Mission Statement The mission statement of the Connected Vehicle/ Infrastructure University Transportation Center (CVI-UTC) is to conduct research that will advance surface transportation through the application of innovative research and using connectedvehicle and infrastructure technologies to improve safety, state of good repair, economic competitiveness, livable communities, and environmental sustainability.
Goals Improved body of knowledge
Greater adoption of new technology
Enlarged pool of trained transportation professionals Increased understanding and awareness of transportation issues Improved processes, techniques and skills in addressing transportation issues
Ta b l e o f C o n t e n t s
Student of the Year
10 35 36 40 43
Research Selected Journals and Conferences
Education & Workforce Development
D i r e c t o r ’s M e s s a g e The U.S. Department of Transportation University Transportation Centers (UTC) program was the cornerstone upon which the Virginia Tech Transportation Institute (VTTI) was built. In 1988, VTTI—then called the Center for Transportation Research—was established in direct response to the UTC program, serving as part of a Penn State-led team (along with the University of Virginia) composing the Mid-Atlantic Universities Transportation Center (MAUTC) and in cooperation with the Virginia Department of Transportation. From its inception, VTTI evolved and thrived through access to the interdisciplinary base of faculty members and students at MAUTC consortium institutions. Because of this strong foundation, the institute advanced to include hundreds of research sponsors, partners, and clients from both the public and private sectors, as well as a strong educational program that seeks to train the future workforce for the multidisciplinary needs of our nation’s transportation future. In this same vein, the Tier 1 USDOT Connected Vehicle/Infrastructure University Transportation Center (CVI-UTC) allowed VTTI and consortium universities to continue to enhance their reach, this time in advanced technology areas with foci on workforce development, outreach, and research. The CVI-UTC has been instrumental in helping build the transportation workforce by funding programs that encourage young students to pursue advanced-technology-related transportation fields of study and careers. By way of example, VTTI has grown 50% during the CVI-UTC period of performance, and the number of students funded has increased by more than 100% (to 330 total). Most of this growth has occurred in the areas of connected- and automated-vehicle projects, either directly funded by the UTC/UTC matching funds or indirectly from the development projects that have relied on facility enhancements and expertise developed as part of the CVI-UTC. In addition, CVI-UTC educational and outreach efforts reached more than 10,000 people in the last four years. Under the leadership of researchers and partners from Morgan State University, the University of Virginia, the Virginia Department of Transportation, and VTTI, the CVI-UTC community worked diligently to help advance the state of the art in transportation, performing and successfully completing 24 connected-vehicle projects. To run these projects, researchers and students had access to the Virginia Connected Corridors, a facility built due to matching funding for the CVI-UTC (see p. 40). Each project was charged with developing applications that address numerous surface transportation challenges and collectively resulted in more than 140 publications and presentations. Today, the hard work and dedication of CVI-UTC researchers and students have contributed extensively to our current understanding of connected-vehicle technology. It is our pleasure to now invite you to learn about the important insights gained during the duration of the CVI-UTC. Each project reflects the benefits and opportunities expected of connected-vehicle technology, which is anticipated by the USDOT to reduce crashes by up to 70 percent, significantly improve mobility, and enhance sustainability.
Dr. Thomas Dingus Director, CVI-UTC
Personnel Dr. Thomas Dingus
Advisory Board Members
Leslie C. Harwood CVI-UTC Program Manager
Kris Miller Roger Berg
Dr. Zachary R. Doerzaph VTTI Consortium Leader
Mike Harris Jan Hellaker Cathy McGhee Steve Sprouffske
Dr. Brian L. Smith UVA Consortium Leader
Dr. Z. Andrew Farkas MSU Consortium Leader
VDOT Partner and Advisory Board Head
Fairfax County Transit
Cohda Kimley-Horn Volvo VDOT/ VCTIR Kapsch TrafficCom, Inc.
applications/tools developed and tested on connected vehicle test beds in NoVA and on the Virginia Smart Road
publications and presentations
average number of students supported each year
spent on advanced research projects
people reached through education/outreach efforts
average number of courses taught per year
average number of degrees conferred to CVI-UTC supported students each year
spent on applied research projects
For the past 25 years, the USDOT has honored outstanding students from each UTC. Students are nominated and selected by each UTC, and awards are presented to these outstanding students at a special ceremony held preceding the Transportation Research Board (TRB) Annual Meeting during the Council of University Transportation Centers annual banquet. Students of the year are selected based on accomplishments in the areas of technical merit and research, academic performance, and professionalism and leadership. The CVI-UTC supported many bright students throughout the life of the grant, with the following students being selected for this prestigious award.
Robert Kluger / UVA
Robert Kluger began his graduate studies at the University of Virginia in the summer of 2012. Prior to joining the program, he graduated in three years from the Georgia Institute of Technology with a Bachelorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Degree in Civil Engineering, focusing primarily on transportation. His research interests range from Intelligent Traffic System (ITS) applications to traffic management and connected vehicles, government policies on emissions from transportation sources, and the effects of climate change on transportation infrastructure. Rob made significant contributions to the CVI-UTC. His research involved the connected vehicle testbed in Northern Virginia, where he used a connected vehicle environment to detect near-miss collisions. Locations with frequent nearmisses were identified and analyzed to detect hot spots in need of geometric or operational improvements. Outside of his work with the CVI-UTC, Rob remained active in various professional groups including ASCE and ITE. Rob accepted employment as an Assistant Research Scientist at the University of Arizona following graduation.
Alexandria Noble / VT
The CVI-UTC selected Alexandria Noble for Student of the Year based on her dedication to transportation safety research as a graduate student and her demonstration of qualities that are sure to make her a superior future transportation professional. Ms. Noble received her Master of Science in Civil Engineering at Virginia Tech with a focus on Transportation Engineering in December 2014. Her graduate thesis centered on a CVI-UTC project entitled Safety and Human Factors of Adaptive Stop/Yield Signs Using Connected Vehicle Infrastructure. She led a team of researchers and graduate students to conduct an on-road study that assessed the perceived benefits of an adaptive in-vehicle stop display and evaluated the safety implications of the system. Ms. Noble has also received numerous other recognitions and awards including being selected as a featured Graduate Student at Virginia Tech based on her academic accomplishments and service to the community, the first student to apply for and be accepted into the new Human Factors of Transportation Safety Graduate Certificate Program at Virginia Tech, and the recipient of the Dwight David Eisenhower Transportation Graduate Fellowship. Ms. Noble has since entered a Ph.D. program in Industrial Systems Engineering at Virginia Tech and looks forward to a promising career in the transportation safety field.
S t u d e n t o f t h e Ye a r Reginald Viray / VT
Reginald Viray graduated from Virginia Tech’s College of Engineering with a Master of Science in Industrial Systems Engineering with a concentration in Management Systems. Reginald earned his bachelor’s degree in Electrical Engineering from Virginia Tech in 2008. Reginald was selected as the 2014 Outstanding Student of the Year for the CVI-UTC based on his outstanding academic performance and excellence in research. Under a CVI-UTC project entitled Connected Motorcycle System Performance, Reginald led a team of students and researchers to test connected vehicle system configurations on motorcycles. The results of this project are currently being used in ongoing connected vehicle research being conducted by USDOT and industry leaders. Currently, Reginald maintains a full-time position at VTTI and has continued to contribute to connected vehicle technology research and development.
Kayla Sykes / VT
Kayla Sykes was selected as the 2015 Outstanding Student of the Year for the CVI-UTC based on her outstanding academic performance and excellence in research during her time as a Graduate Research Assistant at VTTI. She completed her graduate coursework for a Master’s Degree in Civil Engineering from Virginia Tech in the Fall of 2015. Kayla has presented several posters related to her research at both the Undergraduate Research Symposium and the Civil Engineering Research Day at Virginia Tech. Kayla also presented a poster on her CVI-UTC project and master’s research at the 9th Annual UTC Spotlight Conference on Connected and Automated Vehicles. Kayla’s CVI-UTC project and master’s thesis focused on the human factors analysis of an in-vehicle Active Traffic and Demand Management (ATDM) system. She worked closely with VTTI employees to create an in-vehicle device that provides dynamic speed limits, dynamic lane use/shoulder control, high occupancy vehicle (HOV) restrictions, and other traveler information to travelers through variable message signs. She then examined driver distraction, desirability, and driver behavior for drivers using the in-vehicle system under various traffic conditions. The results of her study will aid in the development of future in-vehicle signage and ATDM features. Kayla accepted employment with Toxcel following graduation and continues to focus on improving transportation through human factors research and implementation.
