Issuu on Google+

VULCAN COUNTY HERITAGE SURVEY & INVENTORY 2012

t h e m at i c f r a m e w o r k , cont e x t p a p e r , & h e r i ta g e i nv e nto r y

C O U N T Y


Cover (from top to bottom): R a n g e R o a d 2 5 5 , n o r t h o f H e r r o n ton (Donald Luxton & Associates) Q u e e n s t o w n G a r a g e (Donald Luxton & Associates) Vi e w o f C a r m a n g a y, 1 9 11 (Postcards From the Past. Community Heritage & Family H i s t o r y D i g i t a l L i b r a r y. C a l g a r y Public Library PC_483)


Table of contents

i n trod ucti on

01

A n a sta sia Fa r m C o m p le x

th ema ti c fr amework Par k s Canada Syste m P lan

04

D evelo pment of T h emati c Fra m e wor k

05

Vu lcan Co unty T h emati c Fra m e wor k Dia g r am

05

Vu lcan Co unty T h emati c Fra m e wor k

06

vu l can county community con te xt paper Overarchi ng T h e m e s

I n ven tory s i tes

09

F ir st Nati o ns in Vulc an County

10

S ettli ng the Dr y land P rair ies

11

27

28

G r a n ge H o te l

30

Vo lu n te e r F ir e B r iga d e B u ild in g

32

Mille r Re sid e n c e

34

C P R R a il wa y Tr e st le

36

B a n k o f H a m ilto n ( C h a m p io n )

38

Savo y H o te l

40

K ir kc a ld y C h u r c h , Sc h o o l, a n d H a l l

42

B a n k o f N ova Sc o tia

44

Milo H o te l

46

48

Qu e e n stown H a ll

50

Mo ssle igh E le va to r Row

R anching and Far ming in Vu lcan Co unty

13

L ib e r ty Sc h o o l

N atural Resour c e s Developme nt

16

H e a r n le igh Po st O f f ic e

54

P rai ri e Ingenuity: Techno log y and Eng ine e r ing

17

T h e D r y D itc h

56

C o nnecti o n to Com m unities

18

Vu lc a n A d vo c a te B u ild in g

58

H ealth and We lf ar e

19

B a n k o f H a m ilto n ( Vu lc a n )

60

K in g Re sid e n c e

62

I m p e r ia l H o te l

64

C P R D e m o n str a tio n Fa r m

66

Vu lc a n RCAF Sta tio n

68

ac k n ow ledg men t s

70

s ourc es

71

W ebsi te s

72

N etwo r k o f Educ ation

20

C o mmuni ty, Spirituality and the Cultural Landscape in Vu lcan Co unty

21

L aw and Pr o te c tion

22

S p o r ts and Recr e ation

23

I mpor ted A rchitectur e & L ocal Trades

24

C o nnecti o n to the S tar s

25

FINAL REPORT

2012

52

i


VULCAN COUNTY

HERITAGE SURVEY & INVENTORY 2012

Elevator in Champion. 1914 (Glenbow Archives NA-1262-1)

ii


introduction

INTRODUCTION Vulcan County has a rich and fascinating history rooted in the area’s development as a seminal agricultural growing and shipping centre in the Canadian Prairies. With a history spanning thousands of years, First Nations groups and later early settlers adapted to the area’s open, rugged prairie landscape. With the development of communities beginning in earnest commencing with the building of rail lines in the early 1900s, permanent settlements were slowly established. The communities and individual farmsteads within Vulcan County have a healthy stock of their historic built environment intact and building and community histories have been well documented through previous provincial historic surveys, local history books, publications, archival collections, local history blogs and oral history accounts. In 2011, the Vulcan Business Development Society (VBDS) recognized the need to formally document the area’s highly valued historic resources and set forth to establish a Heritage Management Program with assistance from the Municipal Heritage Partnership Program (MHPP). The VBDS has been actively documenting the local history of Vulcan County through the Vulcan County History Blog, which includes written, oral and video historic accounts from within the community. Because of the large number of communities involved and invested in the process, VBDS combined a Heritage Survey and Inventory into one concise program for 2011-2012.

FINAL REPORT

2012

Globally, there has been a shift in heritage conservation towards a “values-based approach” that recognizes the importance of embedded historical and cultural values as the basis for understanding our heritage. The former evaluation system placed a numeric or alphabetical value based almost solely on architectural value. The value’s-based approach is based on the recognition of different interpretations, levels and meanings of heritage value and considers a broad-based view that goes beyond just architectural value. A values-based assessment of heritage also looks at environmental, social/cultural, economic and even intangible aspects of our shared experiences through history. In the Standards and Guidelines for the Conservation of Historic Places in Canada, a set of standards and guidelines for heritage conservation, Heritage Value is defined as “the aesthetic, historic, scientific, cultural, social, or spiritual importance for past, present or future generations.” It is important to consider that values are multivalent, and that a historic place can illustrate more than one value. The evolving view of heritage also recognizes emerging trends in urban and community planning and the need to integrate sustainability and energy efficiency into planning initiatives. This approach recognizes the importance of environmental, social/ cultural and economic sustainability. Heritage conservation strongly supports all three pillars of sustainability.

1


VULCAN COUNTY

VBDS initiated a regional partnership with Vulcan County, the Town of Vulcan, and the Villages of Carmangay, Champion and Milo to collaborate and meet the shared goals of the project. This partnership provided an opportunity to allow for a fair representation of historic sites from each of the areas within the county as well as local heritage expertise. The following breakdown of sites were selected by the VBDS, prior to beginning the project 1.

Locale

Survey

Inventory

Town of Vulcan

14

4

Vulcan County

50

11

Village of Champion

12

2

Village of Milo

12

2

Village of Carmangay Total Sites

12

2

10 0

21

The VBDS established a Heritage Advisory Board (HAB) to assist with the development of this and future heritage programs in Vulcan County with representation from Vulcan County, the Town of Vulcan, and the Villages of Carmangay, Champion and Milo. Heritage consulting firm, Donald Luxton & Associates was retained to undertake the project under the guidance of VBDS Staff and the HAB. The initial step for any heritage program is a Heritage Survey. A Heritage Survey provides an inclusive database of information that identifies the historical buildings, cultural landscapes, archaeological sites and structures in a community. The Heritage Survey serves as a baseline of information for historic sites in Vulcan County, providing data on the history and value of historic resources for local historical and genealogical research. For this project, 100 sites throughout Vulcan County were added to the Heritage Survey. Lomond and Arrowwood did not participate in this year’s Heritage Management Program 1

2

HERITAGE SURVEY & INVENTORY 2012

From this list of 100 sites, a refined list of the top tier of resources, known as a Places of Interest List was created. A Places of Interest List contains sites that are eligible for a Heritage Inventory, a comprehensive listing of evaluated heritage sites. For this project, all 100 sites from the Heritage Survey were added to the POIL. Twenty-one sites from the Places of Interest List were selected to add to a Heritage Inventory. The sites were evaluated using a Statement of Significance, which is the national and provincial standard document for evaluating the inherent heritage values of a historic site. A Thematic Framework and Community Context Paper were also developed for Vulcan County, which guided the writing of Statements of Significance for historic sites in the community. The Thematic Framework and Community Context Paper are important components in the development of a robust Heritage Management Program for Vulcan County. The primary goal of this portion of the project was to identify major factors and processes that shaped the built environment of Vulcan County to the present day. This document

Heritage Survey

Places of Interest Heritage Inventory

Register of Historic Places C o m p o n e n t s o f a H e r i ta g e M a n a g e m e n t P ro g r a m ( M H PP)


introduction

contains a county-wide Thematic Framework and Community Context Paper, which were developed through community-guided research vetted through VBDS Staff and the HAB. The Thematic Framework is a chart that outlines the major themes of development that has lead to the breadth of historic resources visible in Vulcan County today. Each theme is represented by examples of local heritage resources. The Thematic Framework is based on the Parks Canada National Historic Sites of Canada System Plan and the Alberta Thematic Framework (In Time and Place), which identify the major themes that influenced the history and heritage of Canada and Alberta. The Parks Canada System Plan is used as an over arching guide; each national theme is then broken down to the provincial level, and is modified or added to in order to suit the local context. A Community Context Paper expands on each of the themes in the Thematic Framework. The final document helps to define a sense of identity and pride of place for Vulcan County’s heritage resources and directs future values-based management of Vulcan County’s historic resources.

FINAL REPORT

2012

Volunteers of the 2011-2012 Vulcan County Heritage Project From left to right: Racille Ellis, Champion Community Representative Paul Taylor, Town of Vulcan Councillor Marge Weber, Vulcan and District Historical Society Cody Shearer, Vulcan Business Development Society Katie Walker, Village of Milo Councillor Richard Lamber t, Vulcan and District Historical Society Amy Rupp, Village of Champion CAO Kym Nichols, Village of Carmangay Mayor Leslie Warren, Vulcan Business Development Society William Roebuck, Kirkcaldy Community Club Liza Dawber, Vulcan County Missing: Bill Lahd, Milo Community Representative

3


VULCAN COUNTY

HERITAGE SURVEY & INVENTORY 2012

 

Parks Canada System Plan

4


thematic framework

DEVELOPMENT OF THE THEMATIC FRAMEWORK To the left is the Parks Canada National Historic Sites of Canada System Plan diagram, which outlines Canada’s historical themes into five broad areas. This process involved drilling down from the national themes through the provincial themes in Alberta’s 2005 Thematic Framework, In Time and Place, and down to the local level in Vulcan County. Historic sites in the communities of Vulcan County generally fit into several of

VULCAN COUNTY

the themes but may be best represented by one particular category or sub-theme. This framework will enable communities within Vulcan County to articulate its unique heritage values and identify historic resources based on these values. The diagram below represents the adaptation of the Parks Canada System Plan to the Vulcan County Thematic Framework.

COMMUNITY CONTEXT PAPER

HERITAGE SURVEY & INVENTORY

THEMATIC FRAMEwORk

THEME 1: PEOPLING THE LAND • First Nations in Vulcan County • Settling the Dryland Prairies THEME 5: EXPRESSING INTELLECTUAL & CULTURAL LIFE • Sports & Recreation • Imported Architecture & Local Trades • Connection to the Stars

THEME 4: GOVERNING CANADA • Law & Protection

FINAL REPORT

2012

THEME 2: DEVELOPING ECONOMIES • Ranching & Farming in Vulcan County • Natural Resource Development • Prairie Ingenuity: Technology & Engineering • Connection to Communities THEME 3: BUILDING SOCIAL & COMMUNITY LIFE • Health & Welfare • Network of Education • Community, Spiritiality & the Cultural Landscape in Vulcan County

5


VULCAN COUNTY

HERITAGE SURVEY & INVENTORY 2012

VULCAN COUNTY THEMATIC FR AMEWORK Metathemes: Interconnectedness, Ingenuity

6

Canadian Theme

Canadian Sub-Theme

Alber ta Theme(s)

Vulcan County Theme

Notes

Examples

Peopling the Land

Canada’s Earliest Inhabitants

- Prehistoric Alberta - Aboriginal Life

First Nations in Vulcan County

This theme articulates the ancient and continuing First Nation’s presence in Vulcan County.

• Cultural landscapes • Archaeological sites • Carmangay Tipi Rings • Medicine Wheels

Peopling the Land

Settlement Migration and Immigration

- Agricultural Development - Aboriginal Life - Urban Development - Business & Industry

Settling the Dr yland Prairies

This theme articulates the pioneering spirit and impact made on the Vulcan County area through the waves of local and immigrant settlements throughout the area.

• Houses associated with early settlement • Anastasia Barn, Anastasia • Early hotels • King’s Residence, Vulcan • Local cemeteries

Developing Economies

Extraction & Production

- Resource Development

Ranching & Farming in Vulcan County

The theme explores the rich agricultural roots that thrived and economies and town development that spurred as a result.

• Grain elevators • Crop production facilities • Farmsteads • Ranches • Elevator Row, Mossleigh • CPR Farms

Developing Economies

Extraction & Production

- Resource Development

Natural Resource Development

This theme articulates the development of a rich variety of natural resource industries such as oil, gas, electrical power, and coal in Vulcan County and the settlements that developed as a result.

• Coal towns and mines • Gas plants • Oil wells • Buildings associated with natural resource development • Gas and service stations

Developing Economies

Technology & Engineering

- Transportation

Prairie Ingenuity: Technology and Engineering

This theme articulates how local communities transformed the harsh environment of the Prairies through ingenuity technology and engineering achievements.

• Dams • Irrigation systems • Carmangay Rail Trestle • Early roads and trails • Railway trestles / bridges • Rail stations • Fireguard Road, Champion area • Dr y Ditch, Lomond area

Developing Economies

Communications & Transportation

- Communication

Connection to Communities

The theme articulates the important role of communication to connect communities within Vulcan County

• Telegraph Office, Milo • Post Offices • Newspaper buildings • Hearnleigh Post Office, Vulcan area • Advocate Building, Vulcan • Museum and archives • Local history books

Building Social and Community Life

Education and Social Well-Being

- Health - Education - Intellectual Life

Health & Welfare

This theme articulates activities and processes associated with the provision of health, welfare and government services.

• Hospital buildings • Doctors offices and residences • Nurse accommodation • Nurses Residence, Vulcan


thematic framework

Building Social and Community Life

Education and Social Well-Being

- Education - Intellectual Life

Network of Education

This theme articulates the network of schools, both rural and urban that were a core component of every community in Vulcan County.

• Early schools • Rural schools • Plaque program to commemorate schools • Liber ty School, Milo area

Building Social & Community Life

Community Organizations

- Work and Leisure - Sports

Community, Spirituality and the Cultural Landscape in Vulcan County

This theme articulates the interconnectedness of spirituality, community and its relation to power of place in Vulcan County (“special places”).

• Community halls • Local Cemeteries • Churches • Legions • Medicine Wheels • Churches converted to halls • Schools converted to churches • Buffalo Hills • School / Hall Kirkcaldy • Queenstown Hall, Queenstown

Governing Canada

Security and the Law

- Politics and Government

Law & Protection

This theme articulates the NWMP presence in Vulcan County early in its development and processes and sites involved in law & protection.

• NWMP buildings • Carmangay Volunteer Fire Brigade Building

Expressing Intellectual and Cultural Life

Sports & Leisure

- Sports & Leisure

Spor ts & Recreation

This theme articulates the activities associated with events and recreation in Vulcan County.

• Rodeo grounds • Chuckwagons • Agricultural Fairs • Vulcan Baseball field • Milo Race Track

Expressing Intellectual & Cultural Life

Architecture & Design

Architecture & Design

Impor ted Architecture & Local Trades

This theme articulates the important introduction of plan book architecture in the Prairies to meet the immediate needs for housing and commerce during boom times. Local trades specialized in certain building types such as barns or commercial buildings are evident throughout Vulcan County.

• Plan book houses, railway stations, schools, community halls, barn • CPR Farms • Bank of Hamilton buildings • Cemeteries

Expressing Intellectual & Cultural Life

Philosophy and Spirituality

The Face of Alberta

Connection to the Stars

This theme articulates the people, institutions and cultural spaces inspired by Vulcan County’s geography and limitless sightlines.

• RCAF Station, Vulcan Rural • Vulcan Tourism building • Sites associated with Star Trek • Medicine Wheels

FINAL REPORT

2012

7


VULCAN COUNTY

HERITAGE SURVEY & INVENTORY 2012

1943 Survey Plan of CPR spur line from Kirkcaldy to RCAF Station Vulcan. Continued on next page (Service Alberta - Land Titles RY1537)

8


community context paper

OVERREACHING THEMES Named for the Roman god of fire and the forge, Vulcan County was rumoured to have been named after the Olympian God by a surveyor for the Canadian Pacific Railway in 1910. The county consists of the Town of Vulcan, the five Villages of Carmangay, Champion, Lomond, Milo and Arrowwood as well as eight Hamlets: Brant, Ensign, Herronton, Kirkcaldy, Mossleigh, Queenstown, Shouldice, and Travers. Vulcan County is known for its abundant dry-land prairie farming, an industry well suited to the climate of this region. On December 27, 1950, Vulcan County No. 2 became the first county formed in Alberta.

FINAL REPORT

2012

Throughout the development of Vulcan County, amongst the different cultures that explored, settled, and worked in the Canadian Badlands, two pervasive themes emerged on a continuous basis. These meta-themes permeated the development of Vulcan County from its early habitation by First Nation groups, through the early settlement period to the present day. These metathemes include: Interconnectedness and Ingenuity. They serve as overarching themes in each of the 13 historical themes present in Vulcan County.

