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O Codex 632 JosĂŠ Rodrigues dos Santos

Gradiva — Publicaçþes, Lda 1ª edição: Outubro de 2005 Portugal Formatado por SusanaCap

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 23


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25


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26


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27


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35


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36


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54


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+ 00 // 0,+,0 55


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68


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KO? ;FAI JIL =?LNI B;P?LC;G >? N?L @?CNI J;L; G?L?=?L?G M?G?FB;HN? =;MNCAI  >? KO? ;FAOG; L?MJIHM;<CFC>;>?>?=?LN?T;J;LNCFB;LC;GJ;L;KO?N;F>?MAL;k;FB?MNCP?MM?<;NC>IgJILN;PCP?L;G >?M>??HNjI=IGOGG;F>CM@;Lk;>IM?HNCG?HNI>?=OFJ;J?L;HN?;G?HCH; M?HNC;G M?>?;FAOG GI>IL?MJIHMhP?CMJ?FIM?O?MN;>I ?F;?L;;@CH;F>?=IHN;M;MO;@CFB; ;MO;=LC;kjI ?;MMOGCL;G JILCMMI;CGJIMMpP?FGCMMjI>?NO>I@;T?L?GJ;L;NO>I>?M@;T?L?G J;L;=IHKOCMN;L?GI>CL?CNI; L?JIL?G;DOMNCk;KO?;H;NOL?T;FB?MH?A;L; J;L;M?L?>CGCL?G>IJ?=;>IJ?FIKO;FNCHB;GMC>I JOHC>IM

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70


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+jI  2G;H;AL;G;nOG;J;F;PL;IOOG;@L;M?@ILG;>;;J;LNCL>IL?;LL;HDI>;MF?NL;M>?IONL; J;F;PL; IO @L;M?  -IL ?R?GJFI  M;HNIM n OG ;H;AL;G; >? N;HMIM  G<;M ;M J;F;PL;M OM;G ;M G?MG;MF?NL;M MsKO?HOG;IL>?G>C@?L?HN? ?MNh;?HN?H>?L B J?L=?<?O*IFC;LNC &MMIN;G<nG?RCMN??GCHAFoM  F;LI ?GNI>;M;MFpHAO;M=IG?M=LCN;;F@;<nNC=; ?M=F;L?=?O1IGhM ,JLCH=pJCInM?GJL? IG?MGI  +jI=IHB?kIH?HBOG=;MI   IHB?=?  JICM  %h ;H;AL;G;M ?G CHAFoM KO? MjI @;GIMIM  -IL ?R?GJFI  "FPCM n OG ;H;AL;G;>?FCP?M #OH?L;FnOG;H;AL;G;>?L?;F@OH  *OCNI ?HAL;k;>I  =IG?HNIO *IFC;LNC M?G MILLCL  *;M I KO? N?G CMMI ; P?L =IG ;M CHP?MNCA;ku?M>IJLI@?MMIL1IM=;HI aKO??F?>?CRIO HIMOG;H;AL;G; JILMCH;FOG<?GMCGJF?MH;JLCG?CL;FCHB; >;KO?F?M ?G KO? ; JLCG?CL; F?NL; M? NILHIO ; vFNCG;  ; M?AOH>; F?NL; @C=IO ; J?HvFNCG;  ? ;MMCG MO=?MMCP;G?HN? =IGI OG ?MJ?FBI  3IFNIO ; IMN?HN;L ;@INI=sJC; >; G?HM;A?G=C@L;>;   "MNh ; P?L   *IFI= >?P? F?L M? IFIHN    'h HCHOH>C; IG;MNIIM n OG ;H;AL;G; G;CM =IGJF?RI  =OD; >?=C@L;kjICGJFC=;OG=LOT;G?HNI;F@;<nNC=I 0CAHC@C=;HIGCH;MOHNI>CIM;  @L;M?>ILIG;HI  ,Pp>CI  "IKO?MCAHC@C=;  IGIDhFB??RJFCKO?C HIGCH;MOHNI>CIM;MCAHC@C=;IMHIG?MMjICHIJILNOHIM  " IFIG aOGHIG?  2GHIG?CHIJILNOHI 88