R e s e a r c h INTRO The connected vehicle/infrastructure environment provides an unprecedented opportunity to solve a number of transportation problems by enabling the sharing of real-time information across vehicles and infrastructure elements. In 2012, the Virginia Tech Transportation Institute (VTTI), the University of Virginia (UVA), Morgan State University, and the Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT) - Virginia Center for Transportation Innovation and Research (VCTIR) teamed to develop the Connected Vehicle/Infrastructure University Transportation Center, a Tier 1 University Transportation Center headquartered at VTTI. Research using robust vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V), vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I), and vehicle-to-device (V2X) communication was conducted to enable applications that address the USDOT strategic goals of safety, state of good repair, economic competiveness, livable communities, and environmental sustainability. Test beds developed using matching funding from the CVI-UTC grant were used to conduct 24 CVI research projects from 2012 to 2016. The research conducted under the CVI-UTC has advanced surface transportation through the application of innovative connected vehicle research.
Photo Credit: Logan Wallace
V2I R e s e a r c h
Infrastructure Pavement Assessment & Management Applications Enabled by the Connected Vehicles Environment â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Proof-of-Concept Gerardo FlintschVTTI and Brian SmithUVA
The objective of this project was to develop prototypes and conduct a field test of system level applications of a connected vehicle pavement condition measurement system. This allowed the research team to: (1) investigate different approaches to a connected vehicle pavement measurement system; and (2) determine the optimum procedures for collecting, processing, aggregating, and storing the data to support engineering and management decisions. The study found that roughness measures obtained from probe vehicles are comparable to roughness measures obtained from the profile when the appropriate parameters that affect roughness were taken into account. A sensitivity analysis suggested that data sampling and quarter-car parameters were the most critical parameters. Finally, the results of the network-level simulations showed that the probe vehicle vertical acceleration measurements (collected from a mobile smart phone application) have the potential to be used for network-level prescreening of deficient pavement sections. Highlights * Proposed method can correctly identify between 80 and 93 percent of deficient pavement sections. * Transportation agencies should consider using this low-cost application for pavement condition network screening to identify locations where repairs are needed. * Application can serve as a surrogate pavement roughness assessment method for local transportation agencies. http://cvi-utc.org/infrastructure-pavement-assessment-and-management-applications-enabled-by-the-connectedvehicles-environment-research-program-phase-i-proof-of-concept/
Safety, Operational, and Energy Impacts of In-vehicle Adaptive Stop Displays Using Connected Vehicle Technology Alexandria NobleVTTI
Un-signalized intersections create multiple opportunities for missed or misunderstood information. Stop signcontrolled intersections have also been shown to be a source of delay and emissions due to their frequent, often inappropriate use. By using connected vehicle technology, it is possible to place electronic stop signs at more conspicuous locations that can communicate with the in-vehicle systems. Then, if a conflict is imminent at an intersection, the vehicle’s system alerts the driver, thus reducing the probability of missed information, as well as decreasing the amount of unnecessary delay, fuel consumption, and emissions by only prompting a stop when a conflict is present. Before implementing any new technology, it is important to assess it from both a transportation engineering and human factors standpoint to determine the value of such a system. The objective of this study was to assess perceived benefits of an adaptive in-vehicle stop display and to identify any safety implications associated with the use of this system. This was accomplished through a test track experiment with 49 participants. These drivers were presented with a standard R1-1 stop sign on the in-vehicle display, along with an experimental sign that informed them to proceed through the intersection with caution. Results indicate the implementation of this technology reduces delay, decreases fuel consumption, and does not negatively affect safety. Highlights * The level of compliance for stops made at the adaptive stop display was 62.11% (compared 12.44% for stops made at the traditional stop sign). * Implementing the “proceed with caution” display increased risk-averse behaviors in situations requiring higher levels of attention (e.g., an increase in traffic). * Mean glance duration and frequency decreased rapidly with increased driver experience with the in-vehicle system. * For one intersection that sees 1,950 vehicles per day, the adaptive stop display would save an estimated $24,349.14 in CO2 emissions over 45 years compared to traditional stop signs. http://cvi-utc.org/awarded-projects-old/safety-and-human-factors-of-adaptive-stopyield-signs-using-connectedvehicle-infrastructure/
Research Infrastructure Safety Assessment in a Connected Vehicle Environment Brian SmithUVA, Robert KlugerUVA, and Hyungjun ParkUVA
The goal of the Infrastructure Safety Assessment in a Connected Vehicle Environment project was to develop a method to identify infrastructure safety “hot spots” using connected vehicle data. Using these basic safety messages to detect hot spots may allow for quicker discovery than traditional methods such as police-reported crashes. The basic safety message may be able to detect events that police normally cannot, including unreported crashes and near-crashes. The project successfully explored some models and algorithms to detect crashes and near-crashes and also designed a methodology to apply to hot spot identification. With the data available, conclusive results were not achieved; however, the models showed some potential. Three techniques were tested to predict crashes using vehicles’ kinematic data. To predict where a crash was occurring, multivariate adaptive regression splines, classification and regression trees, and a novel pattern matching approach were all tested. The models were able to identify the majority of 13 known crashes with different amounts of false positives. The pattern matching approach outperformed a simple acceleration threshold by identifying nearly 70% of crashes in a crash-only test set and 74% of near-crashes in a near-crash only test set. On the training set, it was able to identify more crashes than the thresholds without increasing the number of false positives observed. Based on the work described in this report, the CVI-UTC is fully prepared to apply the methodology to data collected on the field test bed. Highlights * Utilized naturalistic driving data to classify crash and near-crash events with elements of the Basic Safety Message. * Successfully developed a model to detect crashes and near-crashes * Developed an approach to identify crash hotspots utilizing connected vehicle data (once testbed data are widely available). http://cvi-utc.org/awarded-projects-old/infrastructure-safety-assessment-using-connected-vehicle-data/
Next-Generation Transit Signal Priority with Connected Vehicle Technology UVA UVA MSU Jia Hu , Young-Jae Lee
, Byungkyu Brian Park , and Seyedehsan DadvarMSU
This project utilized connected vehicle technology allowing two-way communication among vehicles and infrastructure to develop a next-generation Transit Signal Priority (TSP) system that does not rely on conventional TSP sensors. The new system extends a previous TSP system based on connected vehicle technology (TSPCV) to handle conflicting requests and coordinate passage between intersections in a travel corridor. The proposed TSP mechanisms minimize installation and maintenance costs by eliminating the need for local agencies to perform level-of-service studies and determine volume/capacity ratios for intersections. Simulations suggested that compared to conventional TSP mechanisms, the proposed TSP logic can significantly reduce bus travel time and network delay between 5% and 68% depending on the volume/capacity ratio without any negative effects. A field experiment on the Virginia Smart Road validated the performance of the proposed TSPCV system; the new TSPCV algorithm provided green traffic signal timing to buses with different arrival times with a 100% success rate and reduced delays for a bus by between 32% and 75% for one scenario (bus speed = 45 mph; traffic signal with a 90-s cycle length; 30 s of green time). Highlights * A new TSPCV algorithm was developed with a focus on reducing delays for public transit vehicles. * Both simulation and field testing indicated that the new TSPCV system can significantly reduce bus travel time and network delay by providing green traffic signal timing to buses. * TSPCV can handle multiple buses and coordinate with adjacent intersections. * No negative effects of the new algorithm were observed. http://cvi-utc.org/next-generation-transit-signal-priority-with-connected-vehicle-technology/
Research Human Factors Evaluation of an In-Vehicle Active Traffic and Demand Management (ATDM) System VTTI Kayla Sykes
