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CARDIO-PULMONARY RESUSCITATION With an unconscious (non breathing) casualty, your priorities are to: • Maintain an open airway • Breathe for the casualty • Maintain blood circulation This can be achieved by performing cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) which involves giving: • Chest compressions • Rescue breaths

Choking A foreign object that is stuck at the back of the throat or cause muscular spasm. Young children especially are prone to choking. A child may choke on food or may put small objects into their mouth and cause a blockage of the airway.

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Asses a situation Protect yourself Prevent cross infection Comfort and reassure Asses the casualty Give early treatment Arrange for appropriate help

BREATHING Normal Adult Breathing Rate: 12-16 bpm. There are four things to consider when assessing a casualty’s breathing. Rate - Count the number of braths per minute (bpm) Depths - Are the breaths deep or shallow Ease - Are the breaths easy, difficult or painful Noise - Is the breathing quiet or noisy? If noisy, what are the types of noise

choking treatment for adult or child Your aims are to remove the obstruction and to arrange urgent removal to hospital if necessary. If obstruction is mild: • Encourage them to continue coughing • Remove any obvious obstruction from the mouth If the obstruction is severe: • Give up to five back blows • Check the mouth and remove any obvious obstruction

If the blockage of the area is mild, the casualty should be able to clear it , if it is severe they will be unable to speak, cough, or breath and will eventally lose consciousness

Before you approach a casualty, consider the following: Saftey - What are the dangers and do they still exist - Are you wearing the protective equipment - Is it safe for you to approach Scene - What factors are involved at the incident? - What are the mechanisms of injury - How many casualties are there - What are the potential injuries Situations - What happened

INFECTION PREVENTION & CONTROL Ways to minimise the risk of cross infection • Do wash your hands • Do cover cuts and grazes on your hands with waterproof plasters • Do not breathe, cough or sneeze over a wound whilst treating a casualty

TYPES OF FRACTURE Stable Fracture • A stable fracture occurs when the broken bone occurs when the broken bone ends do not move. • Such injuries are common at the wrist, shoulder, ankle and hip. Unstable facture • In an unstable fracture, the broken bone ends can easily that there may be damage to blood vessels, nerves and organs around the injury.

Types of Burn

Dry Burn • Flames contact with hot objects Scalds • Steam, hot liquids • Electrical Burn • High and low voltage currents, lighting Cold Burn • Frost bite, contact with freezing vapour Chemical Burn • Industrial chemicals, domestic chemicals • Radiation Burn • Sun burn, over exposure to UV or X-Rays

Heat Exhaustion

Heat Stroke

Heat Exhaustion occurs when a person becomes dehydrated and the body produces more heat than it can cope with

Heatstroke is caused by a failure in the ‘thermostat’ in the brain which functions to regulate body temperature

It usually develops gradually and often affects people who are not acclimatised to hot, humid conditions.

The body becomes dangerously overheated and cannot be cooled by normal regulatory mechanisms (e.g. sweating)

Some non-prescription drugs (e.g. Ecstasy) can affect the body’s temperature regulation system and when combined with the exertion of dancing in a warm club environment, can result in heat exhaustion

Heatstroke can develop with little warning, resulting in unconsciousness within mintues of the casualty feeling unwell


Pain Deformity, swelling and bruising Difficulty in moving the area Shortening, bend or twist of a limb Crepitus-A coarse grating of bone ends that can be heard or felt by the casualty • A wound, possibly with bone ends protruding

Hospitialisation If the casualty is a child, seek further medical assistance or arrange transport to hospital, regardless of how small the burn appears If the casualty in an adult, transport to hospital should be arranged for: • All full thickness burns • All burns involving the face, hands, feet or genitals • All burns that extend around an arm or leg • All partial - thickness burns affecting 1% of the body surface • Burns comprising a mixed pattern of varying depths

Call 999 for Emergency

First Aid Priorities Danger Infection Prevention & Control Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation Breath Types of Fracture Fracture Recognition Types of Burn Hospitialisation Choking Choking treatment Heat Exhuastion





Airway Head tilt, chin lift.

Breathing Look listen and feel for 10 secs. • • • •

Advise the casualty Immobilise the joints below and above the fracture site Place padding around the injury for extra support For firmer support, secure the injured part to an unnaffected part of the body (using slings or broad-fold bandages) • Treat for shock if necessary • Arrange transport to hospital • Monitor and record vital signs

Rescue Breaths CPR Give 30 chest compressions Give 2 rescue breaths and repeat CPR

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Move the casualty away from the cause of the burns Help the casulty to sit/lie down. Flood the burn with cold liquid for a minimum of 10 minutes. If possible, remove any restricting jewellery or clothing Cover the injured layer with cling film and secure with tape. Treat for shock if necessary. Arrange urgent transport to hospital if necessary.

Lean the person forward slighlty and stand behind him or her.

Make a fist with one Make a quick hard movehand. Put your arms mentinward and upward around the person and grasp your fist with your other hand near the top of the stomach, just below the centre of the rib cage.

Heat exhaustion • If possible, move the casualty to a cool shaded area • Lie the casualty down and raise and support their legs to improve blood flow to the brain • Encourage the casualty to rehydrate • Monitor and record the casulty’s condition • If you suspect the condition has developed to heat stroke. Seek medical advice immediatley. Heat stroke • Quickly move the casualty to a cool area and remove as much clothing as possible • Call 999 for Emergency help • Wrap the casualty in a cold wet sheet until their temperature returns to normal (37.5C) • Keep the sheet wet and cool by continually pouring cold water over it • Monitor and record the casualty’s condition

First aid survival guide