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DESIGN PRINCIPLES AND METHODS

DPM 1: FUNDAMENTALS A Proposal for a New Thread at the Welsh School of Architecture

Sam Clark and Dr. Cristian Suau


Welsh School of Architecture

DESIGN PRINCIPLES AND METHODS DPM 1: FUNDAMENTALS YEAR 1 - AUTUMN TERM - 10 CREDITS (DRAFT PREPARED BY SAM CLARK & DR CRISTIAN SUAU) INTRODUCTION & AIMS This module is introductory and part of a major strand. It is intended to complement and support Architectural Design 1 (Year 1 Studio). This module is delivered at the very beginning of an architect’s education and so reflects on the basics of architectural conceptualisation in an intuitive graphic manner. In doing so, it explores the use of analogical tools in the analysis of the built environment. These tools are primarily applied at the scale of ‘dwelling’ or ‘house’. The module offers the essential tools, principles, and techniques that students use to communicate their ideas. Students will be exposed to fieldwork, site mapping, model making, forms of rapid representation (e.g. collage) and orthographic projection, and encouraged to translate architectural ideas into vivid visual representations. LEARNING OUTCOMES We expect students learn and develop these 3 main principles applicable in the Studio: • Principles of Conceptualisation • Principles of Abstraction • Principles of Composition • To introduce students about essential design principles and representational methods • To develop an understanding of how the world of ideas and de world of representation is interlinked and define a successful architectural design • To establish an analytic and sensorial approach towards design by study exemplary dwellings and represent them through different analogical techniques. • To understand basic techniques of two dimensional graphic representation and respective translation into three dimensional constructs. SKILLS Communicational/Representational Skill Covering of multi-view drawings and perspective drawings; techniques for drawing section views of building interiors; strategies for rendering tonal value, enhancing pictorial depth, and conveying the illumination of spatial 1


environments; approaches for developing the layout of architectural presentations; and freehand sketching and diagramming. Also model making of conceptual schemes and to learn from mixed media. Sensorial/Analytic Skills Understanding of: • the diversity and richness of design principles applied in Architecture and specifically in dwellings. • scale, in relation to human form and inhabitation. • the inter-dependence of building form, climate and culture. • the principles of Conceptualisation; Abstraction and Composition in range of domestic buildings. Cognitive Skills • Demonstrate an ability to evaluate, comprehend and represent ideas in drawings. • To critically interpret principles of building design. CONTENT The following suggested content is further elaborated within the draft schedule (section 5): 1. Fieldwork (St. Fagans): Recording & Mapping Sensorial and Factual Data (Experiencing Architecture by getting outdoors, observing and recording how students experience the built environment). 2. Geometry: Essential to learn how to read/represent the space and make multiview drawings and perspectives. 3. Precedent Studies (Analysing Architecture: analysing built precedents). 4. Model Making (Making Architecture: working with test or iterative models, prototypes, maquettes, etc) 5. Design Diary (Communicating Architecture: an online blog page or similar, with weekly/project entries). DRAFT SCHEDULE We propose a 1 month long, intensive, block course at the beginning of first year. The module is conceived as a foundation course in preparation for Studio (the Architectural Design module). The following is a suggested weekly programme of 4 short projects in quick succession: Project 1: Experiencing Architecture; mapping and recording places where people dwell within the built environment, with graphic outputs. Project 2: Communicating Architecture; a group design intervention (Charrette format, encouraging early attempts at a full range of representation techniques) 2