This study focused on the development of an in-vehicle ATDM system and its deployment and evaluation on Interstate 66 in Northern Virginia. The ATDM elements inside the vehicle allowed drivers to remain consistently aware of traffic conditions and roadway requirements, even when external signage was inaccessible. Forty participants were accompanied by a member of the research team and experienced different in-vehicle device features: (1) dynamic speed limits, (2) dynamic lane use/shoulder control, (3) High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) restrictions, and (4) variable message signs (VMS). The ATDM system was equipped with auditory and visual alerts to notify the driver when relevant information was updated. Participant data were collected to evaluate distraction, desirability, and driver behavior associated with the ATDM system. The results indicated that the ATDM system would not be classified as a distraction according to the National Highway Traffic Safety Association (NHTSA) distraction guidelines. Most participants (73%) reported wanting to have the ATDM system in their next vehicle. Finally, both survey results and field data indicate that the ATDM system can cause the driver to alter their speed through speed limit alerts. Highlights * The developed ATDM system meets all of NHTSAâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s distraction guidelines. * 98% of survey participants indicated willingness to use an in-vehicle device to obtain HOV, lane management, speed limit, and VMS information. * A vast majority of the participants (95%) found the in-vehicle VMS to be clear and concise. * 48% of participants were willing to pay $100 to $500 for the in-vehicle ATDM system. http://cvi-utc.org/human_factors_evaluation_of_an_in-vehicle_atdm_system/
Connected Vehicle Freeway Speed Harmonization Systems VTTI VTTI Hesham Rakha
and Hao Yang
Photo Credit: Michael Kiernan
The capacity drop phenomenon, which reduces the maximum bottleneck discharge rate following the onset of congestion, is a significant cause of congestion in transportation networks. Consequently, preventing or reducing capacity drop has the potential to mitigate traffic congestion as well as generate environmental and safety benefits. Towards this end, this project developed and evaluated a speed harmonization algorithm based on a bi-level feedback control system with the assistance of V2I communications. The algorithm computes advisory speed limits for individual vehicles to prevent the breakdown of downstream bottleneck discharge by regulating traffic flow approaching the bottleneck, which in turn reduces traffic stream delay, emissions, and fuel consumption levels. To assess the benefits of the algorithm, a section of I-66 in Northern Virginia was simulated with the INTEGRATION microscopic traffic simulation model. In addition, to implement the speed harmonization algorithm, five trailers were installed on I-66 to collect real-time traffic data for each vehicle equipped with V2I communications. The simulations indicated that the algorithm can significantly mitigate congestion when a capacity drop occurs at a bottleneck. Higher market penetration rates (MPRs) of vehicles equipped with the speed harmonization algorithm led to greater benefits; at 100% MPR, the bottleneck discharge flow rate increased by up to 1.5%, and the vehicular delay decreased by approximately 22%. The CO2 and fuel consumption levels were reduced by up to 3.5% at 100% MPR, although overall emissions and fuel consumptions savings were observed at an MPR as low as 10%. Highlights * A speed harmonization algorithm was developed to prevent the breakdown of traffic discharge downstream of bottlenecks. * Simulations indicate that the new algorithm increases bottleneck discharge flow rate and decreases vehicular delay, with the benefits increasing with MPR. * CO2 and fuel consumption levels were reduced by up to 3.5% at 100% MPR. * An MPR of 10% was sufficient to obtain emissions and fuel consumptions savings. http://cvi-utc.org/develop-and-test-connected-vehicle-freeway-speed-harmonization-systems/
Research Field Implementation Feasibility Study of Cumulative Travel-Time Responsive Intersection Control Algorithm Under Connected Vehicle Technology Saerona ChoiUVA, Byungkyu Brian ParkUVA, and Joyoung LeeUVA
This project improved a cumulative travel-time responsive (CTR) intersection control algorithm for low MPRs of connected vehicles (CVs) and assessed its feasibility for field deployment. A hardware-in-the-loop simulation was conducted to ensure that the new CTR algorithm will work with an existing traffic controller on the Northern Virginia Connected Vehicle Test Bed. Two prediction techniques, a standard Kalman filter and an adaptive Kalman filter, were applied to estimate cumulative travel time for each phase in the CTR algorithm. The results showed that the performance of the CTR algorithm depends on MPR, as information collected from CVs is critical for the algorithm. The minimum MPRs required for the new CTR algorithm to outperform the current actuated traffic signal control were determined for each prediction technique and type of available data (data from both CVs and infrastructure or CV data only). Even without infrastructure data, the CTR algorithm would provide benefits at a high-traffic-demand intersection with an MPR of 50% to 60%. The minimum MPR determined by the adaptive Kalman filter was 20%; thus, the proposed algorithm could not be implemented in a field test (the field MPR was approximately 14%). Instead, the team developed an implementation plan that can be easily adopted by traffic engineers once the MPR reaches 20% or higher. Highlights * A CTR algorithm was updated to enhance its applicability under low CV MPRs. * The new algorithm outperforms existing actuated signal controls at a low MPRs. * With data from both infrastructure and CVs, a minimum CV MPR of 20% is needed for field deployment. http://cvi-utc.org/field-demonstration-of-cumulative-travel-time-responsive-intersection-control-algorithmunder-connected-vehicle-technology/
Field Testing of Eco-Speed Control Using Vehicle-toInfrastructure Communication
Hesham RakhaVTTI, Hao ChenVTTI, Mohammed AlmannaaVTTI, Raj KishoreVTTI, Ihab El-ShawarbyVTTI, and Amara LouliziVTTI
This study developed an Eco-Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (EcoCACC) System and addressed issues associated with its field implementation. The Eco-CACC system computes and recommends a fuel-efficient speed based on signal phase and timing data received from the traffic signal controller via V2I communication. The computed speed profile can either be broadcast as an audio alert to the driver to manually control the vehicle or implemented by an automated vehicle. The system was tested on the Virginia Smart Road using four scenarios: a base driving scenario (in which no speed data were communicated); a scenario in which the driver was provided with a “time to red light” countdown; a manual Eco-CACC scenario where the driver was instructed to follow a recommended speed profile given via audio alert; and an automated Eco-CACC scenario in which an automated system controlled the vehicle’s longitudinal motion. The results demonstrated that the Eco-CACC system can reduce fuel consumption and travel time by helping vehicles proceed smoothly through intersections. Highlights * An EcoCACC system was developed to recommend fuel-efficient speeds to vehicles in the vicinity of intersections. * A field test of the EcoCACC system revealed decreases of approximately 37.8% and 9.3% in fuel consumption and travel time, respectively, compared to an uniformed driver. * Savings in emissions (carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen oxide) accompanied the reductions in fuel consumption. http://cvi-utc.org/field-testing-of-eco-speed-control-using-v2i-communication/
Research Virginia Connected Vehicle Test Bed System Performance (V2I System Performance) Reginald VirayVTTI, Abhijit SarkarVTTI, and Zac DoerzaphVTTI
Photo Credit: Logan Wallace
This project identified limitations of the V2I communication system on the Northern Virginia Connected Vehicle Test Bed. Real-world historical data were analyzed to determine coverage gaps and overlaps in wireless DSRC. In addition, a simulated scalability test was conducted to determine the effects of network congestion on the system. The results indicated that significant loss of signal occurred due to obstructions commonly found in complex highway systems, including overpasses and underpasses, elevated concrete roadways, and foliage. Consequently, care must be taken to minimize loss of signal when selecting an installation site for roadside equipment (RSEs). The deployment of multiple RSEs or repeaters may be necessary to maximize coverage in localized dead zones. The results of the scalability test showed that the current network architecture is not able to handle a large deployment of connected vehicles. For a large-scale deployment of connected vehicles, the current network design needs to be updated to account for the number of vehicles and subsequent flow of data expected in the operational area. Highlights * The performance of V2I communications on the Northern Virginia Connected Vehicle Test Bed was assessed using three standard communication parameters: packet error rate, latency, and inter-packet gap. * Common obstructions in complex highway systems (e.g., underpasses and elevated roadways) cause significant loss of signal between vehicles and RSEs. * The deployment of more RSEs or repeaters and/or the updating of network design are necessary to accommodate the flow of data on the Northern Virginia Connected Vehicle Test Bed. http://cvi-utc.org/connected-vehicle-virginia-test-bed-system-performance/
Connected Vehicle Applications for Adaptive Overhead Lighting (On-demand Lighting) Ron GibbonsVTTI, Matthew PalmerVTTI, and Arash JahangiriVTTI
Photo Credit: Anne Wernikoff
