Page 1

Bonus Issue for Community Water Systems 2012


Public Water Issues: A Conference for Communities, Contractors, and Consulting Professionals 'ARDEN'ROVE #ALIFORNIAs-AY  30/.3/2%$"9

Come collaborate and network with public water supply professionals from every level of the industry during this one-day conference that will address, among other questions: s(OWDOGROUNDWATERANDSURFACEWATERCOMPAREFORPUBLICSUPPLYSYSTEMS s7HATSHOULDCONTRACTORS CONSULTINGANDENGINEERINGlRMS ANDUTILITIESEXPECTFROMEACHOTHER During this conference, you will learn about new innovations in groundwater management, distribution, and supply. In addition, joint presentations by contractors, consultants, and key community members will address common issues and challenges that affect every member of the public water supply community. Don’t miss out on this opportunity. Register today! 30%#)!,/00/245.)494HE0UBLIC7ATER)SSUESCONFERENCE ISBEINGHELDINCONJUNCTIONWITHTHE.'7!'ROUND7ATER 3UMMIT"YREGISTERINGFORTHE0UBLIC7ATER)SSUESCONFERENCE you may also attend any sessions taking place May 9 at the 'ROUND7ATER3UMMIT&ORMOREINFORMATIONONTHE3UMMIT PLEASEVISITWWW'ROUND7ATER3UMMITORG

sWWW.'7!ORGs NGWA has a long history of offering quality educational programming on all things groundwater. From conferences, short courses, and Webinars to our annual NGWA Expo and brown bag online sessions, NGWA is a recognized leader in groundwater education.

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Vol. 1, No. 1 Spring 2012

FEATURED ARTICLES 9 Groundwater vs. Surface Water By Darol W. Russell

There are multiple factors to consider when looking into the cost of water. 12 Test Time By Jimmy Scroggins and Mark Heiser

The way to validate pump performance is through a manufacturer’s certified test.

Page 9

19 PUBLIC GROUNDWATER SYSTEMS JOURNAL Q & A By Mike Price

Loyd Duplantis, Haiti Mission Inc.

COLUMNS 14 EPA Update by Charles Job Water Treatment Practices at GroundwaterSupplied Community Water Systems in the United States 16 Engineering Your Business by Ed Butts, PE, CPI Groundwater Treatment Page 12

Disinfection—Ozone and UV

22 Safety Matters by Jack Glass, CIH, CSP Conducting Facility Safety Audits A workplace safety program has to start right in your office. The views expressed in the columns are the authors’ opinions based on their professional experience.

s 2012

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Bonu

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About the cover A pump station for a community water system stands in front of a pump tower. Along with aiding communities with water supply, water towers are often landmarks around the country. ®

DEPARTMENTS 2 3 3 4 7 8 24 24 25 28

Editor’s Note: Group Together a New Plan In This Issue Index of Advertisers Industry Newsline The Log Web Notes Coming Events Newsmakers Featured Products Public Groundwater Systems Journal Qualification Form IBC Closing Time

The Public Groundwater Systems Journal (ISSN #2166-6512) is published quarterly by the National Ground Water Association, 601 Dempsey Rd., Westerville, OH 43081. Printed and mailed at Beaver Dam, Wisconsin, and additional mailing offices. Postal acceptance: Periodical (requester subscription circulation) postage paid at Westerville, Ohio, and at additional mailing offices. Postmaster: Send address changes to Public Groundwater Systems Journal, 601 Dempsey Rd., Westerville, OH 43081. Canada Post/ Publications Mail Agreement #40739533. Return address: 4960-2 Walker Rd., Windsor, ON N9A 6J3.

www.NGWA.org

Public Groundwater Systems Journal Spring 2012 1/


EDITOR’S

NOTE

Group Together a New Plan everal staff members gathered at a meeting facility near their office. They were divided into groups and provided directions that were relatively simple: Think of ways you can impact your customers. No idea was off limits. Nothing was too grand or too simplistic—simply come up with ideas and write them down. They were told to then follow that up by listing what it would take to achieve those goals. Any additional tools, equipment, staff, or training needed was jotted down. Finally, some members of the groups were switched so that the ideas could be further hashed out with yet another perspective. I was a part of this meeting. The staff was that of the National Ground Water Association and the idea session took place in the fall. NGWA staff members discussed how they can aid those in the groundwater industry in 2012. Our goal was to come up with ways to better serve members, readers of our publications, conference attendees, certified professionals, and more. But the staff could have been yours. In fact, I think you should do something similar as soon as possible. In this tight economy, customer service has become more critical than ever. Today, subtle changes to the way you do things or new offerings can make a difference. I think NGWA’s meeting will prove successful for several reasons. Here are a few that you should keep in mind when you plan your session.

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Have the meeting off site. Just not looking at the same four walls or getting distracted by the ringing phone will be invaluable. You don’t need to rent an entire facility; reserve a table or room at a restaurant and brainstorm over pizza. Everyone seems to think better with pizza! Mix up your groups. If your staff is large enough, have the groups made up of people from different departments or those who don’t regularly work together. While I headed the group that discussed publishing efforts, there were unique ideas provided by someone in accounting. She didn’t have any preconceived opinions on our journals and that perspective was wonderful. Have an open mind. Make sure everyone is brought in and that they know some ideas will be put to use. It will be good for the staff to be together off site. It will also be good for those who don’t often work together to be in the same group, but the session will be most productive if everyone knows that some ideas will be implemented. Perhaps offer rewards for some ideas that get added first to the company work plan or the next budget. Something as simple as a gift card to a local restaurant or gas station can make your staff feel appreciated. So go ahead. Grab a pizza, brainstorm ideas, and watch your company grow.

Thad Plumley is the editor of Public Groundwater Systems Journal and director of publications at the National Ground Water Association. He can be reached at tplumley @ngwa.org and on Twitter @WaterWellJournl.

Advertise your products and services to the groundwater industry’s most influential readership. Call Shelby Fleck and Vickie Wiles in the NGWA sales department at (800) 551-7379. ● ● ●

Shelby Fleck

Approximately 25,000 readers every issue. More than 20,000 work at community groundwater systems. Others reside in professions also allied to the field. Readers reside in every state.

Disclaimer Public Groundwater Systems Journal and the National Ground Water Association provide information for guidance and information purposes only. This publication is not intended to provide investment, tax, or legal advice. The information contained herein has been compiled from sources deemed reliable and it is accurate to the best of our knowledge and belief; however, Public Groundwater Systems Journal and the National Ground Water Association cannot guarantee as to its accuracy, completeness, and validity and cannot be held liable for any errors or omissions. All information contained herein should be independently verified and confirmed. Public Groundwater Systems Journal and the National Ground Water Association do not accept any liability for any loss or damage howsoever caused in reliance upon such information. Reader agrees to assume all risk resulting from the application of any of the information provided by Public Groundwater Systems Journal and the National Ground Water Association. Trademarks and copyrights mentioned within Public Groundwater Systems Journal are the ownership of their respective companies. The names of products and services presented are used only in an educational fashion and to the benefit of the trademark and copyright owner, with no intention of infringing on trademarks or copyrights. No endorsement of any third-party products or services is expressed or implied by any information, material, or content referred to in the Public Groundwater Systems Journal. Advertising Disclaimer Advertisers and advertising agencies assume liability for all content (including text, representation, and illustrations) of advertisements printed and also assume responsibility for any claims arising therefrom made against the publisher. The publisher reserves the right to reject any advertising that it believes is not in keeping with the publication's standards or is deemed unsuitable or misleading.

Vickie Wiles

2/ Spring 2012 Public Groundwater Systems Journal

www.NGWA.org


IN THIS elcome to the inaugural issue of Public Groundwater Systems Journal, a publication created by the National Ground Water Association for those working at public water systems served by groundwater.

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You work at one of the more than 40,000 community water systems in the United States today and Public Groundwater Systems Journal is designed to be a tool to aid you in your professional needs. Its content is a mix of feature articles, columns, and departments authored by professionals in the field as well as award-winning journalists. The publication joins NGWA’s other respected and award-winning titles, including Water Well Journal, Ground Water, and Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation. Water Well Journal is in its 66th year and Ground Water is celebrating its 50th volume this year. The first feature article in this Spring issue is by Darol W. Russell, the operations director for the Sylacauga Utilities Board in Sylacauga, Alabama. His article, “Groundwater vs. Surface Water” begins on page 9 and details the importance of source water quality. He presents a case study for his city that is served by a surface water treatment plant and two Darol W. Russell wells. He addresses all

of the variables that must be considered and then presents the cost analysis summary to show why groundwater is a smart choice for his community. Jimmy Scroggins and Mark Heiser of Xylem Inc. coauthored a feature article titled “Test Time.” Starting on page 12, the piece highlights the importance of having a manufacturer perform a certified test on a pump when installing a new pumping system. They point out such tests are imperative today due to numerous technological advances in systems and the amount of government regulations. They also provide facts to consider to ensure properly testing the pump, go over testing standards, and discuss the processing of a pump test. Charles Job of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency authored an EPA Update column called “Water Treatment Practices at GroundwaterSupplied Community Water Systems in the United States.” The column, on page 14, provides the results of an EPA survey in 2006 on the treatment practices of community systems served by groundwater. Among the findings are that more Charles Job than 91% of systems regardless of size chlorinated their water for the purpose of disinfection for microbial contaminants, while 15% added fluoride.

Another column, Engineering Your Business by Ed Butts, PE, CPI, goes over ozone and ultraviolet (UV) lamps as disinfection methods. In “Groundwater Treatment” on page 16, Butts provides information on how the chlorination methods work as well as advantages and Ed Butts, PE, CPI disadvantages of each. Finally, NGWA Associate Editor Mike Price spoke with Lloyd Duplantis for a “Public Groundwater Systems Journal Q & A.” Duplantis is a pharmacist in Louisiana, but one involved in drilling water wells in Haiti. In fact, Duplantis won an NGWA Honorary Member Award at the 2011 Ground Water Expo for his humanitarian efforts. In the interview on page 19, Duplantis explains that after visiting the nation in 2000 he formed Haiti Mission Inc. Its focus is to develop safe and sufficient water supplies and has begun initiatives in education, various forms of humanitarian aid, and animal husbandry. Public Groundwater Systems Journal is free to individuals working in the groundwater industry. It will be published twice this year and move to a quarterly format next year. Fill out a qualification form on page 28 so you don’t miss the next issue that will be delivered this winter.

