it seemed I was me. I stopped attending what was supposed to called to do in this class, made me sick to my be my 10th grade year. stomach. Kansas, United States, 2015 We attend “ESL” classes for most of the day. When we first arrived at the school, along with my four other siblings, we felt isolated. Walking through the halls, or our neighborhood for that matter, we saw no one who looked like us.

Deir Ezzor, Syria, 2016 We gathered with some of our friends in this small building. We painted, we drew. We get to sing, but quietly. We had puppet shows and acted out a drama. It was exciting, even for a few hours each day. No one can hear us, or they will shut it down. The teachers said they will have to go to jail. They found us a teacher a few days after we My mom whispers, at home, alone, arrived, I guess we are the only ones who that if the Dawaish hear us, we can speak little English. She doesn’t seem to like us. no longer hear. We don’t attend She says she notices our parents treating the school now. We stay inside. They boys and girls differently in my family, but this are out there and there is no way is not how my father or mother raised us. We to hide, my parents tell me. would spend most of the time in her classroom *ISIS fighters

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Hass, Idlib, Syria 10:00 A.M

they face or their sorrows, but by their humanity in its entirety and the ability to realize their potential.

First, the loud explosion. I look down, and see the blood on my hand. Outside, cries and more blood. We need to be as far away from the building. I see a hand with a backpack still being held, no body attached. I see my mom screaming and running to us, we are pushed into a white van. Another strike followed. I see an old man crying for help. They will take them to a hospital in Turkey because there are no hospitals here. *22 schoolchildren and 6 teachers killed in attack by a joint Syrian-Russian military operation at 10 am on October 26, according to Human Rights Watch, 39th reported attack on a Syrian school in 2016 (4). Conclusion According to UNHCR, there are currently over 60 million refugees, asylum-seekers, and IDPs worldwide (5). Now is the time for educators to play a vital role in ensuring the classroom is, at minimum, a context where students can be children and youth, not individuals exploited to further an agenda or vulnerable to physical, psychological, or emotional risk.

References (1) Infographic: Education Crisis in Syria. (2013, December 18). Retrieved April 28, 2017, from infographic-education-crisis-syria-statistics (2) Over 40 per cent of Syrian refugee children in Turkey missing out on education, despite massive increase in enrolment rates. (2017, January 19). Retrieved April 28, 2017, from media_94417.html (3) Syria crisis: Dozens killed by Aleppo university blasts. (2013, January 15). Retrieved May 01, 2017, from news/world-middle-east-21029034 (4) Syria/Russia: School Attack a Possible War Crime. (2017, April 25). Retrieved April 28, 2017, from syria/russia-school-attack-possible-war-crime (5) Nebehay, S. (2015, December 18). World's refugees and displaced exceed record 60 million: U.N. Retrieved May 01, 2017, from -idUSKBN0U10CV20151218

Syrian children and youth are charismatic, complex, and dynamic individuals who, despite experiencing trauma and immense hardship as displaced victims of conflict, are able to find joy in learning. The ravages of war have only reaffirmed Syrians’ commitment to ensuring that Kinana Qaddour has an access to safe, supportive, and fruitful learning M.A in Curriculum & contexts is granted on each and every child. Teaching, with an emphasis Their hardships have not entirely prevented in TESOL from the University them from experiencing happiness or joy. of Kansas. She has taught Students who have moved to underground ESL as the post-secondary classrooms to avoid aerial bombardment may and secondary level, and currently serves as an still discover the joy of escaping into a good education programs manager for a Syrian book or simply attending class with their NGO based in Turkey. friends. It is important to remind ourselves that these people are not defined by the challenges

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KEEP IT SIMPLE, BUT THINK IT THROUGH: REFLECTIONS FROM TESOL 2017 Kelly Hill Zirker|Diplomatic Language Services| My experience at TESOL 2017 was motivating, encouraging, and overwhelming, but overall it could be summarized in just one sentence: keep it simple, but think it through.

apply knowledge, having students create their own rubric on Rubistar to evaluate their work, and creating context through vlogs or wikispaces.

Keep it Simple Many of the sessions I attended focused on uncomplicating our teaching practice. For example, assessments don’t need to be formal written tasks, but can instead be everyday activities where students provide the test style and rubric. Think about the desired end result, and then build an activity that guides the students toward their own self-assessment.

