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REPUBLIC OF RWANDA

Training module for Secondary School Management Committees

School Planning for Secondary Schools in Rwanda


SCHOOL MANAGEMENT Training module for Secondary School Management Committees

School Planning for Secondary Schools in Rwanda

Prepared by MINEDUC-School Management Approved by TAC Kigali, December, 2010

Š NCDC/VVOB


Authors: -

RUDASINGWA Emile: Education Consultant

-

GAPARAYA Andre: Coordinator MINEDUC School Management Project

1


Proof Readers: -

MUGABO Leon: Lecturer at KIE

-

MUGABO Clement: Planning Officer/ MINEDUC

2


CONTENT CONTENT ..................................................................................................................................... 3 LIST OF FIGURES ....................................................................................................................... 5 INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................................... 6 UNIT 1: GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF SCHOOL STRATEGIC PLANNING. .................... 12 1. 1 Unit Presentation: .......................................................................................................................... 12 1.1.1. Objectives of the unit ................................................................................................................. 12 1.1.2. Learning activities ...................................................................................................................... 12 1.2 WHAT IS PLANNING?..................................................................................................................... 13 1. 3 WHY IS SCHOOL STRATEGIC PLANNING IMPORTANT? ............................................... 14 1. 4 BENEFITS OF STRATEGIC PLANNING?................................................................................. 14 1. 5 THE CHALLENGES AND LIMITS OF STRATEGIC PLANNING ...................................... 15 1. 6 TYPES OF PLANNING .................................................................................................................... 16 1.6.1. Based on Time: ............................................................................................................................. 16 1.6.2. Based on the purpose of the plan......................................................................................... 16 1.7 Summary of the first Unit: ........................................................................................................... 17 UNIT 2: SCHOOL STRATEGIC PLANNING PROCESS ..................................................... 20 2. 1 Unit Presentation. ........................................................................................................................... 20 2.1.1. Objectives of the unit ................................................................................................................. 20 2. 2 Basic Foundation of a School Strategic Plan ....................................................................... 21 2.2.1. Learning activities: ..................................................................................................................... 21 2.2.2. Additional information ............................................................................................................. 22 2. 3 Steps in Developing the School Strategic Plan ................................................................... 24 2.3.1. Learning activities: ..................................................................................................................... 25 2.3.2. Key steps in developing a school strategic plan ............................................................ 26 UNIT 3: MONITORING AND EVALUATION...................................................................... 36 3.1 Unit Presentation ............................................................................................................................. 36 3.1.1. Objective: ........................................................................................................................................ 36 3.1.2. Learning activities ...................................................................................................................... 36 3. 2 what monitoring and evaluation is? ....................................................................................... 36 3.3 Why do monitoring and evaluation? ....................................................................................... 37 3.4 Monitoring and evaluation framework .................................................................................. 38 3


3.5: Monitoring and Evaluation life cycle ..................................................................................... 39 CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................................ 40 ANNEXES ................................................................................................................................... 42 ANNEX 1: SWOT ANALYSIS LOG ........................................................................................ 42 ANNEX 2: MODEL OF A PROBLEM TREE ANALYSIS RESULTS FOR SCHOOL X ... 43 ANNEX 3: LOGICAL FRAMEWORK FOR X SCHOOL (2010- 2013) ........................... 44 ANNEX 4: MODEL OF AN ANNUAL PLAN FOR A SCHOOL (2010) ............................ 50 ANNEX 5: MONITORING AND EVALUATION FRAMEWORK ..................................... 58 ANNEX 6: SUMMARY OF ACTUAL CONTEXT OF PLANNING IN RWANDA ........... 59

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: Key questions in programme planning..................................................................... 17 Figure 2: The school strategic framework .................................................................................. 28 Figure 3: Monitoring and evaluation life cycle.......................................................................... 39

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INTRODUCTION

All through your professional career in education, you have been thrown in at the deep end. Appointed as a Head teacher in a secondary school, you were asked to perform the difficult and delicate task of managing school resources, both human and non human, and to oversee the running of the school. You had no prior training or guidance in this subject to prepare you: you will have learnt some of the managerial skills required for this exercise through trial and error. At the same time, you were expected to organise and transform your school through effective planning. Again, you probably will have done this through trial and error, as you developed strategies based on common sense and learnt through experience. Across good years of this challenging appointment, you had no confidence in your management techniques. Needless to say, many of your strategies were based on common sense and the little experience. You are not the only one to face this challenging situation. Your colleagues in other schools and in your own school management team (bursar, Deputy Head teachers) will have similarly faced the challenge of carrying out their duties with little training and support(Deputy Head teacher in charge of Studies, Deputy Head teacher in charge of discipline, School Bursar) have been trying to undertake their responsibilities but with fear and uncertainty. The MINEDUC School Management program is aimed at School Management Teams, providing the tools and skills that will enable them to work more efficiently and more confidently in planning both daily school management and longer-term school development. This module about school strategic planning will help school managers to develop their self-confidence in school planning and management. It is an updated version with new inputs to make it more practical and easy for use. 6


Generally, this module will serve the guidelines to the Head Teachers and other members of the school management team in Rwanda enhance the management and transformation of their respective schools, and so contributing to the achievement of the broad development goals in respect to the national politics of educational sector. The module is aimed at existing school management teams and newly appointed managers who will find this provides the foundation for taking up their leadership posts. Specifically, the aims of the module are to:  Help Heateachers and other members of the school management team understand the essence of school strategic planning and management by objective.  Provide practical skills for developing an effective and efficient school strategic plan.  Ensure that the school plans are designed in line with national educational policies and objectives.  Provide managers with the capacity to develop other operational plans such as: annual school plans, daily plans, annual budgets, and school management plans.  Provide clear knowledge and skills in evaluating and monitoring the implementation of school strategic plans.  Encourage school managers to help the school’s

stakeholders understand

and own the school mission and objectives and strategies to achieve them. Be used as a training tool in school strategic planning sessions organised by «MINEDUC- school management» project. It is important to note that there is no single answer or “one size fits all” solution to planning and management. The approach you take and strategies you adopt will need to take into account the particular circumstances and needs of your school.

