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Chandrakasem Rajabhat University Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences Business English Program

Course Syllabus BENG2301

Business English Reading 1

3(3-0-6)

Course Description This course supports students to study important elements and techniques in reading comprehension and practice reading business contexts in various fields, such as advertisements, schedules and travelling itineraries. In addition, the students will be able to understand the aims and structures for developing how to conclude and discuss what they read.

Course Objectives After completing this course, the students are likely to‌ 1. skim and scan texts correctly and quickly to get the main idea. 2. use context clues to guess meaning of unfamiliar vocabulary. 3. apply more technical words in business fields appropriately. 4.

practice students to apply critical thinking from what they have read.


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Teaching Materials The coursebook complied by A. Chawan Charoenphan

Teaching Methods 1. Lecture 2. Class discussion 3. Individual / Pair / Group works

Evaluation 1. Attendance

10

2. Assignments

30

3. Midterm exam

30

4. Final exam

30

Total

100

Grading 80-100

A

75-79

B+

70-74

B

64-69

C+

55-63

C

50-54

D+

45-49

D

0-44

F


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Tentative Schedule Week 1

Orientation

Week 2

Skimming and Scanning

Week 3

Title and Main Idea

Week 4

Detail or Restatement

Week 5

Vocabulary

Week 6

Reference and Inference

Week 7

Authorâ€&#x;s Attitude/ Purpose/ Tone

_______________________________________________________________ Week 8 Midterm exam _______________________________________________________________ Week 9-14 Week 15-16

Practice reading business contexts Group presentation

_______________________________________________________________


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English for Academic Purpose จากการวิเคราะห์ข้อสอบการอ่านเพื่อความเข้าใจ comprehension หรือข้อสอบ passage ประเภทของคาถามมักแบ่งได้เป็นดังนี้ ถามชื่อเรื่องและใจความสาคัญ

1. Title and Main Idea

ถามรายละเอียด

2. Detail or Restatement

ถามศัพท์

3. Vocabulary

ถามสรรพนามที่ใช้แทน

4. Reference

ถามสรุปความ

5. Inference 6.

Author‟s Attitude/ Purpose/ Tone ถามทัศนคติจุดประสงค์ของผู้แต่งและโทนของเรื่อง

1. Title and Main Idea

ให้ตั้งชื่อเรื่อง หรือ ถามใจความสาคัญ อาจเป็น main idea ของย่อหน้า (paragraph) รูปคาถามมักเป็นดังนี้ This paragraph primarily concerns …………………. What does the first paragraph mainly discuss? The topic sentence of ………..

is that ………….

The main idea of ……………. The most important idea in ……….. The main thought expressed in ……. The main point you can draw from …… The main theme of the text is that ………… .

เมื่อต้องการถามความเข้าใจเนื้อเรื่องทั้งหมด มักให้ตั้งชื่อเรื่องหรือสรุปเนื้อหาทั้งเรื่อง มีรูปคาถาม คือ The best title/ main subject for this passage would be …….. The most suitable topic The most appropriate title The passage should be entitled ………. The conclusion to be drawn from the passage is that ………


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การหา main idea อ่าน passage อย่างเร็ว (skim) ทั้งหมด แล้วถามตัวเองว่า 1. ประโยคต่างๆ ในย่อหน้านี้หรือบทความนี้ พูดถึงเรื่องอะไรมากที่สุด 2. ผู้เขียนต้องการจะสื่ออะไรมากที่สุด Much of contemporary big-city architecture violates all esthetic principles, but is at the same time highly functional. Look at the glass and steel cereal-box called United Nations buildings in New York. It neither blends with the architecture of the surrounding buildings nor with the natural landscape. The Pan-American building is even more of an eyesore. The functional value of both, however, cannot be denied. They provide efficient and comfortable space for hundreds upon hundreds of offices. They are self-contained villages which function more efficiently than most communities.

Main thought: Much architecture is unaesthetic but functional.

It is supported by these details: UN building looks like a cereal box. Pan-Am building is an eyesore. Both buildings, however, provide efficient office space.

1. A baby elephant is the biggest of all land babies. A newborn baby weighs more thantwo hundred pounds. It is about three feet high. The new baby is strong, too. Almost as soon as it is born, it can walk about. Main Idea ……………………………………………………………………….. 2. Most people are free to enjoy themselves in the evenings and on weekends. Some spend their time watching television, listening to the radio, or going to movies; others participate in sports. It depends on their interests. There are various ways to spend one‟s free time. Main Idea ………………………………………………………………………..


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3. Keep your tree outdoors until the day before Christmas. Never use lighted candles. There are also other suggestions for avoiding a Christmas. Turn off the lights before you leave the house and throw away the tree by New Year‟s Day. Main Idea ……………………………………………………………………….. 4. On weekends as soon as Tom gets out of his bed, he seats himself right in front of the television and starts searching for his favourite programme. Have your breakfast, please Tom, his mother tells him, but that won‟t make him move at all. At here second call he will slowly get up and turn the television set to face the dining table. He doesn‟t miss any part of the program while having breakfast. After he has finished, he moves the television set to its normal direction and watches on and on until the end of the last afternoon program -at 6:30 P.M. Main Idea ………………………………………………………………………..

สรุป หา topic sentence (ประโยคที่สาคัญที่สุดของย่อหน้า) ที่มักอยู่ที่ประโยคแรกหรือประโยคสุดท้าย ของย่อหน้า มีเพียงส่วนน้อยที่อยู่กลางเรื่อง และเป็นไปได้ว่า paragraph นั้นไม่มี topic sentence เลย ต้อง สรุปใจความสาคัญเอาเอง Exercise The largest telescope is at the Mt. Palomar Observatory in California. It uses a mirror that is 200 inches in diameter. The glass mirror in this telescope gathers as much light as 250 million eyes can. This telescope is used to photograph stars a million times dimmer than the ones we can see with our eyes. It can see things in space that are two to three billion light years away.


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1. What is the topic of this passage? a. Telescopes b. The Mt. Palomar observatory c. Photographing stars d. The largest telescope 2. What is the main idea of this passage? a. The telescope is used to photograph stars a million times dimmer than the ones we can see with our eyes. b. A telescope can see things in the space that are two to three billion light years away. c. A telescope uses a mirror that is 200 inches in diameter. d. The largest telescope is at the Mt. Palomar observatory in California. Louis Armstrong is an example of a person who has moved from rags to riches. His family was poor and lived in the slums of New Orleans. He was an orphan at age ten, yet he learned to play the trumpet in an orphanage and became one of the greatest entertainers in the world. He has sung and played the trumpet in motion pictures, radio, television, and night clubs. He has been asked to play for audiences in Europe, Asia, and Africa. He has become successful by giving people pleasure through music.


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1. What is the topic of the passage? a. Louis Armstrong b. How to Become Successful c. Moving from Rags to Riches d. An Orphan 2. What is the main idea of this passage? a. Louis Armstrong has become successful by giving people pleasure through music. b. Louis learned to play the trumpet in an orphanage and became one of the greatest entertainers in the world. c. Louis has been asked to play for audiences in Europe, Asia and Africa. d. Louis Armstrong is an example of a person who has moved from rags to riches. Pearls are gathered by men known as pearl divers. Actually, these men do not dive. They are lowered by a rope to the bottom of the sea. Pearl gatherers work in pairs, with one remaining at the surface to help the other return from his dive. An experienced pearl diver can stay down about a minute and a half and can often make as many as thirty dives in a day.

