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Warsop 1816 to 2016 One day in the summer of 1816 a two groups of folk from Warsop left the top of Cuckney Hill to walk the boundary of the Manor of Warsop. One group headed east to complete the 'Forest Round', the other set out west along the 'Wood Round'. Several hours later they met at Peafield Farm having completed the fifteen mile perambulation of Warsop's boundary. Nearly two centuries later, local historians Stuart Reddish and Lynda Mallett discovered the written account of this perambulation in a box of assorted documents they had purchased at an auction. They set out to discover whether any of the features mentioned in this account could still be found in the woodlands of Warsop's eastern boundary. Encouraged by their discoveries they formed the heritage group The Friends of Thynghowe to investigate the area further. In their first ten years this group have revealed many features from the past of this part of Sherwood Forest and led research into the origins of the assembly site of Thynghowe. To celebrate the 200 th anniversary of the 1816 perambulation Warsop Footpaths & Countryside Group will be focussing on Warsop's complete boundary, following in the steps of the 1816 walkers and uncovering the stories from the past of this landscape. This book aims to tell the story of the 1816 perambulation, reflecting on changes to our community and its countryside over the last two centuries. Hopefully more people will be encouraged to enjoy the fine walking routes and attractive countryside around the edge of the settlements that make up Warsop Parish.

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Dedicated to the memory of Madeline Cox, recalling her fondness for Warsop's countryside and its heritage

Warsop Footpaths & Countryside Group 2016

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Warsop 1816 to 2016 Table of Contents The 1816 Perambulation of the Manor of Warsop............................7 The Year 1816.................................................................................. 9 The 1816 Perambulation Participants............................................. 13 Warsop Boundary Maps................................................................. 18 From Cuckney Hill to Meden Vale.......................................22 From Meden Vale to Hazel Gap...........................................24 From Hazel Gap along the Budby boundary........................26 From the Budby Stone to Hanger Hill..................................28 On Hanger Hill.................................................................... 30 From Hanger Hill to Clipstone's boundary...........................32 From Clipstone's boundary to the Parliament Oak...............34 From the Parliament Oak to Peafield Farm...........................36 From Cuckney Hill to William Wood Lane..........................38 From William Wood Lane to Carter Lane.............................40 From Carter Lane to Park Hall..............................................42 From Park Hall to Peafield Farm...........................................44 Reflections on our changing countryside........................................46 Appendices.................................................................................... 47 Further Reading.................................................................... 47 Acknowledgements.............................................................. 48

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The 1816 Perambulation of the Manor of Warsop At a Court Leet and Great Court Baron of Henry Gally Knight Esquire held in and for his said Manor at Warsop aforesaid on the 5th day of July in the 56th year of the reign of our Sovereign Lord George the Third by the Grace of God of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland King Defender of the Faith and in the year of our Lord One Thousand Eight Hundred and Sixteen and thence adjourned to the same place on the twenty sixth day of the same month of July before Isaac Wilson Gentleman Steward of the Courts of the said Manor. From The Manor of Warsop Perambulation - 26th July 1816

The parish of Warsop shares a 15 mile boundary with the neighbouring settlements of Cuckney, Norton, Budby, Edwinstowe, Clipstone, Mansfield Woodhouse, Shirebrook and Nether Langwith. In 1816 around 1100 people would have been living in the parish. In those days Warsop would have been mainly centred on the villages of Market Warsop and Church Warsop located either side of the River Meden and also on the smaller settlement of Sookholme. Elsewhere in the parish groups of folk would have lived around Gleadthorpe Grange, Nettleworth Manor and Park Hall along with the farms at Williamwood, Warsop Cottage, Westfield House, The Burns, Assarts Farm and Eastlands House. Warsop's 1816 perambulation is the only one for which a written record survives although within the document there is a reference to perambulations from more than 40 years earlier. However, walking the boundary of the parish would have been a regular event in the days before accurate maps. Participants would have checked whether boundary markers had been moved by folk from neighbouring parishes. The party of 1816 included not only prominent members of the community fulfilling their official roles, but also local folk of all ages who would be reminded of the landmarks along the route. Young boys were encouraged to participate so they could learn from their elders how to recognise boundary features. Without perambulations the local knowledge of a boundary could become lost. It would not have been a very solemn event – food and drink would be consumed, stories relating to events on the boundary would be told and the youngsters would take part in competitions. The communal knowledge of the parish boundary was essential, not only for resolving disputes with neighbouring communities but, until the Poor Law was revised in 1834, each

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community was responsible for providing for the poor and needy of their own parish. The parish boundary would not have been the only perambulation route involving Warsop. Up to the reign of Henry I (1100-1137) and after Magna Carta (1215) the boundary of Sherwood Forest was marked by the course of the River Meden through Warsop and records survive of perambulations of the boundary of the Royal Forest between 1218 and 1662. In 1816 Henry Gally Knight was the Lord of the Manor of Warsop. It was unlikely that he had any close involvement in the perambulation as he had a multitude of other interests. He was a poet, writer and traveller, an authority on architecture, a Member of Parliament for three periods between 1814 and 1846 and he became a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1841. Henry Gally Knight had succeeded his father as Lord of the Manor of Warsop in 1808. His family had bought the manor in 1675 with funds awarded to Sir Ralph Knight for supporting the restoration of Charles II (Sir Ralph had previously backed the Parliamentarian cause). The Gally Knight name was adopted by his great-grandsons as a result of their mother’s marriage to Rev Henry Gally, a French protestant fleeing persecution. Warsop's connection with the Gally Knight family continues to the present day. Following Henry Gally Knight's death in 1846 the Manors of Warsop and Sookholme passed to his cousin, Sir Henry Fitzherbert. The Fitzherberts continue as Lords of the Manor of Warsop and still own a large part of the parish through the Trustees of Warsop Estate. The Fitzherbert family seat is Tissington Hall in Derbyshire.

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The Year 1816 In 1816 the population of Warsop parish would have been around 1100 people living in about 225 houses. By 2016 it had risen to over 12000 people in around 5000 households. In 1832 William White's History, Gazetteer, and Directory of Nottinghamshire included 25 farmers amongst the 62 men whose occupations were listed. The next most frequent occupation were the six victuallers although running a public house was combined with other occupations by three of the victuallers who also worked as a ropemaker, a butcher and a draper. There were also two other fulltime tailors and drapers listed. Other craftsmen included three stonemasons, a bricklayer, two joiners and cabinet makers, a plumber, two blacksmiths, a gunsmith, two wheelwrights, a basket maker, a chairmaker, a fellmonger (who prepared animal skins) and a weaver. Warsop's food needs were supplied by two butchers (plus the one mentioned earlier who was also a victualler), two bakers, three millers (one of whom was also a baker), a grocer and four other shopkeepers (including somebody who also worked as a shoemaker). Other occupations were a surgeon and a wood steward. The only females listed were the matron of the workhouse and a corn miller based at Sookholme. There would have been many more local people employed who were not included in the above lists as they were largely engaged in less skilled occupations. An impression is given of a self sufficient community still largely based on agriculture. There was no free schooling in the parish until 1818 when an endowment supported poor children attending a school established on a site between Market Warsop and Church Warsop. A Sunday School had been introduced during the 1790s by the Rector, Robert Southgate. In 1780 George Moor was recorded as the schoolmaster of the school-house near the footbridge beside the mill in the days before the stone bridge over the Meden was built. The Parish School was later built on Low Street between Market Warsop and Church Warsop. The 1818 endowment allowed 20 children of poor people to be educated there.