INDEX OF Card No./ Page

Alloy Screen Works (800) 577-5068 www.alloyscreenworks.com Baker Mfg., Water Systems Division (800) 523-0224 www.bakermfg.com Cotey Chemical (806) 747-2096 www.coteychemical.com Miller Drilling (931) 762-7548 www.millerdrilling.com www.NGWA.org

1 OBC

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Morrow Water Technologies (205) 408-6680 www.morrowwater.com NGWA/Bookstore (800) 551-7379 www.ngwa.org NGWA/ConsensusDOCS (800) 551-7379 www.ngwa.org NGWA/Ground Water Summit (800) 551-7379 www.ngwa.org

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ADVERTISERS Card No./ Page

NGWA/Groundwater Expo 9 (800) 551-7379 www.ngwa.org NGWA/NGWREF 10 (800) 551-7379 www.ngwa.org NGWA/Public Water Issues Conference 11 (800) 551-7379 www.ngwa.org Robbco Pumps 12 (806) 749-7475 www.robbcopumps.com

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Public Groundwater Systems Journal Spring 2012 3/


INDUSTRY

NEWSLINE

U.S. EPA Proposed Rulemaking on Lead-Free Drinking Water Products Expected in May The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency will be incorporating the changes brought by the Reduction of Lead in Drinking Water Act within its overall lead and copper rulemaking. The expected time frame for a notice of proposed rulemaking is May 2012, with final action in December 2013. The bipartisan bill was signed on January 4, 2011, providing a 36-month implementation period from approval, after which time compliance will be

National Research Council Report States Reuse of Treated Wastewater Could Augment Water Supplies With recent advances in technology and design, treating municipal wastewater and reusing it for drinking water, irrigation, industry, and other applications could significantly increase the nation’s total available water resources,

required with the new standard. It uniformly reduces the lead standard for pipes, pipe fittings, and plumbing fittings used to convey drinking water to a weighted average of 0.25% of the wetted surface, which is consistent with the current state laws in California, Maryland, and Vermont. The current federal level of permissible lead content is 8%. The benchmark for solder and flux is 0.2%. Most of the issues revolve around

corrosion, or leaching, of lead—a metal found in natural deposits—in water system materials. The measure amends Section 1417 of the Safe Drinking Water Act by redefining “lead free.” To view the March 2011 Water Well Journal article, visit waterwell journal.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/ 01/March-2011-Lead-Article.pdf. For more information on the overall lead and copper rule, visit water.epa.gov/ lawsregs/rulesregs/sdwa/lcr/index.cfm.

particularly in coastal areas facing water shortages, says a new report from the National Research Council. It adds that the reuse of treated wastewater, also known as reclaimed water, to augment drinking water supplies has significant potential for helping meet future needs. Moreover, new analyses suggest the possible health risks of exposure to chemical contaminants and disease-causing microbes

from wastewater reuse do not exceed, and in some cases may be significantly lower than, the risks of existing water supplies. “Wastewater reuse is poised to become a legitimate part of the nation’s water supply portfolio, given recent improvements to treatment processes,” says R. Rhodes Trussell, chair of the committee that wrote the report and president of Trussell Technologies in

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MANUFACTURE OF SUBMERSIBLE AND LINESHAFT PUMPS

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IDALOU, TEXAS ,USA 4/ Spring 2012 Public Groundwater Systems Journal

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Pasadena, California. “Although reuse is not a panacea, wastewater discharged to the environment is of such quantity that it could measurably complement water from other sources and management strategies.” The report examines a wide range of reuse applications including potable water, non-potable urban and industrial uses, irrigation, groundwater recharge, and ecological enhancement. The committee found many communities have already implemented water reuse projects—such as irrigating golf courses and parks or providing industrial cooling water in locations near wastewater reclamation plants—that are well established and generally accepted. Potable water reuse projects account for only a small fraction of the volume of water currently being reused. However, many drinking water treatment plants draw water from a source that contains wastewater discharged by a community located upstream. But this practice is not officially acknowledged as potable reuse.

www.NGWA.org

The report outlines wastewater treatment technologies for mitigating chemical and microbial contaminants, including both engineered and natural treatment systems. These processes can be used to tailor wastewater reclamation plants to meet the quality requirements of intended reuse applications. The concentrations of chemicals and microbial contaminants in reuse projects designed to augment drinking water supplies can be comparable to or lower than those commonly present in many drinking water supplies. The committee emphasized the need for process reliability and careful monitoring to ensure that all reclaimed water meets the appropriate quality objectives for its use.

New Study Shows No Evidence of Groundwater Contamination from Hydraulic Fracturing Hydraulic fracturing of shale formations to extract natural gas has no direct connection to reports of groundwater contamination, based on evidence reviewed in a study released February 16 by the Energy Institute at the University of Texas at Austin.

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The study, released at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Vancouver, British Columbia, found many problems ascribed to hydraulic fracturing are related to processes common to all oil and gas drilling operations, such as casing failures or poor cement jobs. University researchers also concluded many reports of contamination can be traced to above-ground spills or other mishandling of wastewater produced from shale gas drilling, rather than from hydraulic fracturing itself, said Charles “Chip” Groat, an Energy Institute associate director who led the project. “These problems are not unique to hydraulic fracturing,” he says. The research team examined evidence contained in reports of groundwater contamination attributed to hydraulic fracturing in three prominent shale areas—the Barnett Shale in north Texas; the Marcellus Shale in Pennsylvania, New York, and portions of Appalachia; and the Haynesville Shale in western Louisiana and northeast Texas.

NEWS/continues on page 6

Public Groundwater Systems Journal Spring 2012 5/


NEWS/from page 5 The report identifies regulations related to shale gas development and evaluates individual states’ capacity to enforce existing regulations. In addition, university researchers analyzed public perceptions of hydraulic fracturing as derived from popular media, scientific literature, and online surveys. “Our goal was to provide policymakers a foundation for developing sensible regulations that ensure responsible shale gas development,” Groat said. “What we’ve tried to do is separate fact from fiction.” Faculty members from across the University of Texas campus participated in the research, which the Energy Institute funded. The Environmental Defense Fund also assisted in developing the scope of work and methodology for the study. Groat says researchers will supplement the study with an examination of reports relating to atmospheric emissions and seismic activity attributed to hydraulic fracturing, which have emerged as significant issues of concern in recent months.

2013 USGS Budget Proposal Includes Funding for National Groundwater Monitoring Network President Barack Obama’s 2013 budget request for the U.S. Geological Survey is $1.1 billion, $34.5 million above the 2012 enacted level. The 2013 proposal reflects administrative efficiencies and research priorities to respond to nationally relevant issues including water quantity and quality, ecosystem restoration, and hydraulic fracturing. As competition for water resources grows, so does the need for better information about water quality and quantity. WaterSmart, through the combined efforts of the USGS and the Bureau of Reclamation, provides information to address the nation’s water challenges. The USGS is proposing a total of $21 million for WaterSmart priorities, in support of the Department of the Interior’s Water Challenges initiative, and includes establishing a national groundwater monitoring network assessing how water quality influences water availability, and continuing water availability assessments in the Colorado

River Basin, the Delaware River Basin, and the Apalachicola-ChattahoocheeFlint Basin. The National Ground Water Association and its members have been a leading champion for a national groundwater monitoring network. “The Association has recognized the water supply challenges ahead and the need to have sound scientific data to optimize groundwater resources to meet those challenges,” says NGWA Government Affairs Director Chris Reimer. In her public comments on the budget release, USGS Director Marcia McNutt recognized the contribution of NGWA and others in stating: “It’s been a really cooperative effort with partners out in the field . . . and there is recognition of the importance of groundwater and this network.” If you have a news brief that you would like considered for this department, send a release to Mike Price, Public Groundwater Systems Journal, 601 Dempsey Rd., Westerville, OH 43081. E-mail: mprice@ngwa.org.

NSF 61 Approved Pitless Units & Pitless Booster Stations!

For more information contact:

Baker Water Systems Monitor 800-356-5130 monitorsales@baker-mfg.com www.bakermonitor.com

Stay ahead of the curve on State and National regulations by choosing NSF 61 Approved Pitless Units and Pitless Booster Stations from Baker Water Systems! 6/ Spring 2012 Public Groundwater Systems Journal

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THE

LOG

NEWS FROM THE NATIONAL GROUND WATER ASSOCIATION

Help Consumers Understand Water’s Value on Protect Your Groundwater Day

NGWA urges public water systems to promote Protect Your Groundwater Day (PYGD) on September 11 in order to raise the public’s awareness about the value of the water they drink. About 40,000 community water systems in the United States rely on groundwater, and protecting it makes sense from the standpoint of cost of treatment, safety, and quantity, says NGWA Public Awareness Director Cliff Treyens. “People on community water systems often undervalue their water because they are accustomed to getting highquality water in good supply every time they turn on the tap,” Treyens says. “Consumers don’t often think about the cost of treatment and how what they do can affect water quality and quantity.” Though many areas of the country have abundant water, a number of states and locales are experiencing drought conditions that draw down dramatically on groundwater and surface water levels. “Another way to help consumers appreciate the value of water is to educate them about the many ways they waste water—something that can be changed by some simple lifestyles adjustments,” Treyens said. NGWA encourages community water systems to link to or borrow from its PYGD Web page (www.ngwa.org/ Events-Education/groundwater-day/ Pages/default.aspx) in promoting PYGD. Community water systems also can be listed as PYGD promotional partners with links to their Web pages by contacting Treyens at ctreyens@ngwa.org or (800) 551-7379, ext. 554. Treyens also will e-mail upon request an electronic copy of NGWA’s publication, Public Awareness Toolbox: A Simple Guide to Raising Public Awareness. Other groundwater facts based on U.S. government statistics include: www.NGWA.org

Community water systems use an estimated 14.6 billion gallons of groundwater a day, about one-third of the total public water supply Approximately 88 million Americans are served by groundwater-supplied community water systems Nearly 108,000 community supply water wells serve 40,025 American community water systems.

You can learn more about groundwater protection and other groundwater issues at NGWA’s other Web sites, www.NGWA.org and www.Wellowner.org.

NGWA to Host Conference on Groundwater Issues in 2012

NGWA is hosting a conference focusing on groundwater issues specific to a certain region of the United States in 2012. The NGWA Focus Conference on Midwestern Groundwater Issues, June 26-27 in Columbus, Ohio, will concentrate on a host of topics: major seasonal flooding events impacting groundwater and wells ● issues related to oil and shale gas production ● increased water use for irrigation ● biofuels development ● other energy alternatives. To learn more about this conference and to register, visit NGWA’s Web site at www.NGWA.org. ●

NGWA Provides Journals for Developing Nations NGWA recently shipped hundreds of journals to four groups in developing nations. After consolidating items in its Ground Water Information Center at its headquarters this winter, NGWA reached out to its Developing Nations Interest Group to see if there was interest in hundreds of extra copies of Water

Well Journal, Ground Water, Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation. Four groups expressed interest and the items were boxed and shipped in February to Bindura University in Zimbabwe, the University of Lagos in Nigeria, Haiti Missions in Haiti, and the Water Research Institute in Ghana.

Special Exhibit Opens Near NGWA Headquarters A special exhibit travelling to museums around the world on the importance of water opened at COSI, a science center in Columbus, Ohio, near the headquarters of the National Ground Water Association. The exhibit focuses on all sources of water, and features live animals, handson exhibits, and immersive dioramas. Through a grant from the National Ground Water Research and Educational Foundation, wells and groundwater are an integral part of the exhibit. The exhibit will be at COSI, named the top science center in the country by Parents magazine, from March 17 until September 3. NGWA is listed as an education sponsor on the promotional materials used by the science center and was recognized as such at the exhibit’s media opening on March 15. The groundwater portion of the exhibit features “Porous Stones,” an exhibit intended to help dispel the common misperception that groundwater occurs largely as underground lakes and rivers. Also featured is a component that shows what may happen when two wells access the same aquifer. When water is pumped from one of the wells (by turning a hand crank), the pressure in the aquifer drops as a cone of depression spreads out until it reaches the recharge area of the aquifer, the discharge area, or both. A third groundwater component is featured in the three-dimensional Geo Wall animation. It shows how groundwater underneath Tucson, Arizona, has fluctuated during the past several decades in response to groundwater pumping and recharge.