1. What is the topic of the passage? a. Pearls

b. Divers

c. Pearl Divers

d. The Bottom of the Sea

2. What is the main idea of the passage? a. Pearls are gathered from the bottom of the sea. b. Pearls are gathered by men called pearl divers. c. Pearl gathers work in pairs. d. An experienced divers can stay down about a minute and a half. People used to think about daisies were magic in many other ways, too. Some thought it was lucky to step on the first daisy they saw in the spring. (It wasnâ€&#x;t lucky for the daisy.) Other believed that if daisies were floated in milk given to a puppy, the puppy would grow into a small, not a large dog.


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1. The topic of this passage is …………… . a. Daisies as magic b. Magic and puppies c. People and magic d. Daisies and puppies 2. The main idea of this passage is …………… . a. Daisies were magic in many ways. b. People used to think daisies were magic in many ways. c. Some people thought that it was lucky to step on the first daisy they saw in the spring. d. Some people believed that if daisies were floated in milk given to a puppy, the puppy would grow into a small, not a large dog. City traffic is a great problem. More cars are produced every year and the streets are getting more and more crowded. So during „rush hours‟ when people are going to and from their work, traffic is brought to a standstill. It has been suggested that „commuters‟ (people who travel to work every day from outside the city) should share their car and give each other lifts. So each car would carry four or five people instead of only one. It is an excellent idea; however, so far nobody has been able to think of a way to compel people to do so.

1. What is the topic of this passage? a. City Traffic

b. A Great Problem

c. Cars

d. City streets

2. Which sentence tells the main idea of the passage? a. 1

b. 2

c. 4

$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

d. 6


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2. Details or Restatement

ถามรายละเอียดใน passage อาจถามถึง fact ข้อเท็จจริงในเรื่องนั้นๆ หรือถามรายละเอียดของเรื่อง โดยใช้คาที่ต่างกัน (Restatement) นั่นเอง รูปคาถามที่พบบ่อยคือ According to the passage,

when did ……… happen/ occur? who did ………..? how did ………..?

According to the passage, it‟s possibly true that …….. or the only correct statement is …………….. Which of the following statements is true …..? All of the following are true EXCEPT ……… . Which is NOT true according to the passage? Which is NOT mentioned as …………?

รายละเอียดมีไว้สนับสนุนใจความหลัก มักจัดเรียงตามลาดับต่างๆ The process works like a chain reaction. First anxiety and tension affect the nervous system, which in turn affects the hormonal balance of the body, which then affects the metabolism which also disturbs the resistance of the body to fight disease. Details มักผูกเรียงกันโดยจะมีคาเชื่อมโยง Linking words ในประโยคดังนี้ 1. THOUGHT PATTERNS : Chronological First, then, before, when, until, soon, later, next 2. THOUGHT PATTERNS : Spatial Over, under, above, beside, between, next to 3. THOUGHT PATTERNS : Cause and Effect because, therefore, resulting, consequently, thus 4. THOUGHT PATTERNS : Importance most important, finally, furthermore, moreover 5. THOUGHT PATTERNS : Repetition in summary, as stated, i.e., and, again 6. THOUGHT PATTERNS : Comparison


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like, as, similarly, both, all 7. THOUGHT PATTERNS : Contrast but, however, although, nevertheless, unlike 8. THOUGHT PATTERNS : Example For example, for instance, to illustrate 9. THOUGHT PATTERNS : Conclusion Therefore, thus, so

The December night was chilly and damp, and the two middle-aged women turned up the car heater they drove along the deserted Texas road. It was soon after Christmas, 1980. The women and the small boy with them had traveled to a town about fifteen miles from Houston for dinner; now, as they made their way home the child noticed something strange in the sky. A blazing light was gliding toward them over the pines. 1. The women, together with the boy…………………………………. a. lost their way home b. had gone to town for dinner c. drove along the road on the windy night d. had eaten out after Christmas night, 1980 2. The two women and the small boy were on their way home when…………………… a. the heater in their car broke down b. the boy noticed that he had blisters c. they saw a bright light in the sky d. an amazing thing was out of sight Dynamo is very effective in pre-treating stubborn dirt and most normal household stains. Just before you wash, take required dosage and pour a little on each problem area, then the rest in the wash. Rub stain gently, wash normally. Test for colourfastness as some colours are fast in normal washing, but may run in pretreatment.


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1. What kind of product do you think Dynamo is? a. Fabric softener b. Floor polisher c. Laundry detergent d. Household disinfectant

2. What form do you think the product is in? a. Liquid b. Wax c. Spray d. Solid 3. Which of the following instructions is a precaution? a. Pour a little dosage on each problem. b. Pour the rest in the wash. c. Rub stain gently d. Test for colourfastness.

The Nobel Prizes, awarded annually for distinguished work in chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature, and international peace, were made available by a fund bequeathed for that purpose by

Swedish philanthropist, Alfred

Bernhard Nobel. 1. The Nobel Prizes are awarded …………… a. once a year

b. twice a year

c. three times a year

d. five times a year

2. A Nobel Prize would not be given to …………… a. a doctor who discovered a vaccine b. a composer who wrote a symphony c. an author who wrote a famous book d. a diplomat who negotiated a peace settlement


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The Mediteranean climate is little suited to stock- breeding, only sheep and goats can make use of the extensive feeding grounds with their meager rainfall. 1. The Mediterranean area is …………… a. suitable for breeding any kind of animal b. good for raising a variety of animals c. unsuitable for only sheep and goats d. poor for raising most animals ###################################### 3. Vocabulary

ถามความหมายของคาวลีหรือประโยค มีรูปคาถามดังนี้ The word “……………” (line……..) means ……���…… or can be described as …………… or can best be replaced by …………… Which of the following can replace the word “…….”? The phrase/expression “…..” (line….)states the same idea as …………… or indicates that …………… . or informs us that …………… . Which statement / sentence illustrates the idea of ……………?

การเดาศัพท์ เดาได้จาก 2 วิธี 1.เดาจาก…………………………… 2.เดาจาก…………………………… การเดาศัพท์จาก Roots, Prefixes, and Suffixes incredible

>>

Prefix….... + Root….... + Suffix……..

distastefulness

>>

Prefix….... + Root….... + Suffix……..


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Major prefixes ……………

=

one

sept

=

seven

……………

=

two

oct

=

eight

……………

=

three

non,nov

=

nine

quadr,quat

=

four

……………

=

ten

quint,penta

=

five

……………

=

hundred

sext,hena

=

six

……………

=

thousand

……………

=

many

not

=

……………

excessively

=

……………

half

=

……………

against

=

……………

before

=

……………

around

=

……………

together

=

……………

de

1……………ex………………………………………………. 2……………ex……………………………………………….

dis

1……………ex………………………………………………. 2……………ex……………………………………………….

re

1……………ex………………………………………………. 2……………ex……………………………………………….

en

..……………ex……………………………………………….

in, im

1……………ex………………………………………………. 2……………ex……………………………………………….

ex, e

……………..ex……………………………………………….

sub, sup

……………..ex……………………………………………….

sur, super

……………..ex……………………………………………….

syn, sym

……………..ex……………………………………………….

trans

……………..ex……………………………………………….