0CG  "KO?Gn?MM?=;L;  LCMNsPjI IFIG<I  *IFC;LNCJ?LG;H?=?OOGFIHAICHMN;HN?;@CN;L1IGhM

"RJFCKO? G?  J;L; P?L M? ?O ?HN?H>I  >CMM? I ;G?LC=;HI  =Ik;H>I I KO?CRI  , KO? JL?N?H>C;IJLI@?MMIL1IM=;HI>CT?L=IG?MM;G?HM;A?G=C@L;>; .O?IHIG?>? IFIG?L;CHIJILNOHI  0CG G;MKO;FIMCAHC@C=;>I>?MM;@L;M? "MM;@IC;J;LN?G;CM>C@p=CF>?J?L=?<?L OG;P?TKO?;@L;M?n;G<pAO; L?=IHB?=?O1IGhM

/?NCLIOIONL;@IFB;>;J;MN;?GIMNLIO ;;I;G?LC=;HI "L;;@INI=sJC;>?OGN?RNIL?>CAC>I?G F;NCG #OC=IHMOFN;LIN?RNIILCACH;F>?M%?LsC>?MJ;L;N?HN;LJ?L=?<?LIM?HNC>I>?MM;=CN;kjI

J;L?HN?G?HN? IKO?,Pp>CIKO?LC;>CT?LnKO?HjIM?>?P?=CN;LF?PC;H;G?HN?IHIG?>?J?MMI;M KO;H>I?MNjI?G=;OM;@;=NIMP?LAIHBIMIMIO>?AL;H>?AL;PC>;>?  *IFC;LNCJ?AIOH;@IFB;??MNO>IO ;

,HIG?>? IFIG<I?MN;P;L?F;=CIH;>I=IG@;=NIMP?LAIHBIMIMIO>?AL;H>?AL;PC>;>? ,>? IFIG<I HjI *;MI>? IFIG MCG  $?? G;H ?R=F;GIOI;G?LC=;HI ;<;H;H>I;=;<?k; +jI?MNIO?HN?H>?H>IH;>; "HNjI PI=oHjIG?>CMM?KO? IFIGn IFIG<I 0CG G;MJIL;FAOGGINCPIIJLI@?MMIL1IM=;HIKOCM=B;G;L;;N?HkjIJ;L;IHIG? IFIG

0?IHIG?@IMM?CLL?F?P;HN? ?F?N?LC;MCGJF?MG?HN??M=LCNI IFIG<I *;MHjI ?F??M=L?P?O IFIG

0sJI>?M?LJILKO?CMMIN?GOGMCAHC@C=;>I  .O;F a?MM?IHIG?CHIJILNOHI  *;M 1IG ?GKO?G?>C>;?MM?HIG?nCHIJILNOHI+jI?MNIO?HN?H>?H>I  "MM;@ICDOMN;G?HN?;J?LAOHN;KO??O@CT;GCGJLsJLCI ,KO?N?GIHIG? IFIG;MMCG>? NjI?MJ?=C;FJ;L;KO?IJLI@?MMIL1IM=;HI=B;G?;;N?HkjIJ;L;?F? =IHMC>?L;H>I ICHIJILNOHI #C=;L;GIM>ICM;?HNL?IFB;L?G M? =IG;J?LAOHN;MOMJ?HM;>C;HN?>;MMO;MG?HN?M =IGI M??MM;CHN?LLIA;kjI@IMM?OG;HOP?G??MNCP?MM?Gg?MJ?L;>?KO??F;M?>?M@CT?MM??G=BOP;

"MJ?LIKO?N?HB;?H=IHNL;>IOG;L?MJIMN;J;L;?MM;KO?MNjI GOLGOLIO*IFC;LNCJIL@CG

"H=IHNL?COG;L?MJIMN;?PhLC;MHIP;MJ?LAOHN;M #IFB?IOIMM?OM;JIHN;G?HNIM  ,KO? ;H>?C?MN?M>C;M;@;T?L@IC;N?HN;LJ?L=?<?L;ILCA?G>IHIG?>? LCMNsPjI IFIG<I  IGIM;<?