9


VULCAN COUNTY

HERITAGE SURVEY & INVENTORY 2012

FIRST NATIONS IN VULCAN COUNTY The area that would eventually become Vulcan County has a long and rich history stretching back more than 10,000 years. Vulcan County is situated in what would have been the ice free corridor, a barren ice-free area located on the east side of the Rocky Mountains foothills. The corridor was situated between the Laurentide and Cordilleran ice sheets and stretched from Alaska to Northern Montana. It provided early Paleo-Indian cultures in the Late Pleistocene to early Holocene, over 11,000 years ago, an ice-free route spurring migrations across Beringia from Siberia. Some of Canada’s earliest archaeological site were located along this corridor, including one close to Vulcan County in Wally’s Beach, (dating to 11,339 BP). At the time of European contact, Vulcan County was the located in the territory of the nomadic Blackfoot peoples. The sparsely populated but resource rich area provided a successful economy for these people provided they travelled with the bison, their primary source of food, clothing, household items and housing. Animal remains (bone, sinew, skin) were utilized for tools, as were stone and ceramics. The dog was the only pack animal used by this group prior to 1650 when the horse was first introduced. The Blackfoot spent most of their time in small, family groups, but would congregate for large bison drives and ceremonial purposes. No large village sites have been recorded, but many tipi ring sites have been located as well as numerous medicine wheels. One of these medicine wheels (possibly the most complicated in Canada) is located in Vulcan County – east of Majorville. It is known as the “Majorville Cairn” or “Majorville Wheel”. Over the past four decades, Gordon Freeman has researched the Cairn and has concluded it to be a complicated calendar and celestial guide comparable to Stonehenge and other such temples around the world.

Notable in the early contact years was a visit from famed missionary Father Lacombe, who was summoned to the region to assist the Blackfoot during an outbreak of scarlet fever in 1857. For many of the First Nations people, Lacombe was the first white person they had seen and one of the first who seemed trustworthy. In 1877, Treaty 7, a treaty between the Canadian Government (for Queen Victoria) and primarily Blackfoot Indians in Southern Alberta, was signed at Blackfoot Crossing – just north of the county border. Treaty 7 was the last of a series of treaties designed to pass control of Rupert’s Land over to the Crown. The treaty ceded traditional territory to the government and established reserves as well as yearly monetary compensation to First Nations communities. This treaty essentially ensured the land would be “safe” for ranchers and settlers to live and work in the area.

M a j o r v i l l e C a i r n , 1 9 6 0 ( G l e n b o w A r ch i ve s C 1 5 1 - 5 )

10


community context paper

SET TLING THE DRYLAND PRAIRIES “ When Vulcan, God of Fire and patron saint of blacksmiths, pointed thunderbolts for Jupiter at the crater of Mount Etna, he was engaged in no grander occupation than are the people of the modern town of Vulcan who are making two blades grow where none grew before, and developing a grain belt and business centre that is phenomenal even for Alberta” (Vulcan Review, 1912)

Rocky Mountains. With Palliser having divided the party in two at the mouth of the Bow River, the portion of the party under the leadership of Dr. James Hector moved across the Oldman River and proceeded northwest toward the confluence of the Bow and Highwood Rivers. That would have meant that Hector and his party passed through the Vulcan region on their journey northbound.

Waves of settlement following periods of prosperity and opportunity altered the landscape in Vulcan County through time. Like many communities in the Canadian prairies, the earliest settlement was populated by families and friends from the same areas. In the case of Vulcan County, the first settlers were mainly from the United States and eastern Canada. By the 1920s, a large British population had settled in the area, many of whom arrived with generations of farming experience under their belt. Other settlers beginning in the 1920s began to immigrate including Scandinavian countries, and German, Dutch, Chinese, French, and Russian communities. Many families who first settled in the area were experienced farmers, merchants and tradesmen.

When settlement began in earnest, the Vulcan region followed the general trends in the Canadian west, with the region being settled in an orderly and systematic way. Drawing most of its new immigrants from other areas of Canada, the United States and Northern European nations, the area saw its major influx of new settlers between 1904 and 1921. The earliest settlement in the area occurred near Milo (Hearnleigh and Berrywater), with settlement beginning in the early 1900s.

The first non-Natives into the Vulcan County area occurred in 1859 when the Palliser Expedition came through the region in their exploration toward the

Promoted heavily by the agents of the Canadian Pacific Railway and boosters hired by the Canadian government, the Vulcan area became a destination for groups of people from regions across North America and Europe. However, studies have shown that most came to Vulcan area as a result of recommendations made by friends and relatives already present in the area or on their way there. This often meant that new arrivals found a preexisting social network transposed from the source of their migration. Boosters and speculators did play a strong role in settling the area, particularly in the early boom period of the 1900s to 1910s. One paper stated: “Property continues to change hands like hot cakes.” Land speculation flies in the face of the outward view of Vulcan County as a sleepy frontier with only industrious and conservative settlers. Instead Vulcan and area was a dynamic and

T h e Wo g s b e r g h o m e s t e a d s h a c k n e a r L o m o n d (Donald Luxton & Associates)

FINAL REPORT

2012

11


VULCAN COUNTY

sometimes unscrupulous place where land prices and opportunities could change dramatically within very short frames of time. This dynamism often meant that while many migrants came to the region, only a portion stayed through the First World War and into the 1920s. Trends show that population levels in Vulcan County were already falling prior to the Great Depression, and greatly increased in depopulation thereafter. However, despite the challenges of a frontier existence and the land speculation that came with it, by 1913, on the eve of the First World War, many banked that the future for Vulcan County appeared bright. That optimism was misguided though as the boom that had characterized the settlement period collapsed in 1913 and many speculators, merchants and settlers became disillusioned with the region’s prospects. The result was that many of the town lots in the region, sections of land and their related infrastructure components (such as roads and services) remained critically underdeveloped at the outbreak of war.

HERITAGE SURVEY & INVENTORY 2012

With the successful conclusion of the First World War, Vulcan moved into the 1920s with positive expectations. However, manpower shortages and land speculation continued to be problematic for the region for many years following the war. In addition, overextension and speculation in the boom years, meant that many of the towns in the Vulcan region needed to deal with a plague of absentee land owners and tax evaders during the years leading up to the crash in 1929. In fact, in 1925 the town of Carmangay seized as many as 2/3 of the lots in their town for non-payment of taxes.

Southside of Vulcan Street in Vulcan . 1910s (Glenbow Archives NA-748-13)

12


community context paper

RANCHING AND FARMING IN VULCAN COUNTY Ranching and later agriculture were and continue to be Vulcan County’s key defining characteristics leading to the development of many thriving communities in the 1910s. Ranching was the first activity to occur in the area – as early as the late 1880s. Ranching was conducted for nearly 20 years before settlers started to move into the country in any number. The transition from ranching to agriculture was somewhat of a misstep and changed the landscape of the area in 1882. The Vulcan region was surveyed using the Dominion Land Survey grid system commonly used in British colonies and continuing the process started in 1879 for the area covered by the current Provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. While this prepared the area for later waves of settlement, it also began a process that would eventually cause the demise of the open range system used by ranchers from the region and beyond. Ranching was a vital industry in Southern Alberta in the late 1870s and afterward, with large expanses of grassland serving as a great open range for American and Canadian ranchers. Although some land in the region was opened for farming before 1900, these farms were limited in number and took second place to ranching until after the turn-of-the century.

One exception to this trend in the Vulcan area was the grazing lease claim made by the McHugh brothers. They claimed 100,000 acres of land between the Blackfoot Reserve southward to the Oldman River. Their claim was short-lived, however, and the Canadian Government reclaimed most of the land within a few years returning it to open range. Although it was short-lived, the McHugh claim was the first by a white settler in the Vulcan region and would set the stage for the influx of settlers in the years following 1900. By 1904 the trend of farming and demarkation of property through fencing began although ranching was still dominant in the region until the next decade. When the first local government established in the Vulcan region with the organization of Municipal District No. 29 in 1906, the trend toward farming over open range ranching favoured as the central activity in the district. However, along with the new farmers trying their hand at dry land cereal farming (which became the main activity of the region) many came with their skills, trades and training to build the region and make their fortune. Many also came and turned to less respectable ways to make their fortune, including gambling, crop speculation and, in particular, land speculation (despite government deterrence).

Agricultural irrigation pivot, west of Champion (Donald Luxton & Associates)

FINAL REPORT

2012

13


VULCAN COUNTY

With the outbreak of war in 1914, many of the young men in Vulcan answered the empire’s call to fight in the Fields of Flanders. As with many areas of English-speaking Canada, Vulcan’s first contingents were filled by first and second generation immigrants from the British Isles. However, large numbers of Vulcan residents who originated from the United States also answered the call to fight in Europe, even though the American government would not join the conflict until 1917. The war years in the Vulcan region brought a great deal of patriotic fervor to the area. However, while war demand brought high prices for grain, it also brought a great money stress to farmers due to manpower shortages. With the departure of many men to the fighting fields in Europe, the average labour cost in the years 1914-1918 in Vulcan rose from approximately $200 per farm per year to $650 per farm. Although many farmers saw a windfall of profit, they ended up often spending a great deal of it just to hire enough people to get their crops off the field and to market. Many of the farms in rural Vulcan County present on the landscape today were built during this war time boom. Despite challenges that the Vulcan region faced, farming output in the 1920s continued to deliver the yields that had made the area known for its production of wheat. It was at this time that the Town of Vulcan’s famous ‘nine-in-a-line’ elevators became an advertised source of pride for the region and its residents. The capacity of the nine elevators at 750,000 bushels became a publicity tool for area boosters advertised far and wide. With the financial crash in 1929, Vulcan, like most areas of North America felt the effect quickly and deeply. Residents moved away from the region, fleeing dying farms, taxes remained unpaid and depopulation plagued the community - exacerbating the trend already seen in the mid-1920s.

14

HERITAGE SURVEY & INVENTORY 2012

The Great Depression also saw a drop in population due to the use of technology on farms throughout the region. Farmers who now had more access to threshing machines, tractors and combine harvesters needed fewer hands to work the land still under cultivation. By the mid-1930s far less regular and itinerant farm workers were seen in the Vulcan region, instead finding their place in the great migration of people abandoning the lack of opportunity in rural for the promise of urban settings. The Depression hit all Alberta towns hard, and the “Dust Bowl” was certainly in effect here. People were poor and agriculture was difficult during this time. Little development occurred in these communities in the 1930s or 1940s. In 1971 a large fire robbed Vulcan of one of its ‘nine-in-a-line’ grain elevators. At one time, the Town of Vulcan held claim as having the largest shipping point and grain storage capacity in the British Empire and this was a high source of pride for the community. While eight of the elevators survived the blaze, the changing dynamics of the grain industry meant that the elevators that did survive were eliminated over the years. While the region still produces a large amount of grain, the nine sentinels that had served as Vulcan’s iconic image were gone. In fact only one elevator remains today in Vulcan, it having been built in the 1980s. Champion, known as the “Million Bushel Town”, was also a big grain producer in the area in the 1920s, as was Queenstown.


community context paper

Looking west across the fields in winter. The Beingessner Barn is seen in the distance (Donald Luxton & Associates)

FINAL REPORT

2012

15


VULCAN COUNTY

HERITAGE SURVEY & INVENTORY 2012

NATURAL RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT Vulcan County has small outcrops of coal throughout the area as well as small natural gas wells that helped to encourage settlement. This small natural resource boom was expounded by the coming of the railway in 1911-12 via the Kipp-Aldersyde line through Calgary south into Vulcan County. The natural resources in the Vulcan County area attracted newcomers and the coal was used as a source of inexpensive fuel for settlers. Some was also sold to surrounding communities of Barons, High River, Blackie and Nanton. The communities of Carmangay, Milo, Champion and Bow City (a boomtown townsite just outside of the county) were originally developed with coal mining as the primary driver. These early settlements predated the railway and many of these communities, including Milo, Champion and Carmangay were moved with the depletion of coal and coming of the rail in the 1910s (1920s for Milo). Champion had the largest concentration of these mines which were developed between 1907 and 1965. The area, known as the Champion Coal Fields, was centred on the banks of the Wolf Coulee (near Carmangay). Natural gas is a large and growing industry in Vulcan County, started in earnest after the Second World War. Its early development brought some settlement into the area. Road development outside of the major communities paralleled this later oil and gas development. Wind, solar and geophysical drilling have become burgeoning new industries in the last 10 years in the county.

From coal to wind. Natural resource development in Vulcan County Top: Glenbow Archives PA-2346 - 40 Bottom: Magrath Wind Farm, south of Vulcan County (Photo by Chuck Szmurlo)

16


community context paper

PRAIRIE INGENUITY: TECHNOLOGY AND ENGINEERING With its situation in the dryland prairies of the Canadian Badlands, Vulcan County has adapted to its harsh, open conditions with unfaltering finesse and ingenuity. With its natural resources highly susceptible to inclement weather and climate change, whole communities in Vulcan County have been picked up and moved to new locations on more than one occasion. Towns relocated when the railway arrived – Carmangay relocated further east, Milo moved to current location in 1924. Irrigation was a critical element of prairie ingenuity in Vulcan County beginning in the early 1900s, with the transformation of over 154,000 hectares in Snake Valley into the massive McGregor Lake Reservoir from 1909 to 1912. The project, headed up by the Southern Alberta Land Company, was a key development that transformed the environment, spurred development in the area and as well provided both labour and water for farms for many years. Several damming and canal projects in the Milo and Lomond area occurred up to the end of the Second World War. The Travers Reservoir Project, to the south of the McGregor Lake Reservoir, was initiated in 1954.

The railway was also an important technological advance that forever shifted the cultural landscape in Vulcan County. The CPR was late in its development into Vulcan County, commencing construction in 1909 of a line built from Aldersyde, south of Calgary to Kipp, Alberta (Kipp-Aldersyde line). A large 320-meter wooden trestle bridge was constructed that spanned the Little Bow River Valley, just north of Carmangay. This railway initiated a massive flow of labourers and settlement in the communities surrounding the railways. Many of the resources visible in the Town of Vulcan, the villages and the hamlets located along the rail line were built during this initial thrust of development in the early 1910s. A later rail line segment, known as the Vauxhall-Arrowwood line was built in increments beginning in 1916, and linked east from Mazeppa, through to Lomond. The line was built near Milo in 1924, encouraging the community to move their entire town in 1924-25 to be in proximity to the rail line. In recent times, there has been improvements in the highway system through the county and the installation of cell phone towers to improve communication.

Lake McGregor and the north dam (bottom) in 1967. (Milo and District Historical Society. 1973)

FINAL REPORT

2012

17


VULCAN COUNTY

HERITAGE SURVEY & INVENTORY 2012

CONNECTION TO COMMUNITIES Communication in Vulcan County has been a critical lifeline for settlers in the early development of the area. Prairie life was generally lonely and cut off due to long days tending to crops and wide distances between properties. Communication was of utmost importance and post offices, telegraph offices and newspapers were established early in Vulcan County’s history. The first post offices were set up in the early 1900s in homes as opposed to dedicated buildings in the more rural areas such as Hearnleigh and Loma. The first post office in a non residential context was established in a store in Brant in 1905. In the 1970s, small post offices were closed and mail distribution was centralized from the Vulcan Post Office. The coming of rail brought with it more centralized communication. Between 1907 and the outbreak of the First World War, progress and development in the Vulcan region helped push access, communication and transportation to higher levels.

This development resulted in a spike in settlement and population in the area that rose dramatically until 1911 and peaked in the 1920s. Some of the communication improvements during this “boom” time in Vulcan County in the late 1910s included: the establishment of the Brant to Nanton telephone line in 1907; the arrival of the first automobile in 1909 (and subsequent improvement of local roads); and the construction of the Kipp-Aldersyde line by the CPR through Vulcan County to Aldersyde in 1910. The internal communication in the region and beyond also improved with the establishment of the first newspaper in the area, the Carmangay Sun in 1910, followed soon after by the Vulcan Review in 1912-13, the Vulcan Advocate in 1913, and the Champion Chronicle in 1920.

