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VRŠAC

Lepa Varoš Charming Little Town

Časopis za kulturu • ekologiju • turizam •

Broj 1, septembar 2011.


Sadržaj • Content 2• 4• 8• 12 • 16 • 20 • 24 • 28 • 30 • 34 • 38 • 42 • 47 • 49 • 52 • 54 • 56 • 58 •

Uvodna reč • Introduction Vršac, grad muzeja • Vršac, The Town of Museums Međunarodni festival folklora „Vršački Venac”• International Folk Festival “The Wreath of Vršac” Smehotresac za sva vremena • All-time Entertainer Život je divan san na ovome svetu… • Life Is a Beautiful Dream in This World… Vasko Popa, mit, magija, poezija • Vasko Popa – Myth, Magic, Poetry Vladičanski dvor – rezidencija Episkopa • The Bishop’s Palace – the Episcope’s residence Votivna kolica iz Dupljaje • Votive Carts from Dupljaja Prelistavanje prošlosti • Browsing the Past Vršačke planine • Vršac Mountains Senovite aleje Vršačkog parka • Shady Lanes of the Vršac Park Uralska sova • The Ural Owl Pogled u beskraj • Look to infinity Ritiševska fijakerijada • Ritiševo Horse and Carriage Parade Hotel Vila Breg • Villa Breg Hotel Paraglajderi — ukras vršačkog neba • Paragliders — decorating the skies Vršac Romantične osmatračnice • Romantic Observatories Saga o vršačkim vinima • Centuries-old Tradition of the Vršac Hillside Vineyards

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Lepa Varoš Charming Little Town


Uvodna reč • Introduction

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erujem da će burna istorija, lepota arhitekture ali i snažna privreda, kao i razvijena infrastruktura, uz poštovanje svih ekoloških standarda, biti ono po čemu će naš grad biti poznat i u narednim decenijama. Vršac ima sve potrebne uslove da postane idealno mesto za život. Nalazi se na pola puta između dva velika grada: Beograda i Temišvara, nadomak je Evropske unije ali je od pamtiveka već u njoj, ima dobru putnu infrastrukturu, jaku privredu, obrazovane i vredne ljude i sve prirodno-geografske preduslove za razvoj turizma što ga u perspektivi čini kandidatom za titulu Turističkog cveta Vojvodine. Nadam se da će ovaj časopis doprineti ostvarenju ove vizije Vršca kao značajnog turističkog centra u što skorijoj budućnosti.

believe that the turbulent history, architectural beauty, as well as a strong economy, developed infrastructure, and respect for ecological standards, will all be something which our town will also be famous for in decades to come. Vršac has all the necessary conditions to become an ideal place for living. It is located half way between two major cities, Belgrade and Timişoara, it is very near entry into the European Union, but it has been part of it from times immemorial. It has excellent road infrastructure, a strong economy, educated and hard-working people and all the natural-geographical prerequisites for touristic development, which makes it a potential candidate for the title of the Tourist Flower of Vojvodina. I hope this magazine will contribute to the accomplishment of this vision of Vršac as an important tourist centre in the nearest possible future.

Čedomir Živković Predsednik opštine Vršac

Čedomir Živković The president of the municipality of Vršac

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ršačko kulturno nasleđe koje se kontinuirano čuva još od sredine XVIII veka, nalazi se u muzejskim i bibliotečkim trezorima. Veliki deo tog nasleđa nepoznat je, ne samo vršačkoj već i široj javnosti. Cilj nam je da u kontinuiranom izlaženju časopisa Vršac lepa varoš, čitavu kulturnu baštinu sa ovih prostora prikažemo u punoj svetlosti. Gradski muzej sa svojih 270.000 predmeta iz sedam odeljenja i Gradska biblioteka sa svojim starim i retkim fondom knjiga, svrstavaju se u sam vrh evropske kulturne baštine. U poslednjoj deceniji objavljeno je trinaest velikih monografija iz oblasti kulture kao i više desetina luksuznih kataloga kao pokušaj iznošenja predmeta iz mraka depoa i prezent javnosti. Takođe u ovom časopisu bavićemo se kulturom i stvaralaštvom nekih vrščana kao stožerima srpske kulture koji su značajno obeležili poslednja dva i po veka, odnosno pojavom Nikole Neškovića prvog srpskog portretiste, a čiji će sled nešto kasnije snažno ispratiti njegov unuk, budući otac srpske drame - Jovan Sterija Popović. Taj veoma plodan period trajaće sve do samog kraja XX veka, tačnije do smrti pesnika Vaska Pope i njegovih prethodnika; Đorđa Emanuela Arsenijevića, Paje Jovanovića, Dragiše Brašovana, Feliksa Milekera, Bore Kostića i dr.

