Page 1

sÛbrÛa@@Šbî©aNN ÑäÇýÛa@l‹y@

‫א‬

‫א א‬

‫א‬

61

:

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

îÌnÛa@òb×c@


‫@‪sÛbrÛa@@Šbî©aNN ÑäÇýÛa@l‹y‬‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א א‬

‫‪:‬‬

‫א‬

‫‪ 1‬ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﺀ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺫﻛﺮﻧﺎ ﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ "ﺍﻟﺼﺮﺍﻉ" ﺇﳕﺎ ﻧﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﻪ "ﺍﻟﺼﺮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺮﻱ"‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻏﻠﺐ ﺍﻟـﺼﺮﺍﻋﺎﺕ ﺑـﲔ ﺍﳊﺮﻛـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻤﺎﻫﲑﻳﺔ ﻭﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﰲ ﻋﺎﳌﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﻭﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﺗﻨﺪﺭﺝ ﲢﺖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﺍﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﲝﺜﻨﺎ ﻫﺬﺍ‪.‬‬

‫@‪îÌnÛa@òb×c‬‬

‫‪62‬‬


‫@‪sÛbrÛa@@Šbî©aNN ÑäÇýÛa@l‹y‬‬

‫ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻃﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﺍﻉ‬

‫ﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ‬

‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺗﻔﺎﻋﻞ ﺍﻷﻃﺮﺍﻑ‬

‫ﻟﺸﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﺍﻉ‬

‫ﻣﻊ ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﺍﻉ‬

‫ﺸﻜل ‪ :١١‬ﻋﻭﺍﻤل ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺭﺍﻉ‬

‫@‪îÌnÛa@òb×c‬‬

‫‪63‬‬


‫@‪sÛbrÛa@@Šbî©aNN ÑäÇýÛa@l‹y‬‬

‫‪:‬‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﻓﻊ‬

‫א‬

‫ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻭﻣﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻠـﻊ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻐـﻴﲑ ﺍﻟﻮﺿـﻊ ﺍﻟـﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻠـﻊ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻐـﻴﲑ ﺍﻟﻮﺿـﻊ ﺍﻟـﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﰲ ﺍﻟـﺒﻼﺩ‪ ،‬ﻣـﻊ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﻘـﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﻟﻪ ﺑﻮﺿﻊ ﺁﺧﺮ‪ ،‬ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺍﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻘـﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﲜﻬـﻞ ﺍﻷﺣـﺰﺍﺏ ﺍﻣﺘﻨﺎﻉ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻢ ﻋﻦ ﻗﺒـﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻐـﻴﲑ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳊﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﳉﻤﺎﻫﲑ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻵﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻓﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﻧﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪١‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑﻱ‬

‫‪٢‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﻳﺪﻳﻮﻟﻮﺟﻲ‬

‫ﻼ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﳌﻘﺎﻭﻣـﺔ ﻻ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺻﺮﺍﻉ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻛ ﹰ‬ ‫ﲢﺮﻛﻬﻤﺎ ﺃﺟﻨﺪﺓ ﳏﻠﻴﺔ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ؛ ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻳﻜﻮﻧﺎﻥ ﺟﺰﺀﹰﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﻛﻮﱐ ﻭﻋﺎﳌﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺼﺒﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﺪﻓﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻌﻞ ‪ -‬ﺍﳌﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﺍﶈﻠﻲ ‪ -‬ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻫﺪﻓﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺣﺪ ﺫﺍ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﻣﻨﻄﻘـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺗﻜﺎﺯ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﱐ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺗﻘﺪﱘ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﺯﻻﺕ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻓﲔ ﻻ ﻳﻌﺪ ﻫﺰﳝـﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﳏﻠﻴﺔ ﻓﺤﺴﺐ؛ ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﺧﺴﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺮﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻜﻮﱐ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﳊﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻭﻣﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪٣‬‬