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The approaches used in this module are intended as a guide and to provide you with ideas. We call upon our readers/ users to adopt a flexible attitude when using these to develop and implement your school’s strategic plan What is in this module? This module contains three units: Unit 1: General principles of school strategic planning and management Unit 2: Key steps in developing a school strategic plan Unit 3: Monitoring and evaluation of a school strategic plan How to use this module? Each unit is divided into different sections. Each section corresponds to a specific objective. The unit also provides different learning activities to enable the users explore the content of the unit for themselves. At the end of each unit there is a summary section to remind users of the key concepts and to give recommendations where appropriate. Each unit also has different exercises that can be used as the basis of group discussions or for individual study. Self assessment tool: how much do I know about school strategic planning? You will probably have acquired some practical experience as a school manager. Now we want to give you an opportunity to think about the situation of your school and how it compares with the features of a well managed school. In the table below you will find 30 statements relating to the situation of a school in terms of management and planning. Give yourself a mark from 1 to 3 corresponding to each one of these statements following the scale below: 1= Insignificant 2= Significant 3= Very significant

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Try to answer spontaneously by circling the mark that corresponds to the situation in your school. Here we are: 1

I understand what strategic planning is

1

2

3

2

I understand why the school should have a strategic 1

2

3

2

3

2

3

plan 3

I can identify myself the problems the school faces in 1 developing

4

I can list all the strategies to overcome immediate 1 problems and long term problems

5

I can convert a problem into an objective

1

2

3

6

I can assess the weaknesses and strengths of my school

1

2

3

7

I can assess opportunities and threats for my school

1

2

3

8

I’m able to convert weaknesses into strengths and 1

2

3

2

3

2

3

2

3

2

3

2

3

2

3

2

3

threats into opportunities. 9

I can assess evidence that something is being done 1 towards achieving our objectives.

10

I can breakdown long term plans into immediate 1 actions for implementation

11

There is a management committee which is committed 1 to school development.

12

The School has set out its vision and work towards its 1 achievement

13

The School defined its mission statement and its clear 1 to everybody

14

There is a record showing the number of students by 1 sex, age, class. When I am asked how many students there are in my school, I know without having to refer first to the records.

15

There is accurate information on the state of our school 1 premises in our school records. 9


16

The boundaries of the school land and it is registered in 1

2

3

2

3

the District land office. 17

The annual budget is approved and all expenses are 1 within budget

18

The school has an annual procurement plan

1

2

3

19

The school has a weekly time table and both teachers 1

2

3

2

3

2

3

2

3

2

3

and students have participated in its planning 20

I always have with me a list of tasks that I have to 1 perform daily

21

The school have an annual school calendar and all the 1 school activities are planned accordingly.

22

The school has an action plan and we work towards its 1 achievement

23

The school has a reporting system which we use to 1 assess the progress of our school

24

The school has an effective long term strategic plan

1

2

3

25

The School organises different meetings with different 1

2

3

2

3

2

3

2

3

2

3

2

3

school stakeholders for school planning and for evaluating school development. 26

the School involve teachers and students in school 1 planning

27

Its ensures that all objectives are in line with national 1 education priorities

28

Everybody

understands

what

the

Millennium 1

Development Goals are attempting to achieve 29

The school plan is influenced by the District strategic 1 plan

30

Local leaders are always kept informed of school 1 progress and plans 10


Now add up your score. If your score is between 30 and 45, the planning in your school is poor and you should take steps to improve it, learning from the approaches in this module. If your score falls between 45 and 60, your planning is good but there is lots of room for improvement. If your score is over 60 you are already well advanced in your planning, but there are still areas you can work on to improve your effectiveness and develop your school further. This exercise has given you opportunity to assess the level of your knowledge in school planning and the current situation in your school. You should use the table to help you to identify the gaps that you need to address to enjoy the results of more effective school management and planning.

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UNIT 1: GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF SCHOOL STRATEGIC PLANNING. 1.1. Unit Presentation: 1.1.1. Objectives of the unit

At the end of the first unit you should be able to: -

Define school strategic planning.

-

Answer the question of why school strategic planning is important

-

Find out the benefits of the school strategic planning

-

Discover the challenges and limits in school strategic planning

-

Distinguish different types of planning

1.1.2. Learning activities

Activity 1: Mr. Kagabo is a Head teacher at Buzinganjwiri Secondary School. He was invited to attend a Workshop on school management in Butare. Mr. Kagabo has not been in Butare before, neither has he been in Kigali. You are asked to list all the difficulties that Mr. Kagabo may face as he tries not to miss the seminar. Activity 2: Being guided by a proper plan offers various advantages. Try to list all the advantages you can think of for the school from proper school planning; and list all the disadvantages of not having a school strategic plan Activity 3: Planning is not always an easy process and does not guarantee a100 per cent results. Try to find out the challenges and limits of the school strategic planning process.

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Activity 4: The school strategic plan is not an isolated plan. It is dependent on other plans such as the District level, the national level and at the international level. Try to write down other plans likely to influence the school strategic plan that you know. Activity 5: List also all the planning tools that you usually use in your daily school routine.

1.2. WHAT IS PLANNING? A wise person once said -

« If you don’t know where you are going, how will you know how to get there? »

-

If you don’t know where you are going and how to get there, how will you know when you will get there?

-

If you don’t know where you are going and when you will get there, how will you know that you are there?

The answer is in planning: If you fail to plan, you are planning to fail. Be proactive about the future. Planning is the management function of anticipating the future and conscious determination of a future course of action to achieve the desired results. According to Fayol (1918), planning is a kind of future picture wherein proximate events are outlined with some distinctiveness, whilst remote events appear progressively less distinct. According to Teddy (1993), planning is a method or techniques of looking ahead. In brief, planning is deciding in advance what to do, how to do it, when to do it and who is to do it. The strategic plan is an analytical thinking that goes on at the top level of management that determines the appearance of the organization (the school) at a point in future. The attempt is to answer these questions: 13


-

How can the appearance of your organization (school) in future be different from what it is today?

-

Will things be the way they are in future after 3 years, 5 years or 10?

-

Will things be different? How different?

A strategy determines the direction in which an organization needs to move to fulfil its vision and mission According to Peter Drucker (2004) the strategic planning is the analytical thinking and commitment of resources to action A strategic plan acts as a road map for carrying out the strategy and achieving long term results. 1.3. WHY IS SCHOOL STRATEGIC PLANNING IMPORTANT? -

The school wants to chart a direction. Without a strategic planning, a school is like a car without a driver.

-

We develop the strategic plan to: 

Set objectives

Determine how to use our resources and maximize the use of resources both human and non-human resources.

Facilitate the formulation of a school vision and mission.

Help in innovation and build a team with common vision

Facilitate resource mobilization.