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Major Suffixes Noun Suffix 1.verb + er = N : มักแปลว่า…………… : admirer gambler boxer …………… + or = N :donor ancestor governor …………… +ian = N :physician musician historian …………… + ist = N :chemist pharmacist physicist …………… + ent = N : correspondent resident …………… + ant = N : inhabitant consultant …………… + ess = N : มักแปลว่า …………… : waitress …………… +ee = N : ผู้ที่ถูก : appointee awardee …………… 2. adj + ness = N : มักแปลว่า …………… :bareness tenderness …………… + dom = N : wisdom boredom …………… + ity = N : simplicity ability …………… + ty = N : certainty liberty …………… + cy = N :Intimacy tendency efficiency …………… + ism = N : realism socialism ……………


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3. verd + ment = N : มักแปลว่า …………… : judgement payment …………… + al =N : withdrawal arrival …………… + ion = N : implication suggestion …………… +y=N : delivery discovery …………… + ure = N : pressure failure agriculture …………… + ence = N : negligence obedience …………… + ing = N : finding surrounding …………… + ance = N : resistance performance …………… + ism = N : fascism baptism barbarism …………… +age = N : breakage marriage …………… 4. N/adj + ship = N : มักแปลว่า ............... : hardship dictatorship ............... + hood = N :childhood manhood ............... Verb Suffix


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5. N /adj + ize = V มักแปลว่า ............... : normalize standardize modernize ............... + ate = V : regulate stimulate operate ............... + en = V : redden darken ............... +fy = V magnify justify unify glorify ............... +ish = V : punish ...............

Adj Suffix 6. N/V + able = adj : มักแปลว่า ............... : portable curable ............... +ible = adj : visible audible ............... + eous = adj : มักแปลว่า ............... : courteous simultaneous ............... + ous = adj : furious religious ............... + ical = adj : identical historical ............... + ing = adj : น่า : boring pleasing confusing ............... + ing = adj : ทาเอง : standing playing ............... + ful = adj : useful skillful sinful ............... + some = adj : tiresome troublesome ...............


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+ ate = adj : passionate considerate ............... + ive = adj : destructive competitive ............... + ic = adj : oceanic tragic classic ............... + ary = adj : primary momentary ............... + al = adj : logical digital global ............... +ial = adj : spatial social ............... + ly = adj : cowardly daily orderly ............... +ish = adj : childish greenish feverish ............... + ed = adj : รู้สึก : bored excited ............... + ed = adj : ถูกกระทา : used stolen ............... + y = adj : risky windy wealthy ............... + like = adj : เหมือน : childlike catlike ............... + less = adj : ไม่มี : senseless homeless ............... + ory = adj : accessory advisory ............... +en = adj : ทาด้วย เหมือน : wooden golden ...............


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+ ant , ent = adj : ignorant indulgent ...............

Adv Suffix 7. ADJ + ly = ADV : อย่าง : hopefully quickly noisily ............... N + ward = adv : ไปทาง : homeward backward ...............

Exercise 1 Guess meanings from prefixes, suffixes and roots 1.There will be an international conference on AIDS soon. ............................................................................................... 2.Countries should learn to coexist peacefully. ............................................................................................... 3.The American ex-president, Mr. Reagan, stand at an actor. ............................................................................................... 4.The postage is prepaid. You don‟t have to stick a stamp on the envelope. ............................................................................................... 5.Find the area of the semicircle. ............................................................................................... 6.The doctor gave her a medicine to counteract the affects of the poison. ............................................................................................... 7.Are you monolingual, bilingual or multilingual? ............................................................................................... 8.Many aeroplanes can fly at supersonic speed. ............................................................................................... 9.We took a trans-European tour last year. ............................................................................................... 10.Have you taken the subway to town? ...............................................................................................


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11.Both Germany and Britain had many post-war problems. ............................................................................................... 12.These insects are so microscopic that I can hardly see them. ............................................................................................... 13.Cutting down the trees too fast can result in deforestation. ............................................................................................... 14.The actress died from an overdose of sleeping pills. ............................................................................................... 15.Teenagers these days wear unisex clothes. ...............................................................................................

Exercise 2 Fill in the appropriate prefixes 1. It is (….legal) to park your car here. 2. I think it is (….possible) to finish the work by five. 3. It is totally (….reparable) because you dropped it. 4. What you say is (….logical). It does not make sense. 5. The place looks quite (….familiar) I don‟t think I have been here before. 6. Jane went to another doctor because she was (….satisfied) with the first one. 7. Jim was rather (….polite) at first but later apologized for his behavior. 8. I found the food (….resistible) and ate too much. 9. The workers are beginning to (….load) the cargo. 10. Your report of the accident is quite (….accurate).


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Exercise 3 Fill in the appropriate suffixes Vocabulary

Nouns

Verbs

Adjectives

Adverbs

1. affect 2. annoy 3. beauty 4. complete 5. describe 6. efficient 7. friend 8. grace 9. love 10. migrate

เดาศัพท์จาก บริบทหรือคารอบๆ มีหลาย ประเภทดังนี้ 1. คาจากัดความ การกล่าวซ้า Definition + Restatement Context Clues มีตัวสังเกต คือ : is, are

mean

that is

i.e.

is/are called

or

is/are regarding as

in other words

is/are seen as

เครื่องหมายที่บอกส่วนขยาย ……………..

is/are viewed as

ประโยคถัดไป ก็สามารถเป็นการกล่าวซ้า

is/are deemed as

ช่วยเดาศัพท์ได้เหมือนกัน

is/are considered *** A person who repairs shoes is a cobbler. *** Some people like to hitch-hike -- to travel by asking car or lorry drivers for free rides. *** A workaholic, a person obsessively addicted to work, often suffers from heart attack. *** Mary said to John “don‟t fret”. In other words, she told him not to be worried. *** Most girls are more studious than boys. They study hard for their exams.


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2. เดาจากตัวอย่าง Example Context Clues ตัวสังเกตคือ for example

like

for instance

such as

especially

including

*** Glassware consists of objects made of glass, such as bowls, drinking containers and ornaments. *** Half-baked, for instance, may refer to a foolish idea or stupid person. 3. เดาจากคาสาคัญที่คุ้นเคย Familiar key words *** The rabbits‟ eyes glitter as if they were illuminated with red bright neon. ***We can see things through a piece of glass because it is transparent. 4. เดาจากคาเหมือนและคาตรงข้าม Synonym & Antonym Context Clues Synonym

ตัวสังเกตคือ also

like

too

in the like manner

similarly

likewise

as well

correspondingly

Antonym ตัวสังเกต but

on the other hand

however

on the contrary

(al)though

contrastly

*** There are conflicts between the leaders of different political parties, similarly, there are disagreements between their members. *** Thai baht is currently volatile in comparison with Deutschmark which is much more stable.