Alan Kennedy, who presented his book from the new textbook series Prism (2017), noted characteristics of critical thinkers as being flexible, inquisitive, open-minded, honest (with themselves), logical, driven to understand, and interested. He emphasized that assigning topics outside of students’ own experiences is vital to improving their critical thinking skills (and mentioned that, unfortunately, this is something that is often lacking in the classroom).

As always, there was a heavy emphasis on using technology in the classroom, but that does not mean activities need to be complicated or multi-faceted. For instance, several sessions in the Electronic Village featured useful websites that teachers can use spark class discussions. Another session highlighted the use of familiar social media platforms such as Instagram for writing or speaking tasks. Judy Gilbert, always a fun and enthusiastic presenter, embodied the idea of simplicity in her presentation about pronunciation and the music of language. In this age of high-tech teaching, it can sometimes be refreshing to use “retro” devices that don’t require Wi-Fi or a laptop in the classroom. Gilbert demonstrated how a basic item like a rubber band can be used to show syllable length or how a kazoo can help students perceive differences in intonation easier than listening to an actual sentence. Think it Through The sessions I attended also emphasized improving the critical thinking skills of our students. Bloom’s Taxonomy was referenced repeatedly. One session gave a useful list of online tools that corresponded to each level of thinking, such as using Instagram or Twitter to

Sandra Clark shared a four-step process to slowing down the learning process when making inferences: recognize information, make a guess, test the guess (i.e. read a text to look for evidence), and conclude with deeper questioning through class or group discussions using, of course, Bloom’s taxonomy to devise more thoughtful discussions.

Overall: The positives Seattle was a delightful city and the Seattle Conference Center employees were superb. As always, there were far more sessions that sounded fascinating than I could possibly attend, but thankfully, my colleagues and I shared similar interests and were able to divide and conquer by attending different sessions and reporting back at the end of each day.

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Overall: The negatives While most of the sessions I attended were both enriching and fulfilling, the few that I did not enjoy seemed to suffer from the same failing: the session title and description had little to do with what was actually presented. On a few occasions, I left a session disappointed and disgruntled because I had been waiting for some practical tip that never materialized.

Conclusion TESOL 2017 was an excellent reminder that less is often more. In the weeks since the conference, I’ve attempted to keep things simpler in the classroom while still challenging students to think beyond themselves.

Gilbert, J. (2012). Teaching pronunciation: Simplicity is the key. Presented at TESOL 2017 Annual Conference, Seattle, WA. Sowton, C. and Kennedy, S. (2017). Prism level 3. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. Clark, S. (2017) Don’t jump to conclusions: Helping ELLs make well-reasoned inferences. Presented at TESOL 2017 Annual Conference, Seattle, WA. Kelly Hill Zirker lives in São Paulo, Brazil where she teaches community English courses and works as a curriculum developer for Arlington, VA-based Diplomatic Language Services.

Many thanks to WATESOL for giving me the opportunity to attend!


Summer 2017 

WATESOL Call for proposals deadline Thursday, June 15.

ISTE Technology-charged learning starts here June 25-28, San Antonio, TX

LESLLA The Changing Context of Migration and LESLLA August 10-12, Portland, Oregon Fall 2017

WATESOL Fall Conference: Communicating in the 21st Century: Implications for Teaching & Learning, Saturday, October 7, Trinity Washington University.

MD TESOL Fall Conference, Saturday, November 11

WATESOL Newsletter Spring/Summer 2017 - p. 14

ENGAGING SAUDI STUDENTS WITH NOVELS AND NON-FICTION BOOKS Lily Jaffie-Shupe|Virginia Tech Language and Culture Institute| Christine Bobal |INTO George Mason University | Instructors who teach Saudi students may have noticed that they struggle with reading comprehension, especially with longer works. One factor contributing to this difficulty is the fact that many Saudis have little experience reading full-length books (other than the Quran), either in Arabic or in English (AlNafisah & Al-Shorman, 2011; Abdellah, 2013). In fact, a study in Saudi Arabia found that the average English major read for pleasure in English for less than 15 minutes per week (Al-Nujaidi, 2003). One way to improve Saudis’ reading skills is by reading novels and non-fiction books. This type of reading can boost specific language skill areas, like vocabulary and reading speed, as well as overall proficiency (Abdellah, 2013). In addition, reading longer works helps students to develop crucial academic skills, such as time management and tolerating ambiguity (Picken, 2007). The reading program at VTLCI Virginia Tech Language and Culture Institute (National Capital Region), which has a primarily Saudi student population, uses authentic novels and non-fiction books in all of its intermediate through advanced reading and writing courses. (Graded readers are used in the beginning levels.) In the low-intermediate courses, instructors use middle-school-level books, such as Holes and The Giver. The highintermediate courses feature titles for high schoolers, like The Hunger Games and The Secret Life of Bees. Finally, the advanced classes use books that would likely be found in a freshman English course (e.g., Into the Wild or Brave New World). In choosing appropriate books, the full-time faculty consider the length, lexile score (a measure of vocabulary and sentence

