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AFD-X AUTONOMOUS FLYING DEVICE MATERIALS FOOTPRINT AADRL WORKSHOP 2 2010

TEAM Maya Bartur Johanna Huang Wandy Mulia Christos Sazos INSTRUCTOR Marta Male-Alemany ASSISTANT TUTORS Catalina Pollak Michael Grau


INTRODUCTION


MATERIALS IMPRINT DRAWING DEVICE The project addresses the issues of overcoming gravity and physical boundaries through a machinic driven design process. Methodologies were followed to design a flying machine that operates intelligently taking into consideration the characteristics of both the hardware and the software that were used. The limitations set by the argument, drive the research towards a design approach engaging a lightweight body for the machine, hardware parts that ensure a controlled navigation in the 3D space as well as defining trajectory following specific rules, and finally corroborating the software to support the hardware operation. The Machine Design Process is combined with a performative scenario that specifies the operative parameters.


INTENTIONS


MOBILITY LEVEL TEST /// SPAN TEST

FLIGHT

V.1

Freedom of movement and navigation; has the ability to overcome physical boundaries.

ADDRESSING FLYING IN THE 3D ENVIRONMENT LEVELING UP /// FLIGHT OVER SPANS

LEVEL TEST /// SPAN TEST

FLIGHT

V.1

ADDRESSING FLYING IN THE 3D ENVIRONMENT LEVELING UP /// FLIGHT OVER SPANS


COMPONENTS: 25 40

3 helicopters 3 DC motors + 3 Propeller 17cm 1 Bread board 1 pre-programmed Arduino Lilypad 1 Coin battery holder 3 Light sensors / Light dependant photoresistors --Rechargeable Li-Ion power battery 3.7V 65mAh Rechargeable Li-Ion power battery 3.7V 160mAh --1 Bottom light sensor 3 SRF05 Ultra Sonic Ranger uninflated 3feet Balloon string and USB Cable Manual Arduino Codes sent by email extra Transistor, Resistor and Cables

SHIPPING

DEPLOYMENT

Box dimension: 40x40x25 Weight: less than 0,5 kg Next day global shipping cost: from 74 £ Europe shipping cost: from 40 £ (1 - 6 days)


R-O-B by Gramazio and Kohler

The Outrace robotic arms by Kram and Weisshaar

AFD-X Vs. Robotic Arm • Deployment AFD-X can be deployed in a box 40x40x25 / 0,5kg Unlike the easy deployment method of AFD-X, a Robotic arm can only be transported overseas by a container, which size exceeds more than 850 times the AFD-X parcel’s size and which shipping time takes much longer. • Functionally Robotic arm >> works very precise in their actions >> not affected by its surrounding >> very restricted operation area >> defines the fabrication process and the size of the product >> totally predesigned performance AFD-X >> works with relevance in precise >> affected by its surrounding >> no restrictions in operation area >> the fabrication process is emergent since the machine constantly reprograms itself reading what has already been achieved by its performance >> not predesigned performance >> follow predetermined rules that define a constantly chancing trajectory since the machine readjusts according to what itself has already produced affecting the environ-

2.4

6.1

2.4


3D DIMENSIONAL PERFORMANCE

EXPERIMENT //

FOLLOWING LIGHT

V.4

IS ABLE TO FLY IN A DIRECT PATH (OVER BOUNDARIES) TO TRACE AND REACH THE MOST VIABLE LIGHT SOURCE

SEQUENCE OF EXPERIMENT

Performs in x-y-z directions.

AUTONOMOUS - Gains information about the environment. - Performs without human intervention. - Move either all or part of itself throughout its operating environment without human assistance.

CLOSED FEEDBACK LOOP Machinic performance is informed by contextual parameters. In effect, machinic output based on previous inputs redefines environmental values, creating a closed feedback loop .

EXPERIMENT //

FOLLOWING LIGHT

V.4

IS ABLE TO FLY IN A DIRECT PATH (OVER BOUNDARIES) TO TRACE AND REACH THE MOST VIABLE LIGHT IS ABLE TO FLY IN A DIRECT PATH (OVER BOUNDARIES) TO TR SOURCE.