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Exercise 1. When one of the front tires exploded, the car went out of control and ran into pedestrian on the side-walk. a. a tire

b. a truck

c. a person who is walking

d. department store

2. The girl had a lesion on her left arm that would not stop bleeding. a. an injury or wound

b. a gold bracelet

c. a dirty mark

d. a headache

3. Governments and businesses use many abbreviations. Thereâ€&#x;s GE, for example, for General Electric; or GM for General Motors; or IBM for International Business Machines. a. capital letters b. words used in business c. special names d. shortened forms of words 4. Mr. Tyson did not have time to take his clothes to the laundry so he had to wash and iron them himself. a. a clothing store b. a place where clothes are washed and ironed c. a person who is hired to wash and iron onesâ€&#x;s clothes d. a person who makes clothes for men and women 5. People who work well and live happily with others are cooperative. a. happy and friendly b. diligent c. willing to share ideas with others d. able to work together 6. The girl was so terrified when the big grey dog jumped and snapped at her that she fainted. a. frightened

b. full of hope

c. became angry

c. amazed


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7. “Stop moaning,” shouted the girl‟s mother. “You really have nothing to complain about.” a. complaining

b. shouting

c. laughing

d. crying

8. Please stop asking those silly questions. You are hindering me in my work by Talking all the time. a. supporting

b. making angry

c. holding back

d. discouraging

9. Some plants die in wet soil, but most thrive. a. cannot be eaten

b. grow well

c. survive

d. stop growing

10. A person will become weak if he does not get sufficient food for his body. a. enough

b. large

c. delicious

d. overloaded

11. The most outstanding thing about his wife is her extravagance. She always spends money wastefully on costly beautiful clothes and make-up. a. richness

b. appearance

c. personality

d. wastefulness

12. The news of the shooting spread rapidly, and soon a big crowd assembled to discuss the matter. a. came together

b. built up

c. started talking

d. lined up

13. When there was an earthquake, the glass hanging on the wall dropped to the floor and smashed into many pieces. a. cut

b. separated

c. broke

d. divided

14. In the morning and evening, the boys jog in the park to get rid of their excessive energy. a. useless

b. extra

c. waste

d. limited


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15. Her answer to our enquiries on hotel rates is of great interest. a. problems

b. troubles

c. demands

d. questions

16. Mice are small animals, but they are gigantic beside an ant. a. large

b. small

c. funny

d. ugly

17. When we arrived at our destination, we gathered our luggage, got off the train and met our relatives who had come to pick us up. a. the place where we live b. the place where we study c. the place that we want to visit our relatives d. the place set for the end of a journey 18. At the first start of the game the two boys seemed to get along well, but half an hour later they began a dispute which led to a big fight. a. contest

b. anger

c. quarrel

d. discussion

The store on the corner of the T-junction is an appliance store. It has things like electric toasters, radios, hair-dryers, etc., in the shop-window. I really go in the store because the things there cost so much that I cannot afford them. 19. An appliance is …………………… . a. a person who looks after a store b. a person who helps in a store c. something that produces electricity d. a thing that is used around the house 20. “Afford” means ……………….. . a. able to buy

b. keep for oneself

c. make use of

d. bring back


27

4. Reference

ถามว่าสรรพนามที่ใช้แทน หรือเกี่ยวโยง รูปคาถามมีดังนี้ คือ The pronoun (I/us/me/this/these/each/who)refers to …………… Or represents …….

Or is used to replace ……………

การอ้างอิงมีหลายรูปแบบด้วยกัน คือ 1.Personal pronouns : he, she, it, I, we, you, they, him, his, its, her, etc. Teaching is a job at which one will never be perfect. There is always something more to learn about it. It = …………………………………………… 2.Demonstrative pronouns : this, that, these, those She broke up with her sweetheart a week ago. This kept her from going to study at Enconcept. This = …………………………………………… 3.Relative pronouns : who, whom, which, that You need good symmetry, not only for a balanced and proportioned figure, but also so that your muscles are toned and strong proportionately for supporting your skeletal frame, which leads to good health and posture. Which = ………………………………���………… 4. Other pronouns : one, ones, some, others, all, most, many, a few, few, none Although many disappearances probably result from pollution or habitat destruction, others have taken place in seemingly pristine forest. Other = ……………………………………………

5. Such + noun The boy‟s village in the remote region of South Africa had no running water or electricity. He was seeing such things for the first time. Such thing = ……………………………………………


28

In most cases, you can transplant a tree successfully, at any time, if you follow the instructions for planting a tree. The most important thing is to dig out enough roots, but this process is difficult with a large tree. This process …………………………………………… The long-nosed crocodile is shy and timid and because of this the people of West Africa where it lives, sometimes catch it for food. Many, many centuries ago there were crocodiles in England. We know this because we have found their bones buried far down in the earth on which London is built. This = …………………………………………… This = …………………………………………… Their = …………………………………………… Expect a divided society, smoke-wise. “I am sorry to say that I do not believe we‟ll have a smokeless society by the year 2000, “says Dr. Art Ulene. “All the evidence suggests that the incidence of smoking will be very, very low in people who are poor and uneducated. This is a national tragedy and a national disgrace. As educated people give up smoking, the tobacco industry will concentrate their efforts on the tobacco industry will concentrate their efforts on the poor and uneducated and the result will be devastating. 1. The word “This” refer to ……… a. Heavy smoking mainly by the lower classes b. The incidence of smoking in everyday life c. Having a smokeless society by the year 2000 d. Higher rate of smoking among the middle classes

People who were thinking of sad or gloomy things moved their eyeballs leftward ; they were driven by the right brain. On the other hand, happy thoughts made people look to the right. It should also be noted that in other research patients with leftbrain damage are generally more pessimistic in their way or thinking, while those with right-brain damage are generally unrealistically positive.


29

1. What does the word “those” in refer to ? a. People b. Patients c. Adults d. Things Ever since the introduction of the first telescope 350 years ago, it was realized that with an increase in the size of the instruments there would be a corresponding increase in the depth to which they could penetrate into space. After the work of Lord Rosse in the eighteenth century and Herschel in the nineteenth century, who built telescopes of increasing size and power in Britain, it was in America that the great advances in this field occurred in the twentieth century. 1. This field refers of ……………… a. Building big and powerful telescopes b. Introducing the first telescopes c. Increasing the size of the telescopes d. Increasing the depth of the telescopes

&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& 5. Inference

ถามสรุปความโดยอาศัยข้อมูลบางส่วนจากใน passage to infer = to conclude from something unknown มักมีรูปคาถามดังนี้ We / One can infer from this passage that ………….. It can be inferred from this passage that ………….. . Which of the following can be inferred about ………….. in the passage? Which can be inferred with regard to………….. in the article? It is implied in the last paragraph that ………….. In the second paragraph, there is a statement that implies that …………..


