Chapter 17 Introduction to Animals Worksheets
(Opening image copyright RAGMA IMAGES, 2010. Used under license from Shutterstock.com.) • Lesson 17.1: Overview of Animals • Lesson 17.2: Overview of Invertebrates
17.1 Overview of Animals Lesson 17.1: True or False Name___________________ Class______________ Date________ Write true if the statement is true or false if the statement is false. _____ 1. Animals are multicellular prokaryotes. _____ 2. Animal cells have cell walls to maintain their shape. _____ 3. All animals are heterotrophs. _____ 4. Vertebrates do not have a backbone. _____ 5. All animal cells are exactly the same shape. _____ 6. Animals have a nervous system. _____ 7. Almost all animals digest their food inside their bodies. _____ 8. Most animals reproduce by sexual reproduction. _____ 9. Fish are in the phylum Chordata. _____ 10. Roundworms are in the phylum Arthropoda. _____ 11. Over 90% of all animals species are vertebrates. _____ 12. A characteristic of animals is that they have sensory organs. _____ 13. An exoskeleton is a bony skeleton on the outside of some organisms. _____ 14. A notochord is a rigid, supportive rod spanning the length of the body of chordates. _____ 15. The ďŹ rst animals to evolve with true lungs were the reptiles.
Lesson 17.1: Critical Reading Name___________________ Class______________ Date________ Read these passages from the text and answer the questions that follow. Evolution of Amniotes Amphibians were the ﬁrst animals to have true lungs and limbs for life on land. However, they still had to return to water to reproduce. That’s because their eggs lacked a waterproof covering and would dry out on land. The ﬁrst fully terrestrial vertebrates were amniotes. Amniotes are animals that produce eggs with internal membranes. The membranes let gases but not water pass through. Therefore, in an amniotic egg, an embryo can breathe without drying out. Amniotic eggs were the ﬁrst eggs that could be laid on land. The earliest amniotes evolved about 350 million years ago. They may have looked like the animal shown below. Within a few million years, two important amniote groups evolved: synapsids and sauropsids. Synapsids evolved into mammals. The sauropsids gave rise to reptiles, dinosaurs, and birds.
Early Amniote. The earliest amniotes probably looked something like this. They were reptile-like, but not actually reptiles. Reptiles evolved somewhat later. (Image courtesy of ArthurWeasley and under the Creative Commons license CC-BY-SA 3.0.) Questions 1. Why was the evolution of amphibians notable? What did they pioneer?
2. What characteristic of amphibians necessitates that they live near water?
3. Deﬁne amniote.
4. What reproductive advantage do amniotes have over pre-amniotes?
5. What are the important animal groups that evolved from amniotes? What in turn, evolved from these groups?
Lesson 17.1: Multiple Choice Name___________________ Class______________ Date________ Circle the letter of the correct choice. 1. Animal cells and bacterial cells both may have all of the following cell structures except (a) (b) (c) (d)
mitochondria. DNA. plasma membrane. ﬂagella.
2. Which of the following are animals? (a) (b) (c) (d)
snake sponge ﬂatworm all of the above
3. Which of the following is not a characteristic shared by almost all animals? (a) (b) (c) (d)
digestion of food internally the ability to ﬂy the ability to move, at least at some stage of their life detection of environmental stimuli
4. Invertebrates evolved adaptations including (a) (b) (c) (d)
a ﬂuid-ﬁlled body cavity. a complete digestive system. a symmetrical body. all of the above.
5. A skeleton forming outside the animal’s body is a(n) (a) (b) (c) (d)
endoskeleton. exoskeleton. notochord. vertebrate.
6. One of the main challenges animals faced when moving to land was (a) (b) (c) (d)
switching to asexual reproduction. getting rid of their nervous systems, which would be too sensitive on land. getting rid of extra water. not losing too much water from their bodies.
7. An example of an animal that has a notochord but lacks a backbone is a (a) (b) (c) (d)
tunicate. ﬁsh. bird. all of the above
8. Animals that have eggs with internal membranes that permit diﬀusion of gases but prevent water loss are classiﬁed as (a) chordates. (b) echinoderms. (c) amniotes.