Vulcan CPR Station. Unknown date. (Prairie Postcards. Peel’s Prairie Provinces PC004937)

18


community context paper

HEALTH AND WELFARE As the population of Vulcan County continued to grow, so too did the need for health and care facilities. During the early years of settlement, hospitals and doctors were a rarity and care facilities were established in makeshift spaces, particularly during times of crisis. The Harvard School, for example, one mile south of Cleverville, was converted to a hospital during the 1918 flu epidemic. Many doctors and nurses that practiced in the area, served several community roles including doctors, teachers, nurses, preachers and farmers. The earliest known prairie doctor was Dr. George Adams Shamberger, who lived in the Brant area before 1900. Many of the schools in the area also received regular visits by doctors and nurses in the spring and fall each year. The central hospital for Vulcan County was in the Town

of Vulcan, opened in 1917, as a four room cottage. A permanent brick hospital and associated nurses residence was established in 1928 to serve the growing needs of the community. Carmangay had a large regional hospital as well. Smaller communities were and continue to be served by walk-in clinics such as the Snake Valley Drop-In Centre in Milo.

Snake Valley Drop-In (Seniors) Centre in Milo. Formerly Willard School (Donald Luxton & Associates)

Little Bow Municipal Hospital, Carmangay, 1960 (Glenbow Archives NA-5327-382)

FINAL REPORT

2012

19


VULCAN COUNTY

HERITAGE SURVEY & INVENTORY 2012

NETWORK OF EDUCATION A network of educational facilities was established early in Vulcan County, to serve the small settlements scattered throughout the region. School and church development in particular was impacted by the small population and its generally sparse distribution throughout Vulcan County. Both schools and churches learned quickly to centralize and consolidate in order to meet the needs of the dispersed yet growing communities. One of the innovative solutions for sparse population occurred with early school development. Beginning in 1905, schools were built at intervals of approximately four to five miles (six and one-half to eight kilometers), providing educational needs within walking distance for children in rural areas throughout the county. School districts were numbered according

School in Vulcan (Glenbow Archives NA-5666 -93)

20

to a provincial numbering system - the lower the number, the earlier the school in the area. Vulcan County, had at one time, 123 school districts, six of which did not ever receive a school. There are currently 35 schools still standing in Vulcan County (as of 2010) and several, such as the Liberty School close to Milo, are in their original location. In 1950, new provincial legislation allowed Municipal Districts, school divisions or districts to unite into individual counties and as a result, original one-room school houses were abandoned or demolished. Several have been re-used as community halls, churches or private residences.


community context paper

COMMUNITY, SPIRITUALITY AND THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE IN VULCAN COUNTY Vulcan County is situated within a stunning open prairie landscape, with unencumbered views of the Rocky Mountains. Since time immemorial, the area has been used by First Nations for sacred activities inspired by the vast open spaces and connection to the land. Medicine wheels, created on the landscape by Plains First Nation communities in Vulcan County are important early markers of the esoteric relationship between humans and the land. With the later settlement of Vulcan County, this connection to the land has perpetuated with agricultural development and its innate link to the natural environment and climate. Thus, many farm buildings and agricultural landscapes were positioned to take advantage of the unique environmental conditions in Vulcan County. Communities in Vulcan County are also tied to cultural landscapes such as Snake Valley, Buffalo Hills, Thigh Hill and Black Spring Ridge, which serve as local landmarks and social gathering points.

Sacred buildings, such as churches and cemeteries in Vulcan County are quite frequently tied to special places. These buildings continue to remain in a community, and are often re-purposed to meet the communities’ needs. The Kirkcaldy School/Hall for example, south of the Town of Vulcan, was built originally as a church in 1920, was converted to a school in 1925 and later to a hall in 1953. In terms of general sacred and community spaces in Vulcan County, there are several intact and well cared for historic examples. Vulcan County has many intact community halls and historic churches that serve the vast variety of denominations. Social organizations such as the Vulcan Ladies Community Society, Ladies Aid, the Women’s Institute as well as fraternal and Masonic organizations constructed halls and other buildings to hold their meetings. Several of the areas’ historic community halls provided meeting space and served as a hub for social interaction, including the Queenstown Hall in the Hamlet of Queenstown, built in 1918.

Mossleigh Church, formerly Sunset Valley School (Donald Luxton & Associates)

FINAL REPORT

2012

21


VULCAN COUNTY

HERITAGE SURVEY & INVENTORY 2012

LAW AND PROTECTION Due to Vulcan County’s proximity to the United States border, law and protection has played an important role in its early development. Many security and protection buildings and facilities are still intact today. In 1873, the Northwest Mounted Police (NWMP) were dispatched to the territory to deal with the whiskey trade in the far west and to strengthen Canadian sovereignty over the region in the face of growing American expansion. Working from nearby Forts Macleod and Calgary, Mounties travelled throughout Vulcan County as part of regular law enforcing duties in the territory. One of the area’s first NWMP post was at Reid Hill in the northeast of the county.

The area’s first jail was built in Carmangay in 1910. The jail was built to control the influx of non-local labourers brought in to build the railway. The oneroom jail remains intact in the village. Carmangay also had the area’s first fire protection services with the establishment of the Volunteer Fire Brigade building on Grand Avenue. The building was erected in one day on September 27, 1912 and remains today an important symbol of the village’s early fire protection efforts.

Volunteer Fire Brigade Building (right) and Jail (left) in Carmangay (Donald Luxton & Associates)

22


community context paper

SPORTS AND RECREATION Sports and recreation in Vulcan County were important to those who settled and continue to live in the area. Activities such as fishing, horse racing, stampeding, baseball, as well as arts and cultural endeavours were well integrated into all of the communities within Vulcan County. Every community had its own baseball league and the rivalries were legendary with baseball fields serving as an important social and symbolic centre of the community. The Town of Vulcan had a successful baseball team for some time called the Vulcan Elks. The area also has excellent access to recreational and camping grounds such as Little Bow Provincial Park, McGregor Lake Reservoir, Travers Reservoir and Badger Lake Reservoir.

Vulcan Elks baseball teams from 1955 (attheplate.com)

FINAL REPORT

2012

23


VULCAN COUNTY

HERITAGE SURVEY & INVENTORY 2012

IMPORTED ARCHITECTURE AND LOCAL TRADES Vulcan County has a unique architectural signature marked by historic buildings constructed using locally available pattern book plans and kits. Due to the lack of trees in the area, lumber was rare. Prior to the railway coming into the area in the 1910s, buildings were either relocated in from adjacent communities or were built using locally available resources. Following the completion of the railway, the county experienced a boom during the early 1910s and through to the First World War. With access to rail, there was an influx of imported pattern book buildings. Examples of pattern book buildings are visible in houses and farm buildings, CPR train stations, banks, schools, grain elevators, and community halls. Often, materials and plans were shipped via rail and constructed on site using local trades. Thus, there are distinct stylistic qualities to Vulcan County architecture influenced by the skill sets of local trades. In the residential context, locally built catalogue houses often feature the use of locally sourced materials, such as cobblestone, and stylistic elements such as cornice return, narrow overhanging eaves with a steep roofline and cornerboards. In the commercial context, many historic standard plan buildings have chamfered corner entryways, boom time faรงades and parapet walls. Many of the barns in Vulcan County, a great source of pride for farming families, feature design elements such as specially designed windows and shaped siding that can be traced to particular carpenters in the area.

Peacock Train Station (Donald Luxton & Associates)

24


community context paper

CONNECTION TO THE STARS “Through Adversity to the Stars” (RCAF Motto) Vulcan County has an early and well established connection to the universe beyond. A CPR surveyor in 1910, named the town and the county after Vulcan, the Roman God of Fire and Forge. Streets in the Town of Vulcan were named accordingly: Neptune Street, Apollo Street, Atlantic Avenue and Vulcan Street. The nomenclature was inspired in part by the flat, prairie terrain and high elevation of the county at over 1000 meters. By the outbreak of the Second World War, Vulcan County’s fortunes had taken a turn for the worse. Like many areas of Canada, the war offered opportunities to supply those fighting on the front lines. In Vulcan County, the war effort brought the establishment of a training facility for the British Commonwealth Air Training Program (BCATP). Located to the southwest of the Town of Vulcan, the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) Station was opened on October 30, 1942 and hosted pilots from throughout the British Commonwealth. The station was originally known as No. 2 Flying Instructor School. From 1942-1943 the station trained fighter aircraft crews and from 1943-1945 focus shifted to the training of bomber crews after the flying school was moved to Pearce, Alberta. Closed on April 14, 1945 the facilities were then re-purposed as the Vulcan Industrial Airport and later as a private airstrip. The original hangars still stand today with a commemorative monument established to the north of the original site.

In 1993, the Town of Vulcan seized upon the popular culture TV and movie series, Star Trek. One of the series most iconic character, Spock was originally from the planet of Vulcan. VulCON: Spock Days/Galaxyfest Convention, an annual event, was founded to celebrate and provide an event for the devoted “Trekker” community. Theming many areas of the town with replicas of iconic spaceships, murals and displays of memorabilia, the Town of Vulcan has reinvented itself to generate tourism opportunities for the county. Owing to this dedication, the VulCON is well known among the Star Trek fandom and becomes a point of pilgrimage for many each year.

Interior of one of the hangers of Vulcan RCAF Station (Donald Luxton & Associates)

FINAL REPORT

2012

25


VULCAN COUNTY

HERITAGE SURVEY & INVENTORY 2012

1958 aerial view of Kirkcaldy (Glenbow Archives NA-2685 -105)

26


h e r itag e inv ento r y s i t e s

FINAL REPORT C O U N T Y

2012

27


VULCAN COUNTY

HERITAGE SURVEY & INVENTORY 2012

ANASTASIA FARM COMPLEX rectangular two-storey wood frame building situated on a north-south axis with a single storey shed roof extension on the west wall of the building. Its exterior walls are clad in painted horizontal boards and the building features a large flared gambrel roof, a hay hood, multiple wood-frame multi-pane windows, and two roof cupolas. The smaller potato barn is situated to the southeast of the main barn. It is distinguished by its gambrel roofline that encompasses the entire building, exposed rafter tails and horizontal siding. The barn site is located west of Range Road 225 between Township Roads 204 and 205, at the northern boundary of Vulcan County. Heritage Value of Historic Place

1927 LOCATION Anastasia ADDRESS South of Twp. Rd. 205 on Rge. Rd. 225 ATS SE;30;20;22;W4 HS# 104439

Statement of Integrity The Anastasia Farm Complex, which includes the large barn and the smaller potato barn, is in fairly good condition for its age. The large barn is set on a concrete pad, providing stability and support for the superstructure of the building. The wood siding is missing and damaged in many locations requiring repair and replacement in kind and painting. The wood shingle roof is beyond its serviceable life and requires replacement. Wooden sash windows, while the majority are intact, have missing or damaged glazing requiring repair. Doors are missing on the shed roof extension on the west side of the building. The potato barn requires painting and minor repair Description of Historic Place The Anastasia Farm Complex consists of a large historic barn and a smaller potato barn, both of which are located in the former Doukhobor community of Anastasia, Alberta. The barn is a large

28

The Anastasia Farm Complex is significant for its association with early settlement patterns in Vulcan County and the establishment of the Doukhobor colony of Anastasia, officially known as the “Lordly Christian Community of Universal Brotherhood.” Anastasia was formed in 1926 by leader, Anastasia Holoboff, the former long-time companion of Peter V. “Lordly” Verigin, leader of the Christian Community of Universal Brotherhood (CCUB). Together, Verigin and Holoboff had overseen the Alberta chapter of the CCUB colony since its creation in 1915. The original site was located southwest of what would become Anastasia. The Alberta colony had been a successful operation until 1924, when Verigin died unexpectedly in a train explosion. Upon the death of her partner, Anastasia Holoboff announced her intention to take over as official leader of the community, but was trounced in favour of Verigin’s son, who was brought over from Russia. In 1926, Anastasia broke away from the original colony to form her own community, purchasing over 450 hectares of land 150 kilometers northeast of Verigin’s colony. She convinced 160 people to follow her and personally supervised the construction of the first

anastasia farm compl ex


homes. The construction of the large Anastasia Barn was one of the first and most important steps in establishing the new settlement. The Anastasia Doukhobor community sustained themselves primarily through agricultural pursuits. In 1927, the large barn and potato barn were constructed at the north end of the settlement. The large barn was used by the colony as the communal barn. It concurrently acted as a dairy barn, a storage space for dairy products and equipment, a space for housing the workhorses and farming equipment, and a hayloft. The hayloft was constructed on the second floor of the barn and was used for storing hay and feed through the winter months. The barns served the Anastasia Doukhobor community from their construction in 1927 until the end of the Second World War, when the community broke apart. The community of Anastasia never officially ceased to exist, but it gradually declined in population until, by 1945, only Anastasia herself and her companion, Fedosia Verigin, remained at the site. The Anastasia Barn serves today as a testament to the Anastasia Doukhobor community, which at one time contained 26 individual houses, a blacksmith shop, a cemetery, and a population of 165 people. The Anastasia Farm Complex is additionally significant for its traditional vernacular architecture built by local labour. The large barn is a very good example of traditional rural Alberta barn construction, featuring the common gambrel roof structure, horizontal plank siding, and multiple windows on the broad sides of the building. The long rectangular plan and roof design reflect the technical improvements made in barn construction over the years, which eliminated the need for large, heavy timber beams taking up valuable space in the interior of the barn and hayloft. The barns are a good example of well-proportioned, functional structures with simplified detailing and are efficient responses to the conditions and availability of materials in the sparse, isolated, agricultural setting of Anastasia.

• relationship of barns with large barn northwest of potato barn. Original elements of the large barn such as: • agricultural form, scale, and massing as expressed by its: rectangular plan with flared front gambrel roof and clear-span braced-roof structural system; • wood-frame construction featuring wooden frame, horizontal wood plank siding and drop siding at gambrel peaks; wood shingle roof; • vernacular rural architecture as evidenced by two evenly spaced cupolas on the roof; exposed rafters and hayhood on north elevation; • fenestration including multipaned wooden sash windows, spaced evenly on the broad sides of the barn and symmetrically located on the short elevations; diamond wooden sash window at gambrel peaks; sliding barn doors at north and south elevations; and • interior layout including demarked space for dairy and farm storage at main floor and hayloft storage at upper storey. Original elements of the potato barn such as: • agricultural form, scale, and massing as expressed by its: rectangular plan with flared front gambrel roof and short wall relative to roof size; • wood-frame construction featuring wooden frame, horizontal wood plank siding and drop siding at gambrel peaks; plywood roof; • vernacular rural architecture as evidenced by exposed rafters; and • fenestration including multipaned wooden sash windows located at the gable ends; original door opening.

Character-Defining Elements The key elements that define the heritage character of the Anastasia Farm Complex include its: • siting on their original locations on the north side of the former Doukhobor community of Anastasia near to Range Road 225 and between Township Roads 204 and 205 in Vulcan County, Alberta; P o t a t o B a r n (Donald Luxton & Associates)

FINAL REPORT

2012

29


VULCAN COUNTY

HERITAGE SURVEY & INVENTORY 2012

GRANGE HOTEL Description of Historic Place The Grange Hotel is a two-storey wooden building located on a prominent corner at Carman and Pacific Avenue in the Village of Carmangay in Vulcan County. The large, U-shaped building has a flat roof, two main facades, a chamfered corner entryway, and painted ‘Grange Hotel’ sign. It is situated in the commercial heart of downtown Carmangay, set amongst other historic buildings. Heritage Value of Historic Place

1909 LOCATION Carmangay ADDRESS 102 Carman St. LEGAL 570X;3;10 ATS SW;32;13;23;W4 HS# 25885 ORIGINAL OWNER Peter McNaughton ARCHITECT Lawson & Fordyce CONTRACTORS Archie & Peter McIntyre

30

Statement of Integrity The Grange Hotel is an historic woodframe hotel that is in good condition for its age. A number of its original features are intact and maintenance of the building is fair. Some of the building’s original 8-over1 double-hung wooden sash windows are intact and operable; however, on the main façade, the original windows have been replaced with vinyl windows. Overall, wooden siding is in fair condition. Paint on the wooden lapped siding is showing signs of deterioration. At the ground level, substantial portions of the vertical siding are missing. It is recommended that this siding be replaced in kind to prevent further damage. Original window openings at the first storey, as well as at the chamfered corner were filled in. As well, an original frontispiece and balcony at the second storey on the north side of the hotel was removed. Tin sheeting was added over the original siding in the 1990s.