1.4. BENEFITS OF STRATEGIC PLANNING? The following are some of the benefits of the school strategic planning: 1) The school strategic planning enables stakeholders to establish clear priorities; 2) It provides a sense of direction: planning saves the school from drifting and avoids aimless activities;

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3) It encourages innovation and creativity: Innovation and creativity are features of a school that is growing and developing; 4) Helps in coordination: Sound planning helps to harmonize activities and efforts within the school from different departments; 5) Guides decision-making: Planned targets serve as the criteria for the evaluation of different alternatives so that the best course of action is chosen. By predicting future, planning helps in taking future- oriented decisions. Sound plans prevent hasty judgements and haphazard actions; 6) Provides a basis for decentralisation: Planning helps in the delegation of powers and authority to lower levels of management. 7) It provides efficiency in operations: Facilitates optimum utilisation of available resources; 8) Facilitates control: Planning provides the basis for control. Plans serve as standards for evaluation of performance. 1.5. THE CHALLENGES AND LIMITS OF STRATEGIC PLANNING Planning is not a substitute for executive judgement but merely an aid to it. You need to be aware of the factors which could make planning difficult and try to work around them: 1) Planning is based on forecasts which will not be 100% accurate: The accuracy and reliability of forecasts diminishes as the forecasting period increases. If reliable forecasts and data are not available, you will need to make sensible assumptions and plan for a range of different scenarios 2) Planning can be time-consuming and expensive: Time, effort and money are required in the collection and analysis of data and in formulation and revision of plans. You will need to make sure you have enough information to make a reliable plan, but if you spend too much time creating the perfect plan, you will have no time to carry it out! 3) Planning may result in internal inflexibility and procedural rigidities that inhibit initiative and individual freedom. 15


You should try to retain flexibility and be ready to adapt and innovate to meet changing circumstances while not losing sight of your overall goals. 4) Planning may create a false sense of security in the organisation. The Head teacher may think that all his managerial problems will be solved once the plan is put into operation. In reality, management has to revise the plans and regularly check on their execution. 5) The effectiveness of plans may be affected by external forces which are beyond the control of the school administration: Government control, District pressure, and other unforeseen events may create gaps in the implementation of the plans to which you will need be able to adapt and respond. 1.6. TYPES OF PLANNING Different types of plan can be classified according to the period of time the plan covers, and the purpose of the plan. 1.6.1. Based on Time: Planning is generally divided into long term plans and short term plans. (i) Long term Planning: Long term planning normally covers a period more than 5 years, though it can extend up to 20 years or so. Long term planning is not planning for future decisions. Rather it is planning the future impact of today’s decisions. (ii) Short term Planning: covers courses of action for time periods extending up to one to three years. Sometimes plans beyond one year period are called medium term plans. In short term planning,

the structure is fixed and

specific activities required to achieve the goals are developed. 1.6.2. Based on the purpose of the plan On the basis of the purpose or level of planning, there can be the following types of planning: 16


(i) Strategic Planning: refers to the process of formulating a unified, comprehensive and integrated plan relating the strategic advantages of the school to the challenges of the environment. It involves appraising the external environment in the relation to the school, identifying strategies to be adopted in future to achieve the objectives. The strategic planning is long term planning in nature. (ii) Operational planning: or tactical planning is a short tem exercise designed to implement the strategies formulated under strategic planning. It is based on strategic plans. (iii) Functional planning:

in a school context corresponds to various

preparations in different departments at a point in short time: this includes financial plans, procurement plans, school time table, school calendar‌ 1.7. Summary of the first Unit: For a proper planning of programmes and actions the questions below as illustrated in figure1 (programme planning) will guide all your steps. You are advised to start the exercise of questions- answers from the bottom to the top.

Figure 1: Key questions in programme planning 17


Throughout this unit we have answered to the questions as WHAT and WHY of school strategic plan. The aim was to bring you understand that in order to develop, a school needs to have a sense of direction. This direction is determined by answering to the questions: where are we going? How far have we gone? (Baseline), what obstacles may rise? How to get there? When are we going to get there? How shall we know once we are there?

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For your discussion You are back to school after a seminar on school strategic planning. You have called for a staff meeting and you want to share skills that you have from the seminar. What are you going to tell them in terms of what planning is, why should a school be managed through a strategic plan, what are benefits and challenges of planning? What can happen for a school which doesn’t have a strategic plan? Answers:

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UNIT 2: SCHOOL STRATEGIC PLANNING PROCESS A school is not an island neither is its strategic plan. It is situated in the broad context of the environment in which it operates – the district, country, wider world– and it has to be aware of and respond to surrounding problems of the moment. The school as a learning centre has to address those development problems by contributing effectively to the achievement of the objectives set at different levels: District level, national level and international level. Therefore, the school strategic plan should take into account macro planning at different levels. The school strategic plan should be based upon the following foundations to be effective: -

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) – internationally agreed targets to improve people’s lives.

-

The national vision (Vision 2020 in Rwanda) and Economic Development and Poverty Reduction Strategies (EDPRS) in educational sector.

-

The specific objectives of education in Rwanda and expected outcomes and policies in Education

2.1. Unit Presentation. 2.1.1. Objectives of the unit At the end of this unit all participants will be able to do the following: 1. Differentiate the basic foundations of a school strategic plan. 2. Internalise the mission, vision and objectives of education in Rwanda. 3. Collect and organise data for his school 4. Formulate a vision and a mission for a specific school 5. Assess the school’s problems and prioritize them 6. Set smart objectives for the school 7. Analyse the situation of his school using SWOT approach. 8. Develop a consolidated strategic framework, an annual plan, and other operational plans. 20


2.2. Basic Foundation of a School Strategic Plan 2.2.1. Learning activities: Activity 1: Rwanda like other countries, is committed to contribute towards achievement of the Millennium Development Goals ( MDGs). Two of the 8 MDGs are related directly to the education sector. -

Identify the 2 education objectives in the MDGs

-

Think about what should Rwanda do to achieve those objectives

-

List 4 major problems that Rwanda faces today in achieving those objectives.

Activity 2: The objective of the Education sector EDPRS is that by 2012 Rwanda will have improved access to quality, equitable and effective education. -

List 2 major problems that your school encounters while trying to enhance access to education.

-

List 2 critical problems related to the quality of education in your school

-

List 4 factors that you think may refrain your school from providing equitable and effective education.

Activity 3: At the beginning of each school year the Ministry of Education sends you a form seeking for various statistics related to your school (numbers of students, teachers, classrooms,) -

What do you think is the use of those statistics?

-

Which kind of data do you need to have before you proceed to develop the strategic plan for your school?