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The process of enclosing Warsop's open fields and heathland started in 1775 although the third of the Forest land reminded unenclosed until 1818. Warsop's final Enclosure Act was not passed until 1825. The impact of this re-allocation of land resulted in fewer people working on the land. Many of the small farms that lined the roads in the centre of the villages became cottages with new larger farms established further from the village centres. Across the country rural life was undergoing major changes. Following the innovations that later became known as the Industrial Revolution, there was movement of folk from the countryside into towns and cities. Closer to Warsop, the mill on the River Poulter at Cuckney had been converted for cotton production in around 1785 although many of the jobs were not taken by local folk. It was recorded that about 500 juvenile workers from London parishes were employed at Cuckney mill between 1786 and 1805. The cotton mill upstream from Warsop on the River Meden at Pleasley Vale also began production around 1785. Many former agricultural workers attempted to make a living in the textile industry, often by becoming frame knitters. However those working at home were subjected to exploitation by the frame owners and those based in factories suffered from falling wages and unemployment. Against this background the villages around Nottingham had witnessed the first of the Luddite attacks on knitting frames by skilled textile workers in 1811 and 1812. Employment prospects were not helped by the ending of the Napoleonic Wars following the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. Although this victory was celebrated in style by Warsop folk the demobilisation of 300,000 soldiers and sailors w ith o u t p e n sio n or acknow ledgm ent had a major impact on those looking for work. Richard J King in his 1884 book 'Warsop Parish Registers' tells of several Warsop men fought at Waterloo. Thomas Ball had served in the Royal Horse Artillery for thirteen years before he was injured in the shoulder at Waterloo. Following his recovery he was discharged with a pension of ninepence a day plus a medal. John Mitchell of the Royal Artillery was injured in the knee, his pension was sixpence a day. John Stubbings of the 1 st Dragon Guards was more fortunate but his horse lost an ear in the battle. Richard King recounts how John Stubbings was reunited with his old horse when a detachment of his old regiment passed through Warsop, “The meeting between the two was most affecting; the detachment halted outside the Hare and Hounds; and the villagers turned out, to a man, to see the 'one eared horse' which John Stubbings rode at Waterloo'.�. 10


Another local connection to the French Wars occurred during the first half of the 1800s when local men were employed by the Duke of Portland in preparing the land for his new forestry plantations. It is told how the land was fertilized with bonemeal sourced from the battlefields of Europe. Without the demand for food and equipment funded by government during the French Wars prices fell and jobs were lost. Marginal land that had been enclosed was no longer financially viable. Income tax was abolished in 1816 in an attempt to reduce the national debt. Many felt this was unfair because the tax burden shifted to indirect taxation which reduced the tax bill of the rich. The taxes paid by the poor increased with this revenue largely going into the pockets of the wealthy who had loaned money to government. The introduction of the Corn Laws in 1815 kept grain prices artificially high by restricting imports but increased food prices at a time of widespread hardship. Another piece of government legislation that could have had an impact on some Warsop folk were the Game Laws of 1816 that limited the hunting of game to landowners. Transportation for 7 years was the maximum penalty for poaching pheasant, partridge, hares and rabbits. Even being found in possession of a net at night was outlawed. The enclosure movement had deprived villagers of the common land where they could catch game to supplement their poor diet. Both poachers and gamekeepers were injured by spring-guns and mantraps with attacks on gamekeepers increasing. Although the French Wars were over, British forces were still in action overseas. In August 1816 ten British warships supported by five Dutch vessels bombarded the city of Algiers for eight hours, targeting the Barbary Pirates who had been seizing Europeans to sell as slaves. This trade had been continuing for many years with fishing communities in the west of England particularly vulnerable with men and ships taken and villages plundered. Even the forces of nature were conspiring against the hard pressed common folk. 1816 became know as the ‘Year without a summer’ due to the effects of volcanic ash from the eruption during April 1815 of Mount Tambora in the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia). The restricted sunlight led to a cold, wet and miserable period with snow in parts of England in May and July. Although Warsop may have fared better than some areas in the west of England, crops would have been damaged by the cold rain and the harvest would have yielded much less than in a 11


normal year. The poor harvests continued through to 1819. More dramatically, on 17 th March 1816 an earthquake was felt over much of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire and Lincolnshire causing damage to many buildings including churches in both Mansfield Woodhouse and Pleasley with several casualties from falling masonry. An event that would have had little impact on most Warsop residents was the appointment of their new Member of Parliament in July 1816. At this time only men aged over 21 who were landowners were entitled to vote, fewer than one in twenty of the population. Following the death of Earl Manvers his son Viscount Newark had to resign as MP in order to ascend to the House of Lords. Lord William Henry Cavendish-Bentinck, the second son of the 3 rd Duke of Portland, was unanimously nominated as his replacement. This was the third time he had served as Nottinghamshire's MP but unlike his father who was Prime Minister from 1807 to 1809 he was not a very active politician. He spoke infrequently in the House of Commons, partly because he was often abroad and partly because he disliked public speaking. Lord William's elder brother, the 4 th Duke of Portland, would have had a much greater impact on life around Warsop. Known as “The Farmer Duke” he combined political activities with improving the financial situation of the Welbeck Estate. His innovative projects included constructing water meadows along the River Meden at Gleadthorpe and replanting parts of Birklands Forest with commercial forestry. The Duke was respected by the folk who worked for him and he took steps to provide work for those who had fallen on hard times. Throughout 1816 meetings had been held in Mansfield to discuss “the present distresses of the poor”. Many folk across the district were experiencing severe hardship and relying on their home parish for support. The increasing demand for support resulted in the amended Poor Law Act of 1834 that restricted eligibility for relief and spread the financial burden amongst a union of parishes. The poor of Warsop could have ended up in the workhouse on Carr Lane. The sanitary arrangements at that time were minimal with sewage running down gutters on either side of High Street. Warsop was to suffer epidemics of scarlet fever in 1825, diphtheria in 1858, smallpox in 1872 and 'low fever' (probably typhoid) in 1874 and 1875. Even at the start of the 20 th century only a half of the infants born in Warsop would survive until their 10 th birthday. 12


The 1816 Perambulation Participants And we the said Jurors then and there completed our perambulation of this Manor of Warsop and do give and declare this writing to be a true and lawful presentment of the boundaries of the same Manor accordingly and ‌ having been ďŹ rst sworn in court do depose and declare such boundary as witness the hands of us the said Jurors this said twenty sixth day of July in the 56th year of George III 1816. John Featherstone George Brummitt Robert Jackson William Beeston Snr Samuel Davy Thomas Smith Henry Davy John Eyre Val Hodgson Henry Reynolds Jnr William Warren Henry Reynolds Emanuel Burrows Thomas Hallifax Thomas Bowler Nathan Jackson Samuel Featherstone Charles Lee Samuel Turner William Wright William Robinson John Bowett John Duckmanton John Hawksley William Beeston Jnr James Hind William Wilkinson George Eaton To be true to the best of their knowledge and information Signed William Featherstone James Hind John Barlow Witness Isaac Wilson (From the account of the 1816 Perambulation of the Manor of Warsop) It is fascinating to look into the background of some of the people named in the account of the 1816 perambulation as it gives us an insight into life in Warsop two centuries ago. However, it can be difficult to identify exactly who took part in the perambulation as in many families both father and son shared the same name. Additional difficulty occurs when different branches of a family used the same forenames. Therefore in this chapter a family may be described when an individual has not been definitely identified as the person who walked the boundary in 1816. The Featherstones were a farming family occupying Brook Farm on Low Street (now renamed Church Street) during the 18 th century. William Featherstone was aged 72 when he witnessed the perambulation account in 1816. Following John