SEQUENCE OF EXPERIMENT


PRELIMINARY //

REFERENCES

TRANSLATOR II // GROWER CO2 LEVEL RESPONDER / DRAWS VARYING HGHTS OF GRASS

DRAWING MACHINE 3.14159 // v.2 MOBILE STRUCTURE / VIBRATION VIA MICROPHONE READING

IMAGE FULGURATOR // REMOTE AGITATION OF SURFACE OPERATES VIA REACTIVE FLASH PROJECTION

MURAL // DILLER SCOFIDIO SAND RESULT 01 // INK RESULT 02 RANDOMLY DESTROYED DRYWALL ALONG 200’+ OF TRACK

AUTONOMOUS QUADROTOR // GRASP LAB SMALL AUTONOMOUS UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE (UAV)

SPACE HOGS //

MARCELO COEHLO SENSE OBJECTS, AVOID COLLISIONS, MULTIPLE ANIMALS


AFD-X


EVOLUTION

Two main criteria were important for the design of the flying device: 1. Achieving flight. 2. Embedding behavioral intelligence in which environmental parameters would inform its movement in space.

V.

01

02

03

04

TOP

V V V V V

V V V V V

V V V V V

SIDE


EVOLUTION

BODY

+ +

+ +


EVOLUTION

INK DRAWING I /// INK DRAWING II

TEST

V.1

NON-INTELLIGENT FLYING DEVICE AS DRAWING TOOL IMPRINTS FROM SPONGE ALLOW FOR VISUAL NARRATIVE OR WHEN IT MACHINE IS OFF THE PAPER/ON THE PAPER/HEIGHT OF THE MACHINE OFF THE PAPER


PROCESS

DRAW

INK RESULT 01

INK RESULT 02


SAND DRAWING I /// SAND DRAWING II

TEST

V.1

NON-INTELLIGENT FLYING DEVICE AS DRAWING TOOL REDUCTIVE DRAWING /// BEGINNING OF A DESIRE TO ADDRESS A 3D IMPRINT /// IMPRINTS FROM SPONGE ALLOW FOR VISUAL NARRATIVE


PROCESS

DRAW

SAND RESULT


EVOLUTION

VERSION 02 For the first iteration, a simple flight machine was designed without any embedded intelligence, manned by a remote control.

MOBILITY Two propellers attached to servo kit motors.

LIGHT SENSOR Performs according to surface reflectivity. Higher ‘motor ON’ range over nonreflective. Shorter ‘motor OFF’ range over non-reflective.

WEIGHT CONSIDERATION Attached to computer leash for weight control. Next iteration - introduction of Lilypad Arduino and coin batteries.


TEST

V.2

TWO PROPELLERS ACTIVATED VIA IMBEDDED LIGHT SENSOR LOCATED V AT THE BOTTOM OF MACHINE /// ‘ON’ IN DARK // ‘OFF’ IN LIGHT MACHINE IS ABLE TO REACH HIGHER LEVELS OF FLIGHT ON A DARK V SURFACE - THE SENSOR READS LESS SURFACE REFLECTIVITY

V V

SURFACE REFLECTIVITY

TEST

V

V.2

V V V V V

SURFACE REFLECTIVITY

TWO PROPELLERS ACTIVATED VIA IMBEDDED LIGHT SENSOR LOCATED AT THE BOTTOM OF MACHINE /// ‘ON’ IN DARK // ‘OFF’ IN LIGHT MACHINE IS ABLE TO REACH HIGHER LEVELS OF FLIGHT ON A DARK SURFACE - THE SENSOR READS LESS SURFACE REFLECTIVITY


WEIGHT CONCERN

FLIGHT

V.2

AFD-X V.2’S COMPONENETS WERE NOT ADJUSTED TO THE POWER OF THE TWO Z MOTORS // STRING + PAINT ATTEMPTED TO MINIMIZE THE ANY VARYING WEIGHT DURING DRAW/DEPOSIT

V.2

AFD-X V.2’S COMPONENETS WERE NOT ADJUSTED TO THE POWER OF THE TWO Z MOTORS // STRING + PAINT ATTEMPTED TO MINIMIZE THE ANY VARYING WEIGHT DURING DRAW/DEPOSIT