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2.2.2. Additional information A thoughtful school development planning is organized around the following elements: -

Expression of intentions

-

Contextual consideration

-

School data collection

-

Needs assessment

-

Resources to be mobilized

-

Stakeholders Analysis

2.2.2.1. Expression of intentions School development planning depends mainly on expressed wishes, on declared intentions, on dreams, grosso modo on a vision, objectives, and results to be achieved in short, mid or long-term periods according to the mission assigned to the school. 2.2.2.2. Contextual consideration The school plan needs to be developed taking into account the specific context of the school. District and National plans should guide the school vision and values, the mission statement, and results to be achieved. In setting the objectives for your school strategic plan, you should be guided by the key objectives the Government has set for Rwandan Education: 1. Access to education for all 2. Quality education at all levels 3. Equity in education at all levels 4. Effective and efficient education system 5. Science, technology, and ICT in education Curriculum to include culture, peace, unity and reconciliation.

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2.2.2.3 School data collection and organization It is always necessary to have full information about your school. This information is gathered from the collection and the organization of data related to all aspects of school life. 

Collecting data is about detecting the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of your school’s component: students, teachers, school premises, school inventory, school’s stakeholders, etc.

Organising data is about giving them a meaning so that they can be used for different purposes. This is concerned of attributing a given qualification to the figures so as they mean something usable (number of boys, girls, orphans,

qualified

teachers,

female

teachers,

used

machines,

old

classrooms...).

2.2.2.4. School needs assessment This exercise is concerned with identification of all the current and future needs of your school. For example do you need more teachers, or more classrooms? Do you need more textbooks or other equipment? Do you need electricity? When the needs are identified, the following step is to level them so you can then prioritise them showing which one is more crucial, before prioritise them. Prioritisation involves drawing up a list of the order in which you should address your school’s needs. In deciding what is most important, you should always think about what will have the biggest impact on your ability to deliver your objectives (increasing access to quality, equitable education). N.B: The SWOT approach (which will be discussed later) can also help you in detecting hidden needs for your school development.

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2.2.2.5. Resources to be mobilised Implementing your school development plan will involve mobilising different types of resources: -

Human resources - including active school community members such as the head teacher and other members of the teaching staff, support staff members, students, parents…

-

Material resources: infrastructure, equipment….

-

Financial resources: income expected in the budget.

2.2.2.6. Stakeholders’ analysis This exercise is very important so that you know who the school’s stakeholders are and what will be their stake in contributing towards mobilising the school resources or how they will share on the existing resources. Examples of stakeholders in your schools are: The Ministry of Education and other ministries, the local authorities, school suppliers, other schools in your local area, different partners in education, parents and pupils. Try to list all your stakeholders first and then consider what their interest – or stake – is in your school’s development. 2.3. Steps in Developing the School Strategic Plan We now know what should be the foundation for any school strategic plan to be realistic and beneficial for the school development. We all understand that we can’t sit down and plan when we don’t have data related to our school. We also agree that our planning should be axed on the national objectives of education.

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This section is very important for us because it provides the techniques needed to design and develop a school strategic plan. We are now going to go through the development step by step. Five steps are involved and you will be able to identify them after completing the following learning activities: 2.3.1. Learning activities: Activity 1: Considering the situation of your school today, try to answer the following questions: What are strengths that should be exploited in my school? What are weaknesses that should be improved? What are external opportunities that your school is enjoying for the moment? What are external threats that are menacing the school’s development? Activity 2: List 4 major problems or challenges that are preventing your school from contributing effectively to the objectives of education sector in Rwanda? Suggest a list of different activities to be undertaken in the future to address each of the problems/challenges. Give a picture of how you would like your school to look like after the problems have been addressed and resolved. Activity 3: From the list of the problems you have identified, choose among them one, which you believe, is very critical. Next, make a list of all the causes you can think of which relate to the problem. Then identify the effects of each of those causes. Activity 4: Now that you have got your core problem and causes and effects related to it, review the situation and formulate it into a positive situation. You only need to convert the core problem into a resolved one, and convert the causes into activities to contribute towards solution and the effects will look like results expected once the problem has been solved.

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2.3.2. Key steps in developing a school strategic plan The steps to developing a school strategic plan are as follows: Step 1: Situational analysis using SWOT Step 2: Problem analysis using the problem tree analysis. Step 3: Objective setting Step 4: Consolidation of objectives and strategies into a logic framework Step 5: Operational planning/ annual planning 2.3.2.1.: Situational Analysis Strategic management encourages managers to examine their organizations while scanning the environment. One popular way to arrange such organization is SWOT analysis. The acronym (SWOT) stands for an organization’s key internal Strengths and Weaknesses, and its external Opportunities and Threats. SWOT analysis is a critical assessment of the strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats in relation to the internal and external environment factors affecting the school in order to establish its condition prior to the preparation of a long-term plan. A strengths and weaknesses analysis expresses which areas of the school have: Strengths that should be exploited and weaknesses that should be improved Example: Having a computer laboratory is strength for a school. Not having a dinning hall is a weakness for a school Opportunity analysis is concerned with asking you the following questions: What opportunities exist in the school environment? What is the school’s ability to exploit the worthwhile opportunities? Example: Having an old school in the same area or being close to the main road are opportunities for your school 26


Threats analysis is concerned with finding answers to the following questions: -

What menaces might arise in the school area? How does the surrounding environment affect negatively the school growth and development?

Example: Being surrounded by a slum is a threat for the welfare of the school. 2.3.2.2: Problem Analysis We have now the picture of what is the situation of our school by analysing its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. We now need to have a clear picture of how much do weaknesses and threats affect negatively the school development. One of the best methods is to analyse the problems of the school by prioritizing the most sensitive. This is done through what is known as “problem tree analysis�. It is about listing all the problems that we have and levelling them to identify the most critical (CORE PROBLEM). Once we have our core problem, we proceed by finding out its causes by asking and answering the question WHY? Once we have, causes related to the core problem we then ask another question as (SO WHAT or WHAT ARE THE EFFECTS OF THAT PROBLEM?) to find their effects. Example of a Problem tree analysis in ANNEX 2: 2.3.2.3: Objective Setting A school plan has what we call strategic framework. The school strategic framework is made up by the following elements: -

The school vision

-

The school values

-

The school mission statement

-

The overall Goal

-

Immediate objectives( strategic objectives)

-

Keys result areas( Strategic actions or outputs)

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VALUES

VISION

Mission

Overall goal Problem Identificatio

Strategic

n

objective

Strategic actions

Action

Internal

Planning

implementation

planning Figure 2: The school strategic framework

a) School vision: A vision is the starting point of any strategic framework. It is a picture of how the school could or should look like in the future. The vision states the desired state that makes your school different to others. Importance of a school vision: -

It provides a clear picture of the direction of your school

-

It ensures that members know what the school wants to achieve

-

It Enables members to identify themselves with the school.