‫ﺍﻹﺟﻬﺎﺿﻲ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻠﻊ ﺇﱃ ﺇﺟﻬﺎﺽ ﳏﺎﻭﻻﺕ ﺍﻻﻧﻘـﻼﺏ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﶈﺎﻭﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺘﺨﺬ‬ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ ﺍﻻﻧﻘﻼﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻱ ﺃﻭ ﳏـﺎﻭﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻗﻮﻯ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻳﺪﻳﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﺎﻭﺋﺔ ﺗﻘﻮﻳﺾ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻭﻓﺮﺽ ﺗﺼﻮﺭﺍ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺼﺮﺍﻉ ﺑﲔ ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﲨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺧﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﰲ ﻣﺼﺮ ﰲ ﺍﳋﻤﺴﻴﻨﺎﺕ‪.‬‬

‫‪٤‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﰊ‬

‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤـﺔ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﻟـﺰﻋﻴﻢ ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺣﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻭﻣﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺣﺮﻛﺔ ﺃﺗﺒﻮﺭ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺻﺮﺑﻴﺎ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪.٢٠٠٠‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﻭﺣﺪ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﻛﻮﺑﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻠﻊ ﺇﱃ ﺇﺟﻬﺎﺽ ﳏﺎﻭﻻﺕ ﺍﻻﻧﻘﻼﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﱀ‪ ،‬ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﶈﺎﻭﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻗﺪ ﺗﺘﺨﺬ‬ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ ﺍﻻﻧﻘﻼﺏ ﺍﻟﻌـﺴﻜﺮﻱ ﺃﻭ ﳏـﺎﻭﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻗﻮﻯ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻳﺪﻳﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﺎﻭﺋﺔ ﺗﻘﻮﻳﺾ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﱀ ﻭﻓﺮﺽ ﺗﺼﻮﺭﺍ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺗﺼﺪﻱ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﺍﻷﳌـﺎﱐ ﶈﺎﻭﻟـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻧﻘﻼﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻱ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪.١٩٢٠‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻠﻊ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳊﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻳـﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻠﻊ ﺇﱃ ﲢﺴﲔ ﺍﻷﻭﺿﺎﻉ ﺍﳌﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟـﺴﻠﻄﻮﻳﺔ ﻟﻄﺎﺋﻔـﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻃﺒﻘـﺔ ﻟﻄﺎﺋﻔﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻃﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺗﻐـﻴﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﻲ ﰲ ﺍﺠﻤﻟﺘﻤﻊ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻌـﺎﱂ ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﳊﺮﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟـﱵ ﺍﻧﺘـﺸﺮﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺮﻳﺪ ﺍﳊﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻜﺘﺴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﳉـﻴﺶ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﻒ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻳﻦ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺑﻘﺎﺅﻩ ﰲ ﻗﻤﺔ ﺍﳍﺮﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﻮﻱ‪.‬‬

‫@‪îÌnÛa@òb×c‬‬

‫‪64‬‬


‫@‪sÛbrÛa@@Šbî©aNN ÑäÇýÛa@l‹y‬‬

‫‪ ٥‬ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻲ ‪ /‬ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺮﻏﺒﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳊﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺼﺎﱀ ﺍﻟﺸﺨـﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳊﺰﺑﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﺑﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﲢﺖ ﺷﻌﺎﺭ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﻭﺑﻘﺎﺀﻩ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭﻩ ﻣﻘـﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺼﻠﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻦ‪ .‬ﻓﻤﻌﺎﻳﲑ ﳒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻻ ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ )ﺍﳊﺮﻳـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ( ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻳﺔ )ﺍﻟﻨـﺎﺗﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻣﻲ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﻭﺩﺧﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩ( ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ )ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺎﻧﺲ ﻭﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺿﻲ( ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ )ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻊ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ(‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ ﰲ ﺗﺜﺒﻴﺖ ﺃﺭﻛﺎﻧﻪ ﻭﺍﻻﻧﺘﻘـﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻛﺘﺎﺗﻮﺭﻳـﺔ ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ‬ ‫‪٦‬‬