The Grange Hotel signifies Carmangay’s role in the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) and demonstrates the increased need for lodging during Carmangay’s principal period of growth during the early Edwardian era. At this time, Carmangay’s economy flourished as the prime location while construction was occurring on the Canadian Pacific Railway line (CPR) extension from Kipp, Alberta to Carmangay in 1909. The construction of the CPR railway line which extended north to Aldersyde, and the simultaneous construction of the Southern Alberta Irrigation Ditch built at Vauxhill between 1910 and 1913, increased the need for hotels to house labourers moving to the area to take advantage of the industrial expansion. Constructed in 1909, the Grange Hotel was built in proximity to the CPR station and was often the first point of entry for natural resource workers, providing both short and long term accommodation. This hotel had a combined function of lodging rooms on the upper floors, and commercial services, such as bar, restaurant, and barbershop on the ground floor, which contributed to the street life and economy in Carmangay. The Grange Hotel is additionally significant for its pivotal role in the community life as a social and commercial hub of Carmangay. The building was designed not only to meet the accommodation needs for

Grange Hotel


visitors; but, also functioned as the epicenter for social activities in the community. Around 1924, the hotel also functioned as the village’s post office and telephone office, demonstrating its importance as a central hub. The first owner was Peter McNaughton and his wife Mame, who owned the hotel until 1912. The Grange Hotel is additionally significant as an intact example of Edwardian vernacular commercial architecture. The hotel was designed by Calgary-based architect, Lawson and Fordyce in 1909 which consisted of partners Francis James Lawson (1860-1952) and George Fordyce (1880-1944). The hotel design expresses a rational and elegant U-shaped plan accented with stepped parapet, wood cornice and chamfered corner entryway. Local contractors, Archie and Peter McIntyre were responsible for the construction of this vernacular boom time hotel. The combined architectural and social value of the hotel contribute to its landmark value in Vulcan County.

Character-Defining Elements Key elements that define the heritage character of the Grange Hotel include its: • location at the corner of Carman and Prairie Avenue, with main facades on two streets in downtown Carmangay; • commercial form, scale and massing as expressed by its: two-storey height; U-shaped plan with chamfered corner entryway and flat roof; • wood-frame construction with wooden lapped siding and corner boards; • vernacular commercial Edwardian architectural detailing such as parapet wall; wooden cornice; • original fenestration such as 8-over-1 single-hung wooden sash windows; original wood paneled door with multi-light sashes on upper elevation; and • additional details such as the painted ‘Grange Hotel’ signage on two elevations; interior red brick chimney.

View o f Carmangay, 1 9 11 . G r a n g e H o t e l c e n t r e - r i g h t ( P o s t c a r d s From the Past. Comm u n i t y H e r i t a g e & F a m i l y H i s t o r y D i g i t a l Library. Calg ary Pub lic Libr ar y PC_483)

FINAL REPORT

2012

31


VULCAN COUNTY

HERITAGE SURVEY & INVENTORY 2012

VOLUNTEER FIRE BRIGADE BUILDING Carman Street in the Village of Carmangay in Vulcan County. This important historic resource is a small, one-storey woodframed structure with a front gabled roofline. The front of the building features a small square projection with an exaggerated pyramidal tower on a hipped roofline. The front tower has double wood-panelled sliding doors, exposed rafters and a painted ‘Fire Hall’ sign on the south elevation of the building. The tower is connected at the rear to a low-pitched gable roof linear building. Heritage Value of Historic Place

1912 LOCATION Carmangay ADDRESS Grand Avenue LEGAL 570X;9;4 ATS SW;32;13;23;W4 HS# 19104

Statement of Integrity The Volunteer Fire Brigade building in Carmangay is an important heritage resource that is intact and in reasonable condition. The building’s original form, scale, and massing, which are integral to the functionality of the building, have been retained. Original wooden drop siding is showing some signs of deterioration with paint chipping. The wooden tower is starting to show signs of deterioration with missing pieces of wooden siding; it is recommended that wooden siding on the tower be replaced in kind at the earliest opportunity. The tower also suffers from deterioration as a result of guano. The installation of bat deterrents would help to alleviate this issue. A number of wooden shingles are also missing from the roof; it is recommended that these be replaced in order to preserve the structure. Description of Historic Place The Volunteer Fire Brigade building is located on Grand Avenue, just north of

32

The Volunteer Fire Brigade building is of historic significance for its association with fire rescue in the Village of Carmangay in Vulcan County and is a testament to its role in protective services during the early development of the community. As Carmangay experienced explosive growth due to the construction of the extension of the Aldersyde-Kipp CPR railway line to Carmangay in 1909-11, population increased, thus the number of woodframe buildings posing the risk of fire also increased. With the installation of water services, a volunteer fire brigade was established. The building was constructed by 23 volunteers in a single day on Friday, September 27, 1912. Initially, fire equipment was basic and consisted of twowheeled carts with reels of hoses. A team of four men pulled the carts with a fifth man operating the hydrant and connecting the hose. Volunteer residents formed the basis of the brigade, demonstrating their commitment to the community’s safety. The first fire chief was D.O. McKay. The Volunteer Fire Brigade has additional value as an example of utilitarian vernacular architecture, designed to suit its role in fire rescue. The pyramidal tower, which measures 9 metres in height, not only provided fire wardens with maximum visibility in all directions, but also space to dry hoses. A bell situated at the top

V olunteer Fire Brigade B ui l ding


of the tower alerted residents to emergencies. Large wooden-paneled sliding doors allowed wide access to the structure, which was necessary for the two-wheeled carts that were utilized before a fire truck was purchased in 1928. The rear addition was built sometime in the 1920s.

• original fenestration including double wood-panelled sliding doors with original metal hardware and metal strap work above; original wooden frame transom windows; and • additional features such as painted ‘Fire Hall’ sign on south side of tower.

Character-Defining Elements Key elements that define the heritage character of the Volunteer Fire Brigade building include its: • location on the east side of Grand Avenue just north of Carman Street, in close proximity to both the commercial and residential areas in the Village of Carmangay; • minimal set back from the street; • form, scale and massing as expressed by its onestorey height with front-gabled rectangular plan; a front projecting block with a hipped roof, topped with a large pyramidal tower; 1920s addition with low pitched gabled roof and long, linear body; • wood-frame construction with wooden drop siding; corner boards; cedar shingled roof and exposed rafters;

View o f Carmangay, c . 1 9 11 . G r a n g e H o t e l c e n t r e - l e f t ( C a r m a n g a y a n d D i s t r i c t H ome and Sch oo l Ass oc iat ion. 1968)

FINAL REPORT

2012

33


VULCAN COUNTY

HERITAGE SURVEY & INVENTORY 2012

MILLER RESIDENCE gabled roof with gabled wall dormers, wide overhangs, half-timbering at the gable peaks, and extensive cobblestone cladding on the first storey. The Miller farm site includes a front-gambrelled barn with diamond paned windows as the peak and sliding double doors. Heritage Value of Historic Place

House

1916-17 Barn 1918

LOCATION Carmangay Area ADDRESS 140003 Rge. Rd. 234 ATS SW;4;14;23;W4 HS# 48046 ORIGINAL OWNERS Mr. & Mrs. W. H. Miller

Statement of Integrity The Miller Residence is in good, near original condition. The stonework appears to be in good condition, with minor cracking and/or spalling of cobblestones. The original 9-over-1 single hung windows have been replaced with aluminum sometime in the last 20 years. The original cobblestones in the gable peak have been covered with new stucco. Balcony rails have been added to the balcony over the front porch. Cracked parging is present at the watertable at various locations around the house. A flat roof addition has been added to the rear of the house but is subtle and sympathetic to the original design. Description of Historic Place The Miller Residence is a handsome one and one-half storey ornate cobblestone residence located on a farm site northeast of the Village of Carmangay in Vulcan County. Situated within a rural landscape, the Miller Residence displays Arts & Crafts elements and is characterized by its front-

34

The Miller Residence, built 1916-1917, is valued for its unique architectural expression and is a notable example of local masonry construction in rural Carmangay. The use of locally-available cobblestones demonstrates the ingenuity on behalf of its masonry contractors. The stone was sourced from McIntyre and Baily Stone Quarry, established in 1909 near Carmangay. The cobblestones were acquired from the Little Bow River Valley just west of the farm. Large slabs of local stone were utilized for the building’s foundation. The walls up to the first storey, are comprised of squared stones two feet thick, which were processed directly on site. Above the first storey, a main stone wall was built that measures 40 centimeters thick. Smaller field stones were used for the veneer of building, giving the house a rustic charm. Echoing trends in architecture at the time, an Arts & Crafts aesthetic is reflected in its projecting central verandah with stone columns and closed balustrade, half-timbered gables, and the varied use of textured claddings, such as stucco and stone. The MIller Residence is further significant for its association to the Miller family, who were prominent pioneer farmers in the Carmangay area. They constructed this homestead between 1916 and 1917 with their fifth child born shortly after its completion. Both W.H. Miller and his wife were prominent local citizens and were active members of the Carmangay community. W.H. Miller served as school board chairman for a period of 19 years; additionally, he was a member of the

M iller R esidence


Agricultural Society, and a director and teacher for the Methodist and United Churches. The Millers retired from farming in 1937 and relocated to Penticton. At this time, the house was passed on to their son Wallace and his wife Rose, who occupied the premises for some time.

• siting on its original lot near the south edge of the property lines;

The Miller Residence is further valued as a historic farmstead and is a tangible link to the farming industry in rural Carmangay. During the Edwardian era, Carmangay and its surrounding area began to attract a number of wheat farmers. The industry grew steadily due to fertile soils and the completion of the CPR railway in 190911, which facilitated both the transport of goods and people to larger centres. The high level of craftsmanship demonstrated in the Miller Residence is atypical of farming homesteads in Southern Alberta, and reflects the prosperity of the Miller family in the Inter-war period. The Miller Residence, known locally as the ‘Stone House’, remains a landmark in the community today.

• construction materials such as: massive stone foundation and internal wall support; parged sills and lintels; and fieldstone cladding graded by size on various elements at the first storey level;

• residential form, scale and massing as expressed by its: square plan; one and one-half storey height; frontgabled roof with side gabled wall dormers;

• Arts & Crafts detailing such as: half-timbering at gable peaks; mixture of textured cladding materials including stone at the first storey and stucco in the gable ends; closed gables; central projecting front porch with stone square columns; closed balustrade widows walk above; • additional details such as two internal red brick chimneys;

Character-Defining Elements

• original fenestration such as its: 1-over-1 double-hung wooden sash windows; original window openings; original wood paneled front door inset with glass; and

Key elements that define the heritage character of the Miller Residence include its:

• associated landscape features such as wood-frame barn with gambrel roof.

• location in a rural setting, situated northeast of the Village of Carmangay in Vulcan County;

The Stone House, northeast of Carmangay. 1921 (Library and Archives Canada PA- 018464)

FINAL REPORT

2012

35


VULCAN COUNTY

HERITAGE SURVEY & INVENTORY 2012

CPR RAILWAY TRESTLE Little Bow River Valley to the north of the future site of Carmangay. The community experienced explosive growth during this construction period due to the high number of labourers required to build the bridge over a two year time span. Completed in November 1911, the wood truss bridge was constructed using 3.5 by 3.5 meter timbers and braces. A 30 meter steel deck plate was added spanning the width of the Little Bow River Valley. At the time of completion, the bridge was a total of 320 meters long and 44 meters high; one of the largest trestles for its height in Canada.

1910-11 Steel Bridge 1928

Wooden Bridge

LOCATION Carmangay Area LEGAL RY304 ATS SW;5;14;23;W4 HS# 104441 ORIGINAL OWNER Canadian Pacific Railway CONTRACTOR Foley, Welch, and Stewart CRAFTSMAN Powell and Webster

36

Statement of Integrity The Carmangay Rail Trestle is a solid steel railway bridge that appears to be in good condition. Description of Historic Place The Carmangay Railway Trestle is a dramatic steel span trestle bridge located north of the Village of Carmangay, east of Highway 23 in Vulcan County. The train trestle runs north-south across the Little Bow River Valley and consists of steel towers supporting a steel span. The bridge is 150 meters long and 44 meters high. Heritage Value of Historic Place The Carmangay Railway Trestle is significant as a marker of the important role of the Canadian Pacific Railway in the early development of the Village of Carmangay. In 1909, the CPR commenced construction of a rail line from Aldersyde to Kipp, in southern Alberta. The trestle was constructed at a narrowed point of the

The Carmangay Railway Trestle gains further significance for its construction value and as a symbol of prairie ingenuity and engineering when it was converted from wood truss to a steel beam tower in 1928. Many timber trestle train bridges were initially built as temporary units until the rail line was complete and stronger structural materials such as steel or iron could be transported via the rail line to replace the wood. Elements of the original bridge were removed and replaced with steel in sections, to ensure continued service of the train. The timber truss supporting frames were replaced with more modern steel towers at intervals across the valley. The shallow end of the original truss on the south side was filled in, shortening the bridge by 150 meters. The Carmangay Railway Trestle, due to its prominent siting and dramatic scale north of the Village of Carmangay, and its innovative steel construction, is a landmark in the Vulcan County area. Character-Defining Elements The key elements that define the heritage character of the Carmangay Railway Trestle include its: • location north of the Village of Carmangay spanning the Little Bow River Valley;

CPR R ai lway Trestl e


• prominent siting from Highway 23 and the Village of Carmangay; • distinctive immense scale, horizontal massing, and original form of 1911 bridge; • steel construction including six steel towers set into large concrete piers supporting a massive steel centre span deck plate; smaller steel towers on north and south ends of bridge; • the Little Bow River flowing below the trestle 
with steep banks of the valley on either side of the river; and • dramatic views of the curved trestle from both approaches.

The CPR Railway Trestle (Donald Luxton & Associates)

The wooden trestle as it appeared in the 1910s (Glenbow Archives NA-1505 -10)

FINAL REPORT

2012

37


VULCAN COUNTY

HERITAGE SURVEY & INVENTORY 2012

BANK OF HAMILTON Heritage Value of Historic Place

1910 2nd Storey c.1915 1st Storey

LOCATION Champion ADDRESS 135 Main St. LEGAL 6995AG;2;22 ATS SE;7;15;23;W4 HS# 22540 & 32357 ARCHITECT Mills & Hutton

38

Statement of Integrity The Bank of Hamilton is in excellent condition and is in its original location, requiring only minor repair and restoration. Most of the original exterior treatments are intact and in good condition. The paint is peeling in many locations throughout the building and requires repainting. The front door has been replaced with a wooden door with a single light and is not sympathetic to its original design. Description of Historic Place The Bank of Hamilton is a two-storey wooden-frame building located on a corner lot in the Village of Champion in Vulcan County. The former bank building features a prominent two-storey chamfered corner with entryway, original single assembly eight-over-one wooden-sash windows, and a stepped parapet. The Bank of Hamilton is situated prominently on Main Street at 2nd Street in downtown Champion.

The Bank of Hamilton building, built in 1910, demonstrates Champion’s early success as an important local commercial centre in southern Alberta and signifies the important need for financial institutions during Champion’s early period of growth in the Edwardian era. Champion was originally known as Cleverville and was located on the opposite side of the railway tracks. It was moved to its current location in 1910, upon arrival of the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) to the area. The buildings were relocated using horses, pulleys and wagons, and upon settlement in their new location, it was renamed Champion. The CPR was instrumental in the establishment of the Champion community. The arrival of banking institutions and businesses, brought with it people from all over seeking the advertised abundant farming and mining opportunities. The presence of the Bank of Hamilton is indicative of the speculation of potential wealth and growth in Champion and denotes the strong need for financial institutions to support the initial development of the village. The first manager of the bank was E.G. Ogilvie. The Bank of Hamilton is further valued as an excellent example of the Bank of Hamilton’s standard bank plans for rural areas. The Bank of Hamilton was established in 1872 in Hamilton, Ontario and commenced its western expansion in the early 1900s. The Bank of Hamilton employed a number of architects based in their head office in Hamilton to design plans for various urban and rural banks throughout Canada. It was common practice for larger corporations in the early development of western Canada to complete plans in-house with the intention that the building would be constructed using local materials and trades. The architectural firm of Mills and Hutton, based in Hamilton, designed the majority of the Bank of Hamilton branches in

Bank of Hamilton


Canada between 1905-10, including this branch in Champion. Charles Mills (1860-1934) and his partner Gordon Hutton (1881-1942) designed this handsome bank plan for a smaller, more rural bank. The bank building was constructed in phases with the first storey constructed in 1910 and the second storey added some time circa 1915.

opening; • additional details such as one-storey red brick bank vault at rear of building; and • interior elements including interior trim and wood panelled door with transom light.