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Example of a good vision -

A gender- balanced school.

-

Sustainably managed primary school for the prosperity and good health of students.

-

A self-sustaining vocational school providing skilled manpower for diverse development.

-

A self managed secondary school for access to quality, equity and effective education.

b) School values: The school values are the shared values that underpin a school to work as an entity and its relationships with users and other stakeholders. The school values are what the school believes is the right way to do things and to deal with people, and what they believe about the way that the world ought to be organised. Based on the vision, ask this question: -

What are the values implicit in this vision statement that should guide our work if we are to make a contribution to our vision?

Examples: -

Vision: A self managed secondary school for access to quality, equity and effective education

Values: -

Professionalism

-

Team spirit

-

Gender balance

-

Transparency

-

Equity and fairness

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c) School mission statement A school mission statement is a precise statement of why a school exists. It includes the particular way in which the school intends to make a contribution towards the vision. A mission statement describes what the school does, with whom or for whom it does it, and, in broad terms, how it does it.

How to develop a school mission statement? To develop your school mission statement, you need to answer the following questions: -

Who we are?

-

Why do we exist as an organisation?

-

Whom do we serve?

-

What kind of service do we offer? What do we do?

-

What do we want to achieve?

d) Difference between a vision and a mission Whereas the vision statement answers the question what do we want to become? The mission statement answers the question, what do we do? Why have school mission statements? -

It is an easy way to communicate to others what you do and how you do it

-

It provides a basis for motivating the use of the school’s resources.

-

It provides a reference point for the school’s activities.

-

It facilitates the transaction of objectives and goals into a work structure involving the assignment of tasks to responsible elements within the school.

30


Examples of a school mission statement: ďƒ˜ Nyagatare vocational school, providing quality and sustainable education through imparting quality skills to students and to the community members for excellence in service. ďƒ˜ Nyamagabe secondary school is a parents’ school created to provide exceptional skills in science and technology, by giving equal opportunities to both girls and boys for a balanced gender society. e) Overall goal This is the outcome that beneficiaries will enjoy when your development work is successful. The overall goal is related to the core problem you have identified in your problem analysis. Example of an overall goal: The core problem: Low access to quality, equity and effective education Overall goal: Improved access to quality, equity and effective education. Immediate objectives (strategic objectives): If the overall goal is directly related to the core problem you have identified in the problem analysis, then the strategic objectives are directly related to the causes of the problem. A strategy to help achieve the objective is needed and that is where key result areas (key activities) come in. In order to achieve the strategic objectives, certain activities need to be performed. Example of immediate objectives: Objective 1: Improved school capacities or Develop and enhance school capacities to improve access to quality, equity and effective education.

31


Objective 2: Enough pedagogical supports for learners are enhanced. or Advocate for enough pedagogical support to learners to provide a quality, equity and effective education. Objective 3: Various co curricular activities for students introduced. Or Encourage teachers and learners initiatives to introduce various co curricular activities for an effective education. Key activities (key results areas, strategic outputs) Key activities are the strategic outputs needed to achieve the immediate objectives for the school. Objective1: Improved school capacities or Develop and enhance school capacities to improve access to quality, equity and effective education. Activity 1: A piece of land is bought for the school extension to improve on school capacities or to buy land for the school extension. Activity 2: Old classrooms are rehabilitated to improve on the school capacities and so reduce class congestion. Activity 3: New classrooms are constructed to enhance the school capacities and improve hygienic conditions or to construct new classrooms and enhance school capacities. Objective 2: Enough pedagogical supports for learners are enhanced. Or Advocate for enough pedagogical support to learners to provide a quality, equity and effective education. Activity 1: New teachers are recruited and motivated to provide enough pedagogical support to learners.

32


Activity 2: Teachers are trained in teaching aids production to provide enough pedagogical support to learners. Policies for the school attendance are developed and parents sensitized. 2.3.3.4. Consolidation of the school strategies and objective This step consists in rewriting all propositions and information obtained from previous analysis into a LOGICAL FRAMEWORK MATRIX. The template of a Log frame matrix of the school planning in ANNEX 3 2.3.3.4.1. Plans for Implementation In order to implement the school strategic plan covering a long period i.e 3 or 5 years, the school management committee and other school stakeholders will need to proceed by breaking down long-term activities into small and short term actions for an easy execution of the long plans. Plans for implementation commonly known as operational plans are asked upon a period of a year (annual action plan), a term/semester (termly desk plan) and on a day (diary management plan). Furthermore, every person with a role to play in implementing the strategic plan should have a clear understanding of their individual responsibilities, for example through an annual activity plan. The head teacher is accountable for the overall progress of the strategic planning through coordination. 2.3.3.4.2. Development of the annual action plan Action plans define how we get where we want to go, the steps required to reach our strategic goals. They identify who will do what, when and how. Here are things to consider when developing annual action plan:

33


-

Review strategic objective, which contribute immediately to the overall goal.

-

For each strategic objective (immediate objective) choose actions to be undertaken starting with the highest priority and taking into account the available resources.

-

Indicate when given activities will be carried out and specify who is responsible for leading the activity.

-

Make clear when you want the activity to be completed and the result you expect to see from that activity.

-

Proceed by costing activities.

(A full action planning template is suggested in annex 4) The head teacher is answerable and responsible for the strategic plan and consequently for the annual action plan. He must report and be accountable on the progress of the implementation of the school strategic plan every year. He must in addition identify non-accomplished activities and, if they remain relevant, transfer them to the actions to be carried out in the following year. 2.3.3.4.3. Term desk planner For an effective follow up, a Head teacher must have a school desk planner. The desk planner is a form on which the main weekly and monthly activities are recorded. For each activity, the person responsible, the time frame and observations are indicated. It is a table that shows how the term evolves in relation to the annual action plan. Based on the term plans, you can breakdown it into a monthly plan, a weekly based plan and a diary management plan of activities. To summarise: We have come to understand that 5 key steps are involved in school development of the strategic plan. The 1st step related to the situation analysis enables to detect the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the school at a given time. 34


This step gives out the picture of the situation that needs to be reversed. We use SWOT technique as an approach. The 2nd step related to problem analysis (problem identification). This is an exercise in addition to a SWOT analysis which helps the school management team to understand what the challenges or problems are that are hindering the development of the school. The problem known as CORE PROBLEM will help in step 3 where we set our objectives. The problem tree approach was used to find out causes and effects of the core problem. Step 3 is about setting objectives for the school plan. It is about converting the core problem and its causes and effects into a positive situation, as if the situation was addressed and improved. The objectives should be designed in a way that they fit with the specific objectives of education in Rwanda. The step 4 is about putting together objectives and strategies into a reasonable log frame. The 5th step is concerned with breaking down the long-term objectives into specific activities to be carried out annually, then termly, monthly, weekly and even daily as appropriate.