I>?M=I<LC>IL>;GnLC=;PCP?OOHM>?T;HIM?G-ILNOA;F IH>?;JL?H>?ONO>IIKO?M;<C;MI<L? H;P?A;kjIHI I=?;HI NFiHNC=I  3CP?O H; *;>?CL;? =;MIO =IG #CFCJ; *IHCT-?L?MNL?FI @CFB; >I H;P?A;>IL ;LNIFIG?O -?L?MNL?FI  I JLCG?CLI =;JCNjI >IH;NhLCI >; CFB; >? -ILNI 0;HNI  H; *;>?CL; -ILNOA;F?L; H?MM;;FNOL; ;H;kjIG;CM;P;Hk;>;>IGOH>I =IGIMG?FBIL?MH;PCIM IM G;CM;J?L@?CkI;>IMCHMNLOG?HNIM>?H;P?A;kjI ;M;LG;MG;CMMI@CMNC=;>;M?IH>?M?=IH=?HNL;P;I =IHB?=CG?HNI ,JF;HI>;=ILI; >?FCH?;>I>?M>?%?HLCKO? I+;P?A;>IL ?L;I>??H=IHNL;LOG =;GCHBIG;LpNCGIJ;L;;pH>C; >?GI>I;=IHNILH;LIGIHIJsFCI>?NC>IJIL3?H?T;HI=IGnL=CI >;M?MJ?=C;LC;MKO?PCHB;G>I,LC?HN? ,MP?H?TC;HIMNCHB;GOG;=IL>I>??R=FOMCPC>;>?=IGI &GJnLCI ,NIG;HI  ?  JL?DO>C=;>;M JIL ?MM? ;=IL>I  ;M IONL;M =C>;>?M ?MN;>IM CN;FC;H;M

>?MCAH;>;G?HN? $nHIP; ? #FIL?Hk;  ;JIC;L;G I ?M@ILkI JILNOAOoM  #IC H?MM? =IHN?RNI KO?  ?G  IA?HIPoM IFIG<IJLIJtM;! 'IjI&&KO? OG;P?TKO?;1?LL;nL?>IH>; H;P?A;MM?J;L; I=C>?HN? ;Nn =B?A;L g pH>C;  ?G P?T >? CL J;L; MOF ? JLI=OL;L =IHNILH;L ; ]@LC=;  , GIH;L=; JILNOAOoM M;<C; GOCNI <?G KO? ; 1?LL; n L?>IH>;  G;M N;G<nG NCHB; =IHM=CoH=C; >? KO? ?F; n 89


GOCNIG;CIL>IKO? IFIG<IJ?HM;P; J?FIKO?I=;GCHBIJILI=C>?HN?M?LC;>?G;MC;>IFIHAI

0;<?GIM BID? KO? !  'IjI && NCHB; L;TjI ? IFIG<I HjI  #IC ?HNjI KO? I A?HIPoM  ; KO?G ?HNL?N;HNINCHB;GILLC>I;GOFB?LJILNOAO?M; @ICJ;L;"MJ;HB;I@?L?=?LIMM?OMM?LPCkIM;IM/?CM ;NsFC=IM  1IG =ILNIO*IFC;LNC *;MJILKO?G??MNh=IHN;H>INO>ICMMI"O=IHB?kIGOCNI<?G; BCMNsLC;>? IFIG<I