he cultural heritage of Vršac, which has been continually cherished since the middle of the 18th century, is held mostly in museum vaults and library holding vaults. A great part of this heritage has been unknown not only to the wider public but also to the people of Vršac. Our aim is, with the continual publishing of Vršac: A Charming Little Town magazine, to present the entire cultural heritage of this area in its full light. The Town Museum with its 270,000 pieces in seven departments, and the Town Library with its holdings of rare and old books, are classified amongst the most valuable collections of European cultural heritage. During the last decade thirteen big cultural monographs have been published as well as several dozen luxury catalogues, as an attempt to bring objects out of the dark storerooms and to present them to the public. Also, in this magazine we are going to address culture and the creative works of some people from Vršac as pillars of Serbian culture who significantly marked last two and a half centuries, i.e. with the appearance of Nikola Nešković, the first Serbian portrait painter, whose footsteps were strongly followed somewhat later by his grandson, the future father of Serbian drama – Jovan Sterija Popović. This very fruitful period would last until the very end of the 20th century, or more precisely, until the death of the poet Vasko Popa and his predecessors; Đorđe Emanuel Arsenijević, Paja Jovanović, Dragiša Brašovan, Feliks Mileker, Bora Kostić and others.

Javor Rašajski, glavni i odgovorni urednik

Javor Rašajski, editor in chief

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Piše: Ivana Pantović

VRŠAC, GRAD MUZEJA

Vršac – the Town of Museums

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rad Vršac pominje se prvi put 1427. godine pod nazivom „Podvršan”. Naselje se prostiralo sve do padina brega, Kapele i ispred Đavolje jazbine, o čemu svedoče brojna artefakta otkrivena u periodu od 13. do 17. veka. Krajem 16. veka nailazimo na imena Varsocz (Varšoc), Versecz (Veršec), Virsicza (Viršica), Versocz (Veršoc) i Varsacz (Varšac). U svim ovim nazivima koren je srpska reč vrh. Godine 1427. ispred je stajao prefiks pod, pa je nastalo ime „Podvršan” („ispod vrha”, odnosno „ispod brega”), a to objašnjava i nekadašnji položaj naselja ispred Đavolje jazbine. Kasnije je otpao prefiks pod i dodat je sufiks šac korenu reči vrh i tako smo dobili ime VRŠAC. Interesantno je napomenuti da su Srbi koji su 1752. godine emigrirali iz Potisko-pomoriške županije u Rusiju, podigli novo naselje i dali mu ime Vršac u znak sećanja na zavičaj. Prvi istorijski dokument o doseljavanju Srba u Banat i uopšte u južnu Ugarsku je Povelja kralja Žigmunda (Sigismunda) iz 1404. godine, kojom daje neke povlastice Srbima doseljenicima u Kovinu. Sledeći podatak o doseljavanju Srba u Banat, datira iz vremena pada Smedereva i srpske despotovine pod tursku vlast 1459. godine. Tada su se brojne srpske porodice iz despotovine naselile u Banat, Srem i Bačku. Migraciona kretanja srpskog življa u 15. veku bila su masovna i intenzivna, jer je Banat u to vreme imao važan strateški značaj u tom delu Ugarske. Krajem 15. veka srpsko stanovništvo bilo je mnogobrojno na ovim prostorima, a tome u prilog ide i saznanje da su Srbi u Banatu imali četiri vladike i 11 manastira, koje je podiglo srpsko plemstvo. Kada se sve ovo ima u vidu, nije čudo što strani, a naročito mađarski pisci onog vremena nazivaju Banat – Srbija (Rascia).