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Featherstone's death in 1827 his land was inherited by his son, also named John. The name John Featherstone can also be linked to the use of a blacksmiths shop in 1771 and a role in the administration of the local Poor Law Union in 1859. In 1797 Samuel Featherstone was recorded as acquiring an “ancient toftstead and croft” of 3.5 acres on Near Ridgeway Lane Close. George Brummit came from a family of gun makers. George died in 1820 and his will indicates that he was a wealthy man as he left the considerable sum of £1000. Tax records show that he owned property that he let to other families in the village. His son William continued in the family business, living on Low Street where he also kept a beerhouse named the Gunsmiths Arms, later renamed the Plough Inn. George's grandsons, George and William were both listed as gun makers in the 1851 census. Home Farm in Church Warsop was kept by the Jackson family. Both father and son named Robert Jackson could have taken part in the perambulation as they would have been aged 52 and 37 in 1816. When land on the east of the parish was enclosed the Jacksons built Eastlands House and set up a new farm in the area that now includes Meden Vale. William Beeston was born in 1745 and died in 1825 and was the farmer at William Wood Farm. His son, also named William, was born in 1775. They are likely to be the William Beeston Snr and William Beeston Jnr named as participants in the perambulation. Mr Beeston is also mentioned as the occupier of ”a certain land called Minster Land” close to their farm near Warsop's northern boundary. The Davy family farmed land from Moorfield Farm in Church Warsop and Westfield House to the south of the parish. Thomas Smith was the publican of the Old White Lion. He was born in 1778 and died in 1842. John Eyre was a grocer trading on Butt Lane. The Warsop Parish Registers book describes him the owner of property in Warsop and relates how he trained his dogs to catch rabbits whenever he took them for a walk in the forest. In the 18th century an ancestor, also named John Eyre, rented the old lime kilns on Sookholme Lane and employed several men there. White's 1832 Directory of Nottinghamshire lists Val Hodgson as a farmer from Church Warsop. Henry Reynolds Senior was a farmer, a butcher, the landlord of the Talbot Inn and the owner of property and land around Warsop. Documents describe him as a 14


gent and a yeoman. He would have been about 65 years old at the time of the 1816 perambulation. Henry Junior would have been aged around 35 in 1816. He was also a butcher and his son, another Henry, would have been about ten years old at the time of the perambulation so he too could have walked the boundary and taken part in the children's games on Hanger Hill. Emanuel Burrows was the tenant of Warsop Mill although he later surrendered the tenancy following his bankruptcy. It is likely that Thomas Hallifax was a farmer living in Market Warsop. Thomas Bowler was born in 1781 and died in 1831. His eldest son William was a surgeon living on Low Street until he moved to Belper. Robert, his second son, was Warsop's schoolmaster in 1832 and also a farmer and the Registrar of Births and Deaths. He lived on Low Street. Nathan Jackson was born in 1766 and he was described as a gentleman in the 1832 White’s Directory. He held land in trust for the Warsop poor under the enclosure award. In 1697 John Hall from Park Hall had left land in trust to support the poor of the Church Town and Market Town of Warsop. By 1832 the land was raising £109 a year and Nathan Jackson, one of the trustees, received the rent and used the money to provide forty shilling-loaves to be distributed to poor parishioners at the church every Sunday. The 1841 census indicates that he was living on Downy Hill, he died two years later aged 80. Charles Lee was the publican of The Gate Inn on Downy Hill. He would have been about 30 years old at the time of the perambulation. White's 1832 Directory of Nottinghamshire described Samuel Turner as a weaver. William Robinson was probably a butcher and a farmer. He was allocated land adjacent to Oakfield Lane in the 1825 Enclosure Award. Records indicate that John Bowett was a farmer who was born in 1781 and lived until 1837. He was listed in the pollbook for Derbyshire North suggesting that his ownership of land made him eligible to vote in the parliamentary election. There are two possible candidates for the John Duckmanton who walked the bounds of the parish in 1816. One John Duckmanton appears to have been born around 1750. In Warsop Parish Registers Richard J King relates that he owned nearly 100 acres of land in Warsop parish, describing him as a yeoman and the local carrier between Mansfield and Worksop. He also acted as a churchwarden, overseer of the poor and a constable. Richard King tells how he had to punish local lads for playing football on a Sunday. Another John Duckmanton was born

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in 1796. He was a farmer living on Butt Lane (now Sherwood Street). The John Hawksley on the perambulation was probably the farmer who was described as a flaxdresser in a document from 1795. A flaxdresser is a person who carried out the early stages of preparing the raw fibre for spinning. The changing times for farming around 1816 were reflected by an agreement he took out to rent land until the enclosure award was finalised. However it is possible that our perambulation participant was the John Hawksley Jnr who in 1818 was convicted of stealing turnips from a farm in Cuckney. In 1816 the name James Hind could be linked to three generations of the same family. The family were fellmongers who prepared animal hides. The eldest James is recorded as having taken on an apprentice fellmonger in 1754. His son James, born in 1761, was also known as 'Jemmy'. He was described by Richard King as a 'keen lover of sport' who was said to have been still following the hounds when he was 90 years of age. He died in 1852 at the age of 91. His son, another James, was born in 1807 and he is listed as a fellmonger in the 1851 census and a farmer of 23 acres living on Low Street in 1861. Richard J King told how James Hinde played a leading part in the celebrations of the outcome of the Battle of Waterloo. He was the 'mock king' who, along with his 'queen', was drawn in a cart through the streets of Warsop to the cheers of the residents. However, another Hind family lived in Warsop in the 18th century working as cordwainers (or shoemakers) so they too must considered as candidates for our perambulating James Hind! The name William Wilkinson could also be connected to more than one member of the same family. William senior who was born in 1738 continued the family trade of rope-making with the business passing on to Valentine, one of his eight sons. They lived at the Dog and Rabbit Inn on Butt Lane, close to their ropewalk. Another of his sons named William was born in 1768 which suggests he could have taken part in the 1816 perambulation. The death of a William Wilkinson was recorded in 1832. Records for Francis Wardley, the boy who won the race on Hanger Hill, are rather complicated! He became an agricultural labourer who may have fathered no fewer than ten children. In 1851 he lived on Carr Lane with his wife Mary and their six children By 1861 he was married again to another Mary and had moved to live on Downy Hill. In 1864, aged 57, he is recorded as marrying Hannah Mills in Birmingham. She was more than 20 years his junior. In 1884 William died in the USA at Enterprise, Morgan County, Utah. We have a choice of two George Unwins as the person mentioned as the poacher

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on the Clipstone boundary. The first George's father and grandfather both served as a churchwarden whereas the other George was described as 'sad scapegrace' by Richard J King. He wrote “In his youth he received a good education, but he turned it to very poor account. Having committed a forgery he left the neighbourhood for some years. On his return he made a little house for himself on the upper Cars by driving stakes into the ground and plaiting them together with wattles and roofing the whole with sods. Here he lived with his wife until some mischievous lads and men so disturbed them at nights that they were obliged to leave it. He afterwards became parish pinder and bellman...�. A pinder rounded up stray animals and the bellman was the town crier. I will allow the reader to decide which George is the most likely candidate for the role of poacher. However it could be neither, as his poaching offence may have occurred many years before the perambulation. Although he is not included in the 1816 account Thomas Ball deserves another mention. He was born in Bothamsall in 1787 and he went on to serve in the Royal Horse Artillery as a driver. He was at the Battle of Waterloo where his job would have involved riding and caring for the horses that pulled the guns and transported the ammunition. During the battle he would have been at the centre of the action supporting the gunners and minding the horses. Although he would have been behind the guns he was injured in the battle, probably by artillery fire. He was awarded a Military Campaign Medal. In the 1851 census he was recorded as 'An Artilary Pensioner' living on Carr Lane, the earlier 1841 census described him as a farmer living on Downy Hill.