 1?HB;=;FG; L?=IG?H>IO1IGhM !?CR? G?=IHN?RNO;FCT;LIKO?N?HBIJ;L;FB?L?P?F;L a CGJILN;HN?@;T?LGIMOG;J;HB;>IMI<L?;BCMNsLC;>? IFIG<IJILKO??RCMN?OG;=ICM;?MNL;HB; L?F;=CIH;>; =IG I M?O HIG?  ;FAI KO? n J?LNCH?HN? HI =IHN?RNI >; BCMNsLC; >; MO; PC>; ? >; =B;L;>;KO?HIM>?CRIOIJLI@?MMIL1IM=;HI  FFLCABN AIIH  *OCNI<?G >CMM?1IGhM #?TOG;J;OM;J;L;JLI=OL;LL?NIG;L;H;LL;NCP;HIJIHNIIH>? ; NCHB; CHN?LLIGJC>I   IGI ?O >CTC;  IFIG<I @IC J;L; "MJ;HB;  a JL?=CMI J?L=?<?L KO? ; "MJ;HB; ?L; ?HNjI AIP?LH;>; J?F; L;CHB; &M;<?F  >? ;MN?F;  ? J?FI L?C #?LH;H>I  >? L;AjI  IM =B;G;>IM /?CM ;NsFC=IM  KO? M? NCHB;G =;M;>I  OHCH>I ;M >O;M =ILI;M ? IM >ICM L?CHIM  , J;pM ?MN;P;H?MM;;FNOL;?HPIFPC>IHOG;=;GJ;HB;GCFCN;LJ;L;?RJOFM;LIMhL;<?M>I0OF>;-?HpHMOF; &<nLC=;  G;M ; L;CHB; GIMNLIO CHN?L?MM? ?G ?M=ON;L IFIG<I  , H;P?A;>IL MO<G?N?O I M?O JLID?=NI ; OG; =IGCMMjI >? Mh<CIM >I IFnACI !IGCHC=;HI  , JLI<F?G; n KO? IM ?MJ;HBsCM M? ?H=IHNL;P;GGOCNIG;CM;NL;M;>IM>IKO?IMJILNOAO?M?M?GG;NnLC;>?=IHB?=CG?HNI J?FIKO?

;JsMKO;NLI;HIM;?MNO>;L?G;KO?MNjI IMMOJIMNIMMh<CIM?MJ;HBsCM=IH=FOpL;GKO?;C>?C;>? H;P?A;L J;L; I=C>?HN? g JLI=OL; >; pH>C; ?L; CLL?;FCThP?F  OG; P?T KO? ; 1?LL; M?LC;  H; MO; IJCHCjI JF;H; "G  IFIG<IL?AL?MMIO;-ILNOA;F?@ICL?=?<C>IJ?FIGOCNIG;CM?M=F;L?=C>I ! 'IjI&& ;KO?GL?HIPIO;MMO;MJLIJIMN;M 0sKO? KO;H>IM??H=IHNL;P;?G)CM<I;  IFIG<I ;MMCMNCOg=B?A;>;>?;LNIFIG?O!C;M=IG;HINp=C;>?KO?NCHB;=IHNILH;>I]@LC=;?>?M=I<LCL;; J;MM;A?G >I NFiHNC=I J;L; I dH>C=I  ;<LCH>I ;MMCG I >?M?D;>I =;GCHBI J;L; ; PC;A?G >CL?=N;G?HN?;NngpH>C; ,JLID?=NI>? IFIG<I@C=IOH;NOL;FG?HN?M?GJ?LH;MJ;L;;H>;L -IL KO?GINCPICLC;IL?CJILNOAOoMCHP?MNCLH;FIHA;?CH=?LN;LIN;JILI=C>?HN?M?DhNCHB;>?M=I<?LNII ;N;FBI JIL MOF !?M;HCG;>I  IFIG<I L?AL?MMIO ; "MJ;HB;  IH>? ?HNL?N;HNI NCHB; =;M;>I =IG ?;NLCT>?L;H; NnKO? ?G IMhL;<?MM?L?H>?L;G?G$L;H;>;?IM=LCMNjIMJ;MM;L;G; =IHNLIF;LNI>;;J?HpHMOF; +;?O@ILC;>;PCNsLC; ;L;CHB;>? ;MN?F;>?OFOTP?L>?; IFIG<I?I H;P?A;>ILJ;LNCOJ;L;;PC;A?GKO?=OFGCH;LC;=IG;>?M=I<?LN;>;GnLC=;  *?=IHN?HIPC>;>?M 1IG CHMCMNCOI;G?LC=;HI

/?F;N?C FB? CMNI J;L; ?MN;<?F?=?L >? GI>I =F;LI ; L?F;kjI >? LCMNsPjI IFIG<I =IG IM L?CHIMC<nLC=IM HjIMs ;MN?F;=IGIN;G<nG-ILNOA;F +jI@ICOG;=ICM;J;MM;A?CL; G;M =IGI Po OG;L?F;kjIJLI@OH>;  'h?HN?H>C  1IGhM>?CRIO>?=IHMOFN;LIM;JIHN;G?HNIM?>I=OG?HNIMKO?NCHB;NL;TC>I?@CNIO*IFC;LNC