‫ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻬﺎﺯﻱ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻄﻤﻮﺡ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺰﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻋﺘﻼﺀ ﻗﻤـﺔ ﺍﳍـﺮﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﻮﻱ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻦ ﺗﻔﺴﲑﻩ ﺑﺄﻧﻪ ﳎﺮﺩ ﺣﺐ ﻟﻠﺴﻠﻄﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ـﺰﺍﺏ ﻭﺍﳊﺮﻛـ‬ ‫ـﺾ ﺍﻷﺣـ‬ ‫ـﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺑﻌـ‬ ‫ﻣﺜـ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻐﻤﻮﺭﺓ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﻐﻼﻝ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻏﲑ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻻﺳﺘﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺗﻔﻜﲑ ﻣﺴﺒﻖ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺣـﺪﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺍﻍ ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭﻱ ﻓﺠﺄﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺒﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳊﺮﻛﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺷﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﺍﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺟﻞ ﻓﺮﺽ ﺃﺟﻨﺪ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﺗﻠـﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻈﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺮﺟﺔ ﰲ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ‪.‬‬

‫ﺠﺩﻭل ‪ :2‬ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺅﺜﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺱ ﺃﻁﺭﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﺭﺍﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺤﺩﺩ ﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻜﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻭﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻜﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺭﺍﺘﻴﺠﻴﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺨﻁﻭﻁﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺤﺎﻭل ﺍﻟﺩﻓﺎﻉ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺒﻜل ﺍﻟﻭﺴﺎﺌل ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻤﻠﻜﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﺤﺩﺩ ﺤﺠﻡ ﻭﺭﺩﻭﺩ ﻓﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺭﻀﺕ ﻟﻠﻬﺠﻭﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﻴﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﻟﺒﻌﺽ ﺃﻁﺭﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﺭﺍﻉ ﺃﻭ ﺠﻤﻴﻌﻬﻡ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺩﺍﻓﻊ‪.‬‬

‫ﺸﻜل ‪ :١٢‬ﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻷﻁﺭﺍﻑ ﻟﺸﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺭﺍﻉ‬

‫@‪îÌnÛa@òb×c‬‬

‫‪65‬‬


sÛbrÛa@@Šbî©aNN ÑäÇýÛa@l‹y@

66

îÌnÛa@òb×c@


sÛbrÛa@@Šbî©aNN ÑäÇýÛa@l‹y@

‫א א‬

‫א א‬

.

67

îÌnÛa@òb×c@


‫@‪sÛbrÛa@@Šbî©aNN ÑäÇýÛa@l‹y‬‬

‫–‬

‫ﺸﻜل ‪ :١٣‬ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﺼﺭﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺭﻱ ﻭﻓﻘﹰﺎ ﻟﺩﻭﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻷﻁﺭﺍﻑ ﻭﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻌﺩﺍﺩ ﻟﻠﻤﺨﺎﻁﺭﺓ‬

‫@‪îÌnÛa@òb×c‬‬

‫‪68‬‬


sÛbrÛa@@Šbî©aNN ÑäÇýÛa@l‹y@

69

îÌnÛa@òb×c@


‫@‪sÛbrÛa@@Šbî©aNN ÑäÇýÛa@l‹y‬‬

‫א‬

‫‪:‬‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫א‬

‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﺍﻉ‬

‫ﺍﻹﺣﺴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻃﻔﻲ‬

‫ﺍﻹﺩﺭﺍﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻠﻲ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻭﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ‬

‫ﺸﻜل ‪ :١٤‬ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻔﺎﻋل ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﺭﺍﻉ‪ ،‬ﺍﻹﺤﺴﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻘل‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﺤﺩﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻬﺎ ﺃﻁﺭﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﺭﺍﻉ ﻁﺒﻴﻌﺘﻪ‪.‬‬

‫@‪îÌnÛa@òb×c‬‬

‫‪70‬‬


‫@‪sÛbrÛa@@Šbî©aNN ÑäÇýÛa@l‹y‬‬

‫–‬ ‫–‬ ‫ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺭﺍﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻠﻲ‬

‫ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺣﺴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻃﻔﻲ‬

‫ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﻭﺍﳌﻤﺎﺭﺳﺔ‬

‫ﺸﻜل ‪ :١٥‬ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ ﺍﻷﻤﺜل ﻟﻠﻔﻌل ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺴﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ = ﺇﺩﺭﺍﻙ ﻋﻘﻠﻲ ﻭﻋﺎﻁﻔﺔ ﺤﺴﺎﺴﺔ ﻭﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺀ‬

‫–‬

‫@‪îÌnÛa@òb×c‬‬

‫–‬

‫‪71‬‬


sÛbrÛa@@Šbî©aNN ÑäÇýÛa@l‹y@

72

îÌnÛa@òb×c@

my docc  

academy of change

Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you