30

Those of us who complain about automobile‟s poisonous fumes tend to forget about the pollution that was caused by horses. According to Andrian, “it look a long time to develop methods of controlling the pollution problem horses created – the horses wouldn‟t cooperate. 1. It can be implied from the paragraph that ………….. a. Cars caused more pollution than horses b. Horses also gave out poisonous fumes which caused pollution c. Both cars and horses are causing current city pollution d. Horses were used as a major means of transportation in the past According to the Department of energy, by the year 2000, 1 percent of the nation‟s electricity will be generated from solar cells at the enormous cost of 1 billion dollars a year. 1. It may be inferred that ………….. a. solar energy is popular today b. the cost of solar energy is very cheap c. less than 1 percent of our energy sources today are from solar cells d. the Department of energy support a complete solar electricity plan Take two tablets with water, followed by one tablet every eight hour as required. For maximum nighttime and early morning relief take two tablets at bedtime.For children six to twelve years old, give half the adult dosage. For children under six years old, consult your physician.Reduce dosage if nervousness, restlessness, or sleeplessness occurs. 1. We can infer by this table that …. a. the medication is liquid b. the medicine could cause some people to feel nervous c. one may not take this medicine before going to bed d. children may take the same dosage that adults take


31

2. If one cannot sleep, it is suggested that he a. consult a doctor b. stop taking the medicine c. take two tablets before going to bed d. take less than two tablets before going to bed How justified is the proposal To ban tobacco advertising? We‟re obviously much opposed to that and it‟s not just self interest. According to a report on prohibition of tobacco advertising, the United Kingdom Department of Health & Social Security said “in the last 20 years no evidence has been found of a significant association between the total level of media advertising and total cigarette sales.” The tobacco institute would give you evidence that sixteen counties have banned tobacco advertising and in not one of them did it make difference in consumption. 1. We can conclude from the passage that ………. a. the ban on tobacco advertising helps increase cigarette sales b. even thought there is no advertising, cigarettes still sell well c. people smoke whether smoking is prohibited or not d. sales of cigarettes depend on tobacco advertising 2. It is very likely that the author of this passage works for ………. a. a cigarette manufacturer b. an advertising agency c. the tobacco institute d. the department of health

@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@


32

6. Author’s Attitude / Purpose / Tone

ถามทัศนคติ จุดประสงค์ของผู้แต่ง และโทนของ passage Attitude •

The author (writer) of the passage believes (thinks / feels) that …..

Which of the following best describes the author‟s attitude towards……….?

All of the following ideas appear in the passage, which do you think the author attributes most importance to?

Which of the following is the author‟s belief?

Purpose •

What is the main purpose of this passage?

In this passage, the writer‟s main purpose / objective is to …..

Intention / aim / goal

This passage is written to ………. .

The author is trying to ………. .

Tone •

The tone of the passage is ……….

In which manner does the author address his reader?

The mood (tone) created by the author is ………. .

The author‟s approach to his subject is ………. .

คาตอบของ Author‟s attitude or purpose and tone of the passage มักเป็นดังนี้ 1. accusatory

=

…………………..

2. advisory

=

เสนอแนะ, แนะนา

3. affectionate

=

…………………..

4. analytical

=

…………………..

5. angry or outraged

=

โกรธ

6. approving

=

…………………..


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7. arrogant

=

หยิ่ง

8. bewildered or confused

=

…………………..

9. casual

=

…………………..

10. cautionary

=

…………………..

11. complimentary or laudatory

=

ชมเชย, ยกย่อง

12. concerned

=

…………………..

13. unconcerned or indifferent

=

ไม่สนใจ, เป็นกลาง

14. critical

=

…………………..

15. descriptive

=

…………………..

16. emotional

=

…………………..

17. exaggerated

=

…………………..

18. factual

=

…………………..

19. humorous

=

…………………..

20. informative

=

…………………..

21. optimistic

=

…………………..

22. pessimistic

=

…………………..

23.persuasive

=

…………………..

24.regretful

=

…………………..

25. sarcastic or satiric or ironic

=

…………………..

26. serious

=

…………………..

27. statistical

=

…………………..

28. sympathetic

=

…………………..

29. tranquil

=

…………………..

30. vague

=

คลุมเครือ

แบบฝึกหัดทอสอบ Inference & Author’s attitude / Purpose / Tone


34

Passage (38ab) A Circus trainer who says he had to discipline an elephant to prevent it from stampeding was arrested on an animal abuse charge in Portland, Oregon. Sharon Harmon , the director of the Oregon Humane Society, says that police arrested trainer Bela Tabak on an accusation of misdemeanor animal abuse. Tabak was released on $500 bail. Tabak, 50, works for King Royal‟s traveling circus. While the show went on in Harrisburg, police and game officers investigated an incident that occurred during a performance in Portland. Tabak defended his actions involving a 15-month-old Asian elephant, Mickey. He says the trouble began during the 4 p.m. show when the elephant refused to perform a trick and attempted to run. Cathy Beemer, 41, shot videotape of the incident. The videotape was broadcast on some Oregon television stations. “All the elephant did was turn around, and that guy started gouging his neck with this wooden tool that had an awful metal hook on the end,” she says “We definitely saw blood gushing out the front of his leg, where a puncture wound was.” “The control tool they used for elephant training was sharpened,” she says. “It‟s not supposed to be” Harmon says, “The tool is not intended to penetrate the skin, as this one did.”

Interesting Structure • A circus trainer who says he had to discipline an elephant to prevent it from stampeding was arrested on an animal abuse charge in Portland, Oregon.

52. How does Cathy feel about the incident? 1. Sympathetic 2. Upset 3. Indifferent 4. Confused .


35

56. What is the writer‟s purpose in this passage? 1. To inform the public of the charge. 2. To express his opinion on the trainer‟s actions. 3. To persuade the readers to sympathize with Tabak. 4. To describe the elephant‟s intelligence and performance. Passage (38ab) Difficulty in communicating with others is a common problem associated with Alzheimer‟s disease. It is usually one of the symptoms displayed during the early stages of the illness. The affected person may not be able to make himself or herself understood of be able to understand what others are trying to say. If the Alzheimer patient has been covering up problems with communication, he may become angry or defensive when he cannot find the respond to question of comments. Or he may appear uncooperative, when in fact he simply cannot understand what someone is trying to say. If you are having problems communicating with an Alzheimer patient, make sure that he is mot suffering from a hearing impairment and keep the following in mind: the Alzheimer patient may forget within seconds even the information he understood: he may still be able to read but may not be able to understand what has been read: what may be understood if heard in person may be lost over the phone. Communication may be helped by combined us of signs, labels or written messages and oral instructions. It is wise to be aware that the person may understand more than he is able to express. Never talk about the patient as if he were not there. Always treat the Alzheimer patient with dignity and respect. Remember that he is an adult. Avoid talking down. Your sensitivity will be greatly appreciated.

58. How does an Alzheimer patient probably feel when he cannot respond to questions? 1. Frustrated 2. Regretful 3. Defeated 4. Revengeful


36

59. Which way does the author imply is the best way to communicate with an Alzheimer patient? 1. Talking on the phone. 2. Talking face to face. 3. Talking and gesturing. 4. Talking clearly and loudly. 62. What is the author‟s purpose in writing the passage? 1. To explain what Alzheimer‟s disease is. 2. To describe the symptoms of Alzheimer‟s disease. 3. To suggest how to deal with an Alzheimer patient. 4. To discuss the medical problems an Alzheimer patient may experience.