This study developed an on-demand roadway lighting system and has tested the systemâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s effect on driver visual performance. On-demand roadway lighting can dramatically reduce energy usage while maintaining or increasing vehicle and pedestrian safety. The system developed by VTTI uses connected vehicle technology, wireless lighting controls, LED luminaires, and a stand-alone processor on the Virginia Smart Road to sense vehicles and turn on roadway lighting only when needed. During this research project, the use of on-demand, or just-in-time, lighting was investigated with respect to assessing driver distraction, and to human factors, including a driverâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ability to visually detect and recognize on-road objects and pedestrians. The developed on-demand lighting system described above utilized DSRC, CVI, and centralized wireless lighting controls, and was used with VTTI-developed in-vehicle instrumentation and custom software. The software allowed the study of forward preview time in terms of forward lighting distance needed for drivers to detect roadside pedestrians and hazards. Visual performance testing revealed a relationship between speed and the amount of forward lighting needed to detect pedestrians and hazards on the side of the roadway, and a small, but statistically insignificant, practical difference in visual performance between on-demand lighting and continuously-on lighting conditions. A survey of participant reactions indicated that the public generally accepts on-demand lighting and does not find it distracting as long as a minimum lighting condition is met. The survey also found that participants felt the system provided a safe driving environment. The main application for an on-demand lighting system would be on roadways with little traffic at night and higher accident rates, or higher conflict areas such as intersections, pedestrian crossings, and merge areas. Highlights * Survey results indicate acceptance of the on-demand lighting concept with participants often rating the system to be safe for the speeds they were driving (35 and 55 mph). * Participants were able to detect pedestrians on the side of the road under the on-demand conditions nearly as well as under the continuous lighting conditions, but the differences were not statistically significant. * These results indicate there is potential to utilize this system to reduce the cost of operating overhead street lighting while maintaining the safety benefits of the lighting. http://cvi-utc.org/connected-vehicle-applications-for-adaptive-lighting/
Intersection Management Using In-Vehicle Speed Advisory/Adaptation
Hesham RakhaVTTI, Youssef BichiouVTTI, Abdallah HassanVTTI, and Ismail ZohdyVTTI
Photo Credit: Kevin Kochersberger
In recent years, connected and automated vehicles have emerged as realistic and viable transportation options due to the potential safety benefits that can be realized through the elimination of human error, the enhancement of mobility via reduction of congestion and optimization of trips, and the associated positive environmental impacts. Both sensors and control mechanisms are needed for this technology to succeed. This study employed V2V and V2I communications to develop control algorithms that deliver solutions/recommendations for connected and automated vehicles as they proceed through intersections. The algorithms developed in this report deliver optimal and/or near-optimal solutions, which required extensive simulations and field experiments for validation. In the work described in this report, the research group combined mathematical modeling, optimal control theory, and optimization into a simulation framework that allows vehicles to cross an intersection safely, while incurring the least amount of delay. These models feature kinematic, dynamic and static constraints. Different versions of the model were developed, ranging from exact solutions that cannot be implemented in real-time to heuristic solutions that are computationally efficient. The results of the final proposed model were compared to other control techniques already implemented in the field, and demonstrated that a reduction of at least 50% in delay was achievable. An interesting byproduct of this model was the reduction in fuel consumption, and thus emissions, by more than 10%. Highlights * Intersection Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (iCACC) has the ability to model any type of intersection control and accepts the following inputs: approach volumes, intersection characteristics, weather conditions, vehicle specifications, and the percentage of equipped vehicles at the intersection. * iCACC optimizes all levels of automation, from legacy vehicles to fully autonomous vehicles. (Video may be found at: http://bit.ly/iCACC). * The iCACC system logic was compared to conventional intersection control in terms of delay and fuel consumed on a per-vehicle basis for different traffic demand cases (16 cases); simulation results showed significant savings by using the iCACC tool compared to other conventional controls (signal, stop-sign, and/or roundabout) for the same demand level. http://cvi-utc.org/intersection-management-using-in-vehicle-speed-advisoryadaptation/
Connected Vehicle Enabled Freeway Merge Management â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Field Test Brian SmithUVA, Hyungjun ParkUVA, and Tanveer HayatUVA
Freeway congestion is a major problem in the transportation system, resulting in significant economic loss in terms of traffic delays and fuel costs. Connected vehicle technologies allow for more proactive traffic management strategies; for example, the Freeway Merge Assistance System can implement ramp management strategies by providing personalized advisories to individual drivers to ensure smoother merging from onramps. The benefits of such systems will depend on driver compliance, which is expected to be influenced by situational factors as well as individual behavioral factors. This study investigated driver responses to the new generation of personalized in-vehicle advisory messages. Using a field test with naive human subjects, driver responses to different types of advisory messages under different traffic scenarios were collected in a controlled environment. The rate of compliance with the advisory messages was higher when a large- or medium-sized gap was available for a lane change. The lowest compliance rate was observed for small-gap scenarios. The results also indicated that drivers were more likely to comply with a direct advisory message advising a lane change compared to an indirect message meant to stimulate a lane change through speed control. Highlights * The best rates of compliance with advisory messages were observed when large- or medium-sized gaps were available for lane change. * The compliance rate for the small-gap scenario (58%) implies that some drivers were comfortable following advisories to accept gaps that they would have otherwise rejected. * Older participant drivers (65 years and above) demonstrated a statistically significant lower compliance rate compared to all other age groups. * Merge Management Advisories have the potential to improve merging efficiency, even in highly congested conditions. http://cvi-utc.org/awarded-projects-old/connected-vehicle-enabled-freeway-merge-management-field-test/
V2V R e s e a r c h
Connected Motorcycle Crash Warning Interfaces VTTI VTTI VTTI Miao Song
, Shane McLaughlin
, and Zac Doerzaph
While crash warning systems have been deployed in high-end vehicles and are appearing in more motor vehicles each year, they have not yet been deployed in motorcycles. This study explored possible interface designs for motorcycle crash warning systems and evaluated their rider acceptance and effectiveness in a connected vehicle context. Four prototype displays covering three warning modes (auditory, visual, and haptic) were designed and developed for motorcycles. These displays were tested on-road with three connected safety applications identified as being most relevant to motorcycle crashes: intersection movement assist, forward collision warning, and lane departure warning. The results indicated that most participants (87.2%) preferred a combination of warning modalities to a single display. The combination of auditory and haptic displays showed considerable promise for implementation; haptic warnings performed well at providing directional information, which can be difficult to convey through in-helmet auditory systems. The results revealed differences among riders of different motorcycle types (cruiser, sport, and touring) in terms of their acceptance of crash warning interfaces. The findings were used to develop recommendations for motorcycle crash warning interface design in a connected vehicle environment. Highlights * 87.2% of participants preferred a combination of warning modalities over a single display. * The combination of auditory and haptic displays is promising for implementation. * Riders could easily distinguish between haptic warnings and handlebar vibration, and haptic warnings were effective at communicating directional information. * Mirror-mounted light-emitting diode strips were good for situations like lane changes when mirrors need to be checked. * Crash warning applications received slightly lower scores from sport riders than cruiser and touring riders, who might put more emphasis on riding comfort and safety. http://cvi-utc.org/connected-motorcycle-crash-warning-interfaces/
ConnectedVTTIMotorcycle System Performance VTTI VTTI Reginald Viray , Alexandria Noble Shane McLaughlinVTTI
, Zac Doerzaph
