European Journal of Social Sciences ISSN 1450-2267 Vol.28 No.1 (2012), pp. 35-41 ÂŠ EuroJournals Publishing, Inc. 2012 http://www.europeanjournalofsocialsciences.com
Global Media and the Domination of West A. Waseem Khattak M Phil Mass Communication, Lecturer/Coordinator Communication and Media Studies Sarhad University of Science and Information Technology Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa Peshawar Pakistan Muhammad Nasir Registrar Sarhad University of Science and Information Technology Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa Peshawar Pakistan Aftab Ahmad Press Club Coordinator, Internews Peshawar Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa Pakistan Abstract The emergence of a truly global media system is very recent development, reflecting to no small degree of the globalization of the market economy.Although global media are part of the overall expansion and spread of an increasingly integrated global corporate system. The global media play a central economic in global infrastructure. The establishment of an integrated global media market only begin in earliest in the late 1980 and did not reach its full potential until the 1990, the roots of global media system can be traced back decades, even centuries. Global media came into existence long after the emergence of local and national media. In Western Europe the first great mass media, newspapers that dominated through nineteenth century â€“ required several centuries of social, economic and political change. Although media were almost entirely local and national phenomena until the 20th century Global media developed haltingly in the 19th century. Newspapers and periodicals were written almost exclusively for domestic audience, which combined with language problem to limit their potential for export. In fact, to this day newspapers remain the media industry that is least integrated into the global media system. The coming of telegraph and underwater cables in the mid 19th century marked the drawing the telecommunication age .For the first time information could reliably travel faster than people. Increasingly, as global trade grew in importance, there was great commercial value in the rapid communication of world news via the wires. The wire based international news agencies were the first significant from of global media. The French Havas, German Wolf, and British Reuters were commercial news agencies established in the 19th century as domestic enterprises but with particular interest in foreign news. They produced news and than sold it to newspapers publishers. After that two new technologies motion pictures and radio broadcasting contributed to the development of global media in the first half of the 20th century. In 1960 had seen growth in media usage in what came to know third world. There was little reason to expect the disparity between the media have and have notes to diminish 35
European Journal of Social Sciences – Volume 28, Number 1 (2012) for generation, if at all.The revolutionary development of geo synchronous communication satellite’s. in the 1960 and 1970 fanned the flames of the concern about global media. The major global institution that dealt with communication issues the United Nations, UNESCO and the international Telecommunication (ITU) now had majorities comprised of third world nations and sympathetic communist governments. The impetus for the global media debate came from the movement of the (NAM) which comprised over 90 members nation by the 1970s. The NAM criticized the global media system at several different levels. Global communication was attacked for the flagrant quantitative imbalance between and south and the corresponding “ inequality in information resources. A central criticism revolved around the western monopoly of global news services, with their almost exclusive service to the needs of the developed nations. There was almost no journalism by people in the nonaligned nations for the developed nations or for each other. The domination of Entertainment programming across the Third world was criticized as a cultural imperialism that implemented alien western values on audiences. The role of transmission media in undermining national sovereignty was another major concern. The capitalism and economic imperialism, the global media were seen as working primarily to serve TNCs and advertisers, thus reinforcing the inequalities of the global economy. As one NAM resolution noted, a new international order in the fields of information and communications is as vital as a new international economic order. The non-aligned position included a socialist critique of capitalist media and a nationalist critique of imperialist media.
Research Methodology The research methodology of this study is document study and Research Questions are formulated. • Are the west dominated Media • Are we going to adopt the Global culture?
Media Globalization Media and entertainment outlays are growing at a faster rate than GDP almost everywhere in the world and significantly faster in the Far East and central Europe. A 1996 survey of teenagers in television – owning households in forty-one nations finds that they watch on average six hours of television per day, and now here in the survey is the figure under five hours. This has been a boon for the US entertainment industry, as it dominates the global market for the production of television programming as well as films. Employment in the entertainment industry in Los angles alone has more than doubled from 53,000 in 1988 to 112,000 in 1995. There has also been an increase in the export of cultural products by nations other than the United States in 1990, not only from Europe but the developing nations. The leading global media firms are producing fare in languages other than English for example MTV the global TV service has begun to differentiate its content around the world and incorporate local music. The three media industries that entered the 1990s with the most developed global markets, books publishing, recorded music and film production have continued their growth in some times booming global oligopolistic markets. Recorded music is the most concentrated global market. The leading five firms in order of global market share, are Polygram (19 percent) Time Warner (18 percent) Sony (!7 percent) EMI (15 percent ) and Bertelsmann ( 13 percent ).The only other players of any note is universal ( formally MCA 9 percent) . All but EMI are part of larger global media conglomerates. Some estimates show 36
European Journal of Social Sciences â€“ Volume 28, Number 1 (2012) these six firmsâ€™ combined sales as accounting for over 90 percent of the global market, while others place it closer to 80 percent. Global sales grew by 38 percent from 1992 to 19995. With western markets relatively mature, sales in the developing world are growing more rapidly. Global film production in 1990s is dominated by the studios by Disney, Time Warner, Viacom, universal (owned by Seagram) Sony, Polygram (owned by Phillips) MGM and News Corporation. All but MGM are parts of large global media conglomerates.