Miscellaneous Exercises Passage 1 (41 Oct) Piranhas live in enormous packs, of shoals. They spend most of their time hunting for food. Rivers are their primary habitat although, as a result of massive flooding, they may occasionally find their way into lakes. but it is thought that they are unable to breed outside of rivers. Piranhas have voracious appetites, and they seek river locations that have plentiful fish supplies, they are found in any well-stocked river within their natural habitat. The piranha hunts with speed and by surprise. The typical way in which the piranha attacks is by swimming directly into a shoal of fish. Attacked shoal scatters in all directions, and the piranha quickly overpowers individual fish. Small fish are swallowed whole. Larger prey have chunks ripped out of them, which the piranha swallows instantly so it can immediately take another bite.

Interesting Structure • Rivers are their primary habitat although, as a result of massive flooding, they may occasionally find their way into lakes.


37

66. It is common for piranhas to……………. a. hunt in small packs b. live in large groups c. breed outside rivers d. search for food in takes 67. The word “habitat” refers to ……………. a. a living place b. a hunting area c. a habit one develops d. a strange environment 68. According to the article, piranhas can be found in takes when……………. a. they cannot find enough food in the river b. the river overflows after a big flood c. they are unable to breed in rivers d. there are too many piranhas in the river 69. The word “voracious” suggests that piranhas are………… a. bad hunters b. strong fighters c. active swinners d. greedy eaters 70. The word “well-stocked” means……………. a. the water flows strongly b. it is a natural environment c. there is a lot of food d. it is clean 71. Which statement is true about the way piranhas hunt? a. They hunt only small fish b. They wait for individual fish to come very close and attack c. They chase individual fish for sport. d. They attack other fish very fast.


38

72. The expressing “by surprise” means………………. a. without warning b. hopefully c. accidentally d. on purpose 73. The word “them” refers to ………………… a. chunks b. larger prey c. small fish d. piranhas 74. The second paragraph mainly discusses the piranha‟s…………….. a. home environment b. tack of speed c. hunting habits d. favorite prey 75. The tone of this article is …………… a. informative b. subjective c. humorous d. sh Passage 2 (41ab) Japanese automakers are in a race to build the first mass market “green” car. At this week‟s international Tokyo Motor show, companies will display vehicles with a new breed of engines known as hybrids, of combined electric and gasoline engines, that can halve emissions of carbon dioxide‟ one of the gasses responsible for global warming. The star of the auto show will likely be the Sumo. The world‟s first mass produced car powered by a hybrid engine. An electric motor starts the Sumo, a four door sedan, and powers it at low speeds. between 20 and 40 kilometers and hour, the gasoline motor kicks in. The electric motor also takes over when the gasoline engine is running inefficiently.


39

The hybrid has huge advantages over electric vehicles, which have a battery that tends to need frequent recharging, both inconvenient for longer trips and time consuming. With the Sumo‟s hybrid power system, the gasoline engine charges the battery, so there‟s no risk of running out of juice. The sumo averages about 28 kilometers to a liter of gasoline, about double the automaker‟s best selling seday This achievement is impressive. But the real question is the costing. What Japan‟s largest automaker has invested in the Sumo is a secret. Analysts said the automaker will lose between half a million yen ($18,000) , about half a million yen more than its cheapest regular model. According to analysts, the millions of dollars automakers are investing to improve their technology, as in the case of the Sumo‟s inventor, will have to come out of the final cost of the cars. The average Joe in the street, therefore, is going to continue buying regular cars.

Interesting Structure •At this week‟s international Tokyo Motor Show, companies will display vehicles with a new breed of engines known as hybrids of combined electric and gasoline engines, that can halve emissions of carbon dioxide, one of the gases responsible for global warning •The star of the auto show will likely be the Sumo, The world‟s first mass produced car powered by a hybrid engine.

83. Hybrid engines can help reduce damage to the environment because they…………….. a. produce little carbon dioxide b. lessen the heat in car exhausts c. are used by green supporters d. make use of electricity instead of gasoline


40

84. In the hybrid powered sumo, the gasoline engine is most likely to start working when the………….. a. car is started b. speed exceed 20 km per hour c. car is running efficiently d. battery is fully charged 85. We can infer from the passage the Sumo is the………………. a. first environmentally friendly car b. most economical mass produced car c. first electric car displayed in Tokyo d. first hybrid car produced for sale 86. The Sumo is better than electric cars because…………… a. the battery does not have to be recharged b. the car itself recharges the battery c. it is cheaper d. it consumes less fuel 87. “juice” refers to…………… a. power b. gasoline c. battery d. water 88. It is very likely that the Sumo will be……………. a. the bestselling car in the next century b. more attractive to common people c. more expensive than other cars d. opposed by than other cars 89. “The average Joe in the street” refers to an ordinary………………. a. consumer b. automaker c. analyst d. inventor


41

90. The writer seems to be………………. the Sumo. a. give advice about how to protect the environment b. report about progress in automotive technology c. persuade people to buy a new product d. provide information for maintenance technicians 91. The purpose of the passage is to ………………. a. give advice about how to protect the environment b. report about progress in automotive technology c. persuade people to buy a new product d. provide information for maintenance technicians

Passage 3 (34ab) Erosion: The Quiet Crisis Erosion has been called the “quiet crisis”. While the world focuses on obvious environmental problems, beaches around the world are slipping into the ocean. Erosion is often controlled by planting vegetation to anchor the sand of soil and now the Japanese firm Shinki Co. is using artificial seaweed to fight the problem. The seaweed certainly looks natural. It is anchored on the sea floor, stands upright and looks like the real thing. The firm claims its plastic product can withstand seabed currents of up to 20 knots and can slow them by 30%. The seaweed also captures floating sediment, helping to build up the seabed. The method can be used to protect undersea oil pipelines, the legs of drilling platforms and coastal break waters, along with beachfronts. Since its invention in Germany in 1984, this method has been used in the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman and has also been employed to recover the shoreline of Hiroshima City. Though Shinki says its erosion-stopper is non-toxic, some experts worry that turtles and fish could swallow the plastic seaweed and choke to death. Other critics say the method is too expensive for widespread use. While Shinki agrees that the artificial sea grass is more expensive than natural methods-it declines to publicise prices-it says the method is less costly than building concrete erosion fighters.