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Warsop Boundary Maps The maps in the following pages attempt to represent the landscape of 1816. They are derived from several sources. The Sanderson map of 1835, the earliest one-inch Ordnance Survey map from 1840 and the 1825 Warsop Enclosure map all post-date the perambulation. The 1816 maps included here are based on these maps. However, the early 19 th century was a time of change for Warsop with the enclosure of lands (particularly the 'wastes' of the eastern part of the parish), the construction of water meadows alongside the River Meden and the expansion of commercial forestry. Field boundaries were being modified and land ownership changed with the passing of the Enclosure Act although not every boundary shown on the enclosure map would have been a hedgerow on the ground. There were most discrepancies between map sources for routes within woodlands. The enclosure map shows few tracks in the woods as they were irrelevant to land ownership. They only tracks shown in these pages on the Budby and Edwinstowe side of the Warsop parish boundary are those for which there is evidence of a well established route prior to 1800. The 1816 map makes no distinction between different tracks. However, on the 2016 version the differing status of routes is shown. Public rights-of-way within Nottinghamshire are marked with their footpath, bridleway or byway number. Check the key to see how other paths with public access are distinguished from private paths. The quotations from the perambulation account include references to the markers along the route. In several places it records that a cross was dug. In places where there was no landmark like a tree, a boundary stone or a junction they would dig a cross in the turf to mark the line of the boundary. If you plan to explore Warsop's boundary and are not already familiar with the paths it is a good idea to carry an Ordnance Survey 1:25000 map in case you take a wrong turn and walk off the edge of the maps included on the following pages.

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Index to maps

Key to maps

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From Cuckney Hill to Meden Vale From the said Sandhill near which on the East of the said High Road a Cross was dug at a place called Joseph Stump we proceeded in an Eastwardly direction along the ends of some Closes of Earl Bathurst in the occupation of John Presley in the direction of an ancient Lane or Bridle Road the right to which was asserted by cutting the bark of some Larch trees which had been planted within the said Manor by the said Earl and making way through some fences which had been improperly set across such ancient Road and thence to the Western Hedge of the farm called Gleadthorpe belonging to his Grace the Duke of Portland (From the account of the 1816 Perambulation of the Manor of Warsop)

Notes on the perambulation account Henry Bathurst, the 3 rd Earl Bathurst, owned land in Cuckney and Langwith along with the Manors of Scarcliffe and Palterton. Langwith Lodge was an occasional residence of the Earl. At the time of the 1816 perambulation Earl Bathurst was Secretary of State for War and the Colonies There is no evidence of the ancient lane on any seventeenth or eighteen century maps so it may have fallen out of use many years before 1816. William Bentinck had lived at Welbeck Abbey from 1795, becoming the 4 th Duke of Portland in 1809. He took a great interest in improving the management of his agricultural land including Gleadthorpe.

Walking notes The route that followed the parish boundary heading east from the top of Cuckney Hill has long since disappeared beneath the waste tip from Welbeck Colliery. The replacement path (FP39) follows the southern edge of the tip before continuing across the playing fields at Meden Vale. When a road is reached the boundary may be rejoined by heading north as far as the entrance to the former colliery site then turning east along the north edge of the houses and passing beneath the railway to join a footpath (FP36). Apart from Donkey Lane leading downhill to Cuckney there are no public rightsof-way to the north of the tip although some paths are walked without permission.

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Landscape Changes This section of the parish boundary is dominated by Welbeck Colliery. The first shafts were sunk between 1912 and 1915 and the last coal was extracted in 2010. The colliery site is now being redeveloped with industrial units. The top of the restored waste tip is scheduled to open as a country park in 2017 allowing walkers to follow this part of the parish boundary. The southern slope of the tip is now dominated by the rows of photovoltaic panels of a solar farm. The railway line that served the pit has been retained. A second line that approached the colliery from the west was opened in 1929 and dismantled in the 1960s. Welbeck Colliery Village was built during the 1920s to house the colliery workers and the village was renamed Meden Vale in the 1960s. 21


From Meden Vale to Hazel Gap ‌ and in a Northern Direction along such Hedge and thence turning in an Easterly Direction to the Public Lane leading from Gleadthorpe to Cuckney the middle of which Lane at that place being the boundary of the said Manor Thence in an Easterly direction until the boundary turns nearly at right angles in a Southwardly direction by the side of a Plantation of the said Duke and thence to Gleadthorpe Gate where a cross was dug and at a short distance turned in an Eastwardly direction over Norton Forest Having on our Right the Hedge of Gleadthorpe Farm which at that place bounds the Manor Thence to Hazel Gap to the lately made Turnpike Road from Budby to Cresswell (From the account of the 1816 Perambulation of the Manor of Warsop)

Notes on the perambulation account Gleadthorpe Grange was a farm attached to Welbeck Abbey. This abbey was a community of Premonstratensian canons, known as the 'White Canons' It was established in 1140 and survived until the dissolution of the monasteries in 1538. Gleadthorpe Gate could be an ancient track as there is also a route from Edwinstowe with the same name, the term 'gate' for a road is of Scandinavian origin. The hedge of Gleadthorpe Farm stands on a prominent hedgebank to the south of the path. The Budby to Cuckney road was one of the last to be turnpiked in the county. This would allow the collection of tolls to pay for the maintenance of the road. It was administered by the Clowne and Budby Turnpike Trust There was once a well to the west of Hazel Gap beside the road to High Hatfield.

Walking notes The footpath running north-east from the railway line at Meden Vale to Hazel Gap (FP36) is the nearest right-of-way to the boundary. The 'Public Lane' from Gleadthorpe to Cuckney was not included on the definitive map when rights-ofway were first designated. The woodland Gleadthorpe Breck to the north of boundary approaching Hazel Gap is currently used for combat games at weekends.

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Landscape Changes The area of woodland has expanded with a mixture of broadleaved and conifer plantations. The farm at Gleadthorpe Grange has expanded, becoming the ADAS experimental farm. Following a change of ownership the poultry houses now stand empty. The old road from Gleadthorpe to Cuckney still exists on the ground but is no longer a public path. The woodlands around the boundary contains the remains of brick and concrete structures used as ammunition stores during World War II. It is interesting to note the complete change in the layout of field boundaries close to the boundary with Budby. Hazel Gap continues to be a major crossroads for tracks with the National Cycle Route 6 crossing the A616 and continuing south along Budby Drive, a track that was not in use in 1816.