35


UNIT 3: MONITORING AND EVALUATION 3.1. Unit Presentation 3.1.1. Objective:

-

Define what monitoring and evaluation is.

-

Discover the why of monitoring and evaluation

-

Design a monitoring and evaluation framework

-

Identify tools that facilitate the follow up support of the school strategic plan implementation.

3.1.2. Learning activities

Activity 1: You are asked to think about the difference between monitoring and evaluation. Describe the difference highlight the purpose of monitoring versus the purpose of evaluation. Activity 2: Think about why monitoring and evaluation is important. What can happen if monitoring and evaluation do not take place?. Activity 3: Give out tools that the school management committee should set up to monitor activities related to the academic activities, discipline, projects and programmes execution. 3.2. What monitoring and evaluation is? a) Monitoring is a systematic collection and analysis of information as a project progresses. Monitoring involves: -

Establishing indicators of efficiency, effectiveness and the outcomes achieved

-

Setting up systems to collect information relating to these indicators.

-

Collecting and recording information

-

Analysing the information and use it to inform day-to -day management. 36


b) Evaluation is a comparison of actual project outcomes against the agreed strategic plans. Evaluation involves: -

Looking at what the organisation intended to achieve (WHAT DIFFERENCE IT WANT TO MAKE? WHAT IMPACT DID IT WANT TO HAVE?)

-

Assessing the progress made towards what it wanted to achieve( indicators)

-

Reviewing the school’s strategy in light of what has been achieved.

3.3. Why do monitoring and evaluation? Through monitoring and evaluation, you can: -

Review progress

-

Identify problems in implementation

-

Make adjustments so that you are more likely to make difference.

Importance of monitoring and evaluation -

It enhances the level of accountability in school management: the contractual engagement in strategic plan implementation puts each and every active school committee member in a situation that obliges him to provide evidences that activities undertaken are in the school plans and will help in achieving the school vision and objectives. A reporting system (weekly, monthly, term, annual based report and circumstantial reports) should be set up to provide a mechanism for determining whether stakeholders are meeting their responsibilities.

-

It enables effective coordination: To achieve its goals, activities included in the school strategic plan should be coordinated so that various services are ordered to make a harmonious whole.

37


For an effective coordination, the school management committee should organise different meetings in order to find out and know the progress of activities and operate useful adjustments for innovative measures in plan implementation. -

It helps in conducting control over implementation: Once an error occurs, it is always good if the management identifies it on time. It is always the role of the management committee to regularly check planned activities in order to prevent any risk of making inappropriate decisions.

-

It enables to review progress or celebrate success once planned objectives and strategies are achieved and implemented.

3.4. Monitoring and evaluation framework The following framework will enable you conduct monitoring and evaluation activities. Hierarchy objectives. Goal Strategic objective 1

of OVIs

Base line

MOV

When

Who

Reporting to who

Budget

Strategic objective 2 Strategic objective 3 Output1.1 Output 1.2 Activity 1.1.1 OVIS: Observable and Verifiable Indicators. MOV: Means of Verification (report, statistics, meeting minutes, surveys, audit reports‌.)

38


3.5. Monitoring and Evaluation life cycle 8. Implement 9.

Evaluate/

learn/ decide

1. Plan

4.

Reflect/ 2. Implement

learn/ decide/ adjust

3. Monitor

6. Monitor

5. Implement

4.

Reflect/

learn/

decide/

adjust

Figure 3: Monitoring and evaluation life cycle

Monitoring and evaluation is an ongoing process and does not resume as the school activities and planning will interest the management as long as the school exists.

39


CONCLUSION

Our hope is that each strategic planning step which we have described offers the possibility of conduct a double- loop planning within your school. We have also suggested various techniques of application to try to accommodate many different levels of understanding and experience of what planning is really and why it is so important for the development of your school. We should always consider that with many changes in education sector, and with pressure from social and economic need to run schools both effectively and efficiently , strategic planning is now an essential responsibility for all school managers. This module offers practical guidelines for effective planning. It explores the key features necessary for success and provides techniques for developing a strategic plan. In drawing up your school plan, we emphasize the benefits of working collectively as a team so you develop good team working and so that all members of the team feel they have some ownership and responsibility for the plan and its implementation. Now that you have finished this module, go back to the initial assessment exercise about how much you do know about school strategic planning. Redo the exercise and compare the results.

40


REFERENCES -

Abbott, R, et al.(1988) Guidelines for the Review and Institutional Development of Schools : School Handbook, Primary and Secondary Versions, 2nd edn, Schools Curriculum Development Committee, Longman, Harlow.

-

Adler, N.J (1996), International dimensions of organizational behaviour. Cincinnati, OH: South Western College Publishing.

-

Bates, CS (1985) Mapping the environment: An operational environmental analysis model. Long Range Planning, 18(5), 97- 107

-

Beavis, AK and Thomas, AR (1996) Methaphors as storehouses of expectation; Educational Management and Administration, 24, 1,99

-

Fayol Henri(1918), Administration industrielle et generale, prevoyence, organisation, commandement, coordination, contr么le, Paris, H Dunold et E Pinat OCLC

-

Jim Knight (1997), Strategic Planning for School Managers, London N1 9JN The Logical Framework Approach (LFA) - A Handbook for ObjectiveectiveOriented Planning.