Public Groundwater Systems Journal Spring 2012 7/


WEB

NOTES

FIND IT ON THE NGWA WEB SITE, NGWA.ORG

NGWA Seeks Professional Development Offerings for Presentation at 2012 Groundwater Expo

Groundwater professionals from all industry segments and all geographic areas will gather at the 2012 Groundwater Expo December 4-7 in Las Vegas, Nevada. Take this opportunity to share your expertise, research, or field trip venue and submit your proposal via NGWA’s electronic content management system (ngwa.confex.com/ngwa/ expo12/cfp.cgi) by April 27. Presentations must be technology transfer focused. The system will prompt you through the process. Titles should be 15 words or less, descriptions should be 150 words or less, and abstracts should be 300 words or less. The biographical information requested can be a maximum of 100 words and should indicate your training or education, current professional position, and expertise to present, moderate, or host an event. To learn more about submitting a proposal, visit ngwa.confex.com/ngwa/ expo12/cfp.cgi.

Access Recordings and Slides from NGWA Groundwater Expo If you missed the 2011 Groundwater Expo, attended but were unable to sit in on a particular presentation, or simply want to hear a dynamic speaker again, NGWA has a tool for you. The Association has teamed with PROLibraries to offer on-demand online access to more than 60 sessions from the 2011 Expo. Now you and your staff will have access to the Expo’s professional development while still at your office. Expo attendees have free access to all the sessions, while those who did not attend can download available individual sessions for $45 or download all the sessions for $349. To see what all is available, visit www.prolibraries.com/ngwa.

NGWA Career Center Works to Connect Those in Groundwater Industry

NGWA’s Community Makes It Easier for Sharing Ideas and Communicating

Start your job search by visiting the NGWA Career Center at careers.ngwa .org, where job seekers can post their resume, view jobs, create a personal job alert, and set up a job seeker account and access it. The NGWA Career Center has been enhanced with new features to help connect members with new employment opportunities. Employers and recruiters now have access to your specialized niche. Among other things, employers and recruiters can review resumes, post jobs, and create an employer account and access it. Make use of the NGWA Career Center to meet all of your needs in today’s job market.

NGWA’s “Community” is a new Web site designed to make it easier to share ideas and communicate with other NGWA members. NGWA Community is replacing the existing e-mail-based discussion groups for special interest groups and the general groundwater discussion group “The Well.” The new site features a platform that will:

NGWA’s First Phone App for iPhone Provides Valuable Terminology Information A glossary of groundwater and water well terms is available from NGWA as an iPhone application downloadable online in the App Store at www.apple .com/iphone/ apps-foriphone. The application for Apple’s iPhone is $4.99 and educational institutions can receive a discounted rate for multiple purchases. NGWA’s Lexicon was selected by a task force of industry professionals and contains terms with the most relevancy to the various groundwater professions and to the use, protection, remediation, and management of groundwater. While there are often regional differences in the use of some terms, the document is certainly an ideal collection of the definitions that relate to groundwater and professionals who work with it. To learn more or to purchase this product, visit the NGWA Online Bookstore at www.NGWA.org, or call (800) 551-7379 or (614) 898-7791.

8/ Spring 2012 Public Groundwater Systems Journal

● ●

Provide a way to easily join discussion groups to discuss the topics in which you are interested Allow you to control how and when you receive messages from the groups Have an area to post messages and still receive discussion posts in your e-mail inbox Use your NGWA.org Web site login to access your groups Have an enhanced member directory to allow member-to-member networking Update your profile, add your photo, import your LinkedIn profile, etc. for others to view Allow you to share documents, videos, and links with other members.

You can log on to the site by going to community.ngwa.org and signing in with your NGWA.org user name and your password.

Stay Connected with NGWA Follow the National Ground Water Association on . . . Twitter www.Twitter.com/NGWAtweets Facebook www.Facebook.com/NGWAFB YouTube www.YouTube.com/user/NGWATUBE www.NGWA.org


(COVER STORY)

Groundwater vs. Surface Water There are multiple factors to consider when looking into the cost of water. By Darol W. Russell

T

he source water quality drives all aspects of delivering quality potable water to customers for a municipal or community water

system. If the source water proves to be of excellent quality, the end product will ultimately cost less. If the source is of poor quality, treatment can be costly to the system as well as the rate payers. Among other variables analyzed are the costs to build infrastructure that can produce, transport, and store capacity. When comparing surface water and groundwater, there are a myriad of contaminants that must be monitored. Source water contaminants vary from state to state as well as within the state. Even though this is the case, every water purveyor must continually monitor and report primary contaminants and submit their results to their local environmental agency and adhere to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulations. To meet the regulations, there are questions that must be addressed. Is there a treatment process for removal? What does the method of treatment Darol Russell is the operations director for the Sylacauga Utilities Board. He has 23 years of service in the industry. He can be reached at drussell@sylacauga.net

www.NGWA.org

require? What is the initial capital expense? What will be the operational costs? The answer to all of these questions will determine the purveyor’s overall expense and ultimately the cost for the consumer. Obviously, all types of surface water and groundwater are treated to meet the regulations. Some forms of treatment and disinfection include aeration, sand filtration, membranes, reverse osmosis, and desalination. Disinfection methods commonly used are chlorine (gaseous or liquid, onsite chlorine generation systems), chlorine dioxide, and UV (ultraviolet light). So how do the costs compare when it comes to treating groundwater as opposed to surface water? As mentioned, there are a number of variables that have to be determined when figuring the cost. Let’s go over some as expressed in cost per thousand gallons.

A Case Study This case study is based primarily on the city of Sylacauga, Alabama. The Utilities Board of the City of Sylacauga operates both a surface water treatment plant and two wells. The Lake Howard Surface Water Treatment Plant is capable of producing 6 million gallons per day (mgd). The Pine Grove Well was placed on-line in January of 2010 and has a capacity of

1500 gallons per minute or 2.1 mgd. The Park Well, built in the 1950s, has a capacity of producing 0.5 mgd. The average system demand for Sylacauga is 3.1 mgd. The peak summer demand increases to 4.7 mgd. Now let’s analyze the costs associated with these facilities. It is understood all community water systems vary in methods of treatment and operations.

Water Treatment Infrastructure Capital Expense There are initial capital expenses that must be spent. Here is a comparison of two for the case study. Water treatment plant construction: $3.50 to $4 per gallon. For example, a 4 mgd plant could cost only $14 to $16 million. Well construction: For the Pine Grove Well, approximately $1 million was spent to drill test wells and develop the new well producing 1500 gallons per minute or 2.1 mgd.

Process Requirements Surface water treatment process: The water in Lake Howard would be considered pristine when compared with most water sources, such as rivers and other large lakes. The lake’s boundary is the Talladega National Forest. The source water assessment revealed low potential

COST OF WATER/continues on page 10

Public Groundwater Systems Journal Spring 2012 9/


COST OF WATER/from page 9 for contamination. The Lake Howard Treatment Plant was first established in the 1940s and expanded in the 1950s to treat 4 mgd. An additional 2 mgd treatment facility was installed in the 1990s. The treatment at the plant consists of aeration, flocculation, settling and filtration, and pH adjustment with caustic and corrosion control with ortho-polyphosphate. The disinfection is gaseous chlorine. Fluoride is added at 1 part per million. The high service pumps are 200 hp. Groundwater treatment process: The Pine Grove Well has produced more than 1.5 billion gallons of quality water to Sylacauga. The well consists of a 200 hp vertical turbine pump. Gaseous chlorine is used for disinfection, orthopolyphosphate is added for corrosion control, and fluoride is added for dental health at 1 part per million. The Park Well located downtown consists of the same treatment components, with the exception of stacked aeration that was added to strip out tetrachloroethylene (TCE). This well produces 0.5 mgd.

Disinfection Byproducts Disinfectants are an essential element of drinking water treatment because of the barrier they provide against waterborne disease-causing microorganisms. Disinfection byproducts (DBPs) form when disinfectants used to treat drinking water react with naturally occurring materials in the water (decomposing plant material). Total trihalomethanes (TTHMs)— such as chloroform, bromoform, bromodichloromethane, and dibromochloromethane—and the five haloacetic acids (HAA5)— monochloroacetic, dichloroacetic, trichloroacetic, monobromoacetic, and dibromoacetic acids—are widely occurring classes of DBPs formed during disinfection with chlorine and chloramine. The amount of TTHMs and HAA5 in drinking water can change from day to day, depending on the season, water temperature, amount of disinfectant added, the amount of plant material in the water, and a variety of other factors. Because groundwater usually does not contain the precursors associated

Table 1 Contaminant

Lake Howard

Pine Grove Well

Antimony

BMDL

BMDL

Arsenic

BMDL

BMDL

Barium

BMDL

.0093

Beryllium

BMDL

BMDL

Cadmium

BMDL

BMDL

Chromium

BMDL

BMDL

Cyanide

BMDL

BMDL

Fluoride

.698 mg/L

.989 mg/L

Lead

BMDL

BMDL

Mercury

BMDL

BMDL

Nickel

.0067 mg/L

.0077 mg/L

Nitrate

BMDL

.585

Nitrite

BMDL

BMDL

Total Nitrate and Nitrite

BMDL

.585

Selenium

BMDL

BMDL

Sulfate

BMDL

23.5

Thallium

BMDL

BMDL

Alkalinity

10.4

127

Aluminum

.06

.088

Calcium

2.7

31.5

Carbon Dioxide

9.1

110

Chloride

4.5

6

Color

4

3

Copper

.024

.019

Foaming Agents

BMDL

BMDL

Hardness

14.1

129

Iron

BMDL

BMDL

Magnesium

.872

12

Manganese

BMDL

BMDL

Odor

Slight Chlorine

None

pH

6.84

7.07

Silver

BMDL

BMDL

Sodium

4.94

2.03

Sp. Cond.

54.3

266

Total Dissolved Solids

BMDL

124

Zinc

.013

.02

Total Organic Carbons

2.0

.02

with high DBPs, it generally produces high quality water with little need for additional treatment. The quality of the groundwater produced at the Pine Grove Well has all but alleviated the prospect of violating the DBP regulations. The organic and inorganic materials in groundwater are minimal.

10/ Spring 2012 Public Groundwater Systems Journal

Consider the following for the Sylacauga water systems: ● ● ●

TTHMs before Pine Grove Well rolling average: 60 mg/L TTHMs after Pine Grove Well rolling average: 17.5 mg/L HAA5 before Pine Grove Well rolling average: 58 mg/L www.NGWA.org


HAA5 after Pine Grove Well rolling average: 10 mg/L

The Lake Howard Surface Water Treatment Plant for the city of Sylacauga, Alabama.

Table 1 shows the physical characteristics of the groundwater and surface water in Sylacauga. BMDL in the table represents below minimum detection limit.

Summary As stated earlier, there are many variables that constitute the value of a water source. The Lake Howard Surface Water Treatment Plant is in good condition, has been automated, and produces excellent quality water at an increased cost. Not to be overlooked is the issue of disinfection byproducts common to treating surface water. This would have required additional treatment in order to comply with the latest regulations and meet demand. The surface water treatment plant, which was previously the primary water source, now supplements the demand and is operated much less since placing the well on-line. The question was raised as to whether the board would need to lay off certified operators. This wasn’t neces-

sary. Their operator duties now include monitoring the SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition) system that displays on the computer all plant operations, booster pumping stations, wells, storage tank levels, and the after-hours call system for all utility departments. When a call comes in, the operators collect customer information and dispatch stand-by crews needed for the gas, electric, telecom, water, and wastewater departments. The cost savings are substantial.

Here is the cost analysis summary: ● ●

Pine Grove Well = $0.35 per 1000 gallons Lake Howard = $1.05 per 1000 gallons

Based on current demand, the Pine Grove Well now produces 70% of this demand by our customers. And with the superior quality of the groundwater source, capacity, availability, and the ability to avoid violating the DBP regulations—it’s a real savings to Sylacauga. PGSJ

ey!

