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Green VTT

Value from sustainability Green VTT / 1

Green VTT / 2

Contents 4 Fostering sustainable development - fast growth for green businesses 6 Green material technology 8 Green bio- and chemical processing 10 Emission control technology 12 Clean water technologies 14 Green ICT 16 Green electronics 18 Green energy 20 Green transport 22 Sustainable built environment and eco-efficient solutions 24 Green industrial systems 26 Green machinery *

Green VTT / 3

Fostering sustainable development - fast growth for green businesses


wareness about protecting and

cient use of raw materials, and reduction of

improving the quality of our envi-

greenhouse gases. Since then, an increasing

ronment is rapidly increasing. This

number of projects and co-operative pro-

leads to rapidly growing demands

grammes have contributed to the under-

for expertise and technologies to aid sustain-

standing of green processes and accumu-

able development. Sustainable businesses

lated innovation potential for sustainable

are expected to provide solutions for the


world’s environmental and social problems. The best companies are finding ways to turn

This publication has been written to reveal

this responsibility into opportunity.

the complete green technology offerings of VTT in order to promote co-operation with

For the research community, the green devel-

our clients and research partners. It reveals

opment is a great inspiring challenge. To find

our determined and effective approach to

the best solutions, a wide knowhow and inte-

find new solutions. We are ready to take the

gration of various disciplines are needed. As

next steps in sustainable development and to

a multi-technological organisation with com-

contribute our expertise for the success of

prehensive networks, VTT is in a good posi-

our clients.

tion to meet these challenges. VTT already has a long tradition in the research of green technologies. The first major integrated

Anne-Christine Ritschkoff

action was the Clean World theme pro-

Executive Vice President,

gramme, implemented during the years

Strategic Research

2002-2006. The theme aimed at developing sustainable technologies for advancing the

Jorma Lammasniemi

use of renewable energy sources, more effi-

Professor, Strategic Research

Green VTT / 4

Green VTT / 5

Green material technology VTT’s Green Material Technology provides sustainable

technology for a resource efficient society. This includes the

VTT’s key offering

technological approaches that ensure effective material

increasing of societys´ overall material and energy efficiency

Utilisation of wastes - waste refinery concepts

flows throughout society. These approaches facilitate the

by optimised use and reuse of resources, ecological material

The research area of effective utilisation of wastes and pro-

production of products, services and energy in resource

solutions with dynamic management of heterogenic raw

duction of nearly passive products targets aspects including

effective ways and with minimised environmental

material bases, and sustainable applications of material tech-

performance, recyclable and cost-balanced intelligent and

impacts. VTT has a long tradition in developing recycling

nology in environmental technologies. Wastes can be seen as

interactive production of eco-efficient materials, processes

technologies, and the use of secondary and waste mate-

raw materials. However, prior the waste refinery, there are

and concepts. These demands are met by designing with

rials. The overall goal is to keep the material resources

needs for effective identification, detection and monitoring

almost 100% recyclable nodular products having all the infor-

within the economic system for long periods, and there-

tools and methods for assessing solid materials and con-

mation needed included into the product. Interactivity is

fore to minimise the quantities of valuable materials that

taminants in solid wastes and raw materials.

exploited in all the stages of product life cycle and advanced

permanently leave the economic system.

solutions are integrating production concepts and plants (e.g. bio- and waste refineries and industrial ecosystems).

Sustainable material technology is needed to overcome the

VTT’s scientific and technological focus on green material technology

continuous growth of resource and material consumption

VTT promotes efficient energy and material use, exploitation

Closed cycles and zero waste concepts

and overuse, to mitigate climate change, and to increase the

of new raw material/water sources and utilisation of waste

The VTT closed cycles and zero waste concepts cover the

sustainable environment impact. Sustainable production pat-

flows by creating new substitute materials and processes.

emission treatments and removal of impurities and compo-

terns, innovative technologies and high level of know-how all

Sustainable production chains of new materials and their raw

nents not used in the process in the most optimal production

improve resource efficiency. The product planning phase is

materials as well as environment friendly, ethical and efficient

stage. Materials technology provides excellent tools for opti-

critical for material use throughout product life cycles, for

production of raw materials for biomaterials are in the focus

mising and reorganizing production processes and operation

products´ overall sustainability.

of VTT’s research activities. Overall life cycle thinking and

chains by smart integration of processes and systems

resource efficiency is a leading idea of VTT’s research

needing new membrane materials, absorbents and/or ion

VTT’s vision on green material technology

activities directed towards sustainable production and

exchanging materials.

VTT´s vision and mission is to be a global forerunner in creat-

product design and finally to sustainable community and

ing environmentally benign approaches based on materials



Advanced recycling processes and concepts Efficient return of the resources to the economic system requires simultaneous development of recyclable or reusable materials and products as well as systems for improved recycling. This is enabled by VTT’s multi-technological competence base. The potential to improve recyclability/reusability by using non-hazardous raw materials, modular and dismantling-friendly solutions, automatic identification systems enabling interactive recycling systems, etc. is assessed already in the product design stage. Increased recycling rates are enabled by developing advanced recycling processes for complex and new products and materials, new higher value products from recycled and waste materials, integrated systems for energy and material recycling of waste and by-products and by optimising recycling systems.