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From Hazel Gap along the Budby boundary ‌ then turning in a Southerly direction by the side of the Hedge of Gleadthorpe Farm until a Cross was dug at a place where the boundary turns in a Southwesterly direction leaving Gleadthorpe Farm on the right through a plantation upon Budby Forest planted by Earl Manvers and thence along the South East Side of Gleadthorpe Farm the Hedge of which again becomes the Boundary to a River called the River Maid which at that place bounds the Manor for about one hundred yards and then through part of the Gleadthorpe Farm where Budby Forest is the Boundary And after crossing such River proceeded in a Southern and South Westerly direction around that part of Gleadthorpe Farm the Hedge of which again becoming there the Boundary of the Manor (From the account of the 1816 Perambulation of the Manor of Warsop)

Notes on the perambulation account The junction of tracks at Hazel Gap is mentioned in royal perambulations of Sherwood Forest. The nearby Kingstand Lodge could have gained its name from the practice of driving deer from the Forest past the king, providing an easy target for the royal party. The land to the east of the Warsop boundary was part of Earl Manver's estate. The Thoresby estate had been acquired by Robert Pierrepont, 1st Earl of Kingstonupon-Hull in 1633. Fifty years later the 4 th Earl was granted the right to create a park at Thoresby by enclosing land from Sherwood Forest. The 5 th Earl became the 1st Duke of Kingston-upon-Hull in 1715 but following the death of the 2 nd Duke the title became extinct and the Thoresby lands passed to the Duke's nephew who was granted the title Earl Manvers in 1806. The 1st Earl, Charles Pierrepont, died in 1816 a few weeks before the Warsop perambulation.

Walking notes National Cycle Route 6 follows Budby Drive south from Hazel Gap, crossing Netherfield Lane and the River Meden before passing Budby Pumping Station (where there is informal car parking). The cycle route continues south with the parish boundary following the hedge line to the east. Where the Dukeries Trail (Budby BW1) crosses the cycle track head west towards Warsop with the parish boundary running along the edge of the woodland to the south.

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Landscape Changes The heathland that covered the Budby side of the boundary in 1816 was converted to arable agricultural land after World War II and in 2015 was covered with solar panels. The track shown to the east of the boundary in 1816 has been replaced by a route to the west along Budby Drive which is now part of the National Cycle Network. In the early 21 st century mining subsidence caused a lake to form upstream from the bridge over the River Meden. 'Budby Flash' is now a popular site for birdwatching. This is not the first dramatic change to this area as around the time of the 1816 perambulation the 4 th Duke of Portland was creating water meadows with a channel diverting water from the river downstream from Assarts Farm. Budby Pumping Station was built in the early 20 th century. The conifer plantations on Budby Breck were first planted during the 1900s. Early maps do not indicate a track along the boundary to the south of the bridge. 25


From the Budby Stone to Hanger Hill ‌ until we arrived at a very ancient Boundary stone set upon Budby Forest said to be the Stone set to mark the extent of Budby Township and which Stone William Wilkinson one of the Jury aged seventy ďŹ ve years deposed that he recollected being there ever since he could remember anything and he was born within the Manor of Warsop no letter or Mark now appears on this Stone From that Stone proceeded almost at right angles in a Southerly direction where Gleadthorpe is again the Boundary Crosses were dug at the last Stone and at the turn - We then proceeded in a Southwesterly direction skirting the ancient wood of Birkland Bilhaugh which is to our left about a quarter of a mile is a Boundary Stone and turning towards the right is another boundary Stone where on a W is carved on the side next Warsop thence along the North West side until we arrived at a place called Hanger Hill ... (From the account of the 1816 Perambulation of the Manor of Warsop)

Notes on the perambulation account The 'very ancient' stone still stands on the corner of the boundary, it has been provisionally identified as being of carboniferous sandstone which suggests that it was brought from a site in Derbyshire at least several miles to the west. The second stone mentioned in the account appears similar but the adjacent Warsop boundary stone with a 'W' carved on it has disappeared. William Wilkinson who vouched for the antiquity of the stone was a member of Warsop's rope-making family associated with ownership of the Dog and Rabbit Inn. Thomas White's 1832 directory states that Budby consisted 19 houses with a population of 139 persons.

Walking notes The surfaced path (FP22) runs uphill towards Hanger Hill to the west of the boundary throughout this section. The only connecting route follows the Dukeries Trail (BW32) and the continuation of the tarmac path (BW33) northwards to the 'White Gates' beside the road at Gleadthorpe.

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Landscape Changes The Forest within Budby has been transformed from heathland and wood pasture typical of this part of Sherwood into coniferous plantations with only a few deciduous trees, mainly on the edges particularly marking the parish boundary. Within Warsop conifers were planted around the start of the 20 th century. To the west on the path following the boundary is Hanger Hill Drive, a broad ride created as a scenic route from Welbeck Abbey into Birklands for the Dukes of Portland. Until recently it was regularly mown and was lined with 91 lime trees. The original track along the boundary ran to the east of the current footpath and the depression of this ancient trackway can still be seen at some points together with overgrown remnants of the hawthorn hedge that lined the track. The large agricultural building erected to the south of Gleadthorpe in the early 21st century is a dairy unit housing around 400 cows.

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On Hanger Hill ‌ we arrived at a place called Hanger Hill where on stands a Plantation of Earl Manvers upon which Hill stand three Boundary Stones one of them is marked with the letter E on the side next Edwinstowe where the Boundaries meet another without a letter and another carved with the letter W on the side next Warsop being the Warsop Boundary Stone upon this Hanger Hill according to ancient custom Bread and Cheese and Ale brought from Warsop were given away to a number of Persons from Warsop who had Assembled there and also to a number of Boys who ran Races for it stood upon their heads in the crosses which were dug as Memorials of the Boundary particularly Francis Wardley a boy about ten years of age who won the race ... (From the account of the 1816 Perambulation of the Manor of Warsop)

Notes on the perambulation account The three stones are still on the hill although the Edwinstowe and Warsop stones have been moved from their original locations. The much older Birklands Forest Stone is still in place. Hanger Hill was once known as Thynghowe. It is believed to be one of the 'Thing Sites' found across the Viking World. The Danes who settled in this area following the invasion of 865 may have gathered at a Thing assembly to resolve disputes and debate issues. These sites were usually located on boundaries, often re-using places that were significant to previous generations. The 'ancient custom' referred to in the account may have been derived from a Thing assembly or maybe an even older practice.

Walking notes The only right-of-way is the public footpath (FP22) running north to south. Although other paths are used by some walkers, public access is not permitted due to the terms of the leases between the landowners and the Forestry Commission who manage the woodlands. Additionally, the vulnerable archaeology on Hanger Hill could be permanently damaged by unsupervised access.

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Landscape Changes To the north-east of Hanger Hill the wood pasture typical of the Sherwood landscape has been replaced by dense plantations, to the south-west the heathland of The Lings was also planted with conifers. The section of the hill to the east of the Warsop boundary appears to include a rectangular enclosure with a kink in the boundary respecting this feature. Recent environmental analysis suggests that no trees grew on this slope until the last two centuries. Archaeological investigations have revealed that a large circular feature survives within the possible rectangular area. This could have been associated with the Thing assemblies and may even pre-date the Viking Age. The circle may still have been visible in 1816 as it was suggested by a circle on a map produced in 1791 but nowadays only sections may be detected under the right conditions. In 1816 the ancient trackway of Nether Warsop Gate would have approached Hanger Hill from the south-east. As a result of the enclosure of the Forest and the 4th Duke of Portland's commercial forestry schemes this route ceased to be used although indications of its line may still be found. Cropmarks and an old map of Gleadthorpe suggest that it continued to Warsop, joining the old Tuxford Road (BW32) near the ash tree between the modern day sewage works and the forest.