"HNjI M?Dh?HN?H>?O ?RJFCKO? G?MsOG;=ICM; J?>CO -ILKO?L;TjIIMJILNOAO?M?M?IM =;MN?FB;HIM  M? NCHB;G OG; L?F;kjI ;MMCG NjI JLI@OH>; =IG IFIG<I  HOH=; FB? =B;G;L;G IFIG<I -?L>jI !OL;HN?IMn=OFIRP ?HKO;HNIIAL;H>?H;P?A;>IL?MN?P??G-ILNOA;F??G ;MN?F; HOH=; HCHAOnG=B;GIO IFIG<I; IFIG<I  +OH=;FB?=B;G;L;G IFIG<I,KO?KO?LPI=o>CT?L=IGCMMI +jIBhOGvHC=I>I=OG?HNI JILNOAOoMIO=;MN?FB;HI ; =B;G;L IFIG<I ; IFIG<I  , JLCG?CLIN?RNIJILNOAOoMHIKO;F;J;L?=?OG;L?@?LoH=C;;X IFIH<IZ =IGH n; LsHC=;>?!

90


'IjI&& >?/OS>?-CH; ?M=LCN;HICHp=CI>IMn=OFIRPC NnFh HOH=;H?HBOGJILNOAOoMFB?NCHB; =B;G;>I IFIG<I  "HNjI=IGIFB?=B;G;P;G  IFIGIO sFIH  *IFC;LNCJ?LG;H?=?OOGFIHAICHMN;HN?MCF?H=CIMI

,KO?MCAHC@C=;CMMI 'h Fh P;GIM  >CMM? 1IGhM  PIFN;H>I ; @IFB?;L IM M?OM ;JIHN;G?HNIM  H>?C ; P?L IM >I=OG?HNIM >; nJI=; ? >?M=I<LC KO? IFIG<I n >?M=LCNI =IGI BLCMNIP;G IFIG  IO sFIH  I HIG? JLsJLCI ;<L?PC;>I JIL P?T?M J;L; 5JIP;G  .O;H>I I H;P?A;>IL @IC J;L; "MJ;HB;  IM ?MJ;HBsCM =IG?k;L;G JIL FB? =B;G;L IFIGI  G;M >?JL?MM; ?PIFOpL;G J;L; BLCMNs<;F sFIH

BLCMNs<;F ;<L?PC;>I J;L; 5JIP;F  *;M HOH=; IFIG<I  +OH=;  HOH=;  -LI=OLIO H; L?MG; >? >I=OG?HNIM ,L;P?D; 1CLIO;@IFB;KO?JLI=OL;P; "MN;n;@INI=sJC;>?OG;=;LN;>I>OKO?>? *?>CH;=?FC J;L; I =;L>?;F >? *?H>IT;  >;N;>; >?  >? *;LkI >?  ? AO;L>;>; =IG ; L?@?LoH=C; >? >I=OG?HNI =;NILT? >I LKOCPI >? 0CG;H=;M  ,L; L?J;L? HI KO? ?MNh ;KOC ?M=LCNI  JIHNIOJ;L;OG;@L;M?L?>CAC>;H;@IFB; X1CP??GGCHB;=;M;GOCNIN?GJI LCMNs<;F IFIGI