This project characterized the performance of connected vehicle systems on motorcycles based on two key components: global positioning system (GPS) and DSRC. Data acquisition systems developed at the VTTI were used to record key GPS and DSRC variables from four motorcycles with different antenna configurations (one with a forward-mounted antenna, one with a rear-mounted antenna, and two with center-mounted antennas). These instrumented motorcycles were subjected to several static and dynamic test scenarios on a closed test track and public roadways. The test scenarios accounted for motorcycle rider occlusion, relative approach range, and roadway topography. Both rider occlusion and approach range were found to affect communications performance. Communications performance was notably increased when the motorcycle antenna had a direct line of sight with another vehicle’s antenna compared to when the line of sight was occluded. Furthermore, the forward-mounted antenna configuration provided a wider communication range (–300 to +300 m) in open-sky conditions, whereas the rear-mounted antenna configuration produced a narrower communication range (–300 to +100 m). In terms of position performance, environments in which the sky was occluded (e.g., deep urban and mountain regions) resulted in degraded performance compared to open-sky scenarios. Highlights * Rider occlusion and range affected communications performance, with direct line of sight providing the best performance. * The forward-mounted antenna configuration produced the widest communication range under open-sky conditions. * Occluded skies resulted in degraded position performance. http://cvi-utc.org/awarded-projects-old/connected-motorcycle-system-performance/
V2V R e s e a r c h Emergency Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication
Pamela Murray-TuiteVT, Aphisit PhoowarawutthipanichVT, Rauful IslamVT, and Naser HdiebVT
Emergency response vehicles (ERVs) frequently navigate congested traffic conditions to reach their destinations. This study applied micro-simulation, field testing, and optimization to develop strategies for facilitating safe and efficient ERV travel. Micro-simulation of a network based on the Northern Virginia Connected Vehicle Test Bed examined the effects V2V communication, traffic volume, cycle length, ERV speed distribution, non-ERV speed distribution, and traffic signal preemption on ERV travel time. The results indicated that V2V communication can reduce travel time for ERVs in congested traffic conditions. A V2V communication prototype was developed to alert non-ERVs of an approaching ERV through a combination of in-vehicle, visible warnings and audible alerts, and the prototype was tested on the Northern Virginia Connected Vehicle Test Bed. Finally, a mixed-integer, nonlinear program optimization model was formulated to maximize the forward progress of ERVs by sending information to both ERVs and non-ERVs. A numerical case analysis indicated that the model is capable of optimizing the behavior of non-ERVs to maximize the ERV speed. Highlights * Preemption (without V2V communication) improved ERV travel time by approximately 11%-37% depending on traffic volume and cycle length. * Increasing the desired speed of the ERV had only small effects on its travel time in a congested network, where the ERVâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s speed was limited by other vehicles on the road. * V2V communication decreased ERV travel time by 20%-32% compared to preemption alone. * The developed mixed-integer, nonlinear program is capable of optimizing the behavior of non-ERVs to maximize the ERV speed. http://cvi-utc.org/emergency-vehicle-to-vehicle-communication/
Reducing School Bus/Light-Vehicle Conflicts Through Connected Vehicle Communications Kelly Donoghue PalframanVTTI and Andrew AldenVTTI
This project aimed to develop and test a concept for improving the safety of school bus transportation using connected vehicle technology. The project consisted of three key steps that led to a final road study: 1) conducting focus groups with light vehicle drivers and school bus drivers to determine what type of invehicle school-bus related information they would like to receive/send; 2) developing a concept of operations to accommodate driver desires; and 3) evaluating the effect of an in-vehicle message that warns of a stopped school bus ahead. In the road study, researchers evaluated each driver’s response through analysis of vehicle kinematics (speed, longitudinal acceleration, and jerk) when a bus was staged either beyond a “School Bus Stop Ahead” roadside sign or beyond the point at which a similar in-vehicle message was presented. Driver responses for each condition were compared to a baseline condition that described their driving behavior when no bus was present on the roadway. The results showed a nearly immediate response to in-vehicle messages, whereas the corresponding roadside sign messages provided little evidence of modifying driver behavior prior to visually observing a stopped school bus in the roadway. Highlights * Initial analysis of results indicate that the “school bus ahead” alert provided by the on-board display was effective at providing an enhanced awareness of school bus loading ahead. http://cvi-utc.org/reducing-school-buslight-vehicle-conflicts-through-connected-vehicle-communications/
V2V R e s e a r c h
Measuring User Acceptance and Willingness to Pay for CVI Technology
Hyeon-Shic ShinMSU, Michael CallowMSU, Z. Andrew FarkasMSU, Young-Jae LeeMSU, and Seyedehsan DadvarMSU
photo credit: http://www.streetsblog.org/2015/08/04/van-bramer-pushes-car-dealerships-to-stop-hogging-northern-blvd-sidewalks/
The increased prevalence of connected vehicles (CVs) is expected to provide significant safety benefits to roadway users. To ensure that the benefits of CVs are maximized, it is critical for transportation professionals to develop effective deployment strategies based on a thorough understanding of driversâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; perceptions, needs, and acceptance of CVs. As price is a serious barrier to the proliferation of CV technology, this study applied an adaptive choice-based conjoint analysis to estimate driversâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; acceptance of and willingness to pay for CVs. The results indicated that among safety features, acceptance was highest for collision warning packages. Drivers between the ages of 40 and 49 years, African-Americans, those without a college degree, and those with a higher budget for vehicle purchase were more willing to pay for CV features. While the results showed that women are more concerned about safety than men in all age groups, no statistically significant differences were observed in willingness to pay between men and women, and women 50 and older appear less interested in CV technologies compared to other demographic groups. The findings suggest that the safety benefits of CV technologies should be advertised to older women and at family-oriented events. Highlights * Across demographic groups, drivers are generally accepting of CV technologies. * Price is likely the main factor when deciding to purchase a CV technology, and safety benefits are the most appealing benefit of CV features to drivers. * Those aged between 40 and 49, African-Americans, those without a college degree, and those with a higher budget for vehicle purchase are willing to pay more for CV features. * Early adopters or innovators of CV technologies are willing to pay more for CV systems. http://cvi-utc.org/measuring-user-acceptance-of-and-willingness-to-pay-for-cvi-technology/
An Innovative Intelligent Awareness System for Roadway Workers Using Dedicated Short-Range Communications (DSRC) Darrell BowmanVTTI and Tom MartinVT
Roadside workers and emergency responders, such as police and emergency medical technicians, are at significant risk of being struck by vehicular traffic while performing their duties. While recent work has examined active and passive systems to reduce pedestrian collisions, current approaches require line of sight using either laser-, infrared-, or vision-based systems. We addressed this problem by developing a GPS-based solution that equips roadside workers and vehicles with GPS units to estimate the trajectory of oncoming traffic, and to estimate whether worker strike is imminent. The results of our study show that our approach is 91% accurate in alerting the worker and vehicle of collisions and near misses. Furthermore, accurate warnings can be provided 5 to 6 seconds before any potential collision, allowing time for mitigating solutions. Highlights * Approach enables detection of roadside workers in situations where existing solutions may fail due to visual occlusions or environmental conditions. * Experimental results show that the warning system can distinguish between a near miss, complete miss, and collision with a worker with 91% accuracy. * Accurate warnings can be provided 5 to 6 seconds before any potential collision, allowing time for mitigating solutions. http://cvi-utc.org/innovative-intelligent-awareness-system-for-roadway-workers-using-dedicated-short-rangecommunications/
V2X R e s e a r c h
Prototyping and Evaluating a Smartphone Dynamic Message Sign (DMS) Application Brian SmithUVA, Jiaqi MaUVA, and Hyungjun ParkUVA
Dynamic Message Signs (DMSs) are used to provide real-time traveler information to motorists. The wide availability of smart mobile devices allows traveler information to be provided through in-vehicle devices (without large infrastructure costs) to selected individuals and locations without geographical constraints. This study proposed a Virtual DMS (VDMS) system that utilizes a smartphone-based application. A user survey of the VDMS indicated positive attitudes towards the system in terms of both usefulness and satisfaction. Most drivers (81.0%) perceived the VDMS as safer than traditional DMSs, and many (66.7%) felt more comfortable receiving an audible message from the VDMS system than a DMS text message. A repeated-measure experiment was conducted using a driver simulator to examine (1) the impacts of driver age, (2) information transmission mode, (3) amount of information, and (4) driving complexity on message comprehension, distraction, and perceived difficulty. The performances of 42 participants were evaluated in terms of message comprehension, distraction, and self-reported message difficulty level. The VDMS generally performed better than the traditional DMS, and the VDMS performed significantly better for message comprehension under relatively complex conditions. The results suggest that transportation agencies should consider VDMS systems to deliver public traffic information in connected vehicle environments. Highlights * The developed VDMS application exhibits promising battery life, latency, and location accuracy. * Survey participants viewed the VDMS positively in terms of both usefulness and satisfaction. * Study participants felt safer and more comfortable receiving information from the VDMS compared to a traditional DMS. * The VDMS reduced reaction time to unexpected stimuli compared to a traditional DMS. * VDMSs are promising systems for deployment by public agencies in the future. http://cvi-utc.org/awarded-projects-old/prototyping-and-evaluating-a-smart-phone-dynamic-message-signapplication-in-the-cvi-utc-testbed/