Erja Turunen Vice President, Strategic Research Tuomas Mustonen Vice President, Business Solutions


Green bio- and chemical processing VTT develops green bio- and chemical processing steps

using up-to-date methodology. Metabolic engineering of

biotools or green catalysts to e.g. pulp and paper technology

for different industrial sectors, e.g. biotech, chemical,

microbial production strains is carried out in order to be able

or chemical technology. VTT works in close collaboration with

food and pulp and paper industries as well as bio-refin-

to produce novel bio-based chemicals from biomass compo-

different industrial sectors and has profound knowledge on

eries. The research covers the whole value chain, from

nents. The key competences are in fundamental understand-

the technological needs and requirements of these sectors.

development of biocatalysts or chemical catalysts to

ing of the molecular biology and physiology of industrially

Therefore combination of the green process alternatives or

implementation of the green unit operations to industrial

important organisms as well as discovery of enzymes being

unit operations as part of the existing processes can be effi-


able to break biomass to its building units and to further

ciently carried out.

modify these components to various chemicals or materials.

VTT’s vision on green processing

The unique research facilities cover the whole chain from

Biorefining of agro and forest biomass and process

VTT is a forerunner and multidisciplinary research provider in

molecular level research, analysis of the reaction mechanisms


white biotechnology- green chemistry area. VTT’s vision is to

with advanced analytical methods, as well as development of

VTT focuses strongly on biorefinery research. Technologies

develop sustainable and multidisciplinary solutions needed to

process applications at the laboratory and pilot scale.

for the production of new biomass derived biofuels, chemi-

realize value chains based on renewable raw materials and

cals and polymers are being developed. One strong area is

thereby provide alternatives for petroleum based products.

In the field of polymer and chemical products, the research

metabolic engineering of microbes for the production of bulk

Target end products of these value chains include (bio)chem-

focus is in bio-based materials, i.e. polymers derived from

and high-value chemicals. New green process concepts for

icals from renewables, liquid biofuels and biomaterials. Spe-

renewables that are functionalised by green chemical or

valorisation of agro and forest residues to value added chem-

cial focus is on enzyme-aided processing of biomass, devel-

chemo-mechanical techniques. VTT applies green organic and

icals either though the cell factory route or directly by frac-

opment of green chemistry solutions for biomass valorisation

polymer synthesis technologies for development of new poly-

tionation of the target polymers or components from the bio-

and development of efficient microbial factories for biotechni-

mer and chemical products. Processing infrastructure is avail-

mass are being developed.

cal production of chemicals and biofuels. Bio-based unit

able for the production of chemicals and polymers. Fermenta-

operations are also developed for the forest, food and chem-

tion and downstream facilities enable biotechnical production

ical industries.

of enzymes and chemicals up to a scale of two cubic meters. Johanna Buchert

VTT’s scientific and technological focus on green bio- and chemical processing

VTT’s key offering

VTT works for discovery, improvement and exploitation of

VTT’s strength in green processing technologies is the know-

Tiina Nakari-Setälä

enzymes and microbial strains, algae and plant cell cultures

how of the whole research value-chain, from development of

Technology Manager


Vice President, Strategic Research

Green process alternatives to manufacturing industry


Emission control technology VTT’s scientific and technological focus on emission control technology

face reactions and aerosols. We provide monitoring tech-

able solutions to mitigate the emissions from processes, vehicles and engines. VTT operates as an expert for

The key elements in our research are the characterisation of

processes. We affect the security of nuclear power plants by

industry and environmental administrations in national

process and traffic emissions and generation of new nano-

estimating the transport of fission product particles and

and international networks.

and functional material-driven purification techniques. Our


VTT provides emission control technology and sustain-

nologies for emissions at high-temperatures and corrosive

portfolio on emission measurements includes a wide variety The growing demand from individuals, companies and politi-

of methods and specialised analysers for on-line determina-

Engine combustion emission and energy use

cians is creating an urgent need to characterize the emis-

tion as well as the classification of particulate emissions by

VTT has versatile laboratory facilities for engine combustion

sions, including from those sources which have not been

size. We develop novel monitoring tools and concepts for

emission and energy use purposes. We provide reliable and

monitored until now. Only then can the cost-effective actions

clean processes and product verification.

internationally comparable information about emissions from complete vehicles simulating real-world duty cycles, both for

that are needed be focused on those sources which are the most critical ones. With technology-based environmental

VTT’s key offering

on-road and non-road applications. We offer easy and cost-

solutions, the effects of environmental disasters can be miti-

Our research operations, both in the field and in the labora-

effective running tests with complete vehicles in well-control-


tory, help our clients to develop their own products and proc-

led testing environments designed for different emission

esses to be more eco-efficient.

reduction systems.