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Circle card no. 6

Public Groundwater Systems Journal Spring 2012 11/


Test Time The way to validate pump performance is through a manufacturer’s certified test. By Jimmy Scroggins and Mark Heiser roundwater pumping systems today are much more sophisticated than in the past. Superior performance and efficiency are mandatory to maximize returns on investment. With these technological advances and more and more government regulations, it is imperative that decisions made regarding new pumping systems consider the most critical components in the system. The heart of that system is of course the pump itself, and the most advantageous way to validate the pump is to request that its manufacturer perform a certified test on the pump. Why should one insist on a certified test? The best answers are to increase reliability and avoid risk. Margins are crucial in this business. It is a fact that published pump curves represent only typical performance, and they are not to be used as a guarantee of actual performance. The assurance of pump performance—and thus higher profit and

G

Jimmy Scroggins has been the engineering manager of Texas Turbine Operation, a division of Xylem Inc. for more than four years and has been with the company for 17 years. His office is in Lubbock, Texas. Mark Heiser is the test and validation manager of the RCW division of Xylem Inc. (formerly ITT). He has been in the position for nearly five years and has been with the company for 28 years. He is based out of Morton Grove, Illinois.

productivity—is best achieved through a certified test by a reliable testing lab. There are a number of testing standards for vertical turbine pumps. These include: ● ● ● ● ●

ANSI/HI 2.6 AWWA E103 API 610 ANSI/ASME PTC 8.2-1990 A and B ANSI/HI 14.6

Plus there are many additional municipal standards. These standards are followed by all good pump manufacturers that serve the groundwater market. They are used to guide the design, manufacturing, and testing of their products. It is in the testing phase that all the factors involved with producing the pump come together and are affirmed.

Unlike most field installations, when a pump is tested in a manufacturer’s facility the water that exits the pump is immediately returned back to the pit. Large pumps may turn a pit over (the volume of water moved by the pump equals the volume of the pit) once every several minutes. To ensure the water returning to the pit has little effect on the pump’s intake, the pits are designed such that: ● ●

● ●

Facts to Consider To properly test a pump, there are many things that need to be taken into consideration. Aside from the pump itself, the facility used to test it must be adaptable to accept a wide assortment of pump sizes and must not inhibit pump performance. Also, the facility must use instrumentation that is accurate and traceable, and be operated by individuals who understand the intricacies of testing. Most vertical turbine or submersible pumps are tested in large water pits, and much care is given in the design of these pits.

12/ Spring 2012 Public Groundwater Systems Journal

The water velocity between the intake and return are nearly zero There are disruptions that discourage a continuous flow path between the intake and return The return does not cause air to become entrained in the water Air that may have become entrained in the system can rise harmlessly to the top There is sufficient volume to keep temperature rise to a minimum.

Concerning this last point, most of the energy imparted to the water by the pump in a production test system is converted to heat, so keeping a low temperature rise through shear pit volume or heat transfer becomes important. A rapidly increasing water temperature will adversely affect the accuracy of the performance test.

The Standard Standardization and adaptability are key when a manufacturer sets up a vertical turbine pump test facility. Test lines www.NGWA.org


need to be standardized around the measuring equipment, but flexible enough to accommodate the many different types and sizes of pumps that will be tested. Manufacturers will typically have more than one test line, and these are sized according to the flow rates of the pumps that are expected to be tested on the line. The standardized part of a test line is the discharge side. It consists of long lengths of straight pipe that carries the water to the opposite end of the pit from the pump intake. Included in each line are a flowmeter, a flow control valve, and an inverted U-shaped piping arrangement. The inverted-U is located downstream of the valve and serves to keep the flowmeter and piping fully filled with water, plus it provides backpressure on the valve to help reduce cavitation across the valve. Making sure the piping remains full of water is a critical requirement for flowmeter accuracy. The discharge line is connected to the pump head with flanges or groove-type connectors. A manufacturer will use their own test heads as opposed to those of a customer since their test heads allow for easy and consistent mounting of their test motors and, if used, additional power measuring equipment. It is through the column pipe, column flanges, and adapter plates that pumps are adapted to fit the test head. Also included on the column pipe is the tap where pump discharge pressure sensing is performed. Sensing on the column pipe provides the pump’s bowl outlet pressure, while keeping at a minimum head loss due to the column pipe and head. Proper equipment and setups are a necessity for accurate tests, but coupled with these is a requirement for appropriate measurement equipment. The reliability of a certified test is assured through the use of instruments that have their calibration information traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). An even greater test accuracy is achieved when the combined accuracy (combination of nonlinearity, hysteresis, and non-repeatability as a percentage of full scale) of a measuring device is considered during equipment purchase. A www.NGWA.org

range of spans is needed to be sure that appropriate devices are available to accommodate the different pumps that require testing. Pump performance testing requires the measurement of head, speed, flow, and power. In addition, water temperature is also required since it has a direct effect on the total dynamic head (TDH) values of the final data. In the past, head measurements were made using U-tube monometers or dial pressure gauges. These have now been replaced in most labs with more accurate electronic pressure transducers. Likewise, magnetic type flowmeters have replaced other flow measuring devices mainly because their accuracy remains intact over a wider range of flow measurements. Electrical power measurement methods have remained similar, although the equipment is much more accurate than in the past. Calibrated motors are still accurate so long as the input power is clean and a tachometer can be used to measure the speed. However, with line-shaft pumps the incorporation of variable speed drives into test systems torque sensors have been found to be a much more acceptable power measurement device. The reason why? With the variable frequency drive (VFD), the same motor can be used to test at multiple speeds or loads without affecting power measurement accuracy. It is from the torque sensor (matched to the load) that values for torque and speed are generated from which the power can be calculated. In some instances a stipulation pertaining to the speed at which the pump is tested will be agreed upon by a pump manufacturer and pump purchaser prior to the start of the test. A pump manufacturer might request that a reduced speed test be performed for several reasons. One is that a pump’s net positive suction head required (NPSHr) might exceed the test facility’s net positive suction head available (NPSHa) at high flow rates. Full speed tests may exceed the maximum capacity limits of the test instruments for flow, torque, power, or pressure. Likewise, facility limitations for electrical power or available test motors may be exceeded. Even though a pump is tested at a reduced or increased

speed, the data can be corrected with a great deal of accuracy to the rated speed using the Affinity Laws during data processing.

Proper Processing The final step in producing quality test results involves properly processing the data. The TDH of a pump involves more than just a pressure measurement. The TDH is composed of the static and dynamic head at the point of measurement. The static component is calculated from the pressure reading, but the dynamic portion is based on the difference in water velocity between the column pipe and the pump inlet. Please note that the pump inlet velocity is usually considered to be zero. The dynamic portion cannot be ignored when calculating TDH since it is work performed by the pump and relates directly to the power consumed by the motor. Other calculations performed on the data include correcting for water temperature, specific gravity, viscosity, and speed. Governing bodies like the Hydraulic Institute provide clear instructions on how to perform these calculations, and pump manufacturers typically have these calculations incorporated into their data processing programs. These calculations must be performed to normalize the data to match the criteria used to select a pump, and ensure that the pump will perform as expected when installed. A good test lab will have their equipment and measuring instruments on a controlled schedule of maintenance and calibration to confirm the consistency and accuracy of certified tests. Bear in mind that for the pump manufacturer to calculate the pump system efficiency or wire to water efficiency, the information supplied in advance should include the specific capacity of the well and, if not supplied by the pump manufacturer, the cable size and length between the controls and terminals, column size and length, shaft size and length, and detailed discharge head data. Finally, it is prudent to specify a certified factory test if the customer’s pump performance requirements are critical to the process in which they are placed. PGSJ

Public Groundwater Systems Journal Spring 2012 13/


By Charles Job

Water Treatment Practices at Groundwater-Supplied Community Water Systems in the United States roundwater-supplied community water systems in the United States primarily applied treatments of chlorine, clearwells/ contact vessels, corrosion control, fluoride addition, and aeration to the water supplied to their customers. These results are from the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) latest Community Water System Survey (CWSS) conducted in 2006. This survey was done for the year 2006 with the full report being available in 2009 and serving as reference for future regulatory development. Other treatments were also used as indicated in the following text and in Table 1. The survey randomly selected from among the 52,000 community water systems and received responses from 1,949 of them.

G

Chlorine Most water systems (91.7%) regardless of size (based on service population category) chlorinated their water for the purpose of disinfection for microbial contaminants. Of the smallest systems serving 100 or fewer persons, 84.7% applied this treatment. All water systems serving 500,000 persons or more that responded to the survey chlorinated their water. Other disinfection processes used by less than 1% of systems by treatment Charles Job, of the Environmental Protection Agency, serves as a manager for drinking water system financial assistance, data management, communication, and training. He is a member of NGWA.

type include chlorine dioxide, chloramines, ozone, ultraviolet light, and mixed oxidant.

Clearwells and Contact Vessels After other treatments may be applied, clearwells and contact vessels may be used to add chlorine to inactivate pathogens in the water. Nearly 18% of groundwater-supplied systems utilize clearwells and/or contact vessels. Approximately 25% of small systems serving 3300 persons or less use this treatment practice.

Corrosion Control Corrosion control treatment minimizes lead and copper levels at consumers’ taps by adjusting the pH of the water while insuring that the results of treatment will not violate national primary drinking water standards. This treatment is primarily used by larger groundwater-supplied systems.

Fluoride Addition The addition of fluoride to reduce and prevent dental caries (cavities) is practiced by about 15% of groundwatersupplied systems. This treatment is mainly applied by larger water systems.

Aeration Aeration is applied to water to reduce ammonia and hydrogen sulfide gas and for bacteria control for safe water purposes. Nearly 11% of groundwater systems used this treatment. Other water treatments utilized by groundwater-supplied community water systems are listed in Table 1 along with the percent of water treatment plants in which they were incorporated. Of those treatments, sequestration (8.5% of treatment plants), ion exchange (6.7%), green sand filtration (6.2%), and potassium permanganate (4.5%) are most notably applied to groundwater for public water supply. While much attention has focused on membrane filtration in recent time, only 1.4% of groundwater treatment plants at community water systems use this technology as of the time of the survey. Additional information about the 2006 CWSS is available from EPA’s website at: http://water.epa.gov/ aboutow/ogwdw/upload/cwssreport volumeI2006.pdf. This article was compiled by Charles Job, Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water (4606M), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., from the EPA’s Web site and is not a statement of EPA policy.

Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation © 2012, National Ground Water Association. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. doi: 10.1111/j1745–6592.2011.01381.x

14/ Spring 2012 Public Groundwater Systems Journal

www.NGWA.org


Table 1 Treatment Practices for Ground Water Plants – Percentage of Plants Performing Each Treatment System Service Population Category Ground Water Treatment Practice Disinfection Chlorine Chlorine dioxide Chloramines only Chloramines with a free chlorine period (based on need in the distribution system and not routinely done) Chloramines with seasonal (routine) free chlorine use Ozone Ultraviolet light Mixed oxidant Filtration Processes Coagulant addition/rapid mix Polymer addition Flocculation Settling/sedimentation Lime/soda ash softening Recarbonation Filtration Micro strainer Slow sand filter Bag or cartridge Diatomaceous earth Pressure filtration Green sand Rapid sand filter Deep bed mono-media Dual/multi media Membranes Reverse osmosis Microfiltration Ultrafiltration Nanofiltration Other Aeration Potassium permanganate Corrosion control Ion exchange Activated alumina Iron-based adsorptive media Sequestration Fluoride addition Dissolved air flotation Granular activated carbon Centrally managed POU/POE Clearwell and/or contact vessel (e.g., basin, pipeline) Other Observations

100 or Less

101–500 501–3,300

3,301– 10,000

10,001– 50,000

50,001– 100,000

100,001– 500,000

Over 500,000

All Sizes

84.7 0.0 0.0 0.0

94.3 1.1 0.0 0.0

92.2 0.0 1.2 0.0

91.8 1.0 2.3 1.7

92.9 0.0 0.4 0.8

96.3 0.3 2.1 0.0

91.3 0.0 5.9 1.4

100.0 0.0 0.4 0.0

91.7 0.4 0.9 0.3

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

2.0

1.5

1.2

0.1

0.0 1.7 0.0

0.0 0.0 0.0

0.0 0.0 1.1

0.0 1.0 0.0

0.6 0.7 2.4

0.7 0.0 0.0

0.3 0.4 0.0

0.0 0.0 0.0

0.1 0.5 0.6

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

2.4 0.1 1.1 2.3 0.0 0.0

2.4 0.0 1.2 1.8 1.0 0.6

3.1 3.0 4.1 7.2 1.0 1.0

5.5 2.4 0.7 0.7 8.7 0.0

2.9 2.9 2.3 2.3 7.4 0.6

1.6 1.0 1.9 2.1 2.7 1.7

1.2 1.0 1.4 1.7 1.7 0.7

2.4 0.8 1.3 2.1 1.8 0.4

0.0 0.0 8.6 0.0 1.7 6.2 0.0 0.0 0.0

1.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.5 9.2 2.3 0.0 2.5

0.6 0.0 0.6 0.6 1.2 5.9 1.2 0.6 1.8

0.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 4.0 5.8 1.0 0.0 5.8

0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 7.0 2.9 3.7 0.0 4.2

0.3 0.3 1.0 0.0 1.7 7.2 1.3 0.0 2.4

0.3 0.9 1.2 0.0 2.9 0.9 0.9 0.4 3.4

0.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.2 5.4 1.1 0.0 3.5

0.5 0.1 1.8 0.2 3.1 6.2 1.5 0.2 2.4

1.7 0.0 0.0 0.0

2.3 0.0 0.0 0.0

1.2 0.0 0.0 0.0

1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0

0.3 0.0 0.0 0.7

1.8 0.0 0.1 0.8

0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0

1.4 0.0 0.0 0.0

4.7 3.1 11.5 18.6 0.0 3.4 8.6 1.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 31.4

4.7 2.5 11.5 7.9 0.0 1.2 3.6 8.0 0.0 1.1 0.0 24.6

12.6 6.6 13.0 3.6 0.0 0.6 13.7 14.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 17.6

15.4 5.4 13.0 3.1 0.0 0.0 6.2 32.4 0.0 1.0 0.0 9.1

22.3 4.9 22.8 1.8 0.0 0.0 8.3 14.6 0.2 0.9 0.0 2.1

15.1 7.6 58.5 0.3 0.0 0.0 5.4 61.7 0.0 1.5 0.0 3.5

8.4 1.8 27.9 2.0 0.0 1.7 5.3 29.9 0.1 4.7 1.3 5.2

10.8 0.0 53.4 0.7 0.0 1.7 12.2 12.9 0.0 11.4 0.0 3.9

10.8 4.5 16.2 6.7 0.0 1.1 8.5 14.8 0.0 0.9 0.0 17.8

3.3 62

7.1 89

2.4 161

8.5 108

6.1 230

1.6 197

11.7 658

1.1 444

5.0 1,949

Data: Q.8. Notes: Represents treatment practices for plants treating water that comes entirely or partly from ground sources. Percentages may not add to 100% because systems may perform more than one treatment.

www.NGWA.org

Ground Water Monitoring &

Public Groundwater Systems Journal Spring 2012 15/


By Ed Butts, PE, CPI

Groundwater Treatment Disinfection—Ozone and UV

hlorination is one of the first and most basic methods used for disinfection of potable groundwater supplies. We can expand upon this topic with a discussion on the use of a few alternative methods of groundwater disinfection, specifically ozone and ultraviolet (UV) lamps. There are obviously several other alternative methods that could be implemented, such as chlorine dioxide and potassium permanganate. However, ozone and UV are usually considered the primary frontline alternative methods to the use of chlorination and generally represent the most common alternate choices based on available current technology.

C

Ozone The first practical use of ozone for potable water treatment was in 1893 in the Netherlands. Although its use was fairly widespread throughout Europe, acceptance in the United States was much slower. There are currently more than 300 water treatment plants in the U.S. using ozone as a primary or secondary method of treatment, with the majority of the plants sized at or below 1 mgd in capacity. Ozone reflects a somewhat flexible method of water treatment because it can be used as an oxidant or disinfectant as well as for various non-disinfectant Ed Butts, PE, CPI, is the chief engineer at 4B Engineering & Consulting, Salem, Oregon. He has more than 35 years experience in the water well business, specializing in engineering and business management. He can be reached at epbpe@juno.com.

UV treatment is essentially instantaneous. It is not difficult to provide a 10-second contact time. uses, such as color removal or taste and odor control. In fact, since the implementation of the Surface Water Treatment Rule and control of disinfectant byproducts, the use of ozone as a primary disinfectant has grown considerably in the United States. Ozone exists as a colorless gas at room temperature and has a noticeable and pungent odor that is readily detectable at concentrations as low as .02 to .05 mg/L (by volume). It is a powerful oxidant, second only to a hydroxyl free radical among chemicals commonly used for water treatment. Due to its relative instability, it is usually generated at the point of application for use in water treatment and is generally formed by combining an oxygen atom (O) with an oxygen molecule (O2) to create the common form of ozone (O3). Ozone is used in groundwater treatment for a multitude of purposes, which include: ●

Disinfection of drinking water. Ozone is able to achieve disinfection with less contact time and concentration than chlorine. However, it can only be used as a primary disinfection since it cannot maintain a residual in the distribution system. Therefore, in order to use it in a potable water system it must be combined with another disinfectant, such

16/ Spring 2012 Public Groundwater Systems Journal

as chlorine or chlorine dioxide, to provide the required residual. Oxidation of many common groundwater contaminants including iron, manganese, and hydrogen sulfide. Ozone easily oxidizes iron and manganese by converting the ferrous (2+) form of iron into a ferric (3+) state and converting manganese from a 2+ state to a 4+ state. The two oxidized forms will revert to ferric hydroxide and manganese hydroxide. The required dose of ozone needed to perform these conversions is somewhat like chlorine because the doses are dependent on pH and temperature. However, the dose required for oxidation is 0.43 mg/L per milligram of iron and 0.88 mg/L per milligram of manganese. Just as with chlorine, iron readily oxidizes at a range between 6 to 9 pH, while manganese oxidizes best at a pH around 8. Oxidation of organic microcontaminants including taste and odor-causing compounds, phenolic compounds, and some pesticides. Ozone is often used to destroy various taste and odor-causing compounds since many of these are otherwise resistant to other forms of oxidation. Research has shown that an ozone dosage of between 2.5 to 2.7 mg/L with a contact time of 10 minutes significantly reduces taste and odors in the waters so tested. Organic macro-contaminants including color removal, disinfection byproduct precursor control, and other organic contaminants. Ozone is effective at oxidizing many organic contaminants common to groundwawww.NGWA.org


Table 1.

ter supplies. However, a pilot study or adequate duration should be employed to verify the results before embarking on a full-scale system.

Summary Ozone is a powerful disinfectant and oxidant. However, it is volatile and cannot be stored for any long period of time and must be produced and injected upon demand. Due to its inability to provide a chemical residual in a distribution system, ozone use is limited to a primary disinfectant and an additional disinfectant like chlorine must be added to provide the needed residual in the water system.

Ultraviolet Technology Ultraviolet light is a form of invisible radiation within the range of the solar spectrum. UV is similar to the wavelengths that are produced by visible light, but are much shorter. Ultraviolet light (electromagnetic radiation) covers an enormous range of www.NGWA.org

wavelengths and energy—from the very weak, such as long radio waves that are many miles in length, to the extremely powerful X-rays and gamma-rays with wavelengths that are only tiny fractions of a micron in size. The size of the wave is inversely proportional to the energy it carries, which means that a light with smaller wavelengths can do more damage than one with a larger wavelength. The visible portion of the spectrum has wavelengths that range from about 0.40 µm (micron) or 400 nm (nanometers) for violet light to about 0.77 µm or 770 nm for red light. Light with wavelengths shorter than violet (but with greater energy) is referred to as ultraviolet, and light with wavelengths longer than red is infrared. And while a visible light can give you a suntan or sunburn, UV light can result in terrible burns and even blindness. UV light with a wavelength near 0.254 µm or 254 nm is able to produce resonance effects in the DNA of living cells, causing disruption within the cell and leading to its inability to reproduce

and cell death, which makes UV irradiation useful and effective as a method of disinfection for potable water. The energy required for this effect is measured in watts (specifically, rated in microwatts per square centimeter, or µW/cm2), and the total required dosage is then the wattage multiplied by the time period, or µW × seconds/cm2 = µWsec/cm2. Thus, a standard UV bulb that delivers 3800 µW/cm2 will produce a dosage of 38,000 µWsec/cm2 after 10 seconds of exposure. Coincidentally, that is the minimum UV dosage required to meet the National Sanitation Foundation International Standard for Class A purification of raw waters that may contain pathogenic bacteria and viruses. However, a lesser standard of 16,000 µWsec/cm2 can also be NSF certified for controlling bacterial regrowth in the pipes of distribution systems in which the water has already been disinfected, and only nonpathogenic organisms are present. Recently, many UV systems have received NSF certification for up to 2 to 4 log (99%–99.99%) deactivation of various protozoan cysts and oocysts, such as giardia lamblia and cryptosporidium (see Table 1). However, many of the standard UV systems are still not powerful enough to kill these cysts, oocysts, and the larger parasites, so these may still require some method of physical removal, such as filtration.

Advantages of UV Treatment ●

Treatment is essentially instantaneous. Therefore, it is not difficult to provide a 10-second contact time within a properly designed UV system at a modest cost. The process is entirely electrical with no chemicals used or needed and no moving parts to break down, so the system is relatively simple in design and maintenance. Because the process is entirely electrical in operation, fail-safe and protection measures are relatively easy to incorporate. When properly applied, the disinfection efficacy against coliform bacteria and other parasites, including

YOUR BUSINESS/continues on page 18

Public Groundwater Systems Journal Spring 2012 17/


YOUR BUSINESS/from page 17

giardia and cryptosporidium, is quite high. With a few exceptions, the process is essentially neutral against the effects of pH and other physical and chemical water concerns. Therefore, potential interaction considerations to guard against chemical changes in the water are not usually required.

Disadvantages of UV Treatment ●

Just as with ozone, there is no residual activity after UV treatment to protect the water against subsequent contamination. The overall system design may be complicated by the need to place the UV process last in the treatment train or the need of another chemical, such as chlorine, to provide a system chemical residual. Routine maintenance to clean the optical (bulb) surfaces is mandatory. The protection system should be designed to turn the system off if and when the bulbs get dirty or the measured wavelength falls below a predetermined minimum level.

Special meters for monitoring the wavelength and intensity of the UV light are often expensive, but nonetheless required for many potable water systems. A complete treatment system is not necessarily inexpensive. Treated water should be kept in the dark for no less than 30 minutes because ordinary sunlight has the ability to activate repair enzymes found in many common types of bacteria, and as many as 67% of the bacteria previously killed may be revived after only a moment’s exposure to sunlight. There is a special design problem with smaller systems intended for intermittent use because cold lamps require a minimum warm-up period in order to achieve peak efficiency. However, operating the system intermittently can damage the lamp, and leaving it on all the time can heat the water and stimulate the growth of the few organisms that survive, so special consideration must often be implemented for these types of systems.