Zgrada Opštine Oslobođenjem od turskog jarma 1716. godine i za Vršac počinje novi istorijski period. Organizovanjem Tamiškog Banata, Vršac postaje sresko mesto. Godine 1717. u Vršac dolaze zajedno sa vojskom i prvi Nemci – vinogradari iz doline Mozela. Za razliku od starog srpskog dela, prostor koji naseljavaju Nemci dobio je naziv nemački Vršac i sastajao se iz tri ulice označene samo brojevima. Načelnik srpske opštine zvao se knez, a nemačke – kmet. Vršac se administrativno razvijao u okviru dveju opština do kraja 18. veka, odnosno do 1794. godine kad dolazi do ujedinjenja srpskog i nemačkog Vršca u jednu opštinu. Za potrebe opštine otkupljene su zgrade Anđelkovića i Lotića i u njima se i danas nalazi opštinska uprava. Gradski muzej u Vršcu Ovo je jedan od četiri najstarija muzeja u Srbiji, čije je osnivanje inicirano pronalaskom velike ostave novca cara Konstantina u Velikom ritu kraj Vršca 1882. godine. Godine 1894, nakon što je pronađena i otkupljena odgovarajuća zgrada, Muzej konačno dobija svoj prostor. Za smeštaj zbirki grad je dodelio dve prostorije u zgradi „Konkordija” (tada zgrada građanske škole), tako da je Muzej 1898. godine otvoren za javnost. Brzo povećanje zbirki, zahtevalo je veći prostor pa je 1899. godine Muzej zajedno sa bibliotekom smešten u zgradu tadašnjeg nemačkog zabavišta, gde se i danas nalazi.

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he town of Vršac was first mentioned in 1427 by the name of Podvršan. Numerous artifacts discovered between the 13th and 17th centuries testify to the fact that the settlement spread all the way to the hill slopes, Kapela and in front of Đavolja Jazbina. At the end of the 16th century, we encounter the names Varsocz, Versecz, Virsicza, Versocz and Varsacz. In all the names the root is a Serbian word vrh (top). In 1427 there was the prefix pod (under) in front of it, so the name Podvršan (under the top, ie under the hill) appeared, which is also explaind by the former position of the settlement in front of Đavolja Jazbina. Later, the prefix pod was lost, and the suffix šac was added to the root vrh, and that is how we got the name Vršac. It is interesting to mention that the Serbs who emmigrated from Potisko-pomoriška district to Russia in 1752 founded a new settlement and named it Vršac in memory of their homeland. The first historical document about Serbs settling in Banat and Southern Hungary in general, is King Sigismund’s Charter of 1404, with which some privileges were given to Serb colonists in Kovin. The next data about Serbs settling in Banat is from the time of the fall of Smederevo and the Serbian state by Turkish forces in 1459. Numerous Serbian families from the state then settled in Banat, Srem and Bačka. Migrations of Serbian people in the 15th century were mass and intensive, since Banat at the time had significant strategic importance in that part of Hungary. At the end of the 15th century the Serbian population was large in this region. This is proved by the fact that Serbs had four bishops in Banat and eleven monasteries, built by Serbian nobility. When all this is considered, it is no wonder that foreign, especially Hungarian writers of the time called Banat – Serbia (Rascia).

Zgrada „Apoteka na stepenicama” Ovo je jedna od najstarijih i najreprezentativnijih zgrada starog Vršca, podignuta u drugoj polovini 18. veka za potrebe prve vršačke apoteke. Po arhitektonskoj kompoziciji i rasporedu prostorija zgrada pripada klasicističkom stilu, dok je njen konstruktivni sklop tipično barokni.