VTT’s vision on emission control technology VTT‘s vision and mission is to provide research innovations

Characterization of emissions from processes, vehicles and

for characterization and control of emissions originating from


different sources, such as power plants, industrial processes

VTT provides special measurement methods for gaseous

and traffic. We act as a key player in vehicle and greenhouse

components, which includes high-performance on-line mon-

Jukka Lehtomäki

gas emission mitigation by promoting alternative fuels and by

itoring as well as characterization, sampling and specific

Technology Manager

increasing the use of renewable energy. VTT actively directs

analysis of several non-regulated trace pollutant species and

national and international legislation and standardisation in

fine particles. VTT offers integrated analytical solutions on

Juhani Laurikko

the area of emission control.

flow dynamics and modelling of chemical gas phases, sur-

Senior Research Scientist



Clean water technologies VTT’s scientific and technological focus on clean water technologies

These competencies include for example utilisation of various

the sustainable use of water. VTT has a long experience in optimisation of industrial process water cycles and in

VTT promotes sustainable water use by developing techno-

logical, chemical and electrochemical treatment technologies

sludge management. This expertise forms a strong base

logical solutions, concepts and systems for production of

for production of clean water as well as for recycling and puri-

for development of new or improved technologies and

clean and safe water, for efficient recycling and reuse of

fication of process and household waters and for production

systems for production of high-quality recycled fluxes.

industrial and household water and for water efficient proc-

of energy and materials from sludges and concentrates. The

Water-efficiency is the key component in sustainable

esses. Our focus areas include improvement of the technical

development of industrial water efficiency concepts (e.g. proc-

water management.

prerequisites of water recycling, exploitation of new non-used

ess, forest, mine and food industry, energy production) is sup-

resources for production of clean water, and increasing inte-

ported by the experience in development of new processes,

Growth of the world’s population, economical growth in the

gration of waste and water management into the complex

for example biorefinery concept, and process modelling.

developing countries and the way in which the developed

energy and material production chains of the society, instead

world uses the limited resources leads to increasing competi-

of separate treatment solutions. The integration of life-cycle

Monitoring, data management and sustainability assessment

tion of natural resources. For example, it is predicted that the

thinking into all the development work is an essential prereq-

Various environmental assessment techniques, including LCA

shortage of water may become the key factor limiting eco-

uisite of sustainability. VTT’s scientific and technological focus

(life cycle assessment), water and carbon footprints are used

nomic growth in many countries. The growing need for

contains advanced on-line monitoring and process control

for ensuring the sustainability of the technical solutions, con-

reduction of water consumption and introduction of alterna-

systems ensuring efficient recovery and confidence in the

cepts and systems. VTT develops on-line monitoring tech-

tive water resources are well-known challenges.

quality of recycled water.

nologies, sensors and indicators for quality control of water.

VTT’s vision on clean water technologies

VTT’s key offering

VTT’s vision is to promote sustainable and efficient use of

Water technologies and systems

Ulla-Maija Mroueh

water by providing technologies for clean water production,

VTT’s strength in development of technologies and systems

Senior Research Scientist

for water recycling and purification. VTT’s multi-technological

for water purification, recycling and reuse and for utilisation of

competence ensures that we are in the global forefront in

water treatment residues is our capability to develop new

Tuomas Mustonen

developing water technologies.

solutions by combining our diverse basic competencies.

Vice President, Business Solutions

VTT provides clean water technology solutions enabling


separation and fractionation technologies and advanced bio-


Green ICT Green ICT is about the use of ICT for environmental sus-

VTT’s vision on green ICT

Energy efficient buildings involve development of new smart meter-

tainability. It thus includes not only improving environ-

ICT will increasingly be present in our lives: 1) ICT will offer

ing and smart grid enabled digital services for diverse stakeholders,

mental efficiency of ICT itself, but also the use of ICT to

available data and easy to use tools for the people to decrease

from energy companies to consumers.

make other industries and business domains more sus-

their ecological footprint and to make more environmentally

tainable. The high level goal of green ICT is to eventually

sustainable choices in their everyday consumption. 2) Smart

Life-cycle efficient production demands more extensive and sys-

decouple the use of natural resources from economic

production and recycling technologies will result in optimised

temic ways for utilising ICT in enabling new, more ecological, pro-

growth. Achieving this requires new, bold ideas and con-

products, processes and systems that consume as little

duction paradigms for making products and services.

cepts that generate major systemic, structural and

resources as possible in every stage of their whole life-cycle.

behavioural changes in society. Some general principles

3) Smart metering and smart grid technologies will enable flex-

Optimised and adaptive networks aim to produce new intelligent

of the new frugal society are: integrated activities - “1

ible, accessible and economical energy generation (using

network operations and management solutions for optimising

joule, two jobs”, waste minimisation and utilisation -“One

renewable energy sources), distribution and consumption both

diverse networks in multiple levels.