Global Media and Cultural Imperialism Media Imperialism occurs when one society media dominate another country's culture. The medium of cable television is a prime example to illustrate the effect of media imperialism. Cable TV & Satellite transmissions, for better or worse, has made the world a global village. It is our TV viewing that shapes our understanding of the world and ourselves. However, it is saturated with foreign influence and media imperialism. How much world television through satellite & cable TV has affected our culture and identity is yet to be explored. Media globalization is seen as a modern form of imperialism and more believe that this globalization will destroy individual cultures & diversity. Culture domination refers to the process in which national cultures are overwhelmed by the importing news and entertainment from other countries â€“ mainly from the United States and other industrialized nations. Resident of many countries are concerned that their national and local heritage will be replaced by one global culture dominated by US values. They point out that American music, books, TV Shows and films are popular around the world. Many countries Canada, Spain, France have placed quotas on the amount of foreign materiel that can be carried on their broadcasting system. The culture domination also spills over into the news area. For many years, the representatives of many developing countries have been arguing for a new world information order.
Global News Flow In the global media, global news industry also emerged. the big four news agencies AP , UPI, Reuters and AFP still dominated the global print market while Reuters TV ( Formerly vis news) and worldwide television news remain the dominant global TV news agencies , but satellite TV has brought into existence regional and global news channels. The most prominent is CNN international, own by Time Warner, which reaches over 200 countries and the vast majority of the world population. BBC and VOA also working in global media. CNN faces increased competition including two more global news channels launched in 1996. One by News Corporation and the other by NBC and Microsoft. News comes from five big media Giants which portray the interest of own country. These global television agencies take the stories that pour into their London Offices, edit then into new story packages, but without any narration in most cases, and transmit them via satellite to their clients throughout the world. They also provide on demand complete stories ready for broadcast. The international agencies are the major agenda setters. They make the first decisions on how and whether international stories will be covered. They choose where to allocate their resources and hence which stories will be covered and where, they decided by those agenda setters. They point out that existing flow of news is one way from the industrialized to developing nations. News coverage of Third world nations was unbalanced.Those who champion that free flow of information across also champion their right to profit from the sale of their products across borders. Proof of Jewish Media Domination "Today, seven Jewish Americans run the vast majority of US television networks, the printed press, the Hollywood movie industry, the book publishing industry, and the recording industry. Most of these industries are bundled into huge media conglomerates run by the following seven individuals: 37
European Journal of Social Sciences – Volume 28, Number 1 (2012) Gerald Levin, CEO and Director of AOL Time Warner Michael Eisner, Chairman and CEO of the Walt Disney Company Edgar Bronfman, Sr., Chairman of Seagram Company Ltd Edgar Bronfman, Jr, President and CEO of Seagram Company Ltd and head of Universal. Sumner Redstone, Chairman and CEO of Viacom, Inc. Dennis Dammerman, Vice Chairman of General Electric Peter Chernin, President and Co-COO of News Corporation Limited Those seven Jewish men collectively control ABC, NBC, CBS, the Turner Broadcasting System, CNN, MTV, Universal Studios, MCA Records, Geffen Records, DGC Records, GRP Records, Rising Tide Records, Curb/Universal Records, and Interscope Records. Most of the larger independent newspapers are owned by Jewish interests as well. An example is media mogul is Samuel I. "Si" Newhouse, who owns two dozen daily newspapers from Staten Island to Oregon, plus the Sunday supplement Parade; the Conde Nast collection of magazines, including Vogue, The New Yorker, Vanity Fair, Allure, GQ, and Self; the publishing firms of Random House, Knopf, Crown, and Ballantine, among other imprints; and cable franchises with over one million subscribers." I could add that Michael Eisner could depart Disney tomorrow but the company will remain in the hands of Shamrock Holdings, whose principal office is now located in Israel. Television Networks CBS Sumner Redstone - chairman of board and CEO of CBS and Viacom, "world's biggest media giant" (Economist, 11-23-02). Viacom owns Viacom Cable, CBS, and MTV all over the world, Blockbuster Video Rentals, and