41


ANNEXES ANNEX 1: SWOT ANALYSIS LOG Strengths -

well trained staff

-

school

Weaknesses -

stakeholders

from

conflicts of interest between school stakeholders

various areas with knowledge

-

school stakeholders from different

and skills

backgrounds with different norms,

-

experienced school leaders

beliefs and values

-

Enough land

-

absence of ICT in school

-

Absence of students’ participation in school management

Opportunities

Threats

-

updated curriculum

-

late payment of school employees

-

updated educational policies

-

bureaucracy of school partners

-

availability

-

night club near the school buildings

educational development

-

Remote zone

-

Physical accessibility

-

The school is located quite far from

-

Security

of

funds

for

the hospital

42


ANNEX 2: MODEL OF A PROBLEM TREE ANALYSIS RESULTS FOR SCHOOL X Class skip

Increased

Increased school

Poor

illiteracy

dropout

among students

Long distances

Low

going

motivation

&

coming back to

parents

Poor of

leaning

conditions

Decrease

health

in

Increased

school

girls

school dropout

completion rate

Poor hygienic

High rate of failures in

conditions

national examination

Increased non desired pregnancy among girls

and

school students Low level of students’ s enrolment

No practical exercises

Class congestion

Redundancy among students

Low access to quality, equity, and effective education Inadequate school

Very limited co curricular

Poor pedagogical support for learners

infrastructures

activities. Low number

Shortage

Limited

Lack

of Land for

financial

pedagogical

of

school

resources

facilities

and qualified

of

Shortage

trained

in

teaching aids

Limited

Low

Students’

school

staff

students’

irregularities

resource

participation

participation

s

teachers

expansion

teaching

Poverty of parents

Ignorance of parents

Limited skills in teaching

of

universities

of

number

aids production

Limited

private

demand

offering education

High

qualified teachers

High cost of materials

and equipments

Limited number of trained

Human Resources

Absence of Income Generating

Projects

Limited external

funds

Overpopulation

43

Limited cocurricular Facilities

Lack

Poor remunerat ion teachers

Absence

of

of

sensitization

of Low motivation of students


ANNEX 3: LOGICAL FRAMEWORK FOR X SCHOOL (2010- 2013) Strategic Overall goal

Baseline

objectives

Key

strategies

(key Costs

activities, outputs)

Assumptions

estimates

(immediate

(Budgets in

objectives)

FRW)

1. Improved

1.1 To Develop

1.1.1 The school has

1.1.1 A new land is

access to

and enhance

no extension

available by

support this project and

quality,

school facilities

possibility.

compensating local

parents are willing to

equity and

to increase

effective

access to

1.1.2 Four old

1.1.2. Four old

The

education.

education by

classrooms need to

classrooms are

education is ready to

2013.

be rehabilitated

rehabilitated by 2010.

owners by 2010

10,000,000

12,000,000

24,000,000

The district authorities

give their contribution. Ministry

of

provide grants for this purpose.

1.1.3 The school has 1.1.3 Six new classrooms in all 12 classrooms

are constructed by 2011

A project proposal is 40,000,000

developed school

1.1.4 The school has 1.1.4 A computer no laboratories

and

the

partners

have

endorsed it

laboratory is constructed by 2012

Parents will participate 12,000,000

to the construction of the laboratory

44

and

the


1.1.5 The school has 1.1.5 10 new latrines are

Ministry of Education is

only 6 latrines

ready

constructed and in use by 2012

11,100,000

to

provide

computers

and

accessories. 1.1.6

No

school 1.1.6

canteen

A

canteen

is

The school alumni will

created at school and

fundraise for the funds.

equipped by 2012. 1.1.7 Lowenrollment 1.1.7

Enrolment

rate

A commercial bank is

rate among children increased over 40% by

willing to provide a loan

of school going age

2013

1.2 Advocate for

1.2.1 Four qualified

1.2.1 Five new qualified

enough

teachers are

teachers are recruited

accommodations to

pedagogical

available.

by 2010

attract qualified teachers

200,000

The school is providing

support to learners to

1.2.2 The teaching 1.2.2 A computer course 400,000

An expert in computer is

improve quality

staff does not possess is

willing to train teachers

teaching.

skills

in

provided

to

all

computer teachers by 2010

literacy. 1.2.3No departments

and they are ready to 100,000

1.2.3 Departments are

45

contribute programme.

to

this


frame for teachers,

created and reinforced

teaching same

by 2010.

Teachers are committed 200,000

to their departments

subjects. 1.2.4 Lack of

Teachers have got skills

adequate teaching

1.2.4 Adequate teaching

aids

aids produced

600,000

and

can

produce

teaching aids Teachers are eager to be

1.2.5 The teaching 1.2.5 All teachers trained 300,000

trained

staff lacks skills in in English by 2011 English

Meetings are organized

1.2.6 Poor academic 1.2.6 Increased

50,000

to sensitize parents and

performance among academic performance

a

S3 leavers

students attendance is

rate over 30% in 2013

1.2.7 20% of students 1.2.7 irregularities

Parents

are

new

policy

about

set up

sensitized to increase students’ attendance of 100% by 2013

1.3 To Promote 1.3.1 The school does 1.3.1 Two football co-curricula activities

3,000,000

not have any play peaches are created

Parents, students, Sector have

and ground

organized

Umuganda for this action

ensure effective 1.3.2 Only one club 1.3.2 Four new clubs are

46

100,000


education

for students’ lobby created and operational exists.

by 2013

1.3.3 Teachers don’t 1.3.3 Teachers are participate

in

15,000,000

co offered accommodation

curricula activities

New accommodation for teachers

available

to increase their

increase

participation in co

participation

curricula activities by

curricula activities

2013

to their

in

co

150,000

1.3.4Poor

1.3.4.1 Each student has

A tree programme exists

environmental

planted

already

conditions

improve environmental 20,000,000

1.3.5 The school

conditions by 2012

A donor has committed

lucks a health

1.3.5 A dispensary is

to fund this project

dispensary to ensure

constructed and

students’ safety and

equipped by 2013 to

health

increase students’ safety

a

and health.

tree

to

20,000,000

3,000,000

The

Ministry

of

1.3.6 Limited

1.3.6 a science

education and District

activities to promote

laboratory is

will

47

endorse

the


science and

constructed and

construction of the lab

technology within the equipped by 2013 and a

and the school has funds

school

for the equipment

qualified personnel is hired.