man’s trash is another man’s treasure” and physical

in households and industry. 4) Intelligent transportation sys-

resource substitution - “Consumption of products as bits

tems and remote collaboration technologies will reduce

VTT’s key offering

instead of atoms”.

unnecessary traffic and minimised the energy usage of trans-

Sensors and sensor networks

portation in general. ICT devices and networks themselves will

VTT develops novel sensor and sensor network hardware and soft-

The largest potential for ICT to improve environmental effi-

naturally be highly optimised. Sustainable decisions will also be

ware for a variety of applications. We have a long experience on

ciency can be found in applying ICT in other business

supported by governmental regulation and other incentives.

sensor, sensor network and embedded device R&D, especially

domains rather than in ICT itself, because the ICT sector only

regarding wireless sensing. Our measurement solutions provide

tion. On the other hand, the environmental footprint of the ICT

VTT’s scientific and technological focus on green ICT

sector is growing the most rapidly, so it cannot be neglected.

VTT focuses on four topics that present our view of the most

Rather, the ICT sector should lead the way in taking new

relevant in terms of both the impact on environmental sustain-

Network solutions

solutions into practice. The focus on green ICT is more than

ability and application opportunities for ICT. Environmentally

VTT provides advanced technology for the networks of the future.

just the climate change and low carbon economy, but topics

sustainable consumption deals with generation of tools and

Our focal topics cover converging networks, network management,

like efficient use of natural resources, reductions of hazardous

incentives for consumers to change their behaviour and to

radio systems, and computing platforms. Our technologies and

substances (ROHS), and conservation of biodiversity should

enable making environmentally sustainable decisions in their

competences are key enablers of, for example, smart electricity grid

also be considered.

daily life.

management, intelligent home solutions and remote collaboration.

accounts for a few percentages of the total energy consump-


information for improving, e.g., energy efficiency and waste management.

Modelling, simulation and analysis VTT is developing models, simulations, and analysis for better

Tatu Koljonen

understanding, control, productivity and sustainability of

Vice President, Strategic Research

complex systems. Our R&D is concentrating on industrial automation and system simulation, data interpretation and

Seija Sihvonen

information management. Examples of the solutions that we

Vice President, Business Solutions

provide are product life-cycle assessment, energy consumption monitoring services, and transportation optimisation. Software technologies VTT offers solutions for the complete lifecycle of software intensive systems development and run-time optimisation. Our R&D covers the software engineering methods, processes, tools and architectures, including product and service proof-of-concepts for, e.g., mobile and cloud computing solutions. We can contribute to, e.g., life-cycle efficient software production, hardware substitution, and optimised software intensive systems. User interaction and user-centered design VTT is taking advantage of the emerging user interaction and user-centered design technologies. We do R&D on context adaptive user interaction, virtual and augmented reality, information visualisation and human-centred design of digital services. Our technologies enable, e.g., sustainability services for consumers, teleconferencing solutions and virtual prototypes.


Green electronics VTT’s Green Electronics Technology provides solutions

companies are able to increase their business. Society ben-

Energy-efficient smart grids exploit sophisticated ICT solu-

that are well addressed to the broad needs of an energy-

efits from better use of natural resources, reduction of waste

tions to optimise the use of electricity, to avoid peaks in the

efficient society. Together with its other green technology

and more efficient recycling.

demand of electricity, and to make grids bidirectional thus allowing distributed energy production.

areas, VTT is in a position to address the needs of indusoped several solutions for its customers which allow

VTT’s scientific and technological focus on green electronics technology

Energy efficient lighting and housing

them to expand their businesses in the strongly increas-

VTT’s focus is on high performance sensors, optical instru-

The new LED technology can be used to markedly increase

ing business arenas of green technology.

ments, and printed intelligence in electronics and micro tech-

the energy efficiency of lighting. Efficiency depends on the

nologies. These focus areas are well addressed to the broad

diodes, their driving circuits, packaging of the lighting mod-

needs of an energy-efficient society.

ules, and the control of lighting. VTT has circuit technology

try and users in a holistic way. VTT has already devel-

Solutions exploiting electronics are able to improve the energy efficiency of goods and services throughout their life cycles.

that improves the efficiency of the driving circuits, packaging

The benefits include improved logistics and reduced waste in

VTT’s key offering

technology which improves the thermal management of light-

production, better efficiency of industrial processes, lower cost

Sensor solutions for energy efficient production

ing modules resulting in increased energy efficiency and life

of ownership through widespread measurement solutions,

On-line measurement of emissions using various optical

time, and control solutions to use lighting only when needed.

improved access to services using various wireless connectiv-

measurements in energy plants makes it possible to maintain

VTT solutions can be used to prevent excessive air condition-

ity solutions, more energy-efficient lighting, more environmen-

optimal burning conditions depending on the contents of the

ing, for example by using distributed temperature and air

tal-friendly transport of people and goods and more efficient

fuel material. Condition monitoring of critical machines using

quality (such as CO2) measurements.