WEIGHT CONCERN

FLIGHT


TWO LIGHT SENSORS + PROCESSING

TEST

V.2

MULTIPLE VARIABLE SENSOR READING OUTPUT THROUGH PROCESSING EXPERIMENT WITH SRF05 ALLOWS FOR A POTENTIAL GAUGED RESPONSE TO CREATED ‘BARRIER’ // BARRIER AS REFERENCED BY THE PROCESSING OUTPUT

TWO LIGHT SENSORS + PROCESSING

TEST

V.2

MULTIPLE VARIABLE SENSOR READING OUTPUT THROUGH PROCESSING EXPERIMENT WITH SRF05 ALLOWS FOR A POTENTIAL GAUGED RESPONSE TO CREATED ‘BARRIER’ // BARRIER AS REFERENCED BY THE PROCESSING OUTPUT


DRAW

FLIGHT

V.2

MACHINE IS GIVEN THE ABILITY TO DARKEN THE LIGHT SURFACE THAT IT PERFORMS ON THE INTENTION IS TO MAKE THE ENTIRE WHITE SURFACE DARK IN ORDER FOR THE MACHINE TO WANT TO ‘FLY’ AND PERFORM ELSEWHERE

V.2

MACHINE IS GIVEN THE ABILITY TO DARKEN THE LIGHT SURFACE THAT IT PERFORMS ON THE INTENTION IS TO MAKE THE ENTIRE WHITE SURFACE DARK IN ORDER FOR THE MACHINE TO WANT TO ‘FLY’ AND PERFORM ELSEWHERE

DRAW

FLIGHT


FLIGHT //

DRAW

ABILITY TO PERFORM AND AGITATE SURFACE WITHOUT SENSOR INTERFERENCE Deployed material could further be enacted upon by secondary machine action


FLIGHT //

V.3 LIGHT + DISTANCE

DUAL DIRECTIONALITY Three hacked ufo/helios control Z direction movement via a programmed light sensor Three propellers control in the X/Y direction moving AWAY from objects : SRF05 ultrasonic distance sensors TOWARDS light : via three light sensors that assert the direction with the most light reading

VARIABLE /// LIGHT SENSOR

dependant on determined site conditions

ALWAYS /// DISTANCE SENSOR

based on the needs of the machine as a flything

ONE SRF05 DISTANCE ONE SRF05 DISTANCE SENSOR // XYZSENSOR FLIGHT II

FLIGHT II V.3

V.3

// XYZ

ONE SRF05 ULTRASONIC DISTANCE SENSOR + ONE

XY PROPELLER/// THREE HACKED HELICOPTERS ONE SRF05 ULTRASONIC DISTANCE SENSOR + ONE XY PROPELLER /// ONE SRF05 ULTRASONIC DISTANCE SENSOR + ONE XY PROPELLER THREE HACKED HELICOPTERS ACTIVATED VIA SEPERATE IMBEDDED LIGHT SENSOR AS XY PROPELLERS

/// ACTIVATED VIA SEPARATE EMBEDDED LIGHT SENTHREE HACKED HELICOPTERS ACTIVATED VIA SEPERATE IMBEDDED SORS AS XY PROPELLESRS.


DISTANCE SENSORS DIAGRAM

>>>>>

+ x

>


ONE SRF05 DISTANCE SENSOR // XYZ

FLIGHT

V.3

ONE SRF05 ULTRASONIC DISTANCE SENSOR + ONE XY PROPELLER /// THREE HACKED HELICOPTERS ACTIVATED VIA SEPERATE IMBEDDED LIGHT SENSOR AS XY PROPELLERS


ONE SRF05 + ONE PROP /// ONE LIGHT SNSR + ONE PROP

TEST

V.3

ONE SRF05 ULTRASONIC DISTANCE SENSOR CONTROLLING ONE PROPELLER /// ONE LIGHT SENSOR CONTROLLING ONE PROPELLER


EVOLUTION

VERSION 4// MACHINIC DESIGN AFD-X gains information about the environment which allows it to move autonomously through space. Side light sensors are added to the distance sensors which dictates the machine to move towards the brightest light source. V V V

INPUT

ANALYZE

AXIS

TRAJECTORIES

z

Light

Light sensors

Z-DIRECTION Hacked toy helicopters (DC motors)

Side

Top

SIDE VIEW

V V V

x,y Object

Distance sensors

XY-DIRECTIONS DC motors Light sensors

XY-DIRECTIONS Side DC motors control movement in the xy-directions. They actuate based on distance sensors which avoids obstacles, while light sensors dictate the machine to move towards the brightest light source. TOP VIEW

V V V

PARAMETERS/TRAJECTORIES

V V V

V V V

Light

Z-DIRECTION Hacked toy helicopters control movement in the z-direction, which react to different light conditions.