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From Hanger Hill to Clipstone's boundary … From this place we proceeded to another Boundary Stone whereon a W is carved on the Warsop side which stands under a very ancient Oak Tree apparently as old as the most ancient tree in Birkland Billhaugh which Tree is remarkable as being the only ancient Oak Tree in Birkland which remains standing within the Manor of Warsop Proceeding thence a little farther towards the South West to another Boundary Stone where a cross was dug and it appears to have been the ancient Custom to dig a cross at that Stone which is called the Golden Cross said to be so called by an Old Man of the name of George Johnson putting a Golden guinea upon the Stone on which he made a boy stand upon his head and rewarded him with the gold - thence proceeded in a Westerly direction to another Boundary stone marked W and afterwards in the same direction to another and thence to a Guide Post standing on the open Forest which appears to stand near the Junction of the Three Townships of Edwinstowe Clipston and Warsop and there is a Boundary Stone with an E on the Edwinstowe side that Guide Post appears by the inscriptions thereon to be two miles from Edwinstowe and four from Ollerton and the Arms denote the roads To Edwinstowe To Ollerton To Warsop and To Mansfield Woodhouse about one hundred and fifty yards to the West of this Guide Post at a place where the Boundaries of Edwinstowe Clipston and Warsop Meet the Letter W was dug upon the Turf and the Letter E appearing to have been recently dug on an Edwinstowe Perambulation was filled up as being considered as an Encroachment upon Warsop ... (From the account of the 1816 Perambulation of the Manor of Warsop)

Notes on the perambulation account The dead trunk of the “very ancient oak” still stands, providing a valuable habitat for insects and birds. Five parish boundary stones have survived along this section, four marked with a 'W' for Warsop and a single Edwinstowe stone with an 'E'. The guide post may have been on the ancient trackway of Upper Warsop Gate. Thomas White's 1832 directory records a population of 740 persons in Edwinstowe living in 166 houses.

Walking notes The public footpath (FP22) continues alongside the boundary. This path may be joined from another footpath (FP23) leading from Market Warsop along Blakeley Lane.

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Landscape Changes During the second half of the 19 th century commercial forestry plantations replaced the heathland of The Lings, a recently enclosed part of the Forest 'waste'. From around 1820 the 4 th Duke of Portland replaced the much of traditional woodland on the eastern side of the parish boundary with plantations mainly of oak, chestnut and larch. In 1928 the lease of this land passed to the Forestry Commission and more conifers were planted although fragments of the ancient Forest remain. The Dukes also used this area as a pleasure ground, entertaining distinguished guests at the Russian Log Cabin surrounded by gardens near the Black Pool. Traces of the military occupation of this area during and following World War II survive mainly as the earth banks of ammunition stores.

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From Clipstone's boundary to the Parliament Oak … from this place proceeded to Clipston Park Pales at or near to a place called the old Womans Grave where a Poor Woman of the name of Wass who had hung herself was buried - proceeded thence in a Westerly and South Westerly direction still along the Open Forest in some parts of which the Middle between two ancient Banks appears to be the Boundary in corroboration of which some years ago a man of the name of George Unwin was prosecuted for killing rabbits within Clipston and that the Matter was contested at Law they were convicted because it appeared in Evidence that they were a yard or two on the Cliptston side of the Midway between those two Banks and we proceeded thence in a Direction nearly due West along the Side of Clipston Park Pales ... (From the account of the 1816 Perambulation of the Manor of Warsop)

Notes on the perambulation account Ann Wass, who was buried in the Old Womans Grave, is said to have committed suicide, a crime and also a sin in the eyes of the church. She could not be given a Christian burial and her unconsecrated resting place was an isolated grave on the parish boundary. The perambulation account describes her as a Poor Woman but Richard J. King writing in 1884 in his Warsop Parish Registers book gives a rather less charitable view- “One Ann Wass or "Nonty Wass", a woman of most disreputable character, committed suicide ... and was buried on the Clipstone road near the windmill. For many years after, even down to within the last fifty years, it was the custom of passers-by to throw a stone upon her grave from a superstitious dread of her appearing.”. The reference to Open Forest illustrates that much of Sherwood Forest was not only woodland but included extensive areas of heathland and agricultural land where Forest Law also applied.

Walking notes Warsop FP22 continues along the parish boundary as far as the double miniroundabouts. From this point the busy A6075 run alongside the boundary but as there is no footway it is not recommended as a walking route.

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Landscape Changes Forestry plantations have replaced the farmland and heathland between Blakeley Lane and the Warsop's boundary with Clipstone and the plantations have also extended southwards from Birklands Forest. At Warsop Windmill the Bowring Transport depot has expanded in recent years and houses have been built alongside Forest Road. A railway line now passes beneath Peafield Lane between Warsop Windmill and the Parliament Oak. Another magnificent oak, the Broad Oak, stood beside this road and was estimated to be over 700 years old when it was felled during the 20 th century. 33


From the Parliament Oak to Peafield Farm … passing on the Northern Side of a very ancient Oak Tree standing in those Pales call’d Parliament Oak under the Branches of which Tradition says the Ancient Barons met and brought King John (the few remains of whose palace stand at Clipston) to those Terms which laid the Foundation of that Great Charter of our Liberties called “Magna Charta” which History informs us was afterwards signed at Runnymede And we ended our Perambulation of this round of the Manor near a Farm House and Farm (belonging to Henry Gally Knight the Lord of this Manor now in the Possession of Daniel Newton) called Pea Field as before mentioned near which place the boundary of this Manor adjoins the Township of Mansfield Woodhouse aforesaid - And where according to ancient Custom we met those Jurors who had perambulated that part of this Manor called the Wood Round as aforesaid ... (From the account of the 1816 Perambulation of the Manor of Warsop) Notes on the perambulation account The Parliament Oak survives as a fine tree although it is now a remnant of the original tree. In addition to the story relating to Magna Carta there are legends associated to this tree date from as far back as 1212 when King John is said to have hastily called a parliament here to gain approval for the execution of the 28 sons of Welsh chieftains held hostage in Nottingham Castle. Another connection dates from 1290 when Edward I held a parliament at Clipstone. Visitors would have entered Clipstone Park through Warsop Gate alongside the oak. Clipstone Park was enclosed within a seven mile fence in 1178 by Henry II to create a deer park adjoining his new palace. Thomas White's 1832 directory records a population of 223 persons living in 49 houses in Clipstone and 1859 persons in Mansfield Woodhouse. Walking notes A permissive path follows the boundary for a mile along the Warsop side on the hedge marking the edge of Clipstone Park. Check for signs as permission to use this route could be withdrawn. After a section through the plantation this path joins the bridleway (BW18) that runs between Spa Ponds and Peafield Lane. It passes Peafield Farm, the destination of the 1816 perambulation's Forest Round.

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Landscape Changes Once again 20th century conifer plantations dominate this landscape which includes the highest point in Warsop. However, boundary with the former royal deer enclosure of Clipstone Park is still lined with old trees, notably the Old Churn Oak. Within Clipstone Park a few field boundaries have been added since 1816 and during the early 19 th century the land alongside the River Maun was remodelled as water meadows by the 4 th Duke of Portland with a flood dyke running along the north-west side of the river.