recycling based on information embedded in goods.

various process-specific sensors enable both on-line monitoring as well as predictive measurements which help to

Wireless and Internet technologies to support energy-efficient

VTT’s vision on green electronics

avoid down times and to optimise maintenance breaks. VTT


VTT´s vision is to be a global forerunner in creating environ-

develops solar cell technology using roll-to-roll manufacturing

VTT offers technologies to build global sensor networks with

mentally friendly solutions based on green electronics. The

technology which is well suited for large-area solar panels.

location services to improve the energy efficiency of road

citizens increase their knowledge of environmental issues

transportation in logistics and usability of public traffic serv-

through improved access to on-line information on the car-

Energy-efficient transport

ices. VTT solutions for wireless communication make it pos-

bon footprint of various products and services. This allows

VTT provides intelligent accumulator solutions for monitoring

sible to have high-quality video meetings and remote pres-

new business models based on green technology. Green

electronics which is critical for electrical and hybrid vehicles.

ence to reduce travelling and environmentally unfriendly flight


traffic in particular. Embedded sensors in mobile phones together with their connectivity to the Internet make it possible to increase the real-time awareness of consumers of environmental issues associated with various products and services that people encounter in their daily lives. This makes it possible to affect sustainable development at the global level based on individual consumer decisions.

Aarne Oja Programme Manager Juha Palve Vice President, Business Solutions


Green energy Global climate change mitigation will call for strong

need all sources and applications of green energy. The decar-

New technologies developed for forest and agrobiomass

measures in order to achieve deep reductions, up to

bonisation of the power and transport sectors is a top priority.

value chains are main focuses on VTT’s research agenda. A

80% of greenhouse gases in industrial countries. Tech-

A global green energy revolution will call for accelerated

unique research infrastructure with pilot plant facilities

nology development and enhanced market implementa-

efforts, measures and results from energy research and

supports our RTD (research and technical development)

tion of new technologies will be one of the most cost


activities. Combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, hydrogenation and high pressure processes are typical competence areas.

efficient global tools. VTT is one of the largest R&D actors in Northern Europe in the area of green and sus-

VTT’s vision on green energy

Fuel cell research is strongly focused on applications with

tainable energy. The selected focus areas are advanced

VTT’s mission is to be a key global R&D actor in selected

new materials. Energy efficiency and the use of renewable

bioenergy, wind and fuel cells in renewable energy,

areas in green energy. We are a strong partner in international

energy are key topics for sustainable transport. Activities

nuclear energy and clean coal in sustainable energy pro-

cooperation both within the European Union and within the

cover RTD as well as large-scale fleet demonstrations.

duction. A strong focus is also in the efficient use of

technology network of the International Energy Agency. VTT

Biotechnology will open new integrated solutions also in the

energy in transport, the built environment and industry.

focuses on next generation bioenergy solutions, arctic wind

energy RTD, such as next generation biofuels and algae

Technology development is linked to energy systems,

power, fuel cells and smart electricity grids, clean transport

based bioenergy.

modelling, economic assessments, foresighting and

and low-energy buildings. Bioenergy solutions in global forest

services in all stages of the innovation process from

and energy industry, boosted by new business opportunities

VTT’s key offering

technology and market commercialization. A new energy

in versatile biorefineries are areas of VTT track record.

VTT has a strong technology and IPR portfolio in green energy solutions, including the following areas.

revolution is needed, the transition to a green and sus-

VTT’s scientific and technological focus on green energy technology


Green energy solutions will call for leaping technology devel-

VTT develops new solutions in bioenergy, wind, fuel cell and

VTT has a portfolio of advanced technologies in power, heat,

opments and market introduction of all renewable energy

solar photovoltaic applications. VTT focuses on development

solid biofuels and transportation fuels production. VTT biore-

sources. The International Energy Agency IEA has indicated

of new, cost competitive solutions for power, heat and trans-

finery research offers attractive business solutions for forest,

that in 2050 up to 50% of primary energy sources can be

port supported by competence in energy systems, model-

agricultural and urban waste based biomass platforms. VTT

produced by renewable energy. The targets are set in Europe

ling, sustainability and market assessments. New wind power

is one of the largest bioenergy R&D organizations in Europe

by 2020 to increase the share of renewable energy to 20% in

solutions, often in ice conditions, are under strong develop-

providing unique research and pilot plant facilities, modelling

final energy consumption, to reduce greenhouse gas emis-

ment and implementation phases. VTT provides solutions in

and market assessments for the forest and energy industries.

sions by 20% and increase the efficient use of energy by

smart grid development and innovations to achieve large

Our technology and research portfolio offers future frontier

20%. No single technology provides the final solution, we

scale renewable electricity generation.

research by exploiting new energy crops and algae.

tainable world is more urgent than ever.


