Figure 2. An example of the combined ManuVAR tool – participatory cross-disciplinary design review of a new product. Several experts – engineers, workers and managers – investigate a shared virtual environment view of the product (assembly sequence, ergonomics issues) before it is brought into production to find possible design faults. Source: 
our groups of human factor methods F to cluster the principal ways to improve manual work from the system-cybernetics perspective : workplace design, ergonomics evaluation, instruction delivery and training. The knowledge management concept based on Nonaka’s organizational knowledge creation theory  with each modality of knowledge creation supported: externalization and internalization (adaptive and natural user interfaces with VR/AR), socialization (bi-directional communication and the virtual model) and combination (linking in the virtual model and connection to PLM systems).
The project has implemented four reconfigurable application tools that can be combined
via the virtual model to solve a given industrial case (Figure 2): • Contextual instruction delivery: AR, tracking; remote and local versions  • Ergonomics evaluation: automatic physical and cognitive load analysis, full body motion capture  • Task analysis and procedure validation: hierarchical task analysis tool, VR with haptics  • Motor skill training: VR with haptics, precision-teaching theory .
Conclusions Offshoring is a natural phenomenon. It will exist while there are big differences in labour costs, but European industries could turn their attention to business that cannot be offshored, e.g. unique or deeply customized products, main-
Production matters. VTT in global trends. Kai Häkkinen (ed.)