UV treatment must not be used in recirculating water systems because that method of treatment can produce a “super-strain” of UV-resistant bacteria that might be dangerous to health. UV light can be damaging to many types of plastics, so special shielding may be important. Water clarity (turbidity and suspended solids) is extremely important to prevent shielding of the UV light to the parasite, so pre-filtration for sand and suspended solids is often required. Since the system operates on electrical power, remote systems from the water source may require a standby generator or uninterruptible power supply to maintain power to the unit or a method to shut down the incoming water supply.

I realize there is much more on this topic that could be shared. It is my hope, though, that I have at least provided you with a basic overview of the use of ozone and ultraviolet light in treating groundwater systems. PGSJ

Innovate and Integrate: Succeeding as a Groundwater Professional in a Water-Short World (#5095) Register today and join your fellow groundwater professionals at this must-attend event! The 2012 Summit is focused on helping you prepare for, and thrive in, a world with such formidable challenges as increasing global population, multiple demands for water, changing climate, and unsustainable use of groundwater supplies. Awaiting you in Garden Grove, California, May 6-10, 2012 are 28 sessions including those on big wells/big water and water rights, invited and guest speakers including Pat Mulroy with the Las Vegas Valley Water District and Southern Nevada Water Authority and the 2012 NGWREF McEllhiney Lecture* presentation by Marvin F. Glotfelty, RG, networking opportunities, optional short courses, and more. For all of the details—and to register—visit www.GroundWaterSummit today. *The McEllhiney Lecture Series is made possible by a grant from Franklin Electric Co.

www.GroundWaterSummit.com s800 551.7379 s 614 898.7791 18/ Spring 2012 Public Groundwater Systems Journal

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PUBLIC GROUNDWATER SYSTEMS JOURNAL Q & A

Lloyd Duplantis, Haiti Mission Inc. ublic Groundwater Systems Journal typically interviews groundwater professionals throughout the year, but we decided to speak with Lloyd Duplantis, a pharmacist from Thibodaux, Louisiana, this month. Duplantis received the 2011 National Ground Water Association Honorary Member Award, which is presented to persons of eminence outside the groundwater industry who have contributed some special service to the industry or to the Association. Duplantis was recognized for his humanitarian work in constructing water wells for impoverished people in Haiti. He has created a sustainLloyd Duplantis able program by raising funds for drilling equipment to be sent to Haiti for full-time expansion of water well drilling. He also has raised money to hire a fulltime local person to oversee and maintain the well projects. After visiting Haiti in 2000, Duplantis and his wife, Faie, along with a core group from St. Bridget Parish in Schriever, Louisiana, formed Haiti Mission Inc. While its primary focus is to develop safe and sufficient water supplies, Haiti Mission also has begun initiatives in education, various forms of humanitarian aid, and animal husbandry. Since 2007, Haiti Mission has drilled 20 wells and has as a goal to bring potable water to within 500 feet of everyone within the region of Haiti in which it is working.

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Mike Price is the associate editor of Public Groundwater Systems Journal. In addition to his PGSJ responsibilities, Price produces NGWA’s newsletters and contributes to the Association’s quarterly scientific publication. He can be reached at mprice@ngwa.org.

www.NGWA.org

Public Groundwater Systems Journal: First off, how does a pharmacist from Louisiana end up drilling water wells in Haiti? Lloyd Duplantis: My wife and I had been feeling an urging to do missionary work in some country but we weren’t sure where. While reading a pharmacy journal one day, I happened upon an ad for a pharmacist to go to Haiti to work in a dispensary. That caught my eye. I had never remembered seeing an ad for a pharmacist to work in a medical mission. It was always doctors, nurses, and dentists. During the same month, I got a call from a doctor friend of mine who asked if I would like to go to Mexico to help in a medical mission. Wow! All of a sudden I had two places to go. Not being sure where I should go, I decided to go to both places to discern what my wife and I should or could do. Both experiences were powerful, but it was clear that Haiti needed more help. The French Creole language in Haiti was similar to the language with which I grew up in South Louisiana. The kindred spirit kicked in very strong and I was hooked on Haiti. PGSJ: How were you inspired to drill water wells in Haiti and what keeps it going? Lloyd: The first week I spent in Haiti was very moving. The mission group with whom I traveled had been working in Haiti for about 12 years at the time. The impact which they had on the community was striking. Besides bringing medical attention to the villages on a regular basis, they had helped rebuild the church and the school and had helped with several other projects, which had been a boon to the economy. But it was clear that water was still a problem. The main village had a few fountains that Doctors Without Borders had built, but the children in the surrounding area

Lloyd Duplantis and his wife, Faie, in April 2010 in Haiti. were continuously walking to fetch water. Although I was delighted to have been able to help in the dispensary, this incredible situation of water not being readily available to families perplexed me then as it does today. The question still haunts me: With water everywhere, why has the world been unable to tap into it, bring it to the surface, or deliver it to children and their families? Before I left Haiti that week, I visited with the Catholic bishop of the region and asked him where a group from our parish should work if we decided to come try to help. He directed me to Reverend Jomanas Eustache whom he had just appointed pastor of a very poor parish in the community of Numero Deux and Ravine Sable. We came to learn that besides being fluent in English as well as several other languages, he also was a civil and canon lawyer and the founder and director of the law school in Jeremie. These were invaluable assets in order to understand and work with Haitian law and customs. I spoke with Father Joe—as we have come to know him—and planned to come back with a group from St. Bridget parish in Schriever, Louisiana, to assess the situation. We returned the following year with a group of nine and began the adventure we now call Haiti Mission Inc.

DUPLANTIS/continues on page 20

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“I would hope that the proper value would be placed on water wells and water systems so that professionals could find it profitable to come to Haiti to install proper systems.” DUPLANTIS/from page 19

PGSJ: What does the country need more than anything at this moment? Are they getting it? If not, what is the reason? Lloyd: I think everyone would agree that a stable government and potable water for everyone would change everything about Haiti. Are they getting it? A lot of people are trying. I don’t know about how to get the stable government, but I would like to see NGWA receive funding to direct the water development in Haiti. It’s kind of crazy that a pharmacist from South Louisiana has to go to Haiti with a cable tool rig that he knew very little about and drill water wells as United Nations trucks and other government agencies located in the area pass by. Every article worth anything states that potable water is the greatest need in Haiti, yet the world governments can’t seem to figure out that water well drills and PVC pipe will fix that problem and fix it permanently. PGSJ: How has this impacted you and your family? How has it impacted your job as a pharmacist? Lloyd: My wife and I usually travel as a team to Haiti. One of my daughters has been with us on a mission trip and one day we hope to have more come with us. Our family has been blessed abundantly because of this experience. How has it impacted my job as a pharmacist? I opened my pharmacy business the same year I visited Haiti in 2000. When I opened the store, my wife and I committed ourselves to tithing a part of the profits to a mission. We have followed through with that commitment to this day. My pharmacy—Lloyd’s Remedies—still absorbs almost all of the operating expenses of the mission by furnishing an office, computers, a secretary, and paying most of the mailing and clerical costs.

PGSJ: Has this experience made you want to Duplantis receiving the 2011 National Ground Water Assovolunteer not ciation Honorary Member Award from NGWA Past only in Haiti but President Alan Eades, CWD/PI, CVCLD. elsewhere in the world? like at the Expo and what do you think of the groundwater industry? Lloyd: I am happy to offer any insights I may have to those wanting to work in Lloyd: From the first day I heard of Haiti or elsewhere, but I have several NGWA, I recognized an organization with lifetimes of work to do in and around which I needed to become more involved. Jeremie, Haiti, so I haven’t had a chance I was really blown away by the Expo. to look up to see where else to go yet. Everyone my wife and I met from the staff to participants was so willing to help and PGSJ: How did you learn to drill and offer encouragement. It reinforced my alwho helped you? ready strong convictions that the solution Lloyd: I was introduced to Porky Cutto the world’s water problems lies in harter—a familiar name to everyone in the nessing the knowledge and power condrilling industry, and I’m proud to say tained within the rank and file of NGWA. that he is my good friend to this day. PGSJ: Two years since the tragic Porky directed me towards cable tool earthquake that was the worst naturigs, and with the help of Buckeye Drill ral disaster in a generation (magniCompany we got a 20-W built and put tude 7.0 earthquake that was made on a trailer and shipped to Haiti. We worse by political crisis and cholera drilled our first well in June 2007 and epidemic), reports are progress is have been drilling ever since. slowly being made. What are your Because the trailer-mounted rig thoughts? couldn’t get to some of the areas in which we needed to drill, Humanitarian Lloyd: There is much for which to be Mobility International sold the original hopeful. The Haitian people are resource20-W to another group interested in a ful and perpetually optimistic. Given good cable tool rig to drill in another area of water and proper tools, they can take care Haiti. We had Buckeye outfit another of the recovery themselves. Everywhere rig on a six-wheel-drive truck and have one can see scrap and rubble being turned been drilling with it since 2010. into art and building materials. John Minnix was also a great adviIt’s clear that there are huge aquifers sor, instructor, and hands-on helper. throughout Haiti, so potable water is there John’s cable tool operator, Jamie Orr, for the asking. It’s also clear that where has been the real nuts-and-bolts guy. He there is potable water, there is very little has been to Haiti numerous times, train- cholera. Potable water is also the greatest ing the four-member Haitian drill team of all economic stimuli. Everyone seems how to operate and maintain the 20-W, to want to build schools, churches, and as well as all the other details you guys hospitals with little consideration for know are necessary to be a successful water sources and for no money in their well driller. budgets for water wells. I would hope that the proper value would be placed on water PGSJ: You received the National wells and water systems so that profesGround Water Association Honorary sionals could find it profitable to come to Member Award at the 2011 NGWA Haiti to install proper systems. Ground Water Expo and Annual Meeting. What was your experience

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PGSJ: What will need to change in order for Haiti to recover from the earthquakeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s aftermath and successfully rebuild the countryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s infrastructure? Lloyd: A better understanding on the part of people and governments of the statement, â&#x20AC;&#x153;I am my brotherâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s keeper.â&#x20AC;? PGSJ: What has the response been like in your local community in helping Haiti Mission Inc.? Lloyd: Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m so proud of our South Louisiana folks. The support has been incredible, especially from schoolchildren. Almost every elementary school in the area has had fundraisers where the schoolchildren have brought in nickels and dimes, sometimes giving up their lunch money to help. Numerous Rotary and Civitan clubs have worked hard and donated large sums of money to help. PGSJ: Going forward, what are your hopes for Haiti Mission Inc.? Lloyd: From a very practical standpoint, I hope we can keep all the wells we have drilled pumping. To date, all are doing so. I am very proud of that accomplishment. Going forward, I hope that our story can encourage others to help those in need anywhere they are found, whether that is here or abroad. I also would hope that the crazy story of a druggist from South Louisiana drilling water wells in Haiti can shake up the powers that be to realize that this is not rocket science. Every member of NGWA knows that drilling water wells is the answer to most of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ills. I hope and pray that people, organizations, and governments will come to recognize the true value of water rather than take it for granted and fund water development first before all else. I also hope that most of the pledges promised by our government and others to help in the rebuilding of Haiti will address the necessity of providing potable water. A thirsty world is waiting. PGSJ

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By Jack Glass, CIH, CSP, QEP, CHMM

Conducting Facility Safety Audits A workplace safety program has to start right in your office.

acility safety auditing takes in a variety of issues ranging from office safety to warehousing concerns, maintenance, and production. To have an effective health and safety culture, employers should consider not only obvious industrial hazards but also common day-to-day issues that may arise in the most seemingly hazardfree environments.