The Bank of Hamilton expresses a rational design with simple Classical Revival-style, popular in the Edwardian period, to portray an image of stability and prosperity to its clients. Wood was the primary exterior treatment, fashioned into a subtle stepped parapet with decorative wood cornice, a full height chamfered corner and symmetrical fenestration. The building was designed to house the bank and office on the main floor, and living space for the bank manager at the second storey. The bank was built equipped with a red brick bank vault, located at the rear of the lot. The Bank of Hamilton shifted to the Bank of Commerce after merging in 1924. The Bank of Hamilton building is additionally valued as an architectural landmark in the Village of Champion, which has serviced the community for over one-hundred years. The Bank of Hamilton building was one of the first commercial buildings to be constructed in Champion following the arrival of the railway in 1910.

 

The one-storey Bank of Hamilton building (centre) circa 1915 (Cleverville Pioneer Club History Book Committee. 1972)

Character-Defining Elements The key elements that define the heritage character of the Bank of Hamilton site include its: • siting on its original location on the north side of Main Street at 2nd Street in the Village of Champion; • location on a corner lot with facades on both streets; set to the property lines; • commercial form, scale, and massing as expressed by its: rectangular plan with flat roof and chamfered corner; • wood-frame construction such as: wooden lapped siding and wooden trim and stylistic details; • Classical Revival style details of the standard Bank of Hamilton plan including: stepped parapet, decorative cornice, and cornerboards; • fenestration including single assembly eight-overone single-hung wooden sash windows at second storey; fixed windows with operable transoms at first storey; transom light over door; and original front door

FINAL REPORT

2012

Rear of the Bank of Hamilton. Bank vault is visible (Donald Luxton & Associates)

39


VULCAN COUNTY

HERITAGE SURVEY & INVENTORY 2012

SAVOY HOTEL Heritage Value of Historic Place

1910-11 LOCATION Champion ADDRESS 104 Main St. LEGAL 6995AG;3;1-3 ATS SE;7;15;23;W4 HS# 28906 ORIGINAL OWNERS John & Nels Johnson Frank Anderson ARCHITECT Alex Campbell

40

Statement of Integrity The Savoy Hotel has retained many of its original elements and design features. Form, scale, and massing are intact as well as its original wooden sash windows at the second storey. The hotel has been clad in vinyl over the original wooden siding. Many of the original storefront windows with multipane lights and multilight wooden doors as well as their openings have been removed and filled in. A balcony on the frontispiece has also been removed sometime after the 1970s. Description of Historic Place The Savoy Hotel is a two-storey woodframe building located on a prominent corner lot with facades on Main Street and 1st Street in the Village of Champion in Vulcan County. The rectangular building features a flat roof with a stepped parapet, symmetrical fenestration, wooden and vinyl siding and a frontispiece with two square columns on the north facade. The hotel forms part of the original grouping of Champion’s historic commercial buildings.

The Savoy Hotel building demonstrates Champion’s early success as an important local commercial and industrial centre in southern Alberta and signifies the need for lodging during the village’s principal period of growth in the early Edwardian era. Champion was originally known as Cleverville. It was located on the opposite side of the railway tracks and was moved to its current location in 1910, upon arrival of the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) to the area. The buildings were relocated using horses, pulleys and wagons, and upon settlement in their new location, was renamed Champion. As a new community connected to Canada and the rest of the world via the railway, one of the most important buildings to be constructed was the local hotel. The arrival of the railway, combined with the Champion Board of Trade’s assertive promotional campaign, caused an unparalleled population boom in the village. The Board of Trade touted the community as one of the most fertile in the West with abounding farming, commercial, and coal mining opportunities. With construction beginning in early 1911, and opening in May of the same year as a 30-room hotel, the Savoy Hotel was built by original owners Frank Anderson, and John and Nels Johnson, with the assistance of local carpenters. The Savoy Hotel exists today as a representation of the early success of the community and of the promise brought to the area with the arrival of the railway. The Savoy Hotel is also significant for its integral role as a community gathering space and social hub in Champion. This hotel had a combined function of lodging rooms on the upper floors, and commercial services on the ground floor, which contributed to the street life in Champion. Strategically located across from the CPR Station, the Savoy Hotel would have been the first point of entry for settlers and resource workers arriving in the area.

S avoy Hotel


Over its one hundred years, the Savoy Hotel has served many functions, including its role as a hospital, a dental office, and various commercial enterprises, in addition to providing accommodation. The Savoy Hotel is additionally valued for its boomtown commercial vernacular architecture. The hotel was one of the first commercial buildings constructed in Champion following the arrival of the railway in 1910. Constructed as a large, two-storey building on a corner lot across from the railway, its grand appearance alerted people that they had arrived in a prosperous community. Featuring wooden siding and a flat roof with stepped parapet with handsomely detailed symetrical multipane windows and a prominent frontispiece, the Savoy Hotel serves a landmark status as one of the oldest and most recognizable buildings in the Champion community. Character-Defining Elements

• siting at the property lines; • commercial form, scale, and massing including its: twostorey height; rectangular plan and flat roof; • wood-frame construction featuring wooden cornice at second storey, and wooden siding under later vinyl siding; • Edwardian-era boomtown style features including the stepped parapet; frontispiece supported by square columns at entryway on north facade; • original fenestration such as single, double and triple assembly six-over-one single-hung wooden-frame windows and original window openings; • additional features such as exterior red brick chimney at rear, south facade of hotel; and • interior elements such as wooden trim; wood panelled doors; original staircase and wooden turned columns.

The key elements that define the heritage character of the Savoy Hotel include its: • location on a prominent corner lot on 1st Street and Main Street in the Village of Champion in Vulcan County;

The Savoy Hotel as it appeared in the 1920s (Cleverville Pioneer Club History Book Committee. 1972)

FINAL REPORT

2012

41


VULCAN COUNTY

HERITAGE SURVEY & INVENTORY 2012

KIRKCALDY CHURCH, SCHOOL, & HALL heritage value of Historic Place The Kirkcaldy Church, School and Hall is valued as a local historic landmark and is highly significant as an integral community facility that reflects the changing needs of the community through time. Built in 1920 as the Baptist Church, the building was financed by local citizens Joe Myers, Dick Boose, and Grant Mallory. This building, which later became a school, was the heart of the community serving as a Sunday school, a Women’s Institute and the site for numerous community activities. Although the school closed in 1953, the Kirkcaldy Church, School and Hall continues to serve the social needs of the rural community today as the Kirkcaldy Community Club.

1920 LOCATION Kirkcaldy ADDRESS 520 Railway Ave. LEGAL 7272AG;2;1-4 ATS NE;9;16;24;W4 HS# 104449 ORIGINAL OWNER Baptist Union of Western Canada CONTRACTORS Francis and Ezekiel Rench

42

Statement of Integrity Kirkcaldy Church, School and Hall is in near original condition on the exterior of the building. The building is in its original location. Paint is deteriorating on the lapped siding and requires repainting. The original windows have been replaced with fixed windows and the openings have been partially filled in to accommodate the new windows. The original brick chimney has been replaced with a metal flume. The roof was replaced in 2011. Description of Historic Place The Kirkcaldy Church, School and Hall is a modest, one-storey wood-frame building situated on the west side of Railway Avenue in the rural hamlet of Kirkcaldy in Vulcan County. This historic landmark is distinguishable by its front-gabled steeply pitched roofline, front gabled projecting entrance, and wooden lapped siding.

Kirkcaldy Church, School and Hall is additionally significant for its educational role in the community and the desire on behalf of the community to educate its growing population. In response to early settlers’ need for an educational facility, the Kirkcaldy School was established in 1925, with assistance from the Women’s Institute. Between 1925 and 1953, the School Board rented the building from the Baptist Church, with church services continuing on Sunday. The school taught grades one through nine. Indicative of Kirkcaldy’s close-knit community, local residents played an active role in the building’s maintenance and education. Kirkcaldy Church, School and Hall is also valued as an intact example of rural vernacular architecture built by local trades. The building was constructed by local residents, Francis and Ezekiel Rench and reflects a simple and modest design. Elements expressive of this design include its rectangular plan with front gabled roofline and narrow lapped siding accented with cornice boards and cornerboards. Banked fenestration on the sides of the building allow natural light to filter into the

Kir kca ldy Church , S choo l , & ha l l


interior space.

• wood-frame construction with lapped wooden siding and trim;

Character-Defining Elements Key elements that define the heritage character of the Kirkcaldy Church, School and Hall include its: • location on the west side of Railway Avenue in a rural setting in the hamlet of Kirkcaldy in Vulcan County; • siting close to the road; • form, scale, and massing as expressed by its onestorey height; steeply-pitched front gabled roof with narrow eaves; rectangular plan with front gabled projecting entryway and small addition with shed roof at the rear;

• vernacular architectural details including symmetrical fenestration; cornerboards and cornice boards; • original fenestration such as 1-over-1 double-hung windows; original wood paneled door at the rear entrance with multi-light sashes; • additional features such as internal red brick chimney inside of building with metal flue replacing exterior portion of chimney; and • spacious, flat grassed lot.

Rear view of the Kirkcaldy Church, School, & Hall (Donald Luxton & Associates)

FINAL REPORT

2012

43


VULCAN COUNTY

HERITAGE SURVEY & INVENTORY 2012

BANK OF NOVA SCOTIA constructed 1912, continues to operate as a Scotiabank branch. The building features a flat roof with a parapet, a chamfered corner entryway and symmetrical large fixed windows. Heritage Value of Historic Place

1912 LOCATION Milo ADDRESS 200 Centre St. LEGAL 344DQ;3;1 ATS NW;31;18;21;W4 HS# 36883 CONTRACTOR Harry Deitz

Statement of Integrity The Bank of Nova Scotia is a fairly intact historic building that has retained some of its original exterior fabric and detailing. The building, on its original location since it was moved in 1924, has been clad recently with vinyl siding over the original wooden siding. The original wooden cornice was removed. The parapet on the Centre Street facade was extended down the east façade sometime after the vinyl siding was added. The chamfered corner entryway is original and has the original turned column intact on the northeast corner of the building; however, it is now encased within the newer vinyl siding. The concrete foundation is in good condition, with no visible signs of cracking. Description of Historic Place The Bank of Nova Scotia is a long, rectangular one-storey wood-frame commercial building located on the corner of 1st Avenue and Centre Street in the Village of Milo in Vulcan County. The bank,

44

The Bank of Nova Scotia is valued for its connection with the early development of the Milo community. The one-storey commercial building was constructed in 1912 by Harry Deitz, who leased the building to the Bank of Nova Scotia. The bank was established in Milo during a period of growth, when the small community’s optimism for its continued development was unquestioned. A bank was viewed as a critical element to underpin Milo’s aspirations to become an important commercial centre. Milo was established in 1903, three kilometers east of its current location. In anticipation of the CPR’s Lomond Subdivision from Aldersyde completed in 1925, the community and many of its buildings, including this bank, were moved in 1924 to be closer to the line. The Milo Bank of Nova Scotia is representative of this earlier settlement and its long standing, continuous operation and the Bank of Nova Scotia is a testament to the necessary service it provides to residents and visitors to Vulcan County. The Milo Bank of Nova Scotia is additionally valued as a rare example of a Bank of Nova Scotia’s standard bank plan for a rural community. Established in 1832 in Halifax, Nova Scotia, the Bank of Nova Scotia was the Province’s first public bank. The bank expanded into the United States and later the Caribbean and Central America before turning its attention to the west, opening its first western branches in Edmonton, Calgary, and Vancouver in 1903. The Bank of Nova Scotia building represents an exemplary local example of a vernacular commercial building, once common but now rare. The simple style

Bank of Nova Scotia


of the structure indicates its function as a branch bank expressed through its long rectangular plan, flat roof with exaggerated parapet, chamfered corner entryway, original window openings and original wooden drop siding, and cornerboards under later vinyl siding. Character-Defining Elements The key elements that define the heritage character of the Milo Bank of Nova Scotia include its: • location on the corner of 1st Avenue and Centre Street in the centre of the Village of Milo with facades on two streets;

• commercial form, scale and massing as expressed by its: flat-roofed one-storey height; exaggerated parapet wall; • wood-frame construction featuring original wooden drop siding and trim under later vinyl siding; • elements of the Bank of Nova Scotia standard bank plan including chamfered corner with narrow columns and cornerboards; • original window and door openings; transom window above corner entryway; and • external chimney.

• siting on the property lines;

The Bank of Nova Scotia as it appeared in 1928 (Glenbow Archives NA-1367- 61)

FINAL REPORT

2012

45


VULCAN COUNTY

HERITAGE SURVEY & INVENTORY 2012

MILO HOTEL in Vulcan County. The building features a variety of original wood-frame windows and openings on the second floor, original wooden siding on the first floor of the west elevation, and a low-pitched front-gabled roof, obscured by a ‘boomtown’ façade. Heritage Value of Historic Place

1926 LOCATION Milo ADDRESS 131 Centre St. LEGAL 2930DM;1;21,22 ATS NW;31;18;21;W4 HS# 104431 CONTRACTOR Frank Sutton

46

Statement of Integrity Form, scale and massing are intact in this 1926 hotel. The building, in its original location, has been clad in hardi-plank board on the front elevation and aluminum siding over original wooden siding. Window openings are original at the second storey with some original one-over-one and two-over-two wooden sash windows on the east elevation. The west and front elevation windows have been replaced with vinyl. Window and door openings have been altered significantly at the first storey on the south and west elevations. The roof is in fair condition; however, the gutters at the parapet roof have an overgrowth of organic material. A onestorey addition was added to the east side of the building.

The Milo Hotel is valued for its connection with the early growth and settlement of Milo’s second location and as one of the oldest original buildings in the community. The hotel, built as a 12-room hotel in 1926 by Frank Sutton, has provided accommodation for the community and surrounding area for more than eightyfive years. Milo was established in 1903, three kilometers east of its current location. In anticipation of the CPR’s Lomond Subdivision from Aldersyde completed in 1925, the community and many of its buildings, were moved in 1924 to be closer to the line. The young community continued to grow, culminating in its achievement of village status in 1931. The Milo Hotel is a representation of this early period of growth and its longstanding operation as a hotel is a testament to the necessary accommodation it provides to visitors to Milo. The Milo Hotel is additionally valued as a prominent community landmark and a good example of a late expression of modest ‘boomtown’ design. The ‘boomtown’ façade, comprised of an exaggerated flat-top parapet taller than the two-storey building, hides a low-pitch frontgable. The building is modestly detailed with symmetrical fenestration, inset trim and wooden drop siding.

Description of Historic Place

Character-Defining Elements

The Milo Hotel is a two-storey wood-frame building with a flat parapet boomtown facade located at the corner of 1st Avenue and Centre Street in the Village of Milo

The key elements that define the heritage character of the Milo Hotel include its: • location on a corner lot at 1st Avenue facing Centre Street in the centre of the

M il o Hotel


Village Milo in Vulcan County; • siting on the property lines;

• boomtown vernacular style featuring flat-top parapet roof with wooden cornice;

• commercial form, scale, and massing as expressed by its low-pitched front-gabled two-storey height with exaggerated parapet boomtown wall on front façade; closed wooden soffits;

• original interior red brick chimney.

• original fenestration such as: single assembly oneover-one and two-over-two wooden-sash windows and openings on the second floor; and

• wood-frame construction featuring original wooden drop siding on the first floor west elevation and inlaid trim;

The Milo Hotel (left) as it appeared in 1928. Looking northeast down Centre Street (Glenbow Archives NA-1367-59)

FINAL REPORT

2012

47


VULCAN COUNTY

HERITAGE SURVEY & INVENTORY 2012

MOSSLEIGH ELEVATOR ROW annex buildings and display painted logos of the elevators’ original owners. Heritage Value of Historic Place

All three

1930

LOCATION Mossleigh ADDRESS 229/133/117 Railway Ave. LEGAL RW321;RLY;20 ATS SW;30;20;24;W4 HS# 63398

Statement of Integrity The Mossleigh Elevator Row is in fair condition as a grouping, each with solid foundations and intact exterior fabric. The wooden lapped siding on many of the elevators is damaged and requires repair in-kind. The original painted logos are visible but require restoration. All three elevators were painted a mustard colour by Parrish and Heimbecker circa 1986. The wooden shingle roofs require some repair and replacement in-kind. Normal upgrading of machinery has occurred through time. Several of the original annexes have been demolished.