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From Cuckney Hill to William Wood Lane ‌ the Wood Round from the aforesaid Sand Hill near the Cross dug on the East of the High Road from Warsop to Worksop at the said place called Joseph Stump as aforesaid, part of us the said Jurors proceeded on such Perambulation in a Westwardly direction in the said Wood Round along the outside of the Fence dividing the Estate of the said Earl Lord Bathurst (in the occupation of Mrs Nuttal) and the Estate of Henry Gally Knight Esquire (in the occupation of Mr Davis) for about a mile when we come to a Wood called Collier Spring Wood and Cuckney Hay Wood where a Cross was dug then we proceeded nearly in like direction thro that Wood along a Bank that bounds the several Parishes of Warsop and Langwith till we come into certain Land called Minster Land in the occupation of Mr Beeston where another Cross was dug ... (From the account of the 1816 Perambulation of the Manor of Warsop)

Notes on the perambulation account The group completing the Wood Round would have left the road at the top of Cuckney Hill near to a large oak tree. Stories have been passed down of John Johnson, a member of a company of soldiers who in 1708 was tied to this tree and flogged to death. Collier Spring Wood's name indicates that it was coppice woodland where charcoal burning took place. Mr Beeston was the farmer of Williamwood Farm

Walking notes There is no public right-of-way along the parish boundary from the top of Cuckney Hill but a footpath (FP44) runs parallel to the boundary a few metres to the south. Following a short section along the Warsop to Cuckney path (FP1) will take you to the boundary where Cuckney FP7 heads west to Wood Lane. To the west of Wood Lane footpaths (FP10 and FP11) follow the boundary along the south side of the embankment of the dismantled railway. Sections of the path tend to be overgrown, rutted or flooded so many people use an unofficial route along the track of the former railway. This section of the boundary may be accessed from Church Warsop by taking the path (FP1) across the fields from opposite the cemetery or along the paths (FP9) in Collier Spring Wood.

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Landscape Changes The area between the A60 and Wood Lane has been transformed by the woodland plantations that have replaced farmland. The overgrown line of an old trackway may still be traced along the line of the parish boundary from the top of Cuckney Hill although this is not a public right-of-way. The former colliery village at Church Warsop was developed from 1926. Missing from both maps is the railway line that connected Welbeck Colliery to Shirebrook. The line of the track to the east of Wood Lane has disappeared into the farmland but the west of the lane the line of the railway may be followed to the south of the parish boundary. The 'Broken Bridge' carried the line over Wood Lane from its opening during the 1920s until it was demolished in 1968. To the west of Wood Lane sections of Collier Spring Wood and Minster Wood have been lost beneath the waste tip of Warsop Main Colliery. Parts of Cuckney Hay Wood have been transformed by the planting of conifers and an access road to a large limestone quarry. The leat for the cotton mill that was operating at Langwith in 1816 is still visible although it no longer carries water. The mill closed in 1848 but reopened as a corn mill in 1886. 37


From William Wood Lane to Carter Lane ‌ Then continuing in the like direction thro a Wood called Lord Stubbings on the inside of the Fence which bounds the Estates of the said Earl Henry Gally Knight (in the occupation Mr Edeson) for about half a mile where a Cross was dug, Then in a Southerly direction for about half a mile along the Fence bounding the Estates of the said Henry Gally Knight and the Duke of Devonshire when we came to a certain Fence which divides the Parish of Shirebrooke and the Estate of the said Henry Gally Knight Leaving that Fence we proceeded along the Fence bounding the Duke of Portlands Estate and Shirebrooke and then crossed a Road called Carter Lane Road and continued nearly in the same direction for about half a mile when we again entered the Estate of the said Henry Gally Knight called Storth ... (From the account of the 1816 Perambulation of the Manor of Warsop)

Notes on the perambulation account William, Cavendish, the 6th Duke of Devonshire succeeded his father in 1811. He was known as the 'Bachelor' Duke as he never married. He devoted much of his time to improving his many houses and gardens including Chatsworth and Hardwick Hall. He was elected President of the Royal Horticultural Society in 1838 and the Cavendish banana, the most common commercial variety, was named after him after it was raised in his Chatsworth glasshouses. In 1816 Shirebrook was a small scattered village only expanding with the sinking of the colliery in 1896. The population during most of the 19 th century was around 500. After the opening of the colliery it had increased to over 6000.

Walking notes Most of this part of Warsop's boundary is not accessible from public rights-ofway. An unofficial route along the track of the dismantled railway follows the boundary west of William Wood Lane. The footpath through New Plantation (FP14) reaches the north-west corner of the parish but this route is frequently flooded. This area is best accessed along Nether Langwith paths (FP8, FP9). This stretch of the boundary may be avoided by following William Wood Lane (FP12, BW13) and then heading to Shirebrook along the Dukeries Trail which runs along the line of the dismantled railway that served Warsop Main Colliery.

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Landscape Changes The Robin Hood Line railway now runs on the Derbyshire side of the boundary, This line was first opened by the Midland Railway in 1875. Lines that served collieries are still runs south-east through the parish. The dismantled line to Warsop Main has become a section of the Dukeries Trail that runs from Shirebrook to near Lincoln. Most of the track of the railway to Welbeck pit has disappeared or become overgrown. An relatively unchanged part of this area is the ancient woodlands of Lord Stubbins Wood (a Site of Special Scientific Interest) and Parsons Wood. To the west of the parish (and county) boundary the small settlement of 1816 has expanded into Shirebrook town and Langwith Junction.

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From Carter Lane to Park Hall ‌ and proceeded along the Boundary Fence of Shirebrooke and the said Henry Gally Knights Estate for about half a mile Then crossed Wood Lane and went in a Southerly direction for nearly a mile along the Fence bounding the Estates of the Duke of Portland (in the occupation of Richard Eyre) and of Edward Greaves Esquire (in his own possession) and went round a Wood called Hind Carr Wood when we came to the Estate of General Hall on both sides the boundary Fence ... (From the account of the 1816 Perambulation of the Manor of Warsop)

Notes on the perambulation account Edward Greaves occupied Warsop Park farmhouse. Warsop Park had been a 240 acre deer park before it was cleared to form farmland. In 1812 it was reported that following the death of the previous own er, Thomas Pennington Lucas, the game in Nettleworth Manor and Warsop Park has "for some time past, been very improperly destroyed, Gentlemen are particularly requested not to sport upon such Manor or Park; and all other Persons found trespassing thereon will be prosecuted.". Thomas Pennington Lucas' grandson was an Australian medical practitioner, naturalist, author and philosopher. He is remembered for formulating Lucas' Papaw Ointment.

Walking notes Most of this section of Warsop's boundary falls within Shirebrook Wood country park. Access is usually gained via various paths from Shirebrook or the car park on Longster Lane. The parish (and county) boundary is marked by a hedgerow on the northern part of the site and runs along the eastern boundary of the southern section. Many paths provide access to the boundary although routes close to it on the southern part of the Shirebrook Wood may be overgrown. However, there are excellent views across the parish from paths on the higher parts of the tip that lie within Derbyshire. Pleasley Vale and Mansfield Woodhouse may be reached by taking the bridleway across the railway at the southern end of the pit tip. The section of the boundary between the River Meden and Park Hall is not accessible. Park Hall is close to the footpath (FP17) between the A60 at Nettleworth and Park Hall Road in Mansfield Woodhouse.