Wind power VTT provides solutions for fast growing wind park markets. Special expertise is developed for reliable operations in ice conditions, not only seen in the arctic areas. New results from material and construction research will offer cost competitive solutions. Fuel cell VTT develops solutions for clean power production based on SOFC (solid oxide fuel cells) technology as well as new fuel cell based power trains for speciality vehicles. Both technologies offer high efficiencies which results in savings in fuels as well as reduced CO2 emissions, both for power production and transport. VTT offers system development and concept verification, as well as development of components and materials. VTT’s offerings also include developing other fuel cell applications like portable and small power sources.

Kai Sipilä Vice President, Strategic Research Matti Nieminen Customer Manager


Green transport Green transport means increasing the efficiency of vehi-

is a sought-after partner in international cooperation both

electric vehicles and heavy-duty hybrid vehicles are examples

cles, introducing renewable energy and also modifying

within the European Union and within the technology network

of our vehicle technology-related activities.

the whole transport system by shifting towards more

of the International Energy Agency. VTT’s competencies enhance the adaptation of the Finnish

energy-efficient and less carbon-intensive modes of

road transport system to national and EU level climate and

looked upon in a systemic way, and the growth of trans-

VTT’s scientific and technological focus on green transport

port demand must be harnessed. Technical measures

Energy efficiency, renewable energy and rational use of

for energy savings in transport, implementation of CO2 neu-

must be accompanied by effective policies and support

vehicles and the whole transport system are key elements

tral energy and increasing self-sufficiency in energy supply for

schemes to ensure that environmentally friendly tech-

in green transport. VTT develops advanced biofuels for trans-

transport. VTT’s offering is targeted for the public sector, such

nologies and best practices are really put to work.

port, electric vehicles and ICT (information and communica-

as ministries and agencies, as well as for industry.

transportation. The whole transport sector must be

energy targets in a cost-effective way. We provide concepts

tion technology) solutions for improved efficiency as well Sophisticated engines and exhaust after-treatment in combi-

as for improved safety. VTT is one of the forerunners in devel-

VTT has a versatile engine and vehicle laboratory which ena-

nation with high quality fuels will eventually solve the problem

oping methodology to assess energy efficiency and deter-

bles work on passenger cars as well as heavy-duty vehicles

of local pollution. The challenge to reduce carbon dioxide

mine real-world emission characteristics of heavy-duty

up to 60 metric tons. Passenger cars can be tested in tem-

emissions from transport remains. The European Union’s


peratures down to -30 °C. This feature is crucial in the development of both fuels and new vehicles that meet the

energy strategy requires greenhouse gas emissions to be reduced by 20% by 2020, and the Directive on the promotion

VTT has launched the TransEco research programme focus-

of renewable energy calls for a 10% mandatory share for

ing on energy efficiency and alternative energies in road

renewable energy in transport in 2020. However, this is only

transport. The programme serves as a platform for integrated

a prelude, as the carbon dioxide emission from all energy

development and evaluation of energy and emission control

sectors, including transport, should be cut by as much as

solutions for the road transport sector.

Nils-Olof Nylund Programme Manager

80% by 2050. Therefore, we should start preparations for sustainable green transport immediately.

demands of the Nordic climate.

VTT’s key offering VTT provides tools for public decision making. Furthermore

Tapani Mäkinen

VTT’s vision on green transport

VTT develops information technology for the transport sector,

Development Manager

VTT is a key actor in sustainable transport with its capability

biofuels optimised for arctic and cold conditions and technol-

for a systemic approach to the whole transport system. VTT

ogy for reducing vehicles’ fuel consumption. Development of



Sustainable built environment and eco-efficient solutions VTT is one of the global pioneers in R&D of resource effi-

impacts on nature. Most new communities shall be carbon

products and systems, distributed energy technologies

cient technologies and processes for the entire built

neutral with net-zero or positive energy balance. Existing

including smart grids, as well as user-oriented and user-cen-

environment. The scope of its R&D extends from single

communities are being retrofitted to facilitate an improved

tric approaches and role of users in processes.

products and components to systems, buildings and

overall performance for users, and to enable a significant


reduction of environmental harms. Material flows for con-

VTT’s activities aim at viable district level systems in order to

struction shall be based on recycling and reuse. Energy will

boost primary energy reduction and reduction of environmen-

The production, maintenance and use of the built environ-

be produced mainly from renewable and often local

tal impact within an urban context. The reduction of energy

ment have large impacts on the natural environment, econ-

resources. Closed circles of production and consumption are

consumption and energy-related emissions opens up poten-

omy and well-being. The environmental burden has grown

main-stream technologies in communities.

tial for both existing and completely new technologies, offer-

parallel with economic growth and urbanization: these activi-

ing a variety of solutions that are enhanced by introducing

ties account for 17% of the world’s fresh water uptake, 25%

VTT works for a sustainable built environment that is intelli-

of the world’s wood harvest, 40% of the world’s materials and

gent, convenient and supportive for all. The role of informa-

energy flows, and 30-40% of all primary energy used. Over

tion and communication technologies is fundamental in mod-

VTT’s research and development is done mainly by experts

80% of the harmful emissions are due to energy consumption

ern societies and economies. Complexity of planning and

with an engineering background, and collaboration with

in the urban areas of the built environment.

design processes requires advanced decision-making plat-

stakeholders and other research organisations is the norm.

holistic approaches.

forms that handle scenarios, user-orientation and integrated

The integrated, multi-disciplinary methods are needed in

On the other hand, there are also magnificent opportunities

approaches. Management of material and energy flows will

order to respond to the urgent needs of practice, including

to reduce the negative consequences of the pursuits of man-

be based on smart grids, smart buildings and smart cities.

use of energy, materials and equipment. Other key topics are

kind, and to improve the relationship between the natural and

local production of energy from renewable and otherwise

built environments.