complexity from, and input of students and instructors. The whole class reads the same book, discussing sections weekly through the six- to nine-week term. We would like to share how we successfully engaged Saudi students in the books Life of Pi and Dreams from My Father. Life of Pi: Christine The first time I taught a full-length book (Fast Food Nation) to college-level ESL students, I carefully wrote lengthy lists of discussion questions to get my students talking in class. However, my hard work served only to make the students more passive; they read through a question in their small group, gave a cursory answer, and moved on. In short, they treated the discussion as more of a completion exercise than a thought-provoking one. I realized that the students should be engaging in the kind of reflection I was doing when I wrote the discussion questions. Therefore, I fell back on one of my mantras of teaching (make the students do the work) and had the students create a discussion guide with activities for their fellow students to complete. I have used this activity successfully with Life of Pi as well as other books, and it always gives students opportunity for collaboration and reflection. Beginning any long book requires extensive previewing, so we read and discussed the covers, author’s note, and first few pages together in class before I set students free to read on their own. Life of Pi is full of literary devices (simile, metaphor, anthropomorphism, and personification), so I put together a short lesson on identifying and understanding these devices before even beginning the book.

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Our novel days (every Friday for the two-hour class period) worked like this: Students read an assigned section (about 40 pages) before coming to class. They took a short-answer quiz first as an individual assessment (mostly to hold them accountable for the reading) and then we moved on to the discussion activity. For the first half of the discussion time (about 20 minutes), the students collaborated in groups of three or four to create a discussion guide with three parts. First, they listed three new vocabulary words and their page numbers. Next, they wrote four discussion questions to get another group talking (I encouraged them to begin with words like “why,” “how,” and “explain”). Finally, they chose two literary devices and illustrated them (no words!) and gave the chapter number as a clue. After this guide was complete (and each student had contributed something), the groups exchanged guides. They completed the other group’s guide just as if it were an activity I designed – defining the vocab in context, discussing the plot questions, and guessing the literary devices that inspired the illustrations. Whether the drawings were scribbly or artistic, the last section of the activity was always a hit! Students had fun, and even more importantly, spent the entire time engaged in on-topic discussions with their groups.

Illustrated literary devices “My heart began to beat like a merry drum”

Dreams from My Father: Lily This non-fiction book, written by President Obama in 1995, is quite intimidating at first glance. In order to get the students interested in reading, we began the first day of discussion by exploring the two major themes of the book, race and family. Family is an easy theme for Saudis to connect to because it is hugely important in their culture. Race was a bit trickier, but once we broadened the topic to include discrimination in general, many of my female students were forthcoming with stories of being harassed for wearing hijab. The students began to see how their experience of being Muslim in America could relate to Obama’s struggles of being black. Every Friday, we began the class with a short, easy, closed-book novel quiz on major events and people in the story. This weekly quiz helped keep students accountable for the reading; some students actually remarked that they would prefer to have quizzes twice a week! Our reading quiz was followed by a quick summary of the chapter’s main events as a class. Next, students would break into groups to work on textual questions that asked students to explain, interpret, and give their opinions of what they had read in small groups or pairs. The last piece of our in-class activities was a reflective or creative assignment. Each week, I tried to create an activity that would allow students to connect with the major themes of the reading. For instance, there is a troubling point in the book when Obama reads an article in TIME magazine about a black man who tries to dye his skin white. I asked my students to imagine that they could go back in time and write a letter to comfort the young Obama. Here’s one of my favorite letters: Dear Barry, I understand what you have been through today and I feel sorry about it. On the other hand, I feel happy for you... you don’t need to be upset because of the skin color difference. What you saw today was nothing more than

Illustrated literacy devices: WATESOL Newsletter Spring/Summer 2017 - p. 16 “Three oars rested on one side bench, one rested on the other”

people try to change themselves to please others. You should be honest and proud of who you are cause you will never know what you are capable of in the future.

thinking skills. Using full-length books in the classroom is not always easy, but it is worthwhile to push students to develop their language and academic skills. Our students do not always believe they can read, understand, and engage with authentic books, but it is our responsibility and opportunity to show them that they can.