V V V


LIGHT TRACKER

+ + + 2

+ + +

+ + + 1

3

Light sensors dictate the machine to move towards the brightest light source.


LIGHT + SRF05 + THREE PROPELLERS //

SENSORS

V.4

3 LIGHT SENSORS AND 3 SRF05 ULTRASONIC DISTANCE SENSORS ACTIVATE THE SAME THREE PROPELLERS // THE PRESENCE OF AN OBJECT TURNS ON THE OPPOSITE ONE PROPELLER /// THE READING OF THE LARGEST LIGHT SOURCE ACTIVATES THE OPPOSITE TWO PROPELLERS


TWO SRF05 + TWO PROPELLER

TEST

V.4

TWO PROPELLERS RESPONDING TO TWO SRF05 ULTRASONIC DSTANCE SENSORS TESTED WHEN EACH SRF05 SOVEREIGNLY CONTROLS A DISTINCT PROPELLER AS WELL AS HAVING ONE SRF05 CONTROLLING BOTH PROPS


SET UPS


SET UP 1: CLOSED FEEDBACK LOOP: PAINT INPUT

ANALYZE

AXIS

TRAJECTORIES

MATERIAL/ SURFACE RELECTIVITY

PERFORMANCE

x,y

Side

Top

Black paint

z 1. White surface

PAINT DEPOSITION METHOD

SETUP 1

White surface

Obstacle

2.

3.


EXPERIMENT //

PAINT

V.4

MOVES TOWARDS LIGHT IN ONE DIRECTION // MOVES OVER BOUNDARY // MOVES TOWARDS NEW LIGHT SOURCE

SEQUENCE OF EXPERIMENT


RESULTS

PAINT EXPERIMENT >> OBSERVATIONS / COMMENTS / PROJECTIONS >> THE HIGHER THE MACHINE FLIES THE AREA THAT CAN BE SCANNED BY THE BOTTOM LIGHT-SENSOR IS INCREASED >> THE RESOLUTION OF THE SYSTEM IS HEIGHT DEPENDENT >> IN THE PROCESS OF DETECTING WHITE (MORE REFLECTIVE) AREAS TO LAND AND PAINT THE MACHINE SKIPS AREAS THAT ARE SURROUNDED BY BLACK (NON-REFLECTIVE) AREAS >> A CELLULAR AUTOMATA LOGIC WHERE AREAS THAT COULD POTENTIALLY BE ACTIVE, NEVER GO ACTIVE SINCE THEIR NEIGHBORING AREAS ARE NON-ACTIVE >> AN OBSERVATION THAT WE COULD ONLY ABLE TO MAKE WHEN THE ACTUAL EXPERIMENT TAKES PLACE

// ANALOG PROCESS //

>> THIS COULD HAVE NEVER BEEN OBSERVED VIA A VIRTUAL SIMULATION OF THE MACHINE OPERATIVE PROCESS

// DIGITAL PROCESS //

>> HOW CAN AN OBSERVATION IN AN ANALOG PROCEDURE CAN AFFECT THE WAY THE VIRTUAL SIMULATION OF THE SAME PROCESS IS DESIGNED

// ANALOG TO DIGITAL RELATIONSHIP // >> THE DEPLOYMENT OF MATERIAL(PAINT) PROCEDURE AFFECTS THE SYSTEM OPERATION >> WHEN THE PAINT IS DEPLOYED THE WEIGHT OF THE BODY OF THE MACHINE DECREASES AFFECTING ITS PERFORMANCE / CALIBRATION NEEDED EVERY TIME >> HOW TO PROGRAM THE SYSTEM TO OPERATE UNDER THESE CONDITIONS AUTO-CALIBRATING ITS PERFORMANCE.