KO?PCHB;>?-ILNOA;F?KO?LC;CL;I/?C>?#L;Hk; Z"LAO?O;=;<?k; "MNh;P?LKOCn IFIGI

*;M I KO? n ?MNL;HBI n KO?  G;CM g @L?HN? H; G?MG; =;LN;  I >OKO? =B;G; FB? IONLI HIG?  JIHNIOJ;L;OGM?AOH>INL?=BI KOC?MNh  LCMNs<;F$O?LL; 3IFNIO;GCL;L*IFC;LNC=IGOG; ?RJL?MMjICHN?LLIA;NCP; $O?LL;@CH;F?L; IFIG<I  IFIG  sFIH  IFIGIIO$O?LL; "MM?$O?LL;HjIJI>?LhM?LOGIONLIBIG?GKO;FKO?LKO?M?=B;G;MM? LCMNs<;F +jI ;=;LN;>I>OKO?nGOCNI=F;L; ?MN?$O?LL;nIHIMMI IFIG<I  ,L; P?D;  D?CNIO ; @INI=sJC; J;L; G?FBIL ;F?L  "M=L?P?O I >OKO? XH?MM? N?GJI  LCMNs<;F $O?LL; ? -?>LI FIHMI +CHI@IL;G>?M=I<LCL ??MN;N?MN?GOHB;;@CLG;;MMCGG?MGI =IG;@LIN;>?%ID?>;?'O;H>?F; IM;Z #CNIO*IFC;LNC ,L; I LCMNs<;FKO?;H>IO;@;T?L>?M=I<?LN;M=IG+CHI %ID?>;?>?F; IM;@IC =IGIIM?HBIL<?GM;<?  IFIG<I  -I>?M?LOG;CH=IHALOoH=C; OG?HA;HI  2G; CH=IHALOoH=C; n =IG =?LN?T;  G;M HjI =L?CI KO? B;D; ?HA;HI  " M;<? JILKOo -LI=OLIOHIP;G?HN?H;L?MG;?FI=;FCTIO>O;M@INI=sJC;M "RC<CO;JLCG?CL;;I;G?LC=;HI "MN?n OG?RNL;=NI>;JLCG?CL;?>CkjI>;)?A;NCI;<SFIHC=; >?-C?NLI*;LNCL?>HABC?L; JO<FC=;>;?G  +?MN?N?RNI >HABC?L;C>?HNC@C=IO IFIG<I>?MN;@ILG; IFIHOMP?LI$OC;H;  IGIP?LI MCAHC@C=; H; P?L>;>?  >HABC?L; ?MN;P; ; >CT?L KO? IFIG<I  ;FChM IFIG  ;FChM IFIGI  ;FChM sFIH ;FChM IFIHOM ;FChM$O?LL; M?=B;G;P; H;P?L>;>? $OC;LL; "RC<CO;M?AOH>;@INI=sJC;

"?MN?nOG?RNL;=NI>;M?AOH>;?>CkjI>;G?MG;)?A;NCI;<SFIHC=; >?>HABC?L; >?MN;@?CN; CHNCNOF;>; -M;FN?LCOG ? >;N;>; >?   KOC ; G?MG; C>?HNC@C=;kjI MI@L? OG; FCA?CL; ;FN?L;kjI

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.O;NLI  =ILLCACO 1IGhM  PIFN;H>I ; ;N?HkjI J;L; IM ;JIHN;G?HNIM  !?JICM >; GILN? >? IFIG<I IM?O@CFBIJILNOAOoM !CIAI IFIG  CHMN;OLIO OG JLI=?MMI DO>C=C;F =IHNL; ; =ILI; >? ;MN?F;  CHNCNOF;>I -F?SNI =IH F; ILIH;  HOG ?M@ILkI J;L; ;MM?AOL;L IM >CL?CNIM >I J;C  M ;O>CoH=C;M=IG?k;L;G?GH;CFB;>?0jI!IGCHAIM H;M ;L;p<;M ?N?LGCH;L;G?G?G 0?PCFB;  1I>IM IM G;LCHB?CLIM ? =;JCNj?M KO? J;LNC=CJ;L;G H; >?M=I<?LN; >; GnLC=; @IL;G IOPC>IMH?MN?JLI=?MMI JL?MN;H>I>?JICG?HNIMI<DOL;G?HNI=IG ; GjI H; p<FC;  1CLIO IONL; @IFB; >; L?MG;   "MN; n OG; =sJC; >I >?JICG?HNI >I G?MNL? JCFINI +C=IFhM -nL?T  !CMM? ?F? ?G NLC<OH;F =IG;GjIJIOM;>;MI<L?;p<FC; KO?IXP?L>;>?CLI;J?FC>I>? IFsH?L;$O?LL;Z