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Landscape Changes The pit tip from Shirebrook Colliery has transformed this part of the boundary. Following its closure in 1993 the site of the colliery buildings have been replaced by industrial units with the vast Sports Direct warehouse visible from many parts of Warsop. Woodland, ponds and a network of paths has replaced the farmland and all evidence of Warsop Park is buried below over 20 metres of colliery waste. The railway defines the western edge of this area. The settlement of Sookholme has retained much of its character despite the conversion of many stone farm buildings into housing. Ox Pasture Lane which connected Nettleworth with Wood Lane is no longer accessible and the land alongside the River Meden has ceased to be managed as water meadows.

41


From Park Hall to Peafield Farm … then inclining to the South East we proceeded until we came to the Garden Wall of the said General Hall thence along some Thorn Bushes in the same field to the Boundary Stone standing on the North side of the Mansfield Road dividing the Parishes of Mansfield Woodhouse and Warsop where a cross was dug We then crossed that road to an Ash Tree (on which a cross was made) standing nearly opposite the said Boundary Stone into a Close of the said Henry Gally Knight occupied by Mr Newton and thence in an Easterly direction over that Close to an Ash Tree standing in the Fence bounding the Estate of the said Henry Gally Knight and Warsop Forest where a Cross was also dug and along that Fence in a similar direction to a Lane called Stubbing Lane where a cross was dug and we continued along the side of the same Fence to a corner of the Forest called Pea Field Corner near to the aforesaid Farm-house and Farm called Pea Field where (according to ancient custom) we met those Jurors who had perambulated that part of the Manor called the Forest Round as aforesaid ... (From the account of the 1816 Perambulation of the Manor of Warsop)

Notes on the perambulation account Major General John Hall, the owner of the Park Hall estate, was involved in the 2nd Carib War repressing the revolt on St Vincent and he also served in Egypt participating in the British victory against the French at the Battle of Alexandria in 1801. The neighbouring country house, Nettleworth Manor, was demolished at the start of World War II, possibly to prevent the military taking control of it. Although 19 th century maps use the modern name of Peafield Lane the 1816 perambulation account refers to Stubbing Lane which could refer to felled or coppiced trees known as 'stubs'.

Walking notes The footpath (FP17) between Nettleworth and Park Hall Road in Mansfield Woodhouse passes the sites of Nettleworth Manor and Park Hall. A bridleway (BW19) is the closest route to the boundary between the A60 and Peafield Lane. Another bridleway (BW18) follows the boundary between Warsop and Mansfield Woodhouse, descending from Peafield Lane towards the River Maun.

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Landscape Changes Park Hall was occupied by the Hall family until 1888. By the 1930s it had become one of the earliest Youth Hostels but following World War II it was demolished, leaving only some outbuildings including the stables that are now occupied by a veterinary clinic. The fields to the east of Park Hall have become a golf course. To the east of the Mansfield to Warsop road the landscape is relatively unchanged apart from the removal of some hedgerows. Beyond Peafield Lane conifer plantations dominate the Warsop side of its boundary.

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Reflections on our changing countryside In 1816 our parish consisted of the villages of Market Warsop and Church Warsop on opposite sides of the River Meden with Sookholme a mile and a half to the west. There were also the smaller settlements at Nettleworth and Gleadthorpe. This pattern changed with the arrival of the collieries and the building of the pit villages at Warsop Vale, Welbeck Colliery Village (since renamed Meden Vale) and Spion Kop. However Warsop parish has retained its character of individual villages separated by farmland, all with easy access to open countryside. Much of parish boundary survives relatively unmodified and some of the colliery waste tips have been transformed into country parks with public access providing fine viewpoints. Other parts of the countryside have also changed. Heathland has become conifer plantation or farmland, enclosure hedges have declined with age, other hedgerows have been removed to enlarge fields. Over 8 miles of our boundary is closely shadowed by paths and there will be around 2 miles of walking on the former pit tips once Welbeck Tip is restored. Many people have their own special places around the edge of Warsop parish. Personal favourites include the edge of Clipstone Park, the walk from Cuckney Hill to Lord Stubbins Wood, the landscape around Hazel Gap, the view across parish from Shirebrook Wood and the historic landscape of Hanger Hill with its associated legends. This countryside provides habitats for wildlife. Look out for buzzards soaring overhead, the call of nightjars on a summer night, a carpet of orchids, a glimpse of a fox or a deer. Warsop's boundary also provides gateways to nearby special areas. Sherwood Forest National Nature Reserve, the estates of the Dukeries, the former royal deer park at Clipstone and the limestone of Pleasley Vale are all within easy reach. The land around the edge of Warsop has witnessed 200 years of change. We can expect the pressures upon this landscape to continue. The changing climate will impact on the landscape and wildlife but it will adapt with some species declining and others thriving. The boundary has survived two centuries largely intact and as long as there are folk who value and prepared to stand up for our countryside we will continue to have a fine legacy to hand on to future generations.

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Appendices Further Reading Websites Warsop 1816 to 2016 Project Warsop Footpaths & Countryside Group The Friends of Thynghowe -

facebook.com/warsop1816 www.wfcg.org.uk www.thynghowe.org.uk facebook.com/Thynghowe

Books Warsop Parish Registers: Richard J King. 1884 (Republished by the Old Warsop Society in 1983) Warsop Domesday to Present Day: Old Warsop Society, 1986 Warsop Remembered – A collection of notes made by the late Mr Frank Blythman: Old Warsop Society Thynghowe and Birklands: The Friends of Thynghowe, 2013 Warsop's Hedgerows: Warsop Footpaths & Countryside Group. 2012 A Celebration of Kings Clipstone: 1000 Years of History, Bradley, M. et al, 2005 Maps Current Ordnance Survey maps OS Explorer Map 270 1:25000 map – Sherwood Forest OS Maps online (subscription required) (www.ordnancesurvey.co.uk/shop) Historic Ordnance Survey maps Free from National Library of Scotland (maps.nls.uk) View and buy from www.old-maps.co.uk Other maps Sanderson's Map: Twenty Miles around Mansfield (1835): Nottinghamshire County Council 2005 Warsop Enclosure map (1825): Nottinghamshire Archives, Document ref: EA/6/1 Local trail guides The Thynghowe Trail The Dukeries Trail

www.thynghowe.org.uk/ThTrail.html cms.nottinghamshire.gov.uk/dukeriestrail.pdf

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Acknowledgements Thanks to Stuart Reddish and Lynda Mallett for recognising the significance of the account describing the 1816 perambulation when they acquired it in a batch of assorted documents, for transcribing the account and for giving permission to quote from it. The chapter on the participants in the 1816 perambulation is based on the research carried out in association with Warsop Infotech's family history group. Thanks to Alan Nickless, Barbara Marchant, Linda Clewdew, Sue Hammerton, Angela Constable, Mary Bailey, Valerie Wood and Mike Johnson for their contributions. Thank you to the Friends of Thynghowe for permission to include content adapted from their 2013 publication “Thynghowe and Birklands� (also written by this booklet's author). Front cover image: The Old Churn Oak on Warsop's boundary with Clipstone Park. Back cover image: Peafield Farm. Thanks also to Heritage Lottery Fund and the Big Warsop Community Chest, in partnership with Rotary Club of Warsop, Shirebrook & District for their sponsorship of this publication.

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47

Warsop 1816 to 2016  

Marking 200 years since the last recorded Perambulation of the Manor of Warsop. The booklet relates the account of this perambulation, add...

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