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Audits are useless unless the findings are consistently addressed. ●

Office Areas Offices can range from fancy Class A high-rises to small build-outs inside a warehouse area. Regardless of the style of the office space, there are common safety issues that should be addressed. It’s not uncommon to see slips, trips, falls, ergonomic injuries, and noise hazards in the office environment. Offices are actually a significant source of a company’s injury and illness history. One reason why these injuries occur is many health and safety programs ignore offices and focus on more traditionally hazardous functions. A good health and safety audit of an office space should include a detailed walk-through of the area—examining each work space, corridor, and meeting area. Some of the hazards that should be identified include:

Jack Glass is the principal consultant for J Tyler Scientific Co. and has more than 20 years of experience as an environmental health consultant. He has consulted on toxic exposures, risk management, and indoor air quality. He is the past president of the New Jersey Industrial Hygiene Association and past chair of the American Industrial Hygiene Association Construction Committee.

Electrical hazards: These include temporary wires used for permanent purposes, “daisy chaining” multiple surge protectors and power strips, and improper wiring to satisfy office rearranging. Another frequent hazard is the use of individual space heaters under the desk. Rarely will office outlets provide adequate power to support heaters along with other office equipment. Ergonomics: These hazards include poorly designed work stations, crowding of work areas, ineffective placement of office tools such as phones, keyboards, and mouse pads. Chairs should be evaluated to ensure they suit the workstation where they are used. Egress: In spite of the obvious hazard of being trapped in a burning building, it’s common to find stairwells and emergency exits blocked by files and equipment. In addition, exit lights and signage are rarely maintained. Storage: I don’t know if I’ve ever encountered an office that had too much room for file storage. In an effort to create space, boxes are frequently stacked far too high and far too precariously. Housekeeping: This can be a difficult issue since one person’s mess can be another person’s organization.

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Enforcing a good housekeeping policy for individual work areas can be tedious and result in angry coworkers. However, this should not deter an office manager from making sure that work areas do not become overwhelmingly messy. Food safety: Office areas are frequently the location of lunch rooms and break rooms for office and operations staff. Simple practices should include keeping a thermostat in the refrigerator to assure adequate cooling (less than 40°F) and performing weekly clean-outs to get rid of old lunches before they spoil.

Warehousing Warehouses can range from enormous buildings to small dedicated areas in a garage. Regardless of size, warehousing or storage practices must provide proper stacking and height limitations. The material handling equipment must be maintained in proper operating condition and one must consider the exposures they can generate, such as diesel or propane exhaust. If the equipment is battery-powered, charging stations need to be ventilated and have appropriate emergency equipment such as eye washes, drench showers, and emergency spill response. Users of this equipment, whether it is a hand-pulled pallet mover or a large fork truck, must be trained and qualified to use and maintain the equipment. Signage or demarcation should be placed on the ground to give pedestrians proper warning that motorized equipment is used in the area. www.NGWA.org


It is vital that the individuals responsible for selecting storage spaces for hazardous material are well versed in the compatibility of the different items being stored. For instance, it is important to have acidic chemicals isolated from alkaline chemicals. As in office areas, housekeeping is also an important issue in the warehouse. Stacking should not hinder exiting out of or easy movement through the area. Stacking plans should also consider the intended frequency of accessing the materials being stored. Those that are moved more frequently should be stored in the most easily reached areas.

container and restored. Tools should be inspected, cleaned, and placed in their proper location. Any remaining spills or debris should be thoroughly cleaned up and the area should be prepared for the next task prior to moving on to the next piece of equipment. Another source of injury comes from equipment that has been altered to suit a specific use. Many times this includes the removal of required safety guards or disabling vital safety switches. These actions should never be permitted. All maintenance workers should be trained to use the right tool for the right job. If the tool as designed does not satisfy the need, than a different tool should be selected or purchased.

Maintenance Areas When it comes to injuries, nothing presents more varied hazards or types of injuries than a maintenance area. This is primarily because the maintenance and repair of equipment is always unique. On any given workday, maintenance workers may be cleaning parts, rewiring electrical systems, rebuilding motors, welding broken parts, or changing fluids. Since no one knows what will break next, itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s not possible to anticipate the next task. Maintenance workers are adept at creating solutions that may not be consistent with the equipment manufacturerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s original plan. This often leads to tremendous improvement, but at other times the â&#x20AC;&#x153;quick fixâ&#x20AC;? creates a whole new set of hazards that have never been evaluated. Maintenance areas traditionally will have an enormous variety of chemicals. These may include solvents, lubricants, paints, fuels, and flammable gases. Every one of these chemicals must be properly stored, properly used, and above all must have a current MSDS (material safety data sheet) available for easy review. Traditional hazards must be evaluated for each project. Issues such as confined space entry, lockout/tagout, chemical cleanup, excessive noise, and personal protective equipment need to be addressed before initiating any type of repair. In order to maintain a safe work space, the shop area should be cleaned at the completion of each task. Chemicals should be returned to their original www.NGWA.org

Creating a Safe Culture Performing audits is an important piece of any companyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s health and safety program. Audits are useless unless the findings are consistently addressed and processes are created to eliminate their reoccurrence. Often this is the hardest part of maintaining a safe facility. A safe culture requires that a consistent message be delivered from all levels of management and staff. Having a true corporate â&#x20AC;&#x153;buy-inâ&#x20AC;? of the safety program is vital for its effective implementation. If staff receives conflicting messages from managementâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;such as placing emergencies, production, or profit above safety even in those rare

instancesâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;it will destroy future efforts to create a safe working culture. Management must truly believe safety is the highest priority. Supervisors, foremen, and laborers must be continuously directed to consider safety in every action they take. This is not to say that profit and production have to take a back seat. Employees should know their actions should lead to effective, profitable efforts and these efforts can also be performed safely. Do not expect a single audit to significantly alter the safety of a facility. These audits should be performed periodically. A comprehensive safety audit of all operations should be done annually, with follow-up reports focusing not only on the hazards that are found but also on the improvements that have been made since the previous audit. In between these annual audits, periodic surveillance and reviews of identified hazards should be conducted so that continuous improvement can be observed and successes can be rewarded. A safe facility will enjoy many benefits including a healthier and happier workforce, reduced workersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; comp costs, and a more effectively run facility. Any investment in improving a safety culture can have a significant return both on good will and on the bottom line. PGSJ

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COMING

EVENTS

April 13–14/ Empire State Water Well Drillers’ Association Spring Meeting/ Milford, New York. Web: www.nywell driller.org/news.asp April 22/ Earth Day/ Web: www.earthday .org/earth-day-2012 April 27/ Wisconsin Ground Water Association Recognition and Technical Symposium/ Pewaukee, Wisconsin. Web: www.wgwa.org/events April 30–May 4/ NWQMC’s 8th National Monitoring Conference: Water—One Resource—Shared Effort—Common Future/ Portland, Oregon. Web: acwi.gov/ monitoring/conference/2012 May 3–5/ 2012 Florida Ground Water Association Convention & Trade Show/ Orlando, Florida. Web: www.fgwa.org/ events.cfm May 6–10/ 2012 NGWA Ground Water Summit: Innovate and Integrate— Succeeding as a Groundwater Professional in a Water-Short World/ Garden Grove, California. PH: (800) 551-7379, Fax: (614) 898-7786, E-mail: customer service@ngwa.org, Web: www.NGWA .org

May 9/ Public Water Issues: A Conference for Communities, Contractors, and Consulting Professionals/ Garden Grove, California. PH: (800) 551-7379, Fax: (614) 898-7786, E-mail: customerservice @ngwa.org, Web: www.NGWA.org

Web: www.civil.uwaterloo.ca/catt/ TrenchlessRoadshow2012/roadshow.htm

May 13–19/ Drinking Water Week/ Web: www.bcwwa.org/public-info/drinkingwater-week.html

June 26–27/ NGWA Focus Conference on Midwestern Groundwater Issues/ Columbus, Ohio. PH: (800) 551-7379, Fax: (614) 898-7786, E-mail: customer service@ngwa.org, Web: www.NGWA.org

May 22–23/ 2012 Water Technology Innovation Cluster Conference: Making Water Connections/ Dayton, Ohio. Web: www.makingwaterconnections.com May 23–26/ Canwell 2012: Canadian Groundwater Symposium/ Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Web: www.canwell2012.ca June 4–6/ Hydrogeology Field Methods Course: What You Didn’t Learn in School Short Course/ Andover, Minnesota. PH: (800) 551-7379, Fax: (614) 898-7786, E-mail: customerservice@ngwa.org, Web: www.NGWA.org June 5–6/ Underground Infrastructure Research (UIR) International Conference and Trenchless Technology Road Show 2012/ Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada.

June 10–14/ ACE 12: American Water Works Association Annual Conference & Exposition/ Dallas, Texas. Web: www .awwa.org/ACE12/index.cfm

June 28/ Water Sampling and Laboratory Procedures/ Dover, New Jersey. Web: www.cpe.rutgers.edu/courses/current/ eo0102ca.html *Dates shown in red are National Ground Water Association events. *Dates shown with are events where the National Ground Water Research and Educational Foundation’s McEllhiney Lecture will be presented. Lecture schedules are subject to change. Check www.NGWA.org for the latest information.

NEWSMAKERS NEW ADDITION Ultraviolet disinfection specialist Aquionics has named Paul Ropic its new municipal sales manager. In his new position, Ropic will lead the growth of the company’s sales of water and wastewater disinfection units for municipal applications. Prior to joining Aquionics, Ropic was Paul Ropic territory manager for Wedeco Products where he was responsible for sales of municipal UV and ozone projects in 25 states. BUSINESS GROWTH Connecticut Water Service Inc. announced it has completed the acquisition of Aqua Maine Inc., a subsidiary of Aqua America Inc. Aqua Maine, which will be renamed The Maine Water Company, serves more than 16,000 customers, or a population of 48,000 people in 20 communities in the state of Maine.