VTT’s scientific and technological focus on a sustainable built environment

VTT’s vision on sustainable built environment

VTT’s research and development activities aim at the tech-

VTT aspires to develop a built environment that facilitates

nologies and processes that enable progress toward a sus-

VTT’s key offering

well-being of people, economy and communities, and that is

tainable built environment. The field is comprised of macro-

The core of VTT’s offering in the built environment is the com-

in harmony with the natural environment. The built environ-

economic indicators, planning of land-use and communities,

petence on life cycle performance of building materials, prod-

ment will primarily be resource-efficient, and have minor

design and assessments in building projects, eco-efficient

ucts, and systems, networks, and communities. This funda-


wasted resources, and usage of intelligent networks and embedded technologies.

ment is strengthened by methods of knowledge management, integrated design and delivery processes, and assessment of health and safety. Modelling methods are extensively used for natural phenomena but also for systems and even for behaviour of human beings. VTT provides multidisciplinary R&D of technologies for sustainable buildings: low energy, passive, zero energy, energy neutral and energy positive buildings for new, refurbishment and retrofit construction. In addition to the technical solutions, we develop processes for efficient delivery of the solutions for various user needs. VTT provides multidisciplinary R&D on technologies and processes for sustainable community structure: compacting, unifying and improvement of logistics in communities, development of transport and utility networks, including distributed energy production, storage and delivery technologies. VTT is also an expert in assessing the consequences of climate change, particularly with respect to impact on structures, buildings, districts and utility networks. We also develop measures to mitigate the impact of climate change. Matti Kokkala Vice President, Strategic Research Miimu Airaksinen Research Professor


Green industrial systems Green industrial systems provide methods, tools, and

VTT’s vision on green industrial systems

Efficient integration of engineering tools, standards compatibil-

services for engineering, operation, and management of

VTT is a world-class technology and expertise provider for

ity, and open source are heavily employed.

industrial manufacturing businesses. These approaches

analysing, designing, operating, and managing environmental

enable effective design, early simulation of environmental

issues for industry. VTT’s experience on industrial domains,

VTT’s key offering

performances, versatile monitoring and control of

their operative systems, design systems, and businesses

VTT offers extensive expertise for evaluating and developing

material and energy flows, accurate and reliable

combined with thorough knowledge of environmental effect,

industrial systems. One of the key offerings is life cycle

calculations of relevant environmental metrics, analyses

legislations, standards, and conventions makes VTT an

analyses (LCA) that serve for strategic decision making,

and optimisations of design and operational choices,

excellent expert in green industrial systems. VTT is helping

product and production development and logistic optimisation

and effective integration of various engineering tools that

industries to adopt ever more efficient planning and operation

and defining legal demands. VTT’s LCA services support the

are necessary to manage the environmental impacts of

tools, software and communication technologies throughout

customers with communication, marketing reporting, training,

products and processes.

all life cycle stages and for all stakeholders in the value

ecolabeling and ecoprofiles. VTT offers strategic foresight

networks. Virtual engineering will be the primary means of

studies of environmental issues and benchmarking or critical

implementing eco-efficiency.

reviews of other practisioners. Product life-cycle simulation

solutions, material and energy, and environmentally-aware

VTT’s scientific and technological focus on green industrial systems

operation of the industrial facilities must be inherently eco-

VTT emphasises its knowledge, capability, and expertise to

industrial systems, VTT offers simulators for several phases

efficient. Secondly, industrial systems must be designed,

carry out life-cycle analyses, to assess the emissions and

of a product life-cycle. VTT has created an effective, open-

engineered, and operated by using appropriate, proven,

impacts, to calculate the energy and material costs in

source SIMANTICS platform intended as an effective highway

efficient, and versatile engineering and information systems.

combination with various or overall aspects of industrial

for simulators and other engineering tools integration.

This concerns design methodologies and tools for both

activities. This is typically highly-intensive expertise work

products and processes, for process control and automation,

offered as a service or consultancy. VTT also addresses the

KCL-ECO -software

for manufacturing control, for condition management, for

extensive use of simulators to be used in the design and

KCL-ECO is a multi-purpose software tool and model library

value network management, and for business processes

operation of the industrial systems, both from the technical and

developed for carrying out life-cycle analysis calculations.

management. The manufacturing plants or factories and the

engineering point-of-view including the various aspects of eco-

KCL-ECO is capable of handling large, enterprise scale

related businesses can not be operated without them.