Perhaps the most fun part of teaching with this book was the blog that I created for the class, using the simple (and free) website Each week, I posted two References discussion questions that asked students to reflect on the major events and themes of the Abdellah, A. (2013). Training Saudi English majors in extensive reading to develop their standardbook. I designed these questions to be based reading skills. Journal of King Saud accessible to all students, even those who didn’t University - Languages and Translation, (25) 13understand (or were not reading) the book 20. very well. This is an excerpt from a student’s Al Abik, W. B. (2014). Assessment of reading journal entry: comprehension of Saudi students majoring in English at Qassim University, Saudi Arabia.

Coming from a diplomatic family we lived in Studies in Literature and Language, 9(1) 155many countries studying and interacting with 162. Al-Nafisah, K. & Al-Shorman, R. A. (2011). Saudi locals. I faced many negative and painful EFL students’ reading interests. Journal of King comments only because I was different. I didn't Saud University - Languages and Translation, do anything; I knew it wasn't my country nor my 23, 1-9. people. In contrary, Obama had to live with Al-Nujaidi, A. (2003). The relationship between these discriminations in his country by his people.

vocabulary size, reading strategies, and reading comprehension of EFL learners in Saudi The letter and blog post I shared above are Arabia. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. just two of many examples that demonstrate Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK. the personal connections my students made with Picken, J. D. (2007). Literature, metaphor, and the this book. I taught Dreams at a highforeign language learner. New York: Palgrave intermediate level, and I was impressed with Macmillan.

what my students were able to understand. It may have been a challenging read, but they Lily Jaffie-Shupe is a full-time instructor at the cared about what Obama had to say, so they Virginia Tech Language & kept reading. The lesson I learned from this Culture Institute in Fairfax, VA. experience is that when you can get Saudis (or She has taught ESL for the last any other group of students) invested in what five years and loves working they are reading, you can achieve great with Saudi students. results. Conclusion Our Saudi students almost always begin the term intimidated by the difficult novels and non -fiction books set in front of them, but they end the term with a feeling of accomplishment at having read an entire book in English. Whatever the level or book, students need instructors with enthusiasm who can help them connect to the themes of the book and plan activities to promote collaboration and critical

Christine Bobal is a full-time instructor at INTO George Mason University and previously taught at VTLCI. She is an avid reader who enjoys sharing her love of books with students.

WATESOL Newsletter Spring/Summer 2017 - p. 17

PROMOTING LEARNING THROUGH GAMIFICATION Sevtap Frantz|Prince George’s Community College| Holly Gray|Prince George’s Community College| Imagine a classroom where the students are grabbing their smartphones not to check Facebook or text their friends but to engage with the class materials and compete—or collaborate—with their classmates. Imagine a classroom where students, dragging from the demands of school and work, perk up when the teacher says, “Who’s up for a quiz game today?” Imagine a classroom where the students plead with their teachers to make just one more activity. This has been our classrooms since we started using free Web 2.0 programs to gamify some of our materials. The predominance of technology in our students’ life is unquestionable. In today’s technologically demanding society, it is almost impossible to tap into the learners’ interest without integrating technology into the classroom. This has changed the way we instructors think and deliver our courses. By incorporating technology, we are not only keeping up with the high standards of the 21 century in the classroom, but also enthusing our students to learn and engage in a more interactive environment. The emerging technologies make the learning and teaching process both for the learners and the instructors more attainable and satisfying. To retain information in an activity-based setting, we in the Language Studies Department do not just rely on traditional methods of instructional delivery. We embrace the idea of integrating technology into the classroom to make a lasting impact in our students’ learning process. st