Lesson 17.1: Vocabulary I Name___________________ Class______________ Date________ Match the vocabulary word with the proper deďŹ nition. DeďŹ nitions _____ 1. living on land _____ 2. animals with a notochord _____ 3. an animal with a backbone _____ 4. a hollow nerve cord running the length of the body _____ 5. a living organism whose eggs are surrounded by membranes _____ 6. an animal with no backbone _____ 7. another name for backbone _____ 8. heterotrophic organisms that can detect environmental stimuli, can move on their own during at least part of their life, and most often digest their food internally _____ 9. living in the ocean _____ 10. the parts of an animal that detect environmental stimuli _____ 11. a non-bony skeleton on the outside of arthropods _____ 12. cell with a nucleus Terms a. amniote b. animal c. chordate d. eukaryote e. exoskeleton f. invertebrate g. marine h. notochord i. sensory organs j. terrestrial k. vertebral column l. vertebrate
Lesson 17.1: Vocabulary II Name___________________ Class______________ Date________ Fill in the blank with the appropriate term. 1. Another name for backbone is __________. 2. __________ are heterotrophs that have sensory organs, internal digestion, and the ability to move. 3. __________ organisms live in the ocean. 4. __________ organisms live on land. 5. A __________ is a hollow nerve cord running the length of the animalâ€™s body. 6. In animals, __________ detect environmental stimuli. 7. __________ animals have backbones. 8. __________ animals lack a backbone. 9. The eggs of __________ have internal membranes. 10. A __________ has its DNA contained within a nucleus. 11. A __________ has a notochord. 12. Arthropods, such as insects and crustaceans, have a(n) __________ to help protect and support them.
Lesson 17.1: Critical Writing Name___________________ Class______________ Date________ Thoroughly answer the question below. Use appropriate academic vocabulary and clear and complete sentences. Land animals evolved from animals that live in the water. What kinds of adaptations did animals evolve that allowed them to move from water to land?
17.2 Overview of Invertebrates Lesson 17.2: True or False Name___________________ Class______________ Date________ Write true if the statement is true or false if the statement is false. _____ 1. An earthworm is an example of a segmented invertebrate. _____ 2. Invertebrates with an incomplete digestive system starve, because their food cannot be completely digested. _____ 3. A psuedocoelom refers to concentration of nervous tissue at one end of the animal. _____ 4. Some invertebrates move, but cannot regulate which direction they move or how fast they move. _____ 5. A larva is a juvenile stage of the life cycle. _____ 6. A bilaterally symmetrical invertebrate has two identical left and right halves. _____ 7. A radially symmetrical invertebrate can be divided into two similar halves by a line traversing the center of the animal. _____ 8. Endoderm becomes muscle tissue. _____ 9. All invertebrates reproduce by asexual budding. _____ 10. Body segments make an animal less ďŹ‚exible. _____ 11. Protostome and deuterostome are two main classes of invertebrates. _____ 12. Some invertebrates have an internal skeleton. _____ 13. The outside of an animal is formed from the ectoderm. _____ 14. A partial coelom is called a psuedocoelom. _____ 15. Complete digestion is less eďŹ€icient than incomplete digestion because most animals eat too much food.
Lesson 17.2: Critical Reading Name___________________ Class______________ Date________ Read these passages from the text and answer the questions that follow. Complete Digestive System Early invertebrates had an incomplete digestive system. There was just one opening for the mouth and anus. Ancestors of modern roundworms were the ﬁrst animals to evolve a complete digestive system. With a separate mouth and anus, food could move through the body in just one direction. This made digestion more eﬀicient. An animal could keep eating while digesting food and getting rid of waste. Diﬀerent parts of the digestive tract could also become specialized for diﬀerent digestive functions. This led to the evolution of digestive organs. Pseudocoelom and Coelom Ancestors of roundworms also evolved a pseudocoelom. This is a partial body cavity that is ﬁlled with ﬂuid. It allows room for internal organs to develop. The ﬂuid also cushions the internal organs. The pressure of the ﬂuid within the cavity provides stiﬀness. It gives the body internal support, forming a hydrostatic skeleton. It explains why roundworms are round and ﬂatworms are ﬂat. Later, a true coelom evolved. This is a ﬂuid-ﬁlled body cavity, completely enclosed by mesoderm. It lies between the digestive cavity and body wall (see the ﬁgure below). Invertebrates with a true coelom include mollusks and annelids.