Effective engineering of green industrial systems calls for environmental neutral solutions in all sectors and on all levels. At first, products, process technologies, manufacturing


As an essential part for effective engineering of green

An essential part of the program is a substantial module database offering flexible reuse of previous analyses. Combining eco-efficiency with economy of production VTT has the capability to pilot industry methods that take into account the eco-efficiency and economy of production. VTT has tools for determining the significance of raw materials, energy, water, waste treatment and CO2 emission trading to the economy of production. VTT’s approach to this item is based on the combination of production process modelling, life-cycle assessment, eco-balance analysis, energy and material audits and ecological footprint.

Olli Ventä Programme Manager Teijo Salmi Vice President, Business Solutions


Green machinery Eco-efficiency in green machinery means lower energy

important, for example, windmills and biofuel harvesting

All electric and hybrid machines

consumption, waste minimization, better durability and

machines. Life cycle management and life time extension of

VTT develops new lightweight and energy-efficient electrical

functionality during the whole lifetime of the machine.

machines is also an important topic.

machine concepts for clean, energy efficient, low emission, reliable, and cost efficient machines. VTT offers condition

Domestic appliances, vehicles, working machines, machines in manufacturing, process and energy indus-

VTT’s key offering

monitoring methods for new service business models and

tries, etc. are an essential part of modern society. A holis-

The perpetual challenge in industry and business is to provide

better life-cycle control. Our tools include electrical machine

tic approach in modern machine design is necessary to

better products in shorter time-to-market and at lower cost.

concepts with high power density and high specific torque,

achieve sustainable solutions.

At the same time, products are becoming more complex and

electrical machines integrated in their surrounding structures,

the user requirements – in productivity, quality, comfort and

intelligent solutions for machine control to enable low-energy

eco-efficiency – are getting stricter.

consumption, care-free operation, and low vibro-acoustic

VTT’s vision on green machinery

emission, all electric machines and vehicles.

VTT’s vision is that environmently-aware engineering will be common practice and novel solutions to promote eco-effi-

Virtual prototyping of machines

cient machinery are possible when new engineering plat-

VTT provides long experience in modelling and simulation of

Condition based maintenance of machines

forms enable experimentation with alternative designs and

complex multi-domain systems, including mechanics, electric

VTT has created tools for condition monitoring and prognosis

on-line life-cycle analysis.

systems, hydraulics and control. VTT offers a full simulation

of future development of the condition of critical machinery

model of the product which enables a cost effective method

components. New sensor technologies together with embed-

to reduce both time and expenses in product development

ded measurement systems are developed to be used in effi-

and over the product life cycle as a whole.

cient and sustainable machinery.

VTT’s scientific and technological focus on green machinery VTT´s research focus is on holistic design environments, methods and tools to promote sustainable solutions in mod-

VTT has developed an open software platform for modelling

ern machine engineering. This includes application of virtual

and simulation called Simantics that provides tools to multi-

prototyping and simulation to optimize the designs for the

domain modelling connectivity via ontologies. In the future,

Rauno Heinonen

lifetime of the machine. VTT also creates new designs for

mechanics, thermodynamics, fluid flow, hydraulics, automa-

Vice President, Strategic Research

machines to increase their eco-efficiency (functional materi-

tion, materials and structures of machines can be designed

als, low friction, automation, electrical solutions). Machines

in the same framework. Life-cycle analysis calculations can

Tuomo Niskanen

that help to use renewable energy sources are especially

be integrated into the engineering process.

Vice President, Business Solutions


VTT TECHNICAL RESEARCH CENTRE OF FINLAND Vuorimiehentie 5 PO Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT, Finland Tel. +358 20 722 111 Fax +358 20 722 7001 E-mail: More information on VTT activities and research as well as the webversion of this review on our website: This brochure as well as other printed information material can be ordered from: VTT/Communications Liisa Linnama Tel. +358 20 722 6849 Graphic design: Sari Halme and Tuija Soininen, VTT This review is printed on Galerie Art Silk printing paper, which has been granted the environmental emblem of the Nordic countries.


Edita Prima Ltd 2010







Printed matter


Takakansi eri tiedostossa

VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland is the largest multitechnological applied research organization in Northern Europe. VTT provides high-end technology solutions and innovation services. From its wide knowledge base, VTT can combine different technologies, create new innovations and a substantial range of world class technologies and applied research services thus improving its clients’ competitiveness and competence. Through its international scientific and technology network, VTT can produce information, upgrade technology knowledge, create business intelligence and value added to its stakeholders. VTT is a non-profit-making research organization.

VTT TECHNICAL RESEARCH CENTRE OF FINLAND Vuorimiehentie 5, Espoo P.O.Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT, Finland Tel. +358 20 722 111, Fax +358 20 722 7001

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