91


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CN;FC;HCT;H>I FB? I HIG?  "RCMN? CAO;FG?HN? OG; L?@?LoH=C; ; OG FCPLI >? 1L?PCM;HI  CHNCNOF;>I )C<L?NNI>CNONN?F?+;PCA;NCIHC>C/?>?0J;AH; ?KO?@ICJO<FC=;>I?G=IG<;M??G=sJC;M >?=;LN;M>IPCAhLCI =;J?FjIL?;F 1;G<nGHjIMI<L?PCP?OH?HBOG?R?GJF;L>?MM?FCPLI G;MI M?O=IHN?GJILiH?I#L;H=?M=I>;*IHN;F<I>>I=IH@CLGIOKO?1L?PCM;HI;JL?M?HNIO IFIG=IGI LCMNI@ILI IFIG<I7?HIP?T? , JLI<F?G; nKO? ?MN? N?RNI >? 1L?PCM;HI HjI =B?AIO ;Nn HsM H; MO; ?>CkjI ILCACH;F   =LsHC=; G;CM ;HNCA; KO? N?GIM H; HIMM; JIMM? =IG I HIG? IFIG<I ;MMI=C;>I ;I >?M=I<LC>IL >; GnLC=; n I -;?MC HOIP;G?HN? L?NLIP;NC  JO<FC=;>I ?G  JIL *IHN;F<I>>I  ? KO? =IHMOFN?C H; C<FCIN?=; +;=CIH;F >I /CI >? ';H?CLI  #IC OG FCPLI GOCNI JIJOF;LH;MO;nJI=; NL;HM@ILG;H>I M?H;KOCFI;KO?BID?=B;G;Lp;GIM<?MN M?FF?L &H=FOCO;Nn; JLCG?CL; >?M=LCkjI >; >?M=I<?LN; >I L;MCF JIL -?>LI ]FP;L?M ;<L;F ? ;DO>IO ; ?MJ;FB;L OG; M?AOH>;@;FMC>;>? ;>?KO?I>?M=I<LC>IL>I+IPI*OH>I?L;GnLC=I3?MJO==C  2G;M?AOH>;@;FMC>;>?"HNjIKO;F@IC;JLCG?CL; 1IGhMIFBIOJ;L;*IFC;LNC=IG;>GCL;kjI

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"Verdade. Mas novamente lhe chamo a atenção para o facto de que quase tudo é especulativo no que diz respeito a Colombo, tão grandes são os mistérios e contradições em torno do descobridor da América." Voltou a mirar a Historia del Almirante. "Deixe-me mostrar-lhe aqui outras inconsistências observadas pelo professor Toscano e que cimentam a hipótese de não ser Hernando Colón o autor de todas as afirmações que daqui constam. Por exemplo, esta conversa de que o pai, depois de nadar até terra, foi para Lisboa, onde «se achavam muitos da sua nação genovesa»." "Aí está um indício inequívoco." "Mas, ó Nelson, repare bem. Não foi Hernando quem, páginas antes, disse que andou por Génova e nunca por lá viu qualquer familiar? Não foi o mesmo Hernando quem supostamente indicou que a origem do pai estava em Piacenza? Então como é que depois de ter escrito isso vem dar a entender que o pai, afinal, era de nação genovesa? Num instante não é de Génova, no instante a seguir já é? Mas que raio de confusão vem a ser esta?" Voltou às fotocópias das notas. "Mais uma vez o professor Toscano parecia suspeitar de mãozinha do tradutor genovês, rabiscando aqui novamente a expressão «traduttori, traditori»." Pegou noutras fotocópias. "Aliás, há outras contradições na Historia del Almirante, tantas que o padre Alejandro de la Torre y Velez, cónego da Catedral de Salamanca e estudioso da obra de Hernando, concluiu igualmente que ela «foi interpolada e viciada por mão estranha»." "Está a dizer que é tudo falso?" "Não. A Historia del Almirante foi, sem sombra de dúvidas, escrita por Hernando Colón, isso é algo que ninguém disputa. Mas existem no texto publicado certas contradições e inconsistências que só podem ser explicadas de duas maneiras. Ou Hernando era tolinho de todo, o que não parece provável, ou então alguém andou a mexer em pormenores essenciais do seu manuscrito, adaptandoo ao gosto do público de Itália, onde a obra foi primeiro editada." "Quem?" ?G  ; L?MJIMN; ; ?MM; J?LAOHN; J;L?=? G? ?PC>?HN?  0s JI>? N?L MC>I ;FC;HI #ILH;LC  I A?HIPoM KO? I<N?P? I G;HOM=LCNI >;M GjIM >? )OpM >? IFsH ? Ms JO<FC=IO ; NL;>OkjI CN;FC;H;

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