Black Entertainment TV Mel Karmazin - CBS corporation president and CEO Leslie Moonves (great-nephew of Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion) - president of CBS Television David Poltrack - executive vice-president, Research and Planning Jeff Fager - executive director of “60 Minutes II.” NBC Jeff Zucker - president of NBC Entertainment Neil Shapiro - president of NBC News Jeff Gaspin - executive vice-president, programming NBC Max Mutchnik and David Kohan - co-exec. producers of NBC’s “Good Morning, Miami” Lloyd Braun - chair of NBC Entertainment. ABC Michael Eisner - major owner of Walt Disney, Capital Cities, and ABC David Westin - president of ABC News. FOX Rupert Murdoch (Jewish mother, hence legally Jewish) - owner of FOX TV, New York Post, London Times, and News of the World Sandy Grushow - chair, FOX Entertainment Peter Chernin - second in command at Rupert Murdoch’s News Corp., owner of FOX TV Gail Berman - president of FOX Entertainment. CNN CEO Jonathon Klein Wolf Blitzer - host of CNN’s Late Edition. 38
European Journal of Social Sciences – Volume 28, Number 1 (2012) Hollywood Movie Studios Sony Corporation of America: Howard Stringer - chief Columbia Pictures: Amy Pascal - chair Warner Bros.: Barry Meyer - chair; Jordan Levin - pres. of Warner Bros. Entertainment. Miramax Films: Harvey Weinstein - CEO Paramount: Sherry Lansing - president of Paramount Communications and chair of Paramount Pictures’ Motion Picture Group. DreamWorks: Stephen Spielberg, David Geffen, Jeffrey Katzenberg (owners) MTV Entertainment: Brian Graden - president Turner Entertainment: Brad Siegal - president Clear Channel Communications: Robert Sillerman - founder PBS: Ben Wattenberg - moderator, PBS ThinkTank Newspapers Samuel Newhouse Jr. and Donald Newhouse own Newhouse Publications, which includes 26 newspapers in 22 cities. The Conde Nast Magazine Group includes the New Yorker, Parade, the Sunday newspaper supplements, American City Business Journal, business newspapers published in more than 30 major cities in America, and interests in cable television programming and cable systems serving one million homes. Wall Street Journal: Peter R. Kahn, CEO New York Times, Boston Globe, and other publications: published by Arthur O. Sulzberger Jr. New York Daily News: Mortimer Zuckerman, owner Village Voice, New Times and network of alternative weeklies: Owned by David Schneiderman Washington Post: Donald Graham, chair and CEO, son of Katharine Graham Meyer, former owner of Washington Post San Francisco Chronicle: Ron Rosenthal, managing editor; Phil Bronstein, exec. editor AOL-Time Warner Book Group: Laurence Kirshbaum, editor Magazines US News & World Report: Mortimer Zuckerman, owner and chair of the Conference of Presidents of Major Jewish-American Organizations, one of the largest pro-Israel lobbying groups New Republic: Marty Peretz, owner and publisher (NR openly identifies itself as pro-Israel.) Barron’s: Peter R. Kahn, CEO National Review: Michael Ledeen, editor Business Week: Bruce Nussbaum, editorial page editor Newsweek: Donald Graham, chair and CEO, and Howard Fineman, chief political columnist Weekly Standard: William Kristol, editor, also executive director, Project for a New American Century, (PNAC) The New Yorker: David Reznik, editor; Nicholas Lehman, writer; Henrick Hertzberg, “Talk of the Town” editor "Four of the largest five entertainment giants are now run or owned by Jews. Murdoch's News Corp (at number four) is the only gentile holdout -- however Rupert is as pro-Israel as any Jew, probably more so." Jewish American Journalists Journalsits are playing major role for moulding opinion of the people and for this domination of media the Jewish media owners are working and pay lot of money all over the world .Here is the list of jewish journalists who are trying their best for West domination Specialy USA. Carl Bernstein — Washington Post. David Brooks — New York Times 39
European Journal of Social Sciences – Volume 28, Number 1 (2012) Aaron Brown — CNN's Newsnight with Aaron Brown, ABC's World News Now, and ABC's World News Tonight Saturday Matt Drudge — The Drudge Report. Giselle Fernández — Access Hollywood. Thomas Friedman — New York Times. Bernard Goldberg — CBS News. Jeffrey Goldberg The New Yorker. Seymour Hersh — investigative journalist. Paul Krugman — New York Times. Dave Marash — Washington-based anchor of Al-Jazeera's English language 24 hour news channel.. Frank Rich — New York Times. Geraldo Rivera — Fox News. Steven V. Roberts — U.S. News and World Report. William Safire — The New York Times. Daniel Schorr — National Public Radio. Joel Siegel — film critic. Gloria Steinem — feminist editor and writer, founder of Ms. magazine. I. F. Stone — NY Post, PM, The Nation and I.F. Stone's Weekly. Mike Wallace — 60 Minutes. Barbara Walters — media personality, a regular fixture on morning television shows (Today and The View), evening news magazines (20/20), and on The ABC Evening News, as the first female evening news anchor. Gideon Yago — MTV reporter.