ORIGINAL OWNERS

Above image, from back to front:

Searle Grain Company Pioneer Grain Company Parrish and Heimbecker

48

Description of Historic Place The Mossleigh Elevator Row consists of three historic grain elevators prominently situated on an east-west axis north of the rail line at the southeast perimeter of the Hamlet of Mossleigh in Vulcan County. The three elevators reflect traditional cribbed construction with gabled roofs and raised gabled cupolas. All three have associated

The Mossleigh Elevator Row, consisting of three grain elevators, is highly significant as one of only a handful of extant elevator rows in southern Alberta and dually as a declaration of Mossleigh’s late success as an important grain shipping centre in southern Alberta. The Hamlet of Mossleigh was developed with the establishment of CPR’s Lomond Subdivision, completed in 1925 and linking Eltham to Lomond. Four grain elevators were constructed in this location in 1930 built by United Grain Growers, Parrish and Heimbecker, Pioneer Grain Co. and Searle Grain Co. The United Grain Growers elevator, the western most grain elevator and the first elevator to be built in Mossleigh, was razed by fire in 1967. The intact elevator row in Mossleigh is an enduring symbol of the important role of grain storage and shipping in Mossleigh in the late 1920s to early 1930s. The Mossleigh Elevator Row gains additional value as an excellent and well preserved example of the elevators’ traditional cribbed construction. It is also the only location in Alberta that features all three types of annexes: crib, balloon and loxstave. Traditional cribbed construction is reflected in the tall, slender totemic gabled massing, raised gabled cupola and associated attached and detached annexes. Company names are prominently displayed on the sides of all three elevators presenting the purchase history of the elevators denoted in the painted logos. The eastern most, Searle Grain Co. contains two associated buildings rarely preserved in Alberta: an octagonal loxstave added after the Second World War and a coal shed. The sale of coal was an extra source of income for elevator agents. Coal was unloaded directly from boxcars and stored in the shed.

moss leigh Elevator Row


The Mossleigh Elevator Row serves as a landmark in Vulcan County for its prominent siting north of Highway 24 and for its rare preservation of a row of three grain elevators and associated annex buildings.

Elements of the Pioneer Grain Co. Elevator (middle elevator)

Character-Defining Elements

• construction materials such as wide wooden lapped siding; cedar shingle roof;

The key elements that define the heritage character of the Mossleigh Elevator Row site include its: • siting of three elevators on their original location on the north side of the rail tracks at the east end of the Hamlet of Mossleigh on Railway Avenue; • prominent siting from Highway 24; • open spacious prairie landscape surrounding the grain elevators. Elements of the Parrish and Heimbecker Ltd. Elevator (west elevator) • form, scale and massing as expressed by its traditional cribbed construction with gabled roof and gabled roof cupola; • construction materials such as wooden-frame; wooden lapped siding under later shingle plate cladding; metal bargeboards; cedar shingle roof; • original fenestration including single assembly six-oversix wooden sash windows; double sliding door facing rail line; and • additional details such as its: original ‘P&H’ logo on front façade; exterior truck and hopper car loading spouts; and associated annex buildings including crib annex on east.

• form, scale and massing as expressed by its traditional cribbed construction with gabled roof and gabled roof cupola;

• original fenestration including single assembly sixover-six wooden sash windows; sliding doors on west elevation; and • additional details such as its: original painted ‘Pioneer Grain Co.’ logo on west elevation; exterior truck and hopper car loading spouts and associated annex buildings including a large rectangular balloon annex attached to the east elevation. Elements of the Searle Grain Co. Elevator (east elevator) • form, scale and massing as expressed by its traditional cribbed construction with gabled roof and gabled roof cupola; • construction materials such as: wide wooden lapped siding and cedar shingle roof; • original fenestration including single assembly six-oversix wooden sash windows; and • additional details such as its: original painted ‘Searle’ logo on west elevation and associated annex buildings including a large octagonal 30,000-bushel loxstave on the west facade constructed after the Second World War.

Left: View of the Searle Grain Company Elevator with annex Right: View of Elevator Row from Mossleigh (Donald Luxton & Associates)

FINAL REPORT

2012

49


VULCAN COUNTY

HERITAGE SURVEY & INVENTORY 2012

QUEENSTOWN HALL Heritage Value of Historic Place The Queenstown Hall is highly valued as an icon of the development of the agricultural community of Queenstown in Vulcan County. By the late 1910s, wheat production had developed into an important local industry in the area and supplied much needed grain crops during the First World War. The thriving agricultural endeavours of many of the early settlers in the area led to the establishment of Queenstown in the 1910s, west of the CPR rail line. The hamlet sprouted quickly after its establishment with the construction of several commercial buildings, a hotel, a boarding house, a bank, a service station, and five-grain elevators. The Queenstown Hall opened in June 1918 to serve needs of the growing community.

1918 LOCATION Queenstown ADDRESS 320 Railway Ave. LEGAL 7780DL;4;1 ATS SE;26;19;22;W4 HS# 104453

50

Statement of Integrity The Queenstown Hall is in good, near original condition with most of its original elements intact. The exterior paint is chipping and in poor condition, requiring repainting in the near future. Some of the windows have been boarded up. The asphalt roof is deteriorated and requires replacement in the near future. Description of Historic Place Queenstown Hall is a one-storey, woodframe community hall located on the west side of Railway Avenue in the Hamlet of Queenstown in Vulcan County. The hall is distinguished by its long rectangular front-gabled plan with central door, wooden lapped siding and Arts & Crafts detailing including a gable screen and triangular brackets. The hall is located on a large open prairie lot.

The Queenstown Hall is further valued as an initiative to formalize connections within the rural farming community in Queenstown. Community halls were an essential part of prairie life, and the hall was integral to promoting activities such as dances or social gatherings for local residents. The hall also served as a meeting location for several community organizations including fraternal organizations such as the United Farmers Association, and the Women’s Institute. The hall was constructed with the help of volunteer labour. The Queenstown Hall is also significant as an excellent example of vernacular architecture that characterizes many community-related structures in the late ninetieth to early twentieth century. It is similar in size and construction to other community halls in Vulcan County including Alston Hall and Reid Hill Hall. The hall displays many original elements including front-gabled rectangular massing and central front entryway with double wood-paneled doors with multilights. Arts & Crafts style, popular in the 1910s and 1920s in rural Alberta, is visible in its

Queenstown Hal l


overhanging eaves with exposed rafter tails, triangular brackets and gable screens at the gable peak, and gabled awning over the front entryway.

• Arts & Crafts detailing including: exposed and pointed rafter tails; triangular brackets; gable screens at the gable peak and awning over the front entryway;

Character-Defining Elements

• fenestration including triple assembly multipane wooden sash windows on sides of the hall; double wood-paneled doors with multi-lights in central front entryway; and

The key elements that define the heritage character of the Queenstown Hall site include its: • siting on its original location on the west side of Railway Avenue in the Hamlet of Queenstown in Vulcan County;

• open spacious prairie landscape surrounding hall.

• location close to the property lines on a large lot; • form, scale and massing as expressed by its: onestorey rectangular plan with low pitched roofline with overhanging open eaves and central awning; • wood-frame construction such as: wooden lapped siding and wooden trim and stylistic details;

Rear view of the Queenstown Hall (Donald Luxton & Associates)

FINAL REPORT

2012

51


VULCAN COUNTY

HERITAGE SURVEY & INVENTORY 2012

LIBERTY SCHOOL Heritage Value of Historic Place

1909 LOCATION Milo Area ADDRESS East of Rge. Rd. 205 on Twp. Rd. 194 ATS SW;29;19;20;W4 HS# 104457

Statement of Integrity Liberty School is a rare intact rural school in nearly original condition. Many original elements such as the windows, doors, siding and trim are intact and in good condition requiring some minor repair and repainting. The roof has been replaced with asphalt some time in the last 10 years. Windows are broken on the front façade and the diamond window opening at the gable peak. Description of Historic Place Liberty School is located along Township Road 194, between Range Road 204 and 205, near Majorville in Vulcan County. The building is a one-storey wooden-frame rural school building featuring a frontgabled roof, original wooden lapped siding and wooden sash double-hung windows. The school, distinguished by its diamond shaped window at the front gable peak is located set back from the road on a rural farming site and marked with a historic school marker.

52

Built in 1909, Liberty School is highly valued as an early intact example of the systematic development of rural education and as part of a network of rural schools in the Vulcan County area. Beginning in 1905, school districts were developed every four to five miles (six and onehalf to eight kilometers) in Alberta, as mandated by the Ministry of Education to allow children to walk to school. As the rural population of the Majorville area grew with increased agricultural settlement, there was a need to provide services, including education, to the community. Educational services in the area had previously been operated out of a local resident’s home. The Liberty School was part of School District 1940, which was established on February 25, 1909. In March of the same year, the School Board borrowed $2,000 from the Ministry of Education to construct Liberty School, with work commencing in July. Liberty School operated for 30 years before smaller school districts were consolidated in 1939. Former Liberty School students were then bussed to Milo. The building was sold community members in the area in 1953 and was used as a gathering space for several years. Liberty School is additionally significant as a pristine example of one of four Ministry of Education’s standard one-room school plans for rural communities in Alberta. The plans were simple and elegant in their design, and allowed for inexpensive construction that could be undertaken by local trades. Elements of the rural school standard plan includes simple rectangular front-gabled massing, wooden lapped siding, pointed wooden bargeboards and wooden cornerboards. The banked wooden-sash double-hung windows allowed natural light into the classroom space. Liberty School is accentuated by its dramatic prairie setting, with a notable

Liberty School


absence of any trees or structures in its vicinity. The Liberty School is a landmark historic resource in the Vulcan County area due to its nearly intact condition and dramatic rural setting. Character-Defining Elements The key elements that define the heritage character of Liberty School include its: • location on Township Road 194, near Majorville; • set-back from the road in a rural prairie setting with unencumbered views of surrounding prairie landscape;

• wood-framed construction featuring original wooden lapped siding; • features of the Ministry of Education’s standard oneroom rural school plan, including: pointed wooden bargeboards and wooden trim; cornerboards; cornice boards; water table and original signage stating “1909 Liberty School District 1940”; and • original fenestration including: banked single-assembly, wooden-sash two-over-two single-hung windows and a wood-frame diamond window above the front door; original wooden door with five panels and transom light.

• form, scale and massing as expressed by its onestorey height with front-gabled roof; shed roofed coal shed at rear of building;

Rear view of the Liberty School (Donald Luxton & Associates)

FINAL REPORT

2012

53


VULCAN COUNTY

HERITAGE SURVEY & INVENTORY 2012

HEARNLEIGH POST OFFICE Heritage Value of Historic Place

Post Office opening

1908

LOCATION Vulcan Area ADDRESS 235036 Twp. Rd. 182 ATS SE;18;18;23;W4 HS# 104459 ORIGINAL OWNERS Edward & Sarah Hearn

54

Statement of Integrity The Hearnleigh Post Office is an intact pioneer residence that has been well maintained and features many original elements. Paint is peeling and chipping in many locations on the wooden exterior and requires repainting. A shed roof addition was added to the rear of the house but is sympathetic to the original design. The roof has been replaced recently with asphalt. Description of Historic Place The Hearnleigh Post Office is a one and one-half-storey, T-shaped plan residence with a shed roof addition on the west elevation. The residence and former post office is located on a large rural lot northeast of the Town of Vulcan on the north side of Township Road 182, just east of Range Road 240 in Vulcan County. The house is surrounded by a low profile rubblestone and concrete wall in the front yard and a gambrel roof barn to the northwest of the residence.

The Hearnleigh Post Office is highly valued as an intact example of the unique system of communication and mail in the rural Vulcan County area in the early years of settlement in the 1900s. Prior to construction of more centralized mail distribution centres and improved transportation networks, post offices were established in rural farming residences, which served a dual function as a centralized distribution centre and community gathering space. The house was owned by Edward and Sarah Hearn, who arrived and homesteaded this site in 1905. The closest mail distribution point to the area was in Brant, a 45-kilometer round trip. As the community continued to populate, the settlers contacted the government to establish a post office in the area. Edward Hearn was selected as postmaster with the Hearn Residence to be converted for use as the post office in 1908. ‘Hearnleigh’ was the consensus for the name, based on an amalgamation of Hearn and Leigh. Leigh references Edward’s friend and close neighbour, Harry Amey’s home village, Cranleigh, England. Edward traveled twice weekly to Brant to pick up the mail and Sarah helped operate the post office out of their house. The Hearnleigh Post Office operated until 1922, when individual mail boxes were installed along rural routes in the area. Edward passed away shortly after in 1924, and Sarah in 1925. The Hearnleigh Post Office represents a creative response to the challenging conditions put forth in rural agricultural settlements in the area. The Hearnleigh Post Office is also significant as an excellent example of a rural pioneer residence converted for use as a post office. The T-shaped plan, one and one-half-storey pioneer residence displays vernacular detailing such as lapped wooden siding with imbedded cornerboards and cornice boards, single assembly two-over-two single-hung

Hearnleigh Post Of f ice


wooden-sash windows, and an internal concrete block chimney. The post office portion of the house was built on the west side of the house as a shed-roof addition, accessed through a separate wood-paneled door on the north facade. The property is well landscaped with a low profile rubblestone wall surrounding the front of the property. Though its function as the post office ended in the 1920s, the Hearnleigh Post Office residence has remained an important landmark in the rural Vulcan County area. Character-Defining Elements The key elements that define the heritage character of the Hearnleigh Post Office site include its: • siting on its original location on the north side of Township Road 182, just east of Range Road 240 in Vulcan County;

• wood-frame construction such as: wooden lapped siding and wooden trim; • vernacular residential detailing such as exposed rafter tails; embedded trim, cornerboards and cornice boards; • original fenestration including single assembly twoover-two single-hung wooden sash windows; sixpaneled wooden doors; • additional details such as concrete block interior chimney; • Hearnleigh Post Office addition including shed-roof addition with banked window openings and separate entryway on west side of residence; and • open spacious prairie landscape surrounding residence; low profile rubblestone and concrete wall surrounding front of residence; and associated gambrel roof barn to northwest of residence.

• location set back from the road on a large farm lot; • residential form, scale and massing as expressed by its: one and one-half-storey, T-shaped plan with shedroof dormers on either side of the side gabled portion of the residence; rubblestone and concrete foundation;

Left: View of the Hearnleigh Post Office, looking southwest (Donald Luxton & Associates) Right: View of the Hearnleigh Post Office, looking northwest (Donald Luxton & Associates)

FINAL REPORT

2012

55


VULCAN COUNTY

HERITAGE SURVEY & INVENTORY 2012

THE DRY DITCH

1909-17 LOCATION Lomond Area LEGAL IRR158/IRR164/IRR361 HS# 104461

Statement of Integrity The Dry Ditch is visible in many locations throughout eastern Vulcan County, east of the Little Bow Reservoir to the south end of McGregor Lake Reservoir. In areas where the ditch is visible from the road, there are opportunities for heritage interpretation. Description of Historic Place The Dry Ditch is an historic canal in eastern Vulcan County that runs from the south dam at McGregor Lake Reservoir, south and east to follow the east side of Travers Reservoir and further east connecting to Little Bow Reservoir, petering out shortly thereafter. The ditch, built from 1909 to 1917 was constructed to control water for agricultural development. It is approximately 25 kilometers in length and ranges in width from 10 to 15 meters. Heritage Value of Historic Place The Dry Ditch, also known as the Little Bow Cut, is invaluable for its prairie

56

ingenuity and engineering as an intact remnant of early irrigation initiatives in the area. When settlers arrived to farm the rich soils of the Snake Valley in the early 1900s, it was quickly realized that an irrigation system was required to channel water to the various farms in the region. In 1906, approximately 154,000-hectares of land surrounding the Snake Valley depression and further land to the south and east was purchased by the Robbins Irrigation Company with anticipation of converting the land into an agricultural oasis. This land interest was shortly transferred to the English-based company Southern Alberta Land Company, with headquarters in Bow City in the Vulcan County area. The Southern Alberta Land Company sold shares to investors in England to raise money to build the main dam, the McGregor Lake Reservoir as well as a smaller dam at Little Bow Reservoir to the southeast. Construction began in 1909 on both projects and the dams were completed in approximately 1912 using locally sourced materials and local labour. The Dry Ditch, a canal that funneled water from the McGregor Lake Reservoir to surrounding farms, was built from approximately 1909 to 1917, with construction beginning in earnest in 1911. The canal was excavated from the south dam at the McGregor Lake Reservoir to just east of the Little Bow Reservoir and at one time, connected both reservoirs. The canal project actively engaged local labour, providing seasonal work for the rural communities. The resulting canal facilitated settlement as well as agricultural and industrial development. The project stalled due to financial constraints during the First World War and water did not begin flowing into the canal until September 1919. With continued economic constraints, irrigation was not undertaken again in the area until 1954 with the building of the Travers Reservoir; portions of the original ditch were re-used to build a larger canal constructed during this time. The Dry Ditch

The Dry Ditch


was never formally utilized to its full capacity but remains visible and intact in many locations in the area. The Dry Ditch is additionally significant as a man-made, cultural, landscape feature. It provides natural drainage and maintains local environmental and habitat values.

to the Little Bow Reservoir, petering out just east of the reservoir; and • portions of the natural dry waterway that provide habitat to a variety of specimen plants, trees, and fauna.