1.3.7 A computer lab is not equipped

1.3.7 A computer lab equipped in 30 computers by 2013

1.4 To advocate 1.4.1Low enrolment

1.4.1 Increase enrolment

Girls are sensitized of

for

rate among girls of 15% 0

gender education

a

gender Rate among girls

balance

in 1.4.2 No girls space

in 2013

schools

by

1.4.2.1 A girls’ club is 40,000

promoting

created and functional

equity education

by 2013. 1.4.2.2 An agenda for 0 guidance and promotion of

female

education,

meetings set up and 0 supported. 1.4.3 Low levels of awareness of family

1.4.3 Develop awareness of

family

planning and sexual 48

planning,

balance


diseases

among sexual diseases among

students

students by 2013 as decreasing

school

dropout rate 1.5 Promotion of 1.5Limited activities 1.5.1 Unity, peace and

CNLG and other partners

unity, peace and to

will cooperate in this

reconciliation

promote

peace reconciliation

unity, reconciliation

clubs 0

and created by 2010

programme

1.5.2 Students

0

participation in

0

ITORERO 1.5.3 A programme of fighting

genocide

ideology set up by 2010

49


ANNEX 4: MODEL OF AN ANNUAL PLAN FOR A SCHOOL (2010) No

Objective

Baseline (source)

Target (source)

Deliverable tasks

Key milestones/ Time frame

Responsible

Budget

I. To Develop and enhance school facilities to increase access to education by 2013. I.1

I.2

Extension of 3 ha the school land

4 new ha of Collecting funds Monthly meeting till School+ District 10.000.000 land by 2010 for the land April 2010, leadership compensation Fundraising day in May 2010 Compensation To be completed by Bursar June 2010

Legal process to Notification of the Head Teacher acquire the land land property and title registration of the land Rehabilitation 4 old 4 Tender process Develop tender Bursar of old classrooms rehabilitated documents, classrooms need to be classrooms by Sign contract Constructor+ HT rehabilitated 2010 Pay the 1st instalment Construction activities

50

4 months of activities Constructor and provisional reception before June 2010


Closing rehabilitation activities 1.3

Collecting funds Present the proposal School+ District 10.000.000 Construction of Only 12 6 new for constructions for funding done in leadership six new classrooms classrooms by 2009 classrooms available 2010 Tender process To be completed by Bursar July 2010 Construction activities

1.4

Construction of No computer Have a Tender process a computer lab lab computer lab by 2010 Construction activities Closing construction activities

I.5

of The school committee School will be in place by committee August 2009 for an official handover

Construction of The school 10 latrines has only 6 latrines latrines 2012

To be completed before November 2010 Develop tender documents, Sign contract Pay the 1st instalment

Bursar, Constructor Bursar Constructor+ HT

4 months of activities Constructor and provisional reception before June 2010 of An official handover School by the school committee

new Collecting funds The school alumni Alumni+ HT by for the land will fundraise for this compensation project from 1st February 2010 up to September 2010 51


Tender process

To be completed by Bursar October 2010

Construction activities

5 Latrines Head Teacher constructed by 2010

I.6

Creation of the There is no A school Sensitization of Organizing meetings Bursar school canteen school canteen parents 2010 canteen operational Constructor+ HT by 2012 Collecting funds Collecting payments from students(Continuing activity) Development of tender documents

I.7

Recruitment of Only 120 new new students students are recruited each year

200 new Identifying students primary and TC recruited by leavers in the 2010 catchment area. Opening a new Address the demand combination to the MINEDUC before March 2010 Registering of students

52

School+ District leadership HT

Deputy Teacher

Head


II.1

II.2

II. Advocate for enough pedagogical support to learners to improve quality education. Four qualified 5 new Demanding subjects HT Recruitment of teachers teachers to Needs are identified for qualified available recruit by identification teachers’ recruitment teachers 2010 Advertisement Job description and profile before January 2010 Recruitment, DHT+ HT appointment and orientation. Creation of No teaching departments departments exist

Teaching departments are created and operational by 2010

Creation departments

of Teachers are grouped DHT in working departments

Reinforcement of Definition of HT+ DHT existing departments departments organization and responsibilities+ weekly based meetings

53


II.3

Training session computer literacy

Teachers in don’t know All teachers how to use can use computer computer by 2010

Evaluation of Each term the school School departmental committee conducts committee activities. an evaluation session To buy computers An expert in computer is hired. Holidays are used to Teachers+ DHT train teachers in studies computer use

II.4

Increase academic performance among S3 leavers

10% S3 Students perform well in national exams

Increase academic performance of 10% by 2010

II.5

To train Teachers All teachers teachers in don’t use can use English skills English English by 2013

10.000.000

54


II.6

Avail enough Teachers teaching aids don’t possess skills in teaching aids production

All teachers can produce the teaching aids for their lessons

II.7

Reduce 20% of Reduce school irregularities absenteeism absenteeism among students rate of 45% by 2010

10.000.000

III. To Promote co curricula activities and ensure effective education III.1

III.2

To football peaches

build NO

Creation of multi cultural clubs

2 peaches 2010

by Identification the land

of A non productive District+ HT land is identified in December 2009

Tender process

A company is hired

Construction activities

Activities are Company conducted up to September 2010 Sensitization, DHT Discipline, selection of clubs Patron, Matron. representatives, operation of clubs

Creation of clubs

55

Bursar


III.3

III.4

III5

III.6

III.7

Enhance teachers’ participation in co curricula activities To plant trees as improving environmental conditions To build a dispensary and improve students’ health To equip the computer lab

Accommodations Accommodations are Bursar are identified, a identified in contract signed neighbourhood and houses equipped Each student has Bursar planted a tree by 2010

30 computers by Tender process 2010

HT, Bursar

To construct and equip the science lab

Funding, tender To construct a process by 2010 lab by 2011 December

HT, Bursar

A dispensary is Collect funds constructed in 2013

Funds before 2010

collected Head Teacher, December school alumni

IV To advocate for a gender balance in schools by promoting equity education IV.1

Creation clubs

of No club

IV.2

Creation of awareness in family planning and sexual disease

4 new clubs in Sensitize students, 2010 group students into clubs Seminars, workshop, competitions

56

DHT Discipline Students+ Heads of apartments


V. Promote the culture of peace, unity and reconciliation V.1

Create clubs for unity, peace and reconciliation

Identified Fight problems genocide related to the ideology genocide ideology

Clubs are created Seminars conducted Competitions organized

57

Before February

are In April

June, July

Students+ discipline

DHT

HT

Head Teacher


ANNEX 5: MONITORING AND EVALUATION FRAMEWORK Hierarch objectives. Improved quality,

access equity

OVIs

Base line

MOV

When

Who

Report to who Budget

2010

HT, District

School

to and

effective education. 1.1

To

Develop

and 1.1.1

Four Only 3 ha Contract

enhance school facilities new ha of of land

Land title

to increase access to land education by 2013.

available by 2013

Strategic objective 2 Output1.1 Output 1.2 Activity 1.1.1

58

committee

10,000,000


ANNEX 6: SUMMARY OF ACTUAL CONTEXT OF PLANNING IN RWANDA

Vision 2020

LTIF(Long

term Investment Framework)

EDPRS District Development plans ( 5 years)

Sector stratategic Plans ( 5 Years)

MTEFs Annual Action Plans

Annual Action Plans

(3 Years)

Annual Budget (National level) M&E (EDPRS Annual Progress Report, Budget Execution Reports 5

59


Planification of Secondary schools staff