A Connected Vehicle–Enabled Virtual Dynamic Message Sign System Demonstration and Evaluation on the Virginia Connected Vehicle Test Bed Hyungjun ParkUVA, Simona BabiceanuUVA, Robert KlugerUVA, and Brian SmithUVA
While DMSs are widely used to deliver traveler information, they have several key limitations: (1) the locations of DMSs are fixed, (2) reading a DMS message is distracting to drivers, and (3) installation and maintenance of DMSs are expensive. To address these limitations, a smartphone-based VDMS application that uses smartphones to provide audible readings of DMS messages to drivers was developed in the first round of CVIUTC projects. This project built upon the initial VDMS to develop a more advanced, second-generation VDMS system that is fully integrated in the DSRC environment of the Virginia Connected Vehicle Test Bed. The enhanced VDMS system utilizes four of the DSRC-based roadside equipment units on the Virginia Connected Vehicle Test Bed and incorporates software (VDMS Manager) that can virtually “build” new DMSs and create modified/new messages for those DMSs. To evaluate the VDMS system as an information-dissemination tool to support advanced traffic management, operational testing (including entrance, post-incident, and exit surveys) was conducted with actual operators at the McConnell Public Safety and Traffic Operations Center. The operators preferred the new VDMS system due to its ability to provide more detailed and customized messages at more appropriate locations for motorists. Highlights * The VDMS system developed earlier under the CVI-UTC was enhanced and integrated fully in the DSRC environment of the Virginia Connected Vehicle Test Bed. * The enhanced VDMS was positively received by operators at the McConnell Public Safety and Traffic Operations Center in a operational test. * The VDMS system is a promising information-dissemination tool to support advanced traffic management. http://cvi-utc.org/a-connected-vehicle-enabled-virtual-dynamic-message-sign-system-demonstration-andevaluation/
V2X R e s e a r c h
Bicycle Naturalistic Data Collection
Mohammed ElhenawyVTTI, Arash JahangiriVTTI, and Hesham RakhaVTTI
Bicycling has recently received more attention as a sustainable and eco-friendly mode of transportation. In recent years, approximately 700 cyclists have been killed annually, and nearly 50,000 have been injured annually in bicycle-motor vehicle crashes in the U.S. More than 30% of U.S. cyclist fatalities from 2008 to 2012 occurred at intersections, and many were related to cyclist violations at intersections. This project investigated factors that can affect and predict cyclist behavior at intersections. Naturalistic cycling data were used develop models to predict cyclist violations at intersections. Based on a mixed-effects generalized regression model, at signalized intersections, right turn, side traffic, and opposing traffic are statistically significant factors affecting the probability of red light violation. At stop-controlled intersections, the presence of other road users, left turn, right turn, and warm weather are statistically significant factors affecting the probability of violations. Violation prediction models were developed for stop-controlled intersections based on kinetic data collected from cyclists approaching intersections. The predicted violation rates were 0% to 10%, depending on how far from the intersection the prediction was conducted. An error rate of 6% was obtained for a time to intersection of approximately 2 s, which is sufficient for most motor vehicle drivers to respond. Highlights * Naturalistic cycling data were used to develop models to predict cyclist violations at intersections. * At signal-controlled intersections, cyclists are more likely to violate a red light when making right turns, and the probability of violation decreases when there is side traffic at the intersection and/or in front of the cyclist. * At stop-controlled intersections, the likelihood of violation increases when there is no side traffic and when the cyclist is younger. * The model accuracy was approximately 94% for a cyclist time to intersection of 2 s. http://cvi-utc.org/bicycle-naturalistic-data-collection/
Applications of Connected Vehicle Infrastructure Technologies to Enhance Transit Service Efficiency and Safety VT MSU MSU Kathleen Hancock , Young-Jae Lee Seyedehsan Dadvar MSU
, Clayton Thomas
Many transit agencies provide real-time operational information and trip-planning tools through phone, web, and smartphone applications that utilize one-way information flow from transit agencies to transit users. Implementing CVI applications for handheld devices into public transportation transit systems could improve the efficiency of services provided by the agency and enhance the safety of travelers and drivers. This project developed a system architecture for a smartphone app that allows for dynamic flexible routing and increased transit user safety. The new architecture was evaluated via simulation and a survey of potential users. The simulation exposed some limitations in the initial design, specifically for routes with closely spaced transit stops. Additional logic is needed to ensure that information provided to both the driver and traveler is consistent and unambiguous. Users believed that the application could improve transit efficiency and ridership as well as enhance nighttime pedestrian safety if it were connected to the police department. Highlights: * A rudimentary architectural framework was developed for two CVI applications designed to provide dynamic flexible routing and increase the safety of transit users. * A limited simulation revealed that additional logic should be added to the framework. * Potential users recognized the potential of the applications to enhance transit efficiency, increase transit ridership, and improve pedestrian safety. http://cvi-utc.org/applications_of_connected_vehicle_infrastructure_technologies_to_enhance_transit_service_ efficiency_and_safety/
V2X R e s e a r c h
Vehicle Based Basic Safety Message (BSM) Generator for Accelerating Deployment VTTI VTTI VTTI Reginald Viray
, Thomas Gorman
, and Zac Doerzaph
The MPRs needed to realize the full safety, economic, and environmental benefits of connected vehicle (CV) systems will not be attained for some time. In the interim, the collection and analysis of data from non-CVs could help smooth the transition to a fully connected environment. This project investigated the use of radarbased systems to obtain the positions, speeds, and headings of non-CVs in a CV system based on the speed, GPS coordinates, and radar data of CVs. Field tests covering a variety of vehicle formations, traffic densities, velocities, and roadway environments were conducted on the Virginia Smart Road and on public roads in Virginia. The results showed that 67.9% of the position estimates were within 3 m of the measured position along the x-axis and within 1.5 m of the measured position along the y-axis. Heading and speed estimates were generally excellent. The collected data suggest that the system could be improved by fusing the radar data with camera-based vision data, using a differential GPS, or providing raw radar data in an interoperable form for use by V2X applications. Highlights * An algorithm was developed that estimates the velocity and GPS position of radar targets from the perspective of a moving host vehicle. * This algorithm was improved upon through iterations of validation with naturalistic driving data. * An on-board vehicle system was developed that utilizes the new algorithm to transmit dynamic basic safety messages on behalf of remote vehicles not equipped with CV technologies. * Data obtained from system testing in a controlled environment are currently being used to further improve the algorithm. http://cvi-utc.org/awarded-projects-old/vehicle-based-bsm-generator-for-accelerating-deployment/
R e s e a r c h V2X
Mobile User Interface Development for the Virginia Connected Corridors VTTI VTTI VTTI Michael Mollenhauer
, Alexandria Noble
, and Zac Doerzaph
To realize the full benefits of CVs, future CV applications will communicate information to and from drivers during vehicle operation. Mobile devices such as smart phones and tablets may be a reasonable hardware platform to provide this communication. However, there are concerns that a potential increase in driver interaction with CV applications may lead to driver distraction and negative impacts on driving safety. The purpose of this research and development activity was to build a mobile application with a low-distraction user interface appropriate for use in a CV environment. The new application provides the driving public in Northern Virginia with a downloadable user interface application through which drivers can receive traveler information messages from traffic operation systems and report driving conditions back to a cloud system. Distractionreducing features include large-format visual message presentation, automated message filtering, text-to-speech message annunciation, and a speech-to-text driver reporting capability. The prototype mobile device user interface will be used to test new CV applications, validate their impact on driver safety, and inform future standards for mobile device user interfaces for driving applications. Highlights * A flexible mobile application was developed that can present traveler information messages to drivers anywhere within the state of Virginia with an Android smartphone device. * The mobile app interfaces with the cloud to access messages updated from VDOTâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s operations computing systems and the 511 Virginia driver information system. * Drivers may use the system to report various roadway conditions to provide crowd-sourced information back to the cloud computing environment. http://cvi-utc.org/awarded-projects-old/mobile-user-interface-development-for-the-virginia-connected-corridors/