Character-Defining Elements The key elements that define the heritage character of the Dry Ditch site include its: • man-made form as a watercourse that runs from the south dam at the McGregor Lake Reservoir, south following the east side of Travers Reservoir, and east

Canada Land & Irrigation Co. Ltd. Operation map of Main Canal, Division B, Section 1 & 2, between the south dam of Lake McGregor and Little Bow Reservoir. June 6, 1918 (Glenbow Archives M2389 - 499)

FINAL REPORT

2012

57


VULCAN COUNTY

HERITAGE SURVEY & INVENTORY 2012

VULCAN ADVOCATE BUILDING associated to a grouping of historic commercial buildings in the downtown core. Heritage Value of Historic Place

1917 LOCATION Vulcan ADDRESS 211 Centre (Vulcan) St. LEGAL 7000AG;6;27 ATS SE;5;17;24;W4 HS# 27880

Statement of Integrity The Vulcan Advocate building is in good condition, requiring minimal conservation to exterior character defining elements. The brick cladding is in good condition and the building was painted sometime before 1979. The original tripartite wooden-sash windows were removed and replaced with a single fixed pane on the western window opening; the eastern window opening has retained its original design. Both window openings were replaced with new glass. The signboard has been clad in wood and a concrete block addition was added to the rear of the building in 1959. Description of Historic Place The Vulcan Advocate building is a onestorey brick masonry commercial building with a central recessed arched entryway and arched parapet with brick pilasters bordering each end of the building. The building is located on the south side of Centre Street in the Town of Vulcan in Vulcan County, and is connected and

58

The Vulcan Advocate building is significant as a symbol of one of the Town of Vulcan’s longest running businesses. The Vulcan Advocate newspaper was first established in 1913 by Charles Clark, the owner of The High River Times in High River, Alberta. The first issue of The Vulcan Advocate was published August 6, 1913, typeset by hand and printed in High River. Publication of the newspaper was undertaken in The High River Times office until efficient equipment and office space was acquired in Vulcan. Two months later, a two-page newspaper press was purchased and the newpaper was run out of a small woodenframe building on Centre Street. R.W. Glover was the first publisher; a position he held until 1919. The purpose-built Vulcan Advocate building was constructed in 1917 to house the printing press and offices. It operated as the Vulcan Advocate newspaper building until the paper was moved to a larger facility in November 2008. The Vulcan Advocate building is also highly significant for its role in the community as an integral form of communication for settlers in the town and the surrounding rural area. As one of the area’s most consistent form of communication, The Vulcan Advocate has reported on the community’s rise from an agricultural settlement to its incorporation as a Town in 1921. The Vulcan Advocate brought news of two World Wars home to families in Vulcan, and was often one of the only sources of information on local and world events to reach the community on a regular basis. The Vulcan Advocate has provided information on current events to Vulcan for almost one-hundred years to Vulcan and the surrounding communities of Arrowwood, Brant, Berrywater,

V ulcan Advocate B ui l ding


Carmangay, Champion, Lomond, Milo, and Mossleigh.

Character-Defining Elements

The Vulcan Advocate building is additionally valued for its modest one-storey masonry construction representative of Vulcan’s transformation from small agricultural community to one of the largest wheat producing and shipping centres in the world. The Vulcan Advocate building represents a period of growth and prosperity in Vulcan in the mid to late 1910s. The wartime construction date illustrates the agricultural boom that occurred during the First World War, a time when rising food prices brought new prosperity to local farms. The commercial centre in Vulcan as well as many local farm residences were built during the war years - an unusual pattern at a time when there was little other domestic construction in the province. The building, like many of the commercial buildings in the town, exhibits modest scale and massing coupled with local materials and elegant detailing. Late Edwardian-era vernacular commercial elements visible on the building include the brick pilasters bordering each side of the building, a central arched recessed entryway and an arched central parapet.

The key elements that define the heritage character of the Vulcan Advocate building include its: • siting on its original location on the south side of Centre Street downtown and connected to a grouping of commercial historic buildings in the Town of Vulcan in Vulcan County; • location abutting the property lines; • commercial form, scale and massing as expressed by its one-storey rectangular plan with flat roof; • masonry construction including red brick cladding; • Late Edwardian-era vernacular commercial elements including: brick pilasters with brick capitals at each corner of the building; brick lintels; brick quoining; arched central parapet and arched and recessed central entryway with wooden soffits; and • fenestration including tripartite fixed windows and original window openings; fanlight above door.

The Advocate Building as it appeared several months after its construction (The Vulcan Advocate. February 27, 1918)

FINAL REPORT

2012

59


VULCAN COUNTY

HERITAGE SURVEY & INVENTORY 2012

BANK OF HAMILTON Heritage Value Of Historic Place

1912-13 LOCATION Vulcan ADDRESS 102 2nd (Atlantic) Ave N. LEGAL 7000AG;2;22 ATS SE;5;17;24;W4 HS# 30501

Statement Of Integrity The Bank of Hamilton is in fairly good condition with many intact original exterior elements. Form, scale and massing are intact. The original corner chamfered entryway at the southwest corner was filled in. The original drop wooden siding is intact under later stucco cladding. The wooden cornice is original, but requires a higher level of restoration and repair. Fenestration is original at the upper storey and the west façade, but has been filled in on the north façade. Description Of Historic Place The Bank of Hamilton is a modest, two-storey commercial bank building situated on the north side of 2nd Avenue and Centre Street with facades on both streets in the downtown core of the Town of Vulcan in Vulcan County. This historic building is characterized by its rectangular plan, flat roof with parapet wall, wooden cornice, stucco cladding, and tripartite wooden windows.

60

The Bank of Hamilton is valued as symbolic of the first bank to provide financial services in the Town of Vulcan and is linked with the town’s early development and settlement. Vulcan emerged as an important agricultural center, with the arrival of the CPR KippAldersyde line in 1910-11 that ran from Kipp through Vulcan to Aldersyde, linking to the main transcontinental line in Calgary. Connected to the railway was the town’s first grain elevator, which farmers could easily access to export bushels of grain. Speculating that farmers would also require commercial resources, the CPR sold off parcels of its land, thus creating the Town of Vulcan. The Bank of Hamilton was the first to purchase a CPR lot in Vulcan and constructed a one-storey purpose-built bank in 1910-11 with the help of contractor A. Bourne. Mr. O’Brien was the first manager at the bank. The original bank was moved to an adjacent site when the new two storey bank was constructed on the same site in 1912-13. The building continues to operate as a commercial building and contributes to the consistent and distinctive historic built form in downtown Vulcan. The Bank of Hamilton is highly valued as an intact example of a rural standard plan for the Bank of Hamilton. The Bank of Hamilton was founded in 1872 in Hamilton, Ontario and by 1910 had expanded to over 128 locations from Ontario to the west. The presence of the Bank of Hamilton in the Town of Vulcan denotes the strong need for financial institutions during the town’s Edwardian era development. In 1924, the Bank of Hamilton merged with the Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce, which today remains a leading international financial institution. Constructed during Vulcan’s early development, the Bank of Hamilton displays elements of the rural Bank of Hamilton standard bank plan. The

Bank of Hamilton


false parapet wall gives the illusion of a larger building, while the simple façade with a handsome wooden cornice and tripartite wooden windows projects an image of security and stability. The second storey of the building was used for offices. Due to its prominent location on its original corner lot in downtown Vulcan and as an intact example of the standard Bank of Hamilton plans, the Bank of Hamilton, Vulcan Branch is a landmark in the community. Character-Defining Elements

• wood-frame construction with wooden drop siding under later stucco cladding; • elements of the standard Bank of Hamilton plan including false parapet wall, wooden cornice; • original fenestration such as tripartite wooden-sash window with fixed upper sash and original wooden frames; • additional details such as internal red brick chimney; and • original interior elements including wooden trim.

Key elements that define the heritage character of the Bank of Hamilton include its: • location on a prominent corner lot in downtown Vulcan, set amongst other historic buildings; • siting at the property lines; • commercial form, scale and massing as expressed by its: two-storey height; rectangular plan and flat roof;

Left: The Bank of Hamilton amid a parade on Atlantic Avenue (2nd Avenue) in 1914 (Glenbow Archives NA-2685 -72) Right: Bank of Hamilton in 1913 (Glenbow Archives NA-2415 -1)

FINAL REPORT

2012

61


VULCAN COUNTY

HERITAGE SURVEY & INVENTORY 2012

KING RESIDENCE Heritage Value of Historic Place

1920 LOCATION Vulcan ADDRESS 522 1st (Apollo) St. S LEGAL 5163CC;29;5,6 ATS SW;5;17;24;W4 HS# 104436 ORIGINAL OWNERS Errett & Siverena King

62

Statement of Integrity The King Residence has many original elements in good condition, requiring minor replacement-in-kind and restoration. The original design of the house featured a fullwidth open verandah, which was filled in some time after 1929. Windows are intact and in good condition. A metal roof was added to the house some time in the last 10 years. Description of Historic Place The King Residence is located on the north side of 1st Street South, on a residential street south and west of downtown in the Town of Vulcan in Vulcan County. The house is a picturesque Arts & Crafts Bungalow distinguished through its one and one-half storey massing with hipped roof and central hipped-roof dormer. A central multi-light door and infilled verandah with multilight wooden-sash windows accent the primary façade of the house. The house is set back on a large property.

The King Residence is valued as symbolic of the success and prominence of the home’s first owners, Errett King and his wife, Siverena (nee McKittrick). Errett was a pharmacist and optometrist, who with his wife, emigrated to the west from Dufferin County, Ontario just after they married in 1912. The Kings moved several times and settled in Vulcan circa 1918, purchasing the Copeland Drug Store, which was located in two rooms at the north end of the Imperial Hotel in downtown Vulcan. Errett later purchased the General Store on the south side of Centre Street where he ran the King Drug Store for many years. Errett was an active member of the community, sitting on town council and eventually serving as Mayor from 193639. Siverena was a prominent member of the United Church, the Women’s Institute, the Red Cross and Eastern Star. They purchased two lots from the CPR in 1919 on 1st Street South, then known as Apollo Street. They built this handsome home spanning both lots in 1920. The King Residence is additionally valued as a superior and rare example of an Arts & Crafts Bungalow design in the Town of Vulcan. Inspired by the Arts & Crafts movement, a popular architectural style in the late Edwardian era, this style of house was typified by rational space planning, the use of natural materials and a mix of traditional design elements such as picturesque rooflines, decorative brackets and a rich textural contrast of cladding materials. The Arts & Crafts style was popularized through countless periodicals and plan books, expressing both the traditional aspects of the movement as well as modern conveniences. Elements of the Arts & Crafts style are visible in the one and one-half storey massing with hipped roof, hipped dormers and variety of siding styles including shingle and lapped siding.

King R E si dence


Character-Defining Elements The key elements that define the heritage character of the King Residence include its: • siting in its original location, set back from the property lines in a residential setting on 1st Street South in the Town of Vulcan in Vulcan County;

at enclosed verandah and single and triple assembly nine-over-one single-hung wooden-sash windows; • additional details such as two internal red brick chimneys; and • landscape features such as large landscaped lot.

• residential form, scale and massing as expressed by its: square plan; one and one-half storey height with a hipped roof; open soffits; and four symmetrical hipped dormers at each elevation; • wood construction including wooden frame; wooden siding; and wooden details and trim; • Arts & Crafts style details including its: variety of siding types such as lapped siding on the main body and shingle siding at the dormers; exposed rafter tails; full width enclosed verandah with pointed arch verandah openings; columns at corners of enclosed porch; • fenestration including banked eight-over-one windows

 

The King Residence in 1929 (Vulcan and District Historical Society. 1973)

FINAL REPORT

2012

63


VULCAN COUNTY

HERITAGE SURVEY & INVENTORY 2012

IMPERIAL HOTEL and third storeys. It is part of a grouping of commercial historical buildings and is prominently situated in downtown Vulcan. Heritage Value of Historic Place

1912 LOCATION Vulcan ADDRESS 208 Centre (Vulcan) St. LEGAL 7000AG;7;1-4 ATS SE;5;17;24;W4 HS# 27491 ORIGINAL OWNER Albert Mutz

Integrity Statement The Imperial Hotel has undergone a number of significant alterations over time. Its original form, scale, and massing are intact. The building’s original windows have been replaced with vinyl although some original wooden sash storefront windows are intact on the first storey. Aluminum shutters were added which are not sympathetic to the original design. The original concrete block cladding was covered with stucco and vinyl siding, with portions of the siding in poor repair or missing. The cornice is original, but requires repainting. Description of Historic Place The Imperial Hotel is a three-storey building located on the north side of Centre Street and 2nd Avenue North in the Town of Vulcan in Vulcan County. The L-shaped building with a commercial function on the main floor and lodging above, has a flat roof, corner chamfered entryway and symmetrical fenestration on the second

64

The Imperial Hotel, built in 1912, signifies the Town of Vulcan’s establishment as an important agricultural and commercial center in southern Alberta and denotes the increased need for lodging during Vulcan’s principal period of growth during the Edwardian era. Vulcan emerged as an important agricultural center, with the arrival of the CPR line in 1910-11 that ran from Kipp through Vulcan to Aldersyde, eventually linking to Calgary. Connected to the railway was the town’s first grain elevator, which farmers could reach easily to export grain. Speculating that farmers would need commercial resources, the CPR sold off parcels of its land, thus creating the Town of Vulcan. This hotel exemplifies the type of lodging required to house labourers that were traveling to the area to take advantage of the wheat export business and railway expansion. Hotels as such were often the first point of entry for resource workers and provided both short and long-term accommodation. The Imperial Hotel, which opened in September 1912, had a combined function of lodging rooms on the upper floors, and commercial services on the ground floor, which contributed to the street life in Vulcan. Additionally, the Imperial Hotel is significant for its association to prairie ingenuity in the area and its affiliation with the hotel’s first owner, Albert Mutz. The two-storey Imperial Hotel was originally situated in the Town of Frank, Alberta. Fearing future rock slides after the devastating rock slide that razed Frank in 1903, the town and all of its buildings were condemned by the Province in 1911. Mutz, who owned the Imperial Hotel, had the hotel disassembled on April 22, 1912, and the building material was salvaged and moved to Vulcan. There, Mutz used the salvaged materials to build

I mperial Hotel


a three storey, 40-room hotel. Not only was the hotel the largest between Lethbridge and Calgary, but it was also the most technologically advanced for its time. In 1916, Mutz built a steam plant to power the electric lighting in the building and an on site laundry service using steam from the plant. This plant also allowed him to install the first lights on Centre Street. Albert and his wife operated the hotel until 1930, when Mutz sold the hotel to Joseph Dobbs. It was renamed it the Dobbs Hotel at this juncture.

• prominent corner location with facades on two streets at Centre Street and 2nd Avenue North in the commercial center of the Town of Vulcan in Vulcan County;

The Imperial Hotel is additionally valued for its vernacular commercial architecture. Originally showcasing elements of the Classical Revival style, popularized during the Edwardian period in the early 1900s, the Imperial Hotel was a handsome and stately building originally featuring concrete block cladding with quoining details, multipane windows and parged decorative lintels. Elements of the original hotel design are visible in its L-shaped plan with three storey height, form and massing, original single assembly window openings, overhanging cornice and chamfered corner entryway.

• construction including wooden frame with concrete block cladding under later stucco and vinyl siding;

Character-Defining Elements Key elements that define the heritage character of the Imperial Hotel include its:

• siting close to the street; • commercial form, scale and massing as expressed by its: three-storey height; flat roof with flat-top parapet, and L-shaped plan;

• original window openings and fenestration pattern at the second and third storey with original oneover-one single-hung wooden sash windows at the rear elevations with transoms above; wooden sash storefront windows at first storey; • elements of its original Edwardian era vernacular commercial design including: overhanging roof cornice and chamfered corner entryway; • additional features such as interior red brick chimney and remains of power plant; and • interior features such as original wainscoting; wooden trim; and wood paneled doors and radiators.