42

1. “The quiet crisis” implies that erosion…………. a. is progressing slowly b. is slowing down c. is largely ignored d. is not important 2. Shinki‟s project suggests that the problem of erosion………….. a. cannot be solved by nature alone b. should be left to nature c. is being taken very seriously everywhere d. is impossible to solve 3. One criticism of the erosion-stopper, from the text, is that it…………. a. may not be better than natural methods b. may not stop the slipping of the beaches c. cannot be accurately costed d. may be harmful to sea creatures 4. Where did the idea for the new erosion-stopper come from. a. Oman b. Japan c. Germany d. Saudi Arabia 5. The word “problem” refers to ……………. a. vegetation b. erosion c. seaweed d. seashore 6.The word “ firm” means……………….. a. solid b. company c. factory d. unchanging


43

7. The word “withstand” means……………….. a. force b. raise c. support d. resist 8. “This method” refers to ……………. a. planting plastic seaweed b. drilling platforms c. protecting undersea oil pipelines d. capturing floating matter 9. The erosion-stopper…………………… a. has only environmental uses b. has non-environmental uses c. is limited to use in oceans d. is limited to use in industry 10. The erosion-stopper can be useful…………… a. only on land b. under the sea c. only in fast currents d. in Eastern countries


Building Vocabulary: Prefixes, Roots, and Suffixes

Page 1

Building Vocabulary: Prefixes, Roots, and Suffixes Many studies show the importance of building children’s vocabulary. One study has shown that a set of 20 prefixes and 14 roots, and knowing how to use them, will unlock the meaning of over 100,000 words. A similar study showed that a set of 29 prefixes and 25 roots will give the meaning to over 125,000 words. Imagine adding suffixes! Below are lists of prefixes, suffixes, and roots – with their meanings and example words. ∗ Reviewing these also can help many ELL students to see relationships between and among languages. Many prefixes have a basis in Latin – also the basis for Spanish, French, and Italian – or Greek.

Table 1: 32 Prefixes Prefix Meaning a, ab, abs

away from

ad, a, ac, af, ag, an, ar, at, as

to, toward

anti

against

bi, bis

two

circum, cir

around

com, con, co, col

with, together

de

away from, down, the opposite of

dis, dif, di

apart

epi

upon, on top of

equ, equi

equal

ex, e, ef

out, from

in, il, ir, im, en

in, into

in, il, ig, ir, im

not

Example words and meanings ƒ absent ƒ abscond ƒ adapt ƒ adhere ƒ annex ƒ attract ƒ antifreeze ƒ antisocial ƒ bicycle ƒ biannual ƒ biennial ƒ circumscribe ƒ circle ƒ combine ƒ contact ƒ collect ƒ co-worker ƒ depart ƒ decline ƒ dislike ƒ dishonest ƒ distant ƒ epitaph ƒ epilogue ƒ equalize ƒ equitable ƒ exit ƒ eject ƒ exhale ƒ inject ƒ impose ƒ inactive ƒ ignoble ƒ irreversible ƒ irritate

ƒ not to be present, away ƒ abscond – to run away ƒ to fit into ƒ to stick to ƒ to add or join ƒ to draw near ƒ a substance to prevent freezing ƒ refers to someone who’s not social ƒ two wheeled cycle ƒ twice each year ƒ every two years ƒ to draw around ƒ a figure that goes all around ƒ to bring together ƒ to touch together ƒ to bring together ƒ co-worker ƒ to go away from ƒ to turn down ƒ not to like ƒ not honest ƒ away ƒ writing upon a tombstone ƒ speech at the end, on top of the rest ƒ to make equal ƒ fair, equal ƒ to go out ƒ to throw out ƒ to breathe out ƒ to put into ƒ to force into ƒ not active ƒ not noble ƒ not reversible ƒ to put into discomfort

This document revised from Gary Gruber’s work on increasing children’s test scores: Dr. Gary Gruber's Essential Guide to Test Taking for Kids, Grades 3, 4, & 5. (1986); Dr. Gary Gruber's Essential Guide to Test Taking for Kids, Grades 6, 7, 8, & 9. (1986); and Gruber's Complete Preparation for the SAT (9th Edition, 2001) -- all published by Collins, New York City. Developed by Judith Wilde, PhD for Beta Group – Albuquerque, NM and Arlington, VA (rev 8/06). Reprinted by NCELA with permission. Multiple copies permitted for educational purposes and with this credit line.


Building Vocabulary: Prefixes, Roots, and Suffixes

Prefix

Page 2

Meaning

inter

between, among

mal, male

bad, ill, wrong

mis

wrong, badly

mono

one, alone, single

non

not, the reverse of

ob

in front, against, in front of, in the way of

omni

everywhere, all

per

through

poly

many

post

after

pre

before, earlier than

pro

forward, going ahead of, supporting

re

again, back

se

apart

sub

under, less than

super

over, above, greater

trans

across

un, uni

one

un

not

Example words and meanings ƒ international ƒ interpose ƒ malpractice ƒ malfunction ƒ mistreat ƒ mistake ƒ misplace ƒ monopoly ƒ monotone ƒ monologue ƒ monosyllable ƒ nonsense ƒ nonprofit ƒ obstacle ƒ obvious ƒ obviate ƒ omnipresent ƒ omnipotent ƒ pervade ƒ perceive ƒ polysyllable ƒ polygon ƒ postpone ƒ postmortem ƒ preview ƒ prehistoric ƒ preface ƒ proceed ƒ prowar ƒ promote ƒ retell ƒ recall ƒ recede ƒ secede ƒ seclude ƒ submarine ƒ subway ƒ subliminal ƒ superstar ƒ superimpose ƒ transcontinental

ƒ transverse ƒ unidirectional ƒ unanimous ƒ unilateral ƒ uninterested ƒ unhelpful ƒ unethical

ƒ among nations ƒ to put between ƒ bad practice ƒ fail to function, bad function ƒ to treat badly ƒ to get wrong ƒ to put in wrong place ƒ one ownership ƒ one note ƒ speech by one person ƒ one syllable ƒ not making sense ƒ not making a profit ƒ something that stands in the way of ƒ right in front of, apparent ƒ to do away with, make unnecessary ƒ always present, everywhere ƒ all powerful ƒ to pass through, to spread through ƒ to become aware through sight ƒ many syllables ƒ figure with many sides ƒ to do after ƒ after death ƒ a viewing earlier than another ƒ before written history ƒ a statement before an article or book ƒ to go forward ƒ supporting the war ƒ to raise or move forward ƒ to tell again ƒ to call back ƒ to go back ƒ to withdraw, become apart ƒ to stay apart from others ƒ under water ƒ a path or way to move under ground ƒ below the level of consciousness ƒ a start greater than other stars ƒ to put over something else ƒ across the continent ƒ to lie or go across ƒ having one direction ƒ sharing one view ƒ having one side ƒ not interested ƒ not helpful ƒ not ethical

Developed by Judith Wilde, PhD for Beta Group – Albuquerque, NM and Arlington, VA (rev 8/06). Reprinted by NCELA with permission. Multiple copies permitted for educational purposes and with this credit line.