EXPERIMENT //

FOLLOWING LIGHT

V.4

IS ABLE TO FLY IN A DIRECT PATH (OVER BOUNDARIES) TO TRACE AND REACH THE MOST VIABLE LIGHT IS ABLE TO FLY IN A DIRECT PATH (OVER BOUNDARIES) TO TRACE AND REACH THE MOST VIABLE LIGHT SOURCE SOURCE.

SEQUENCE OF EXPERIMENT


SET UP 2: CLOSED FEEDBACK LOOP: FOAM

INPUT

ANALYZE

AXIS

TRAJECTORIES

MATERIAL/ SURFACE RELECTIVITY

PERFORMANCE

x,y

Side

Top

White styrofoam beads Black surface

z 1.

SET UP 1 STYROFOAM BALLS FABRIC LIGHT SOURCE OBSTACLE

2.

SET UP 2

3.


EXPERIMENT //

STYROFOAM

V.4

DEFORMING LIGHT SURFACE TO DARK IN ORDER TO RISE UP AND SEARCH FOR MORE LIGHT /// FOLLOWING LIGHTS OF VARYING BRIGHTNESS

SEQUENCE OF EXPERIMENT


RESULTS

FOAM EXPERIMENT >> OBSERVATIONS / COMMENTS / PROJECTIONS >> TOOK PLACE IN AN INDOOR (CONTROLLED CONDITIONS) SPACE, STILL THE MOVEMENT OF THE MACHINE –DUE TO THE BALLOON- WAS AFFECTED BY THE DISCREET HEAT AIR CURRENTS IN THE ROOM. >> EXTERNAL FACTORS AFFECTING THE PROCESS >> HOW WOULD IT PERFORM IN AN OUTDOOR ENVIRONMENT? >> TO WHAT EXTENT CAN WE HAVE CONTROL OF THE FABRICATION OPERATING SYSTEM ON SITE >> FRAGILITY OF THE SYSTEM >> RESOLUTION / PRECISION THAT THE MACHINE CAN OFFER >> EMERGENT PERFORMANCES OTHER FACTORS IN THE ENVIRONMENT ,THAN THOSE SENSED BY THE MACHINE SENSORS, AFFECT THE MACHINE’S PERFORMANCE >>THE CONDITIONS PRESENT ON SITE AT THE TIME OF THE MACHINIC OPERATION ARE PART OF THE FINAL RESULT


HARDWARE SCHEMATICS


transistor CDIL 2N2222A http://www.datasheet4u.com/html/2/N/2/2N2222A_CDIL.pdf.html diode resistor 560 motor

light sensor / signal

lilypad arduino 328 /// 2v-5v /// 8MHz


transistor CDIL 2N2222A http://www.datasheet4u.com/html/2/N/2/2N2222A_CDIL.pdf.html

resistor 560 motor

external battery 3.7v 65mAh

light sensor / signal

lilypad arduino 328 /// 2v-5v /// 8MHz


transistor CDIL 2N2222A http://www.datasheet4u.com/html/2/N/2/2N2222A_CDIL.pdf.html diode resistor 560 motor

9 volt battery 6Am ////// 6LR61.9V.6AM6

light sensor / signal

lilypad arduino 328 /// 2v-5v /// 8MHz


transistor CDIL 2N2222A http://www.datasheet4u.com/html/2/N/2/2N2222A_CDIL.pdf.html diode resistor 560 resistor : orange/orange/yellow/yellow (on light blue). tolerance 20% - none 3.34 mega ohm motor

9 volt battery 6Am ////// 6LR61.9V.6AM6

light sensor / signal

lilypad arduino 328 /// 2v-5v /// 8MHz


PROJECTIONS


> >

>

>

7:166

16:166

>

1:100

>

29:166

69:166

x

>

105:166


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


It is a pleasure to thank those who made this project possible. First, we would like to thank our family and friends, who supported us in many ways during this project. Special thanks to Meir Bartur and Kensuke Hotta (EmTech, Ph.D), and Daniel Solits (Tinker) for their technical supports.

AFD-X  

A one-month design research project in the Architectural Association DRL in London, researching the possibilities of interactive drawing de...

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