Last year, we started researching free Web 2.0 tools to find out how to use them to diversify our teaching approaches. We identified four tools – Socrative, Quizizz, Kahoot, and Plickers – and started using them in our ESL classes. Each one of them gave us the opportunity to differentiate the way we deliver our classroom activities, leading to longer and

better retention of information. Additionally, these tools gave us a chance to see how our students enjoy using their gadgets in the classroom and how competitive they become when it comes to classroom participation. The willingness to participate and ask for more such activities proved to us how suitable the tools we used were. We believe that we made our classroom instruction more appealing and attainable for our learners. How do we use these programs? We generally integrate these online tools into our instructional time either at the beginning of the class to reactivate the students’ existing knowledge or at the end of the class to use it as an exit ticket/informal assessment. While most are done in a synchronous setting, some can also be used as homework assignments. Kahoot: Sevtap uses Kahoot at least once a week at the beginning of each class to assess students’ existing knowledge on a unit they covered. Through this online gaming response system, she gets immediate feedback on her students’ understanding of the topic and is able to give them immediate corrective feedback based on the answers they chose. Since this tool has a competitive feature, it can be discouraging for some of the slower-learning students. However, when used with caution, it encourages students to think and act fast to prove their ability in response time and accuracy. For example, I use Kahoot in my reading classes to review the vocabulary taught in each unit. Quizizz: Holly uses Quizizz in much the same way that Sevtap uses Kahoot. She makes short quiz games that review the previous week’s material or check the comprehension of the current homework. Like Kahoot, it is competitive, as the default is for timed questions with a live rankings board, but these features are easily

WATESOL Newsletter Spring/Summer 2017 - p. 18

toggled on and off by the teacher. Quizizz is the most juvenile of the lot, with comical avatars, perky music, and memes for correct and incorrect responses, but Holly’s adult students say they prefer it to the other programs. The game-like format makes it exciting and non-threatening. An added bonus is that Quizizz has a homework mode; the quiz games can be set up to run asynchronously, while still collecting useful data.

Socrative can all be used in small groups sharing a single device, and the exercises can be also deployed in a computer lab. In general, the learning curve is short and the benefits are great, so we highly recommend giving one or more of these programs a try. Your students will thank you.

Sevtap Frantz is currently an Assistant Professor at Prince George’s Community College’s Language Studies Socrative: Holly alternates her use of Socrative Department. She holds a MA in with Quizizz, as they have somewhat different Curriculum and Instruction with functionality. If Holly wants a short fill-in-thean ESL specialty from George blank activity to use in lab, a program that Washington University. She is a automatically groups students into teams, or a Swiss born Turkish-American more serious look and feel, she opts for citizen who has had the Socrative. Socrative is very quick to learn and set opportunity to teach to students from various up, and it has presets for true/false questions, social-cultural backgrounds. multiple-choice and multiple-answer questions, and Exit Tickets—quick comprehension checks Holly Gray is an Associate Professor in the that teachers give at the end of class. Language Studies Department at Prince George's Community Plickers: Even though the upfront preparation College. She has been teaching time for Plickers is longer, this simple yet ESL since 1995, and while she loves all aspects of teaching powerful tool can assess your entire class’s English to non-native speakers, response in just a few seconds. Once the response her passions are cards are made and the students are instructed teaching pronunciation and grammar and finding on how to use them, it is very easy to compile the new ways to use technology to enhance answers from students. With just one smart education. device, students’ responses can be instantly recorded. It is a great alternative to anonymous replies


Thus, the benefits of using such tools is unquestionable. One important question, however, that most instructors always ask is how Contact for questions. Contributions can include: connecting much time it takes to become familiar with and research to practice, current topics of interest to administer such tools. The fact is, they can be a little time-consuming at the beginning, the membership, and teaching tips. especially working with Plickers; nevertheless, the time invested in creating and administering Guidelines include:  1,500 words or less these Web 2.0 games is worthwhile since they appeal to our learners and motivate them to  Up to 5 citations, following APA citation style stay engaged, and the activities can easily be  2-3 sentence author biography recycled and edited for future classes. Teachers must also know their  Author photo (digital head shot) students. Although many have smartphones, not  Include a byline with your name, email, and all students have Internet-ready affiliation devices. However, Kahoot, Quizizz, and