Global Media and Third World Countries Communication in Less development countries (LCD’s) is constrained by economic, educational and demographic factors. Because financial resources are scare, government ownership of news media and the national press, in the sale (Blake, 1979,225: Davision (1965:137) low literacy rate are also common –rates of 25 or 30percent are considered high, low level of literacy mean that broadcast media are of greater importance for reaching the masses than is the printed word (Davision 1965: 133 Kvrian, 1982: 570: Schramm 1964) Third World nation nations depended to some extent on western television programming but almost self-sufficient in the more important area of radio broadcasting. In the area of global media Third world are not in the position to counter the propaganda and the culture of west. Western culture is imposed on third world countries by dominant global media.
Global Media and Pakistan After 9/11 Pakistan is becoming Hub for news, every day in international media we can see news from Pakistan. When we started work along with USA against war in terror . In Pakistan media boomed and now we could find that here more then 50 TV channels are working and them few are very popular and foreign media trust on these channels and broadcast Pakistani news in their channels, but still they have monopoly on media , mostly people are trusting on BBC, DEWA Radio, CNBC rather then GEO TV and Express TV etc etc, For Media manipulation USA started radio channels in Pakistani tribal areas where they are fight with so called Taliban .Because in tribal area mostly TV Channels and radio Channels are not working ,West hired local journalists for their own propaganda against Taliban and achieving own goals and targets.BBC, Mashal Radio, Deva Radio is eailsy listened in Tribal areas rather then pakistani radio channels .For counter this propaganda paksiatani Govt tried their best failed to counter these all channels. Now the situation is that people of pakistan are globalized and Pakistani viewers whole life style is being eclipsed by foreign media. Cable TV channels have become the 40
European Journal of Social Sciences – Volume 28, Number 1 (2012) source from which the young viewers get the inspiration about new trends, fashion and dresses. In a way our language and literature are being adversely affected by the onslaught of foreign channels. So our youth is overawed with English language. People resort to ostentatious and lavish way of living. They love to dine out at expensive hotels and western food chains along with celebration of unnecessary events and festivals which in turn invokes the class consciousness in the society
Conclusion If we took a glance we conclude that the global media market is dominated by west, most of which are based in the United States.They propagate the third world culture negatively and demarganalized the positive aspect of these developing societies. They invade passively into the social, political and even a religious system. They win the consent of the masses of the third world through media by propagating the information, which are in favor of them. West has dominated the third world in the field of hardware and as well as software technologies. Most of the third world countries are at the disposal of the west for the transfer of sophisticated and up-to-date technologies but the west misused their dependency and they transferred their material and non-material culture in the shape of information and technologies. This domination has crippled the creativeness of the third world. And they are no more as puppet in hands of the west.Foreign satellite entertainment programs have drastically impacted our media cultural products including different categories of programs such as film, drama, music, fashion and film award shows. In the field of music Pakistani channels are copying western music shows in which boys and girls sing and dance together. We can conclude here that west dominated the whole world media specially third world countries on their targest .From this media globalization they have ruined third world countries culture and inhibitants of the Pakistan ,india, bangladesh, sri lanka and more othere countries are pupets in the hand of West .And this they done only through media ,the question is arise that why we cant counter western media the answer is that third world countries have no powerful media.
References                
Edwarard S. Herman and Robert W. Mchesney 1997. The global media, Washington : Cassel THUSSU, KISHAN, DAYA, (2000) international communication. London: Oxford University Press. Joseph, R Dominick (2001) The dynamics of mass communication( media in the digital age), NewYork: McGraw-Hill. Jhone Herbert, (2001) Practicing global journalism, Oxford: Focal press. Ved Prakash Gandi, (2004) Mass Communication Strategies, New Delhi: Kanishka Bagdikian, Ben H. 1983. The Media Monopoly. Boston, MA: Beacon Press. Chomsky, Noam. 1994. World Orders, Old and New. London: Pluto Press. Golding, Peter. 1992. Communicating Capitalism: Resisting and Restructuring State Ideology: The Case of Thatcherism. Media. Culture and Society 14, 4, 503-521. Sparks, Colin, ed. 1994. The Media after Communism. Special issue of Media, Culture and Society 16, 2. Los Angeles Jewish Times, 'Yes, Virginia, Jews Do Control the Media,' Oct. 29-Nov. 11, 1999 p. 14 Seven Jewish Americans Control Most US Media article written by John Whitley 11-21-03 Tomlinson, J. (1991). Cultural Imperialism: A critical Introduction. New York : Printer Publishers Non-Aligned Summit (1973) at Algiers “Foreign ideological domination” Schiller, Herbert. (1976). Communication and Cultural Domination. International Arts and Sciences Press. New York : North Broadway. Barrett (1977) “Media Imperialism”. 41