Water quality engineering firm Panton McLeod Americas has announced the first partnership distribution deal for its Pantonite cleaning products in the United States. The Denver, Coloradobased firm has signed an agreement with Massachusetts-headquartered water services company Maher Services, which will see its Pantonite products used to clean water storage facilities, stripping towers, and wells across the New England and New York states. Under the deal, Maher Services will be the first regional U.S. distribution partner for the DWI- and NSF-certified Pantonite products, which are designed to remove iron and manganese biofouling from water storage structures including towers, tanks, and wells. AWARDS During its annual 2011 sales meeting, Merrill Manufacturing Co. presented several awards to the company’s sales representatives by Stephen Anderson, president of Merrill Manufacturing, and

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Dennis Jacobson, national sales manager. The 2011 President’s Award was awarded to Jim Ward of Forward Marketing. Merrill Manufacturing’s top excellence award, the President’s Award is presented to the sales representative who ranks the highest in six essential aspects of quality performance. Merrill Manufacturing has provided more than 60 years of service to the water well industry with its diverse product line of more than 4000 items. 2M Co. Inc., a wholesale distributor of water well and irrigation supplies, honored Flexcon Industries, a manufacturer of diaphragm well tanks in both steel and composite, with its “Circle of Achievement” award for 2011. The award is given annually at 2M’s dealer meeting to the manufacturer/supplier with the highest quality products, best customer service, and highest percentage of shipping accuracy. George Simas, president, and Gerry Duggan, vice president of sales, were on hand to accept the award. www.NGWA.org


FEATURED New Water-Right Conditioner Uniquely Designed to Treat Municipal Water The new Water-Right Impression Series RC water conditioner is a single system used to treat hardness and unpleasant taste and odors in municipal water. It features a unique â&#x20AC;&#x153;mid-plateâ&#x20AC;? design which combines activated carbon and high capacity resin into one tank. The carbon eliminates chlorine and other unwanted tastes while the resin removes hardness. Not only does the combination of carbon and resin in one tank replace the need for a second filter, the carbon also protects the resin from highly chlorinated water. The systemâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s meter electronically monitors water usage and automatically

regenerates, based on actual water consumption. The microprocessor captures all water conditioner operations including gallons per day, total gallons, peak flow rates, and total regenerations. Time is also held in memory and protected by a built-in battery backup. The Impression Series RC combines the use of two medias in one tank, plus a monitoring meter and advanced history and diagnostic screens. Circle card no. 15

Trojan Technologies Drinking Water Systems Validated for Full Virus Treatment Trojan Technologies introduced the first-ever drinking water UV systems validated to fully comply with U.S. federal regulations for delivering 4-log inactivation of viruses, including the highly resistant adenovirus. In addition, Trojan now offers two new system sizesâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;the TrojanUVSwiftSC D03 and D18. The new validations and product line expansion will enable an even

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broader range of drinking water treatment plants to benefit from validated TrojanUV disinfection solutions. Four units from the expanded TrojanUVSwiftSC product line, including the D03 and D18, now offer third-partywitnessed validation to meet all the recommendations of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agencyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s UV Disinfection Guidance Manual and allows water providers to implement a fully compliant single-unit UV solution for the maximum required treatment of viruses. The TrojanUVSwiftSC uses highefficiency lamps and is designed for compact installation and easy maintenance. It has been providing costeffective, multi-barrier protection to municipalities around the world since 2002. Circle card no. 16

Join us as we head back to Vegas this December!

www.GroundwaterExpo.com

Thatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s right . . . the NGWA Groundwater Expo and Annual Meeting is heading back to Las Vegas this year! Mark December 4-7 on your calendar today and plan to join your fellow groundwater industry professionalsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;both old friends and new acquaintancesâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;for another stellar groundwater industry event.

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800 551.7379 www.NGWA.org 614 898.7791

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FEATURED

PRODUCTS vertical and submersible turbines to zero lead and drainage pumps.

Water Analysis Is Simplified with Hach’s DR 3900 Benchtop Spectrophotometer

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Golden Software Announces Voxler 3 to Create Customized 3D Models and Images from Scientific Data

Hach Co. unveiled its DR 3900 spectrophotometer featuring state-of-the-art radio frequency identification (RFID) technology. Because the DR 3900 uses the latest technology, it requires less training and increases confidence in the test results. This helps water and wastewater facilities prevent measurement errors. The DR 3900 further simplifies water analysis by walking users through testing procedures to ensure consistently accurate results regardless of the user’s knowledge. The DR 3900 spectrophotometer provides significant advancements in quality control. It eliminates false readings by taking 10 readings of a prepared sample from different angles and removing outliers caused by scratches, flaws, or dirt on the glassware. RFID allows for hands-free calibration updates Similar to a grocery store scanner where the system recognizes what you are buying, the DR 3900 automatically recognizes the lot, expiration, and calibration curves associated with each TNTplus chemistry sample. When the operator places a TNTplus box next to the machine, the DR 3900 immediately updates calibration factors and lets the user know if the chemistry is expired. RFID technology enables tracking of samples. Circle card no.17

Bilco Offers New Wireless Intrusion Detection System for Access Points in Water Treatment Facilities The Bilco Co. announced a new partnership with CNIguard, a United Kingdom–based manufacturer of intrusion detection systems for access points in water treatment facilities. CNIguard serves North America from an office in

western Pennsylvania and Bilco will now act as the exclusive distributor for this innovative wireless security system in the United States and Canada. Bilco’s CNIguard intrusion detection system is specifically designed to protect access points in drinking water distribution systems against the threat of intentional contamination. The system uses a patented Smart Sensing Technology to detect tampering such as drilling, grinding, and cutting, while eliminating costly false alarms. The computerized system has the ability to distinguish between real threats and common occurrences such as heavy rain or hail, and is rated for a maximum of one false alarm per year. Circle card no. 18

Hydroflo Pumps’ Zero Lead Pump Exceeds Regulations of Safe Drinking Water Act Hydroflo Pumps USA Inc., a manufacturer of turbines, pumps, and specialty products for numerous industries since 1998, announced the addition of a Zero Lead Pump to its line of turbines, pumps, and specialty products. The Zero Lead Pump meets and exceeds regulations of the Safe Drinking Water Act, including the most stringent laws in the states of California and Vermont. The standard Hydroflo Zero Lead Pump features stainless steel impellers and hardware, castiron lined bowls, and Vesconite bearings, a specialized thermoplastic composed of internally lubricated polymers. Impellers are offered in 201, 304, and 316 stainless steel. The Hydroflo product line ranges from

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Golden Software Inc., a provider of scientific graphics software, announced the release of Voxler 3, a complete scientific 3D data visualization and graphics application. Voxler 3 enables users to quickly import data in a multitude of file types to create stunning graphics to explore the relationships between 3D data sets. This robust program gives the user the power to display data in a variety of colors, views, and 3D formats. These would include 3D rendered volumes, isosurfaces, straight and deviated wellbores, 3D block models, contours, 3D slices, orthographic and oblique images, scatter plots, stream lines, and vector plots. Circle card no. 20

Hach Hydromet Launches OTT ecoLog 500 in United States

Hach Hydromet announced the launch of the OTT ecoLog 500, a complete in-well groundwater level and temperature instrument offering flexible remote data transmission options via SMS, HTTP, FTP, and e-mail. The OTT ecoLog 500 reduces the overall cost of monitoring by transmitting all data and status messages to the office, eliminatwww.NGWA.org


FEATURED ing regular field visits for data download and troubleshooting. Long-term durability was a key concept in the engineering process. The in-well design protects the instrument from vandalism and weather elements over time. A robust ceramic pressure cell, Kevlar-reinforced cable, and saltwater-resistant 904 L stainless steel housing ensure years of use in the field. Additionally, an infrared interface at the end of the instruments allows simple on-site communication with a laptop or PDA and also eliminates the possibility of interface corrosion traditionally encountered by groundwater professionals. The instrument can be deployed up to 10 years with lithium batteries, and alkaline options are also available. All batteries and SIM card are field-replaceable without using additional tools. Circle card no. 21

Solinst Levelogger Edge Water Level Datalogger Performs in High Stress Environments The Solinst Levelogger Edge is a precision instrument that provides reli-

PRODUCTS

method of recording data in remote locations without requiring ongoing maintenance. Circle card no. 22

Bell & Gossett ESP-System Syzer Is Now Available as Mobile App for iPad and iPhone able datalogging of water level and temperature measurements. It uses a Hastelloy pressure sensor, which performs well in high stress environments, with excellent temperature compensation and response time, providing an overall accuracy of 0.05% FS with 24bit resolution. The Levelogger Edge consists of the pressure sensor, temperature thermistor, datalogger, and 10-year lithium battery in a factory-sealed housing, with a titanium based PVD coating for extra protection in corrosive or marine environments. The internal FRAM memory can hold up to 120,000 water level and temperature data points, using a new linear sampling mode compression algorithm. The Solinst Levelogger Edge provides consultants, researchers, and water professionals a compact

Xylem Inc. announced its Bell & Gossett ESP System Syzer ® is now available for mobile handheld devices. The ESP-System Syzer is accurate at calculating flow rates and pressure drops in piping systems. The new mobile app version of this industrystandard tool now allows HVAC professionals to download it on an iPhone or iPad and enjoy the same functionality while working in the field. Circle card no. 23

Make a difference

where it’s needed most by making a contribution today. . .

The National Ground Water Research and Educational Foundation relies upon contributions to support its mission of educating future groundwater professionals . . . furthering groundwater science . . . supporting advancement where the availability and quality of water represents a daily struggle. Donate to one of NGWREF’s funds today: s s s s s s

McEllhiney Lecture Series in Water Well Technology Darcy Lecture Series in Ground Water Science Len Assante Scholarship Fund Groundwater Research Fund Developing Nations Fund 21st Century General Fund.

To find out more about NGWREF as well as make a contribution, visit www.NGWA.org or call 800 551.7379 (614 898.7791). Operated by NGWA, NGWREF is a 501(c)(3) publication foundation focused on conducting educational, research, and other charitable activities related to a broader public understanding of groundwater.

www.NGWA.org

Circle card no. 10

Public Groundwater Systems Journal Spring 2012 27/


Qualification Form Please fill out the following information to apply for a free subscription to the Public Groundwater Systems Journal ®! Free subscriptions to U.S./Canada residents only. International residents can purchase a one-year subscription for $135 USD. 䡺 Check here if you want to receive Public Groundwater Systems Journal.

* Select the category that best describes your work. Operators of groundwater-supplied community water systems complete this section: 䡺 a. Management 䡺 b. Operator 䡺 c. Other (please specify) __________________________ ____________________________________________

Contractors complete this section: 䡺 a. Full-service contractor

Wholesale suppliers and distributors of pumps and water treatment equipment complete this section: 䡺 a. Supplier, full service groundwater 䡺 c. Management services 䡺 o. Supplier, other

________________________________

Manufacturers of industrial pumps, water well supplies, and treatment equipment complete this section: 䡺 a. Management 䡺 b. Sales personnel 䡺 d. Company employee 䡺 o. Other (please specify) __________________________

䡺 b. Pump-only contractor 䡺 d. Monitoring contractor

Fax it!

Mail it!

E-mail it!

614 898.7786

䡺 o. Other water well contractor __________________________

601 Dempsey Rd., Westerville, OH 43081 customerservice@ngwa.org

* Name __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ * Title ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ * Company ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ * Address ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ * City/State/Province/Code ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Phone ____________________________________________________ Fax __________________________________________________ E-mail ____________________________________________________ Web __________________________________________________

* Signature ________________________________________________ * Date ________________________________________________ * Must be completed for fulfillment of free subscription. Please allow four to six weeks to process your application. Due to the volume of requests we receive, we cannot reply individually to every denied request. 28/ Spring 2012 Public Groundwater Systems Journal

www.NGWA.org


CLOSING

TIME

“Closing Time” is the page of Public Groundwater Systems Journal that showcases—you! It will always feature a few pictures of people at work at job sites around the world. Please send in photos and brief

descriptions and you just may be the subject on the last page of an issue of PGSJ. And remember, if your photo is selected as the cover image of PGSJ, you receive $250. If your photos are selected, you will be

Mission control for the Lake Howard Surface Water Treatment Plant is the SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition) system for the city of Sylacauga, Alabama. Displayed are all plant operations, booster pumping stations, wells, storage tank levels, and the after-hours call system for all utility departments.

A vertical turbine pump being tested at the Xylem test lab in Lubbock, Texas. The pump is connected to the discharge line that contains flowmeters and sensors.

Spring 2012 Public Groundwater Systems Journal

asked to fill out a photo disclaimer form that grants the National Ground Water Association the royalty-free right to display the photos. Please send high-resolution digital photos to tplumley@ngwa.org.

A water tower rises toward the sky and seems to touch the clouds on a warm day.

Various motors, a test discharge head, and discharge line used in performing certified pump performance tests at the Xylem test lab in Lubbock, Texas. One should always insist on a certified test for a new pumping system as they increase reliability and avoid risks.

www.NGWA.org


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Spring 2012  

Spring 2012 issue of Public Groundwater Systems Journal, a publication of the National Ground Water Association

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