S el e c te d Jo urnals & Co nferences
Istanbul, Turkey • 14th IFAC Symposium on Control in Transportation Systems Hague, Netherlands • 16th IEEE Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems – ITSC 2013 Dearborn, MI • 2014 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV’14) Suwon, Korea • 2014 International Conference on Sustainable Urban Transportation Research and Innovation Nashville, TN • 2014 Lifesavers National Conference on Highway Safety Priorities Blacksburg, VA • 2014 Society of Women Engineers Region E Meeting Osaka, Japan • 2015 UbiComp Atlanta, GA • 2015 US Korea Conference Tokyo, Japan • 20th ITS World Congress Melbourne, Australia • 20th World Congress on Intelligent Transportation Systems Detroit, MI • 21st ITS World Congress Bordeaux, France • 22nd ITS World Congress Blacksburg, VA • 4th Annual CEE Student Research Day Paris, France • 5th International Conference: Women’s Issues in Transportation Las Vegas, NV • 6th International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE) Washington, DC • 92nd Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board Washington, DC • 93rd Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting Washington, DC • 94th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board Washington, DC • 95th Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting Washington, DC • 9th University Transportation Center Spotlight Conference: Automated and Connected Vehicles • ASCE Journal of Infrastructure Systems • ASCE Journal of Transportation Engineering Norfolk, VA • DriveSense’14: NSF Workshop on Large-Scale Traffic and Driving Activity Data Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain • IEEE 18th International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems • IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems Pittsburgh, PA • Illuminating Engineering Society’s 2014 Annual Conference Vienna, Austria • International Conference on Connected Vehicles and Expo Daegu, Korea • International Cyber Physical System Workshop at DGIST • International Journal of Transportation Science and Technology • Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems • Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems: Technology, Planning, and Operations Fairfax, VA • Korean-American Scientists and Engineers Association Virginia Washington Metro Regional Conference • Procedia Manufacturing Blacksburg, VA • Summer VT Undergraduate Research Conference Annapolis, MD • Transportation Research Forum Annual Meeting • Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board • Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies Charlottesville, VA • University of Virginia Engineering Research Symposium Poster Session
Education CVI-UTC research results continue to expand the state of knowledge about the deployment of connectedvehicle technologies. The on-going dissemination of results through publications and presentations allows both academics and practitioners to access study results and incorporate them into future research and as real-world solutions. In addition, the gaps identified by CVI-UTC researchers during the course of on-road projects are allowing future research to focus on the refinement of connected vehicle/infrastructure technologies towards eventual deployment.
CVI-UTC in the Classroom and Beyond
A focus of the CVI-UTC has been to support the USDOT and state and local agencies in creating education and training programs suited for the CVI era. The knowledge gained during the course of the CVI-UTC is helping educators better train students in higher education to address the current and future needs of our transportation system through the use of CVI systems. Through published material and speaking events, this knowledge has also been transferred to practitioners so that the current transportation workforce has the information necessary to handle future deployments of these technologies. The educational programs of each of the CVI-UTC consortium universities and the overall consortium are based on a variety of engineering disciplines (e.g., civil, mechanical, electrical, and industrial/systems) and allied disciplines (e.g., human factors, energy and environmental, public policy, and information technology). This educational approach allows us to bridge academic disciplines and forge new initiatives in CVI. These programs also act as forums in which students and faculty are introduced to new, imaginative, and sometimes even radical initiatives that challenge the status quo. In this way, the CVI-UTC has been well positioned to support the innovative thinking and critical analyses that are at the heart of the educational mission of the USDOT.
Featured Educational Programs 2013-2014 Summer Transportation Institutes In the summers of 2013 and 2014, MSU’s National Transportation Center (NTC) hosted the Summer Transportation Institute (STI) through funding provided by the Maryland Department of Transportation, United States Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration, and the CVIUTC. The STI serves to attract high school students to participate in a STEM summer program and aims to address the nation’s need for a diverse pool of transportation professionals capable of developing long-term solutions to complicated intermodal transportation issues. In order to meet this goal, STI increases pre-college students’ awareness of transportation careers. The program also helps to enhance the students’ academic skills so they can be successful in careers in the transportation industry. Twenty-two students from diverse backgrounds participated in the nonresidential program at MSU. The four-week programs provided a multidisciplinary academic curriculum, which included guest speaker presentations, computer laboratories, research, and field trips. The students had an opportunity to drive a car simulator, learned about all modes of transportation, and gained leadership skills while working on team-building projects. Field trips included visits to the Virginia Smart Road in Blacksburg, Virginia, the Maryland Transit Administration, and the Maryland Boat Pilots Association. In addition, the participants learned about college preparation and career planning.
& Workforce D evelopment Collectively, the CVI-UTC consortium has over 500 tenured and tenure-track engineering faculty in the Colleges of Engineering at Virginia Tech, University of Virginia, and Morgan State University, nearly 20 of which teach transportation-related courses. Through the Transportation Infrastructure and Systems Engineering program at Virginia Tech, the Transportation and Urban Infrastructure Studies program at Morgan State University, and the Transportation Engineering program at the University of Virginia, the CVI-UTC consortium awarded 21 masterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s degrees and 11 doctoral degrees in transportation-related fields in 2015. The Transportation Undergraduate Research Fellowship, a fellowship program based out of VTTI, brought additional undergraduate student participation to the UTC program, with a particular focus on mentoring programs in which VTTI and CVI-UTC researchers partnered with undergraduate students to study connected vehicle technology. In addition, VTTI collaborated with the Graduate School and affiliated faculty in the Departments of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Industrial and Systems Engineering, Psychology, and Statistics at Virginia Tech to implement the Human Factors of Transportation Safety Graduate Certificate Program, offering the next generation of researchers an opportunity to gain in-depth understanding and hands-on experience in the area of transportation safety. The CVI-UTC also sponsored the 3rd Advanced Infrastructure Management Bootcamp held in conjunction with the 10th Annual InterUniversity Symposium on Infrastructure Management (AISIM10) in 2014. This short course covered research methods including using connected vehicle technologies to maintain pavement infrastructure assets, and was open to students for academic credit as well as to practitioners for continuing education. CVI-UTC programs such as these continue to build the transportation workforce through higher education.
2013-2015 Teacher Transportation Institutes MSU implemented the Teacher Transportation Institute (TTI) between 2013-2015. These sessions were used by the teachers to conduct research and plan for the final project presentations. The teachers were given a pre-program survey to determine their expectations of the TTI professional development. It also established what the teachers knew about transportation and transportation-related careers. Teachers who are more informed about the connection between STEM and the transportation industry and who are aware of the trends in transportation and safety developments can communicate career opportunities available to their students. TTI participants discussed what STEM is and its importance to post-secondary education and successful careers in transportation and related fields. The program engaged the teachers in hands-on, inquiry-based lessons that included the use of engineering principles and technology.