The ‘Dobbs Hotel’, as it was known after 1930. (Prairie Postcards. Peel’s Prairie Provinces PC004940)

FINAL REPORT

2012

65


VULCAN COUNTY

HERITAGE SURVEY & INVENTORY 2012

CPR DEMONSTRATION FARM two-storey hipped-roof Foursquare residence with shingle siding. A low profile dual-pitched front gabled roof barn, a hallmark of early CPR ‘Ready-Made’ farm structures in Alberta, is located to the south and behind the residence. The farm site includes several farming outbuildings. Heritage Value of Historic Place

1912 LOCATION Vulcan Area ADDRESS East of Hwy. 23 on Hwy. 534 ATS NE;33;16;24;W4 HS# 104472

Statement of Integrity The CPR Demonstration Farm is an abandoned site, so has therefore suffered from extensive deterioration due to lack of maintenance. In both the barn and the house, the wood shingle roof is damaged beyond repair, requiring complete replacement as a top priority. The shingle siding on both of the buildings is also in poor condition requiring replacement inkind where salvageable. Windows are for the most part, boarded up, providing some level of protection for the interior elements and original windows. Windows that are not boarded up have missing panes of glass and damaged sashes. Paint has deteriorated completely on both of the buildings as well and require repainting. Description of Historic Place The CPR Demonstration Farm is located east of the Town of Vulcan on the south side of Highway 534, just east of Highway 23 in Vulcan County. The abandoned farm site, surrounded by a horizontal plank wooden fence consists of an historic

66

The CPR Demonstration Farm, built in 1912, is highly significant as an intact farming complex designed and built as a demonstration farm by the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR). Beginning in the late 1800s, the CPR actively sold CPR land cheap and quick to facilitate development in proximity to their newly constructed railway lines. The primary goal of the CPR was to sell irrigable land to build a prosperous agricultural community in the Western Irrigation Districts in which it held its primary holdings. Beginning in 1908, the CPR set up several mixed farming demonstration and experimental farms along the main CPR line from Calgary to Medicine Hat in Brooks, Lathom, Bassano, Tilley and Cassils to teach potential new settlers proper irrigation and farming methods on the prairies. This farm is a small and largely intact example of a demonstration farm to showcase the agricultural potential of the area. It was first managed by A.R. Allan for CPR, who moved to Vulcan in 1913. The CPR sold the farm in 1918 to John and Martha Cook, who moved from Ontario to work on the farm in 1915. The CPR Demonstration Farm is also highly valued as an example of CPR’s standard Ready-Made and Demonstration Farm house and barn plans. The Foursquare wooden-frame house was constructed using Standard Plan No. 8. The plan, as executed in the physical building, features a two storey, square plan with broader massing typical of Edwardian farmhouses. The house displays a hipped roof with narrow eaves, shingle siding on

CPR Demonstration Farm


the upper storey and lapped siding at the first storey. The full-width hipped roof verandah in Standard House Plan No. 8 was replaced with a partial width verandah, now filled in on the north façade. The classic CPR Ready-Made barn is attributed to Standard Barn No. 7, which features a low profile, dual-pitch front-gabled roofline with wide low pitched roofline at the first storey to accommodate livestock and farming equipment and a smaller hayloft at the gable peak. The barn is accented with shingle siding at the gable peak and drop siding at the first storey. The entire house, barn and outbuilding complex, all built with standard CPR Ready-Made plans, is one of the few intact CPR Demonstration farm sites in Alberta and combined with its prominent location east of Highway 23, is a landmark in Vulcan County. Character-Defining Elements The key elements that define the heritage character of the CPR Demonstration Farm site include its: • siting on its original location on the south side of Highway 534, east of Highway 23, just east of the Town of Vulcan in Vulcan County; • location set back from the road on a large farm lot; and • associated outbuildings and landscaping such as perimeter fence. Original Elements of the Residence

two-storey, square plan with hipped roof with narrow eaves; • wood construction such as wooden-frame structural system; bellcast wooden shingle siding at second storey and lapped siding at main storey; wood shingle roof; wooden trim and stylistic details; • elements of CPR Ready-Made Standard House Plan No. 8 such as closed soffits and cornice boards; partial width enclosed verandah; • original fenestration including single assembly window and door openings; and • additional details such as interior red brick chimney. Original Elements of the Barn • form, scale and massing as expressed by its twostorey, dual-pitched front gabled roofline with implement storage and livestock areas at main storey and hayloft at second storey; • wood construction such as wooden-frame structural system; wooden shingle siding at second storey and drop siding at main storey; wood shingle roof; wooden trim and stylistic details; • elements of CPR Ready-Made Standard Barn Plan No. 7 including: variety of siding types; bargeboards; dualpitch roofline; central ventilator; sliding barn door; and • original fenestration including banked multipane window openings.

• residential form, scale and massing as expressed by its

CPR Ready-Made architectural drawings (Glenbow Archives M2276)

FINAL REPORT

2012

67


VULCAN COUNTY

HERITAGE SURVEY & INVENTORY 2012

VULCAN RCAF STATION War, is situated on a triangular plan of runways with six original massive asbestos tile clad hangers situated on the northwest corner of the site. Commemorative markers are located just east of the intersection at Township Road 162 and Range Road 154. Heritage Value of Historic Place

1942 LOCATION Vulcan Area ADDRESS 161057 Rge. Rd. 132 LEGAL 7910078;1-3 ATS NW;10;16;25;W4 HS# 104475

Statement of Integrity The Vulcan RCAF Station contains six of the seven original asbestos tile clad hangers and large portions of the original triangular airstrips as well as several outbuildings. One of the original hangers was demolished of late due to structural issues. The remaining six hangers, save for damage to the glazing in the multipane fixed and banked windows on the hangers, range from good to poor condition. One of the hangers has recently been restored by the current owner. Many of the original asphalt runways are in disrepair and a number of the original buildings have been demolished. Description of Historic Place The Vulcan Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) Station is a Second World War flying training station situated in a remote rural area at the corner of Township Road 162 and Range Road 154, southwest of the Town of Vulcan in Vulcan County. The aerodrome, built during the Second World

68

The Vulcan RCAF Station is highly significant as symbolic of Vulcan County’s contribution to the Second World War efforts and as the only No. 2 Flying Instructor School in Western Canada in operation during the Second World War. Opened August 3, 1942, the Vulcan RCAF Station was part of an international joint military air training program, known as the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan (BCATP). The program, developed through a partnership between the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and New Zealand, was designed to train aircrew remote Royal Air Force stations built in Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Funded by the Federal Government, the program in Canada contributed immensely to the war efforts, providing RCAF training centres and training for 131,000 aircrew who served in the Second World War. The Vulcan RCAF Station was built as a training school for instructors in the Royal Canadian Air Force and over 1000 students were trained at the station. The site was selected due to its favorable local weather conditions, flat topography, high elevation and low population density in a rural area west of the Town of Vulcan. A CPR branch line was constructed to the airfield from Kirkcaldy in 1944. The base was converted to a No. 19 Service Flying Training School to train bomber pilots after the No. 2 Flying Instructor School moved to the Pearce Aerodrome near Fort Macleod on May 3, 1943. The No. 19 Service Flying Training School was a highly successful flying training facility until the RCAF ceased

vulcan R CAF Station


training on April 14, 1945 due to a surplus of aircrews.

Character-Defining Elements

The Vulcan RCAF Station is further valued as an intact example of the standard airport plan for BCATP stations in Canada and for its high level of original buildings remaining at the site. A standard BCATP aerodrome consisted of three runways arranged in a triangle, typically 760-meters in length, to allow aircraft to always land into the wind. The Vulcan RCAF Station has its triangular airstrips intact in addition to six of its original seven symmetrically placed, massive double-bay hangars, and several support buildings. The hangers accommodated and stored several varieties of planes including Cessnas, Cornells, Cranes, Fawns, Finches, Harvards, Oxfords, Tiger Moths and Ansons for use in the school. The seven large double-bay hangers were built on the northwest side of the property abutting the airstrips to the southeast. The six nearly identical hanger buildings feature vernacular industrial design as expressed through their rectangular plans, exposed wood beam structural systems and massive banked multipane sash windows to allow natural light to filter into the buildings. The design of the Vulcan RCAF Station buildings exemplify a regimented functionality and the emerging modernistic styles of the 1940s, reflecting the abandonment of traditional architectural motifs and a reliance on pure form and unadorned surfaces. After the end of the War, the airbase was sold to the County of Vulcan No. 2 (now Vulcan County) and the northwest quarter of the site was subdivided so that each hanger was on its own lot. For a short time the site became an Industrial Airport for Vulcan.

The key elements that define the heritage character of the Vulcan RCAF Station site include its: • location on the south side of Township Road 162 and east of Range Road 154 southwest of the Town of Vulcan in Vulcan County; • standard design of RCAF station including triangular arrangement of concrete airstrips and symetrical layout of hangers; • original elements of the 6 hangers such as: rectangular one-storey plan; wooden beam space frame structural system; exterior asbestos cladding; banked and fixed multipane windows on each side of the hangers; and • additional features such as outbuildings and commemorative plaques.

Historic aerial image of the Vulcan RCAF Station. Taken sometime between 1942- 45 (vulcanairbase.com)

Five of the hangers at the Vulcan RCAF Station (Donald Luxton & Associates)

FINAL REPORT

2012

69


VULCAN COUNTY

HERITAGE SURVEY & INVENTORY 2012

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The project team for the Vulcan County Heritage Survey & Inventory project consists team members from Donald Luxton & Associates including: Donald Luxton, Principal, Laura Pasacreta, Associate and Project Director, Samuel Boisvert, Research Assistant / Graphics, Sandi Ratch, Senior Researcher, and our writing team; Megan Faulkner, Penny Robertson, and RJ McCulloch. We would like to acknowledge the invaluable assistance and direction provided by Leslie Warren, Economic Development Officer, Vulcan Business Development Society. We would also like to thank the following individuals for their assistance and advice: Vulcan County Staff, Rick Mah, Director of Corporate Services and Liza Dawber, Vulcan County Grants Specialist; Vulcan Business Development Society Staff, Cody Shearer, Economic Development Assistant, and Cassie Thompson, Administrative Assistant; Heritage Advisory Board members Wally Sholdice, Katie Walker, Amy Rupp, Kym Nichols, Racille Ellis, Marge Weber, Paul Taylor, Bill Roebuck, Bill Lahd, Richard Lambert, and Marvin Maronda; and Brenda Manweiler from the Municipal Heritage Partnership Program. We would further like to thank the invaluable contribution from Vulcan County, the Town of Vulcan, the Village of Carmangay, the Village of Champion, the Village of Milo as well as from the Municipal Heritage Partnership Program.

CPR locomotive and train, north of Peacock Siding (Donald Luxton & Associates)

70


SOURCES 1979 Vulcan County Heritage Survey 1986. History of Lomond and district. Robins Southern Printing, Lethbridge, Alber ta. Aldred, N.J. 2011. More Than Just the Mail: Vulcan County’s Pioneer Post Offices. Graphcom Printers, Lethbridge, Alber ta. Anderson, George G. 1909. Repor t on the Irrigation System of the Southern Alber ta Land Company Limited. Medicine Hat, Alber ta. Arrowwood- Mossleigh Historical Society. 1982. Furrows of Time: A History of Arrowwood, Shouldice, Mossleigh and Farrow 18831982. Nor thwest Printing and Lithographing Ltd., Calgary, Alber ta. Barons History Book Club. 1972. Wheat hear t of the West : a history of Barons and district. Barons History Committee, Barons, Alber ta. Byfield, Ted. 1998 Fury and Futility: The Onset of the Great Depression 1930 -1935. Alber ta in the 20th Century, Volume 6. United Western Communications Ltd., Edmonton, Alber ta. Carmangay and District Home and School Association. 1968. Bridging the Years: Carmangay and District. Southern Printing Company Co., Lethbridge, Alber ta. Cleverville Pioneer Club History Book Committee. 1972. Cleverville- Champion, 1905 to 1970 : a history of Champion and area. Champion History Committee, Champion, Alber ta. Dempsey, James. “The CPR Demonstration and Supply Farm.” Alber ta history, July 2, 1912. Number 4, Autumn 2011. Ellis, Racille, and Champion Historical Society. 1999. Champion and district. Friesens Corporation, Altona, Manitoba. Freeman, Gordon. 2009. Canada’s Stonehenge: Astounding Archaeological Discoveries in Canada, England, and Wales. Kingsley Publishing, Cochrane, Alber ta. Friesen, John W. 1996. The community Doukhobors : a people in transition. Borealis Press, Ottawa, Ontario. Jackson Jr., Lionel, and Michael C. Wilson. 2004 The Ice- Free Corridor Revisited. www.Geotimes.org (accessed December 2011). Milo and District Historical Society. 1973. Snake Valley: a history of Lake McGregor and area. D.W. Friesen & Sons Ltd. Calgary, Alber ta. Milo and District Historical Society. 1999. Snake Valley II: A History of Lake McGregor and Area. Friesens Corporation, Altona, Manitoba. Milo Archives. N/D. The archives in Milo – in the downstairs of the Library building – has a binder with some good information in it. Unknown date and author. Voisey, Paul. 1988. Vulcan: the Making of a Prairie Community. University of Toronto Press. Toronto, Ontario. Voisey, Paul Leonard. 1984. Forging the western tradition: pioneer approaches to settlement and agriculture in southern Alber ta communities. National Library of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario. Vulcan and District Historical Society. 1973. Wheat Country: A History of Vulcan and District. D.W. Friesen & Sons Ltd. Calgary, Alber ta. Vulcan and District Historical Society. 1988. Wheat Country II: A History of Vulcan and District. Friesen Printers, Calgary, Alber ta.

FINAL REPORT

2012

71


VULCAN COUNTY

HERITAGE SURVEY & INVENTORY 2012

Fire Insurance Plans: Brant (1931), Carmangay (1920), Champion (1924), Queenstown (1931), Milo (1931) Glenbow Archives: M7050, M2389, M2269 -26, M2276 Interviews: Jerry Bjornson (April 18, 2012), Kim and Diane Greene (April 18, 2012), John and Susan Ivers (April 17, 2012), Jacobson Residence proper ty owner (May 9, 2012), William Jopling by phone (April 2012), Ted Lee (April 16, 2012), Laura Schlaht (December 22, 2011), Brent Smith (April 18, 2012), Monty Southgate (May 10, 2012), Alvin Winch (May 9, 2012) Newspapers: Blairmore Enterprise, Carbon Chronicle, Carmangay Sun, Cayley Hustler, Champion Chronicle, Charesholm Review, Crossfield Chronicle, Frank Vindicator, Gleichen Call, Irma Times, Lomond Press, Vulcan Advocate, Vulcan Review Personal Communications: Norma Aldred (Author), Barbara Brown (Carmangay Resident), Racille Ellis (Champion Resident; HAB), Jonathan Koch (Forgotten Alber ta), Bill Lahd (Milo Resident), Marvin Maronda (Lomond Area Resident; HAB), Kym Nichols (Mayor of Carmangay; HAB), Laura Schlaht (Lomond Area Resident), Katie Walker (Milo Councillor; HAB), Marge Weber (Vulcan & District Historical Society; HAB)

WEBSITES

72

www.blackfootcrossing.ca/aboutus.html

www.bombercommmandmuseum.ca/bcatpvulcan.html

www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/databases/post- offices

dictionaryofarchitectsincanada.org/

www.doukhobor.org/Cemetery- Krasivaya- Dolina.htm

www.doukhobor.org/Colony.htm

www.facebook.com/pages/ VulcanAlber ta/114382198578114

forgottenalber ta.com/2010/07/12 /the-alber ta-land-company/

www.heritagepark.ca/pdf/HP- Map-2011_ Large.pdf

www.megalithic.co.uk /ar ticle.php?sid=22751

www.raypfob.com/

www.royalalber tamuseum.ca/human/archaeo/aspects/timeline.htm

www.vulcantourism.com/arrowgroup/community-information-the-village- of-carmangay-alber ta.html

www.vulcantourism.com/arrowgroup/community-information-the-village- of-champion.html

www.vulcantourism.com/arrowgroup/community-information-the-village- of-milo.html

www.vulcantourism.com/spock- days- galaxyfest-vulcan-alber tas-annual-community-wide-star-trek-festival.html

wiki.worldflicks.org/brant,_alber ta,_canada.html

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anastasia,_ Alber ta

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_villages_in_ Alber ta#C

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RCAF_Station_Vulcan

www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q2FaFBhOaT0


Heritage Survey & Inventory