WATESOL Newsletter Spring/Summer 2017 - p. 19

WATESOL Newsletter Spring/Summer 2017 - p. 20


Technology changes quickly, and it can be hard to keep up. Conferences are a great way to stay on the cutting edge of what’s new and what works! There are many inspiring conferences nationally and locally to engage in EdTech! Also, check out this fancy infographic that illustrates the conferences by season! Here are three recommended conferences to help you cultivate tech in the classroom. *ISTE — International Society for Technology in Education — Late June*  The comprehensive, teacher-focused nature of this conference with high-profile keynote speakers make this renowned conference live up to expectations. *FETC — Future of Education Technology Conference — Late January*  This Orlando-based conference claims to be the largest independent ed tech conference in the nation. With its immense catalog of workshops, live demonstrations and concurrent sessions, there is something for everyone here and so many great ideas to take back to your class. *MACPL — Mid-Atlantic Conference on Personalized Learning — Late February*  With session tracks ranging from Content and Curriculum to Digital Age Teaching and Learning, Leadership, and Professional Learning, this local conference covers the gamut of technology topics. The idea of personalized learning runs through each session in the conference, located in Baltimore, which is what technology does best.

WATESOL Newsletter Spring/Summer 2017 - p. 21

Keynote: Dr. Lourdes Ortega, Georgetown University Reimagining English Competence for the 21st Century: A Multilingual SLA Perspective Second-language users of English are bi/multilinguals with rich communication repertoires. Yet all too often their English is construed as deficient and their multilingual prowess is erased. In this talk, I reflect on what it means for multilinguals to be communicatively competent and suggest ways in which our pedagogies can respond to it. I will argue that, more and more, developing language for communicating in the 21st century means developing the capacity to use English for transformation and empowerment, so as to be able to claim the right to speak (as Norton Peirce 1995 called it) and to exercise the power to impose meanings (as Bourdieu 1972 called it). How do we achieve these new goals? First, our language pedagogies must open up to the psycholinguistic realities of multilinguals. Translanguaging might be a way to do so (GarcĂ­a & Li Wei, 2014). We will also need to help our students cultivate an awareness of both world Englishes and unequal Englishes (Tupas, 2015). We must also include strategies that help them recognize, disrupt, and productively exploit to their advantage the experiences of being positioned by others as a novice, a foreigner, an outside member, or a nonnative speaker. In sum, our pedagogies must show that language is about identity choices and communication is about power struggles. How do we meet this tall order? I believe both big and small pedagogical practices can help the TESOL profession rise to the challenge of meeting these 21st century goals for a reimagined English communicative competence that is transformative and empowering.

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CALL FOR PROPOSALS: May 15 - June 15, 2017 WATESOL welcomes proposals from teachers, teacher educators, program administrators, materials and curriculum developers, language assessment experts, technology specialists, graduate students, researchers, and other professionals in fields related to the learning and teaching of English as an additional language. We are seeking proposals for:  practice-oriented presentations,  research-oriented presentations,  graduate student research presentations,  poster presentations,  electronic village presentations, and  workshops. The conference will also feature a keynote address, SIG (Special Interest Group) meetings, roundtable discussions, and exhibitors. Contact WATESOL’s Professional Development Co-Chairs at with any questions.

Call for Volunteers Interested in helping to make WATESOL’s Fall Conference a success? Volunteering is a great way to make connections with other WATESOL members, enhance your event-planning skills, and build your resume, while also earning a discounted registration rate for the conference. Volunteers are currently being sought for the Welcome and Logistics Committee and the Registration and Recognition Committee. If interested, please contact by July 15, 2017.

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ADVOCACY CHAIR Joanna Duggan & Colleen Shaughnessy

CO-VICE PRESIDENTS Rebecca Wilner & Heather Weger







ADULT EDUCATION SIG Christyann Helm & Erin Ross

TREASURER Jennifer Lubkin Chavez

K-12 SIG Emily Naber

NEWSLETTER EDITORS Lindsey Crifasi, Stephanie Gallop & Silvia Hildesheim

NNEST Sevtap Frantz

PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT COORDINATORS Rebecca Sachs, Mary Spanarkel & Emily Vandermade

BE PART OF WATESOL! WATESOL is currently looking to fill some Board member positions, starting in October of this year. Our Board members are the cornerstone of what makes WATESOL work, and we'd love to have you join us! All Board positions are volunteer, and are for 2 years each unless otherwise specified.

Co-Vice President (one 2-year position; one 3-year position with one year each as Vice President, President and Past President) Treasurer Professional Development Chair (2) Recording Secretary Adult Education SIG Co-Chairs (2)

- p. 24 anyone for any of these Position descriptions can beWATESOL found at Newsletter If you would like2017 to nominate positions, please send an email to by June 30th.

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Watesol newsletter spring 2017  

Watesol newsletter spring 2017