Education Building the Transportation Workforce and Educating the Public
The CVI-UTC has maintained a commitment to the development of transportation professionals beyond the college campus. CVI-UTC research results continue to expand the state of knowledge about the deployment of connected-vehicle technologies, with findings still being disseminated through publications and presentations at global conferences. This continued effort allows practitioners to implement CVI-UTC findings in the real world and prepares them to successfully maintain future deployments of CVI technologies. The CVI-UTC has been active in reaching out to younger generations to encourage interest in transportation careers. These outreach efforts were designed to educate future engineers and STEM educators along with current engineers (civil, mechanical, electrical, etc.) and human factors (psychology, social sciences, etc.) practitioners. For example, through participation in outreach events specifically targeting K-12 students, including VTTI’s School Days, Morgan State’s National Summer Transportation Institute and Teacher Transportation Institute, VDOT Career Fairs, and the WTS Girls in Transportation – Transportation YOU! program, the CVI-UTC has engaged K-12 students from all backgrounds, including underrepresented populations, in hands-on activities designed to encourage young
Featured Educational Programs 2015 WTS Girls in Transportation – Transportation YOU! Connected Vehicle/Infrastructure University Transportation Center (CVI-UTC) researchers and staff participated in the 2nd annual Girls in Transportation Event hosted by the Central Virginia WTS Chapter. Twenty-two girls from 11 Richmond area middle schools attended the event held at the MathScience Innovation Center on October 14, 2015. This event was also attended by volunteers from the Governor’s Office, the Federal Highway Administration, the Virginia Department of Transportation, and private consulting firms. These groups led the girls in activities to demonstrate different specialized aspects of the transportation field. CVI-UTC personnel educated the girls on connected and automated vehicle technologies, followed by a hands-on activity where students designed their own connected vehicle safety applications, including a driver-vehicle interface and auditory alerts. This event was geared toward encouraging girls to study STEM fields and garner interest in transportation-related careers.
& Workforce D evelopment men and women to pursue transportation-related careers, specifically careers related to advanced vehicle systems. CVI-UTC outreach events have also aimed to engage and educate the public on the current state of transportation research and development, which will shape the future of transportation. Specifically, the outreach conducted informed the public about CVI systems, thus familiarizing them with a technology soon to be available to them as consumers. For example, researchers and staff from the CVI-UTC participated in the Virginia Science Festival, USA Science and Engineering Festival, VTTI Open House, Transportation Data Palooza, and the 2014 Transportation Technology Legislative Fair. This last event alone was attended by over 200 people, including 27 US delegates and 11 senators. In total, these outreach events have reached over 10,000 people in the four years that the CVI-UTC has been operational.
VTTI School Days Hundreds of students from across the region have attended the VTTI and VDOT annual School Days, hosted yearly at VTTI. Students toured VTTIâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s facilities including Virginiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Smart Road, Control Room and other research vehicles. Students learned about transportation safety, as well as the research conducted by CVI-UTC researchers.
The CVI-UTC has focused on transferring the knowledge gained through ground-breaking research to the practitioners who will ultimately implement CVI-UTC research findings in the field. CVI-UTC research has been disseminated through over 140 peer-reviewed journal publications and presentations at internationally renowned conferences and workshops. CVIUTC researchers have continually been invited to speak at professional conferences, networking events hosted by consortium universities, and large-scale industry events, allowing them to communicate results to professional audiences. Research results have also been disseminated via virtual sources, such as the CVI-UTC website, repositories and databases such as VTechWorks and TRID, and social media. Utilizing multiple outlets to spread research results has allowed us to reach a broad audience of transportation professionals, speeding the implementation of our work.
Technology Implementation Virginia Connected Vehicle Test Beds
Over 15 years ago, the Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT) and VTTI partnered to create one of the first active and integrated roadways featuring intelligent transportation systems: the Virginia Smart Road. By matching funding for the CVI-UTC, VDOT and VTTI teamed once again to speed the development and deployment of next-generation vehicular technology through the creation of two connected vehicle test beds. Encompassing the Virginia Smart Road and the areas along I-66, I-495, U.S. 29, and U.S. 50, one of the most congested corridors in the U.S, these test beds were envisioned to influence the way connected vehicle/infrastructure research is conducted for the CVI-UTC. In the future, the test beds will be incorporated into a national connected vehicle test bed that can be utilized by any institution or university to carry out connected vehicle/infrastructure research.
Te c h n o l o g y T r a n s f e r Using more than 60 installed Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) Roadside Equipment (RSE) units located along the test beds, along with backend networks, data integration infrastructure, cloud services, system monitors, user interfaces, and Onboard Equipment (OBE), CVI-UTC researchers tested and refined connected applications related to traveler information, enhanced transit operations, lane closure alerts, and work zone and incident management. These test beds, now rebranded as the Virginia Connected Corridors (VCC), have facilitated the real-world deployment of connected-vehicle technology via DSRC and cellular technology. The VCC represents a near-production-level connected-vehicle environment that will play an important role in accelerating the deployment of connected technologies and ensuring a smooth transition to a fully connected transportation system. It supports a manageable application development and deployment process for researchers and developers, with a variety of connected applications already being developed on the road. The VCC infrastructure will continue to speed the integration of connectivity into VDOT operations, eventually serving as a model for other regions in the United States.
Featured Test Bed Activities Ongoing Research and Implementation Building on the completed CVI-UTC project, Mobile User Interface Development for the VCC, VTTI continues to use the VCC environment to serve the needs of state DOT and municipal partners to develop, assess, and deploy connected-vehicle applications that address their operational goals. The Crash Avoidance Metrics Partnership (CAMP) is also using the VCC to evaluate the ability of connected vehicles and infrastructure to generate and collect message alternatives using cellular and DSRC communications under simulated data message control schemes in real-world driving conditions for non-safety critical applications. This field testing has allowed researchers to capture data to better characterize the system and understand performance capabilities, which will aid in developing standards and future design activities. Another project sponsored by the District Department of Transportation (DDOT) will be using a prototype V2I system, which will provide a platform for the development and evaluation of connectedvehicle applications that can enhance safety and mobility, reduce environmental impacts, and improve operations within DDOTâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s operational region.
Te c h n o l o g y Tr a n s f e r CVI-UTC research has led to the development of various tools and applications geared towards creating a safer future for our transportation system through CVI technology. These innovations have included inventions and pending patents.
Patents and Inventions
CVI-UTC research has led to the development of various tools and applications geared towards creating a safer future for our transportation system through CVI technology. These innovations have included inventions and pending patents. For example, VTTI researchers developed a DSRCequipped motorcycle helmet for testing under the project entitled Connected Motorcycle Crash Warning Interfaces, which developed and evaluated various prototype auditory, visual, and haptic warning interfaces. The DSRC-equipped motorcycle helmet is able to transmit and receive messages from other connected vehicles, infrastructure, and devices so that it can alert the rider to traffic and road conditions and provide general emergency alerts. The new helmet is expected to enhance the safety of motorcyclists as well as other road users. The connected work zone vest was developed as part of the CVI-UTC project entitled Innovative “Intelligent” Awareness System For Roadway Workers Using Dedicated Short-Range Communications. The vest was alert workers and vehicle operators of impending worker-vehicle conflicts in sufficient time to avoid the incident. The work zone vest uses DSRC and a GPS unit to calculate the worker’s path and determine if a collision with a connected vehicle is pending. Additional research is expected to stem from the original 24 CVI-UTC projects, allowing for the refinement of applications and tools for eventual implementation into real-world systems.
Futu re Building on These Accomplishments for the Futureâ&#x20AC;Ś
The CVI-UTC was never envisioned to be just a four-year project with a static completion date. Instead, the vision for the CVI-UTC was to help create a solid foundation upon which the future of transportation systems can be built. The Center has produced practical results that are advancing discourse about advanced-vehicle technologies; it has sparked genuine interest among the next generation of transportation leaders who will ultimately carry the torch forward in creating safer, more efficient, and more sustainable modes of travel; and it has led to the establishment of tangible facilities that will continue to provide a literal path toward the future development and deployment of new technology. The work conducted via the CVI-UTC and the tireless efforts made by researchers and students under its umbrella are expected to play a role in the larger transportation community well beyond the project end date. The research programs, educational and outreach efforts, and key partnerships of the CVI-UTC have established a foundation to facilitate the widespread adoption of next-generation connected-vehicle systems. These same programs and partnerships will evolve to usher in future transformative changes in our transportation system, such as vehicle automation. Thus, we expect the work performed under the CVI-UTC to continue to help others understand and be more aware of emerging transportation issues; assist in the improvement of processes, techniques, and skills in addressing these issues; and foster a passion in othersâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;whether they are elementary or high school students, college-aged students searching for an interest in academia, or established transportation professionalsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;to join us in advancing surface transportation.