Project 3: Analysing Architecture; collating, reading and interpreting precedent houses in order to replicate a set of orthographic drawings. Project 4: Making Architecture; crafting conceptual models, in response to the experience of dwelling within a home. Sketch Books and the Online Design Diaries will run in parallel to the above projects; the former being used to test ideas and record process, and the latter to record products from the projects. ASSESSMENT Given the proposed scheduling of the module – a block course at the very beginning of first year – we propose 3 indicative marks: ‘pass’; ‘borderline’ or ‘fail’, with feedback provided in the following two ways: 1. Informal pin-ups where students publish their work on the walls, as opposed

to presenting it verbally (a ‘light’ touch; not full Crit reviews at this stage). Students receive informal peer review (post-it notes, conversation, etc) and group-wide tutor feedback. 2. Tutor led pro-formas used to categorise outputs (see appendix 1: Exemplary Drawing Feedback Sheet) SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

DESIGN PRINCIPLES Healy, Patrick. “The Model and Its Architecture”, Rotterdam, 010 Publishers, 2008 Hertzberger, Herman. “Lessons for Students in Architecture”, Amsterdam, Uitgeverij, 1991 Rasmussen, Steen Eiler. “Experiencing Architecture”. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1964 Unwin, Simon. “Analysing Architecture”, London, Routledge, 1997 Unwin, Simon. “An Architecture Notebook”: Wall, London, Routledge, 2000 Crowe, Norman & Hurtt, Steven W. “Visual Notes and the Acquisition of Architectural Knowledge”. Journal of Architectural Education Spring 1986 (#39/3) METHODS Ching, Francis. “Architectural Graphics”, London,Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1996 Porter, Tom & Sue Goodman. “Manual of Graphic Techniques”,Vols. 1-3, London, Astragal, 1982. Murray, Peter & Michele Ogundehin. “Understanding Plans”, London, Wordsearch, 1997

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Appendix 1: Exemplary Drawing Feedback Sheet 3

EXEMPLARY DRAWING

FEEDBACK

STUDENT NAME

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA 1

PAGE LAYOUT

2

UNDERSTANDING AND USE OF ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION

3

DISTINGUISHING PLAN & SECTION CUTS FROM ELEVATION

4

CROSS REFERENCING SECTION LINES

5

STAIR CUT AND ARROW

6

APPROPRIATE LEVEL OF DETAIL

7

LINE QUALITY

8

TITLE AND KEY

9

ELEGANCE OF SCRIPT

10

NORTH POINT

NOT CONVINCING

SOMEWHAT CONVINCING

VERY CONVINCING

SOMEWHAT CONVINCING

VERY CONVINCING

SOMEWHAT CONVINCING

VERY CONVINCING

OVER ALL LEVEL PLEASE COME AND SEE US IF YOUR LEVEL IS 'NOT CONVINCING' WE ARE VERY HAPPY TO ADVISE YOU FURTHER

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EXEMPLARY DRAWING

FEEDBACK

STUDENT NAME

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

NOT CONVINCING

PAGE LAYOUT UNDERSTANDING AND USE OF ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION DISTINGUISHING PLAN & SECTION CUTS FROM ELEVATION CROSS REFERENCING SECTION LINES STAIR CUT AND ARROW APPROPRIATE LEVEL OF DETAIL LINE QUALITY TITLE AND KEY ELEGANCE OF SCRIPT NORTH POINT OVER ALL LEVEL PLEASE COME AND SEE US IF YOUR LEVEL IS 'NOT CONVINCING' WE ARE VERY HAPPY TO ADVISE YOU FURTHER

3

EXEMPLARY DRAWING

FEEDBACK

STUDENT NAME

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

PAGE LAYOUT UNDERSTANDING AND USE OF ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION DISTINGUISHING PLAN & SECTION CUTS FROM ELEVATION CROSS REFERENCING SECTION LINES STAIR CUT AND ARROW APPROPRIATE LEVEL OF DETAIL LINE QUALITY TITLE AND KEY ELEGANCE OF SCRIPT NORTH POINT OVER ALL LEVEL PLEASE COME AND SEE US IF YOUR LEVEL IS 'NOT CONVINCING' WE ARE VERY HAPPY TO ADVISE YOU FURTHER

NOT CONVINCING


REFERENCE IMAGES



DPM1: Fundamentals