(Image courtesy of CK-12 Foundation and under the Creative Commons license CC-BY-NC-SA 3.0.) Questions 1. Deﬁne complete digestive system. What are two advantages of having a complete digestive system?
2. Deﬁne psuedocoelom.
3. DeďŹ ne coelom.
4. An organism gains what advantages by having a coelom?
5. Do you think humans have a coelom? Why or why not?
Lesson 17.2: Multiple Choice Name___________________ Class______________ Date________ Circle the letter of the correct choice. 1. An example of an organism that has an incomplete digestive system is (a) (b) (c) (d)
a a a a
sea star. sponge. spider. sand dollar.
2. Animals who can control the direction they move in all have (a) (b) (c) (d)
a home in the ocean. development as a deuterostome. muscles. radial symmetry.
3. Corals detect touch with (a) (b) (c) (d)
a a a a
nerve net. brain. complete digestive system. gamete.
4. ________ was one of the ďŹ rst animal traits to evolve. (a) (b) (c) (d)
cephalization a complete digestive system a notochord multicellularity
5. Humans have (a) (b) (c) (d)
no symmetry. radial symmetry. bilateral symmetry. none of the above.
6. The mesoderm is located (a) (b) (c) (d)
outside the ectoderm. inside the endoderm. in between the ectoderm and endoderm. inside the gut.
7. The notochord evolved (a) (b) (c) (d)
before a bony backbone. before multicellurity. outside the animalâ€™s body. none of the above.
8. Squids belong to the phylum (a) (b) (c) (d)
Porifera. Nematoda. Arthropoda. none of the above
Lesson 17.2: Vocabulary I Name___________________ Class______________ Date________ Match the vocabulary word with the proper deﬁnition. Deﬁnitions _____ 1. outer embryonic cell layer in animals _____ 2. digestive system that consists of a digestive cavity and a single opening that serves as both mouth and anus _____ 3. concentration of nerve tissue in one end of an animal, forming a head region _____ 4. partial, ﬂuid-ﬁlled cavity inside the body of some invertebrates _____ 5. ﬂuid-ﬁlled body cavity _____ 6. inner embryonic cell layer in animals _____ 7. division of an animal body into multiple segments _____ 8. type of internal support in an animal body that results from the pressure of ﬂuid within the body cavity known as the coelom _____ 9. digestive system consisting of a digestive tract and two body openings (mouth and anus) _____ 10. juvenile stage that occurs in the life cycle of many invertebrates, ﬁsh, and amphibians and that diﬀers in form and function from the adult stage _____ 11. embryonic cell layer in many animals that is located between the endoderm (inner cell layer) and ectoderm (outer cell layer) _____ 12. symmetry of a body plan in which there are distinct head and tail ends, so the body can be divided into two identical right and left halves Terms a. bilateral symmetry b. cephalization c. coelom d. complete digestive system e. ectoderm f. endoderm g. hydrostatic skeleton h. incomplete digestive system i. larva j. mesoderm k. psuedocoelom l. segmentation
Lesson 17.2: Vocabulary II Name___________________ Class______________ Date________ Fill in the blank with the appropriate term. 1. Sea stars (starﬁsh) have ________ symmetry. 2. ________ is the concentration of nerve tissue in one end of an animal, forming a head region. 3. A digestive system in which food enters and waste exits the same body opening is ________. 4. A false coelom (incomplete coelom) is called a ________. 5. In animals, the middle embryonic cell layer is the ________. 6. In animals, the inner embryonic cell layer is the ________. 7. In animals, the outer embyronic cell layer is the ________. 8. A ________ is a digestive system consisting of a digestive tract and two body openings. 9. ________ refers to division of an animal into multiple segments. 10. ________ symmetry is the type where the body can be divided into two identical right and left halves. 11. The ________ is a juvenile stage that occurs in the life cycle of many invertebrates, ﬁsh, and amphibians and that diﬀers in form and function from the adult stage. 12. The support from a ________ results from the pressure of ﬂuid within the body cavity known as the coelom.
Lesson 17.2: Critical Writing Name___________________ Class______________ Date________ Thoroughly answer the question below. Use appropriate academic vocabulary and clear and complete sentences. Assume you have discovered a new invertebrate. It has multicellularity, specialized cells but no tissues, asymmetry, and an incomplete digestive system. In which phylum would you place it? Why?