Building Vocabulary: Prefixes, Roots, and Suffixes

Table 2: 27 Roots Root

Meaning

act, ag

to do, to act

apert

open

bas

low

cap, capt, cip, cept, ceive

to take, to hold, to seize

ced, cede, ceed, cess

to go, to give in

cred, credit

to believe

curr, curs, cours

to run

dic, dict

to say

duc, duct

to lead

equ

equal, even

fac, fact, fic, fect, fy

to make, to do

fer, ferr

to carry, bring

graph

write

mit, mis

to send

par

equal

plic

to fold, to bend, to turn

pon, pos, posit, pose

to place

scrib, script

to write

sequ, secu

to follow

spec, spect, spic sta, stat, sist,

Page 3

to appear, to look, to see to stand, or make stand

Example words & meanings ƒ Agent ƒ Activity ƒ Aperture ƒ Basement ƒ Basement ƒ Captive ƒ Receive ƒ Capable ƒ Recipient ƒ Precede ƒ Access ƒ Proceed ƒ Credible ƒ Incredible ƒ Credit ƒ Current ƒ Precursory ƒ Recourse ƒ Dictionary ƒ Indict ƒ Indicate ƒ Induce ƒ Conduct ƒ Aqueduct ƒ Equality ƒ Equanimity ƒ Facile ƒ Fiction ƒ Factory ƒ Affect ƒ Defer ƒ Referral ƒ Monograph ƒ Graphite ƒ Admit ƒ Missile ƒ Parity ƒ Disparate ƒ Complicate ƒ Implicate ƒ Component ƒ Transpose ƒ Compose ƒ Deposit ƒ Describe ƒ Transcript ƒ Subscription ƒ Sequence ƒ Sequel ƒ Consecutive ƒ Specimen ƒ Aspect ƒ Constant

ƒ One who acts as a representative ƒ Action ƒ An opening ƒ Something that is low, at the bottom ƒ A room that is low ƒ One who is held ƒ To take ƒ Able to take hold of things ƒ One who takes hold or receives ƒ To go before ƒ Means of going to ƒ To go forward ƒ Believable ƒ Not believable ƒ Belief, trust ƒ Now in progress, running ƒ Running (going) before ƒ To run for aid ƒ A book explaining words (sayings) ƒ To say or make an accusation ƒ To point out or say by demonstrating ƒ To lead to action ƒ To lead or guide ƒ Pipe that leads water somewhere ƒ Equal in social, political rights ƒ Evenness of mind, tranquility ƒ Easy to do ƒ Something that is made up ƒ Place that makes things ƒ To make a change in ƒ To carry away ƒ Bring a source for help/information ƒ A writing on a particular subject ƒ A form of carbon used for writing ƒ To send in ƒ Something sent through the air ƒ Equality ƒ No equal, not alike ƒ To fold (mix) together ƒ To fold in, to involve ƒ A part placed together with others ƒ A place across ƒ To put many parts into place ƒ To place for safekeeping ƒ To write about or tell about ƒ A written copy ƒ A written signature or document ƒ In following order ƒ A second, following, book ƒ One that follows another ƒ An example to look at ƒ One way to see something ƒ Standing with

Developed by Judith Wilde, PhD for Beta Group – Albuquerque, NM and Arlington, VA (rev 8/06). Reprinted by NCELA with permission. Multiple copies permitted for educational purposes and with this credit line.


Building Vocabulary: Prefixes, Roots, and Suffixes

Root

Meaning

stit, sisto

tact

to touch

ten, tent, tain

to hold

tend, tens, tent

to stretch

tract

to draw

ven, vent

to come

ver, vert, vers

to turn

Table 3: 23 Suffixes Suffix

Example words & meanings ƒ Status ƒ Stable ƒ Desist ƒ Contact ƒ Tactile ƒ Tenable ƒ Retentive ƒ Maintain ƒ Extend ƒ Tension ƒ Attract ƒ Contract ƒ Convene ƒ Advent ƒ Avert ƒ Revert ƒ Reverse

Meaning

able, ible, ble

able to

acious, cous, al

like, having the quality of

ance, ancy

the act of, a state of being

ant, ent, er, or

one who

ar, ary

connected with, related to

ence ful

quality of, act of full of

ic, ac, il, ile

of, like, pertaining to

ion ism ist

the act or condition of the practice of, support of one who makes, does

ity, ty, y

the state of, character of

ive less logy ment ness

having the nature of lacking, without the study of the act of, the state of the quality of having the nature of, a place or thing for

ory

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ƒ Social standing ƒ Steady (standing) ƒ To stand away from ƒ To touch together ƒ To be able to be touched ƒ Able to be held, holding ƒ Holding ƒ To keep or hold up ƒ To stretch or draw out ƒ Stretched ƒ To draw together ƒ An agreement drawn up ƒ To come together ƒ A coming ƒ To turn away ƒ To turn back ƒ To turn around

Example words & meanings ƒ Edible ƒ Salable ƒ Nocturnal ƒ Vivacious ƒ Performance ƒ Truancy ƒ Occupant ƒ Respondent ƒ Teacher ƒ Creator ƒ Ocular ƒ Beneficiary

ƒ Able to be eaten ƒ Able to be sold ƒ Of the night ƒ Having the quality of being lively ƒ The act of performing ƒ The act of being truant ƒ One who occupies ƒ One who responds or answers ƒ One who teaches ƒ One who creates

ƒ Existence ƒ Fearful ƒ Cardiac ƒ Civil ƒ Infantile ƒ Acidic ƒ Correction ƒ Patriotism ƒ Artist ƒ Unity ƒ Shifty ƒ Showy ƒ Active ƒ Heartless ƒ Biology ƒ Retirement ƒ Eagerness

ƒ The act of existing or being ƒ Full of fear ƒ Pertaining to the heart ƒ Pertaining to citizens ƒ Pertaining to infants ƒ Like acid ƒ The act of correcting ƒ Support of one’s country ƒ One who creates art ƒ The state of being one ƒ State of shifting around ƒ State of always showing oneself ƒ Having the nature of acting or moving ƒ Without a heart ƒ The study of life processes ƒ State of being retired ƒ The quality of being eager

ƒ Laboratory

ƒ A place where work is done

ƒ Related to the eye ƒ Connected with one who receives benefits

Developed by Judith Wilde, PhD for Beta Group – Albuquerque, NM and Arlington, VA (rev 8/06). Reprinted by NCELA with permission. Multiple copies permitted for educational purposes and with this credit line.


Building Vocabulary: Prefixes, Roots, and Suffixes

Suffix ous, ose ship some tude y

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Meaning

Example words & meanings

full of, having the art or skill of, the ability to full of, like the state of quality of, the ability to Full of, somewhat, somewhat like

Table 4: Taking words apart Word Prefix

ƒ Dangerous ƒ Verbose

ƒ Full of danger ƒ Full of words, or wordy

ƒ Leadership

ƒ The ability to lead

ƒ Troublesome

ƒ Full of trouble

ƒ Aptitude

ƒ The ability to do

ƒ Musty ƒ Chilly ƒ Willowy

ƒ Having a stale oror ƒ Somewhat cold ƒ Like a willow

Root

Suffix

Meaning

Concurrence

con: with

curr: run

ence: act of

Exaggerate

ex: out ir: not re: again

ag: to do, act

---

Act of running with, happening at same time To act out

vers: turning

ible: able to

Not able to turn back

Irreversible Malediction

male: bad

dict: to say

---

Precursor

pre: before

curs: to run

or: one who

Unity

uni: one

---

ty: state of

Untenable

un: not

ten: holding

able: able to

To say bad things, a negative statement Something that comes before State of being one, a single thing or being Not able to hold on

Developed by Judith Wilde, PhD for Beta Group – Albuquerque, NM and Arlington, VA (rev 8/06). Reprinted by NCELA with permission. Multiple copies permitted for educational purposes and with this credit line.



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