Veoma je specifičan podrum sa svodovima, koji je pod celom zgradom i dvostruki tavan – prilagođen za sušenje i obradu lekovitog bilja, kao i za delatnost apoteke. U ovoj zgradi osnovana je 1784. godine prva apoteka u Vršcu, pod nazivom „Kod spasitelja”. Namenu apoteke, zgrada je zadržala sve do 1971. godine. Zgrada je stavljena pod zaštitu države i pretvorena u izložbeni prostor Gradskog muzeja kao odeljenje sa stalnom postavkom. Prva prostorija – „oficina” zadržala je nameštaj i izgled iz 19. veka i predstavlja malobrojne očuvane primerke apoteka iz tog perioda u Srbiji. 6

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Townhall By liberation from the Turkish yoke in 1716, Vršac began its new historical period. With the organizing of Tamish Banat, Vršac became an officially established entity. In 1717, together with the army, the first German wine-growers from the Moselle valley arrived in Vršac. In contrast to the old Serbian part, the area inhabited by the Germans was named German Vršac and consisted of three streets, marked only with numbers. The prefect of the Serbian municipality was called knez, and the German one was called kmet. Vršac had been developing administratively as two separate municipalities until 1794, when Serbian and German Vršac were united into one municipality. For its needs, the buildings of Anđelković and Lotić were bought and the municipal administration is there to this day.


Kula Vršački zamak, odnosno „Kula”, kako se uobičajeno naziva, leži istočno od grada na bregu koji dominira banatskom ravnicom. Prema dosadašnjim istraživanjima, smatra se da je utvrđenje podignuto u prvoj polovini 15. veka. Prema načinu gradnje, slična je objektima vojne arhitekture srpskih oblasti južno od Dunava. Ostaci srednjovekovnog utvrđenja nalaze se na vrhu stenovite zaravni. Bedemi utvrđenja podignuti su na strmim rubovima padine, dok je glavna kula smeštena u istočnom delu. Kula je imala tri etaže. Sa suprotne – zapadne strane, nalazila se nekad polukružna kula. Vršački zamak je urušen u odbrani od Turaka 1456. godine, ali je nakon toga obnovljen. Osvojen je krajem prve polovine 16. veka i turska posada se u njemu nalazila sve do Bečkog rata 1683. godine. Prema odredbama Karlovačkog mira 1699. godine, vršačko utvrđenje je napušteno i većim delom razoreno. Trenutno je u toku druga faza trogodišnjeg projekta rekonstrukcije vršačke Kule. Tako će Kula postati ne samo svedočanstvo minulih vremena, već i mesto gde će građani moći da se upoznaju sa istorijom starom petsto godina.

Hamerštilov muzej Robert Hamerštil (1933), slikar svetskog renomea, rodom Vrščanin, koji živi i stvara u Austriji, dobio je muzej u Gudurici, u kući gde su živeli njegovi deda, baba i majka. Ovaj muzej otvoren je 28. maja 2010, kao muzejska jedinica Gradskog muzeja u Vršcu. Osim Hamerštilovih radova, ovde možete pogledati i dela trojice vršačkih slikara: mr Javora Rašajskog, mr Zvonimira Santrača i dr Dragana Jevdića. Želja Roberta Hamerštila je da svake godine u ovom muzeju izlažu vrhunski umetnici Evrope i sveta, a da se po principu reciprociteta, vršački slikari predstave u renomiranim evropskim galerijama. Robert Hamerštil je postao član Akademije nauka i umetnosti Vojvodine 2006. i počasni građanin Vršca 2009. Dobitnik je najprestižnijih međunarodnih nagrada.

The Tower The Castle of Vršac, ie the Tower, which is its usual name, is situated east of the town up on the hill, which dominates the Banat plain. According to research so far, it is believed that the fortification was built in the first half of the 15th century. Judging by the way it was built, it is similar to military structures in the Serbian regions south of the Danube. The remains of the medieval fort are on the top of a rocky terrace. The bastions are built up on the steep edges of the slope, while the main tower is located in the eastern part. The tower had three levels, and on the opposite (western) side there used to be a semicircular tower. The Vršac Castle partly collapsed while defending against the Turks in 1456, but it was rebuilt afterwards. It was conquered at the end of the first half of the 16th century, and Turkish units occupied it all the way until the Vienna war in 1683. According to the decrees of Karlovac Peace Treaty in 1699, the fort in Vršac was abandoned and mostly destroyed. At the moment, the second phase of a three year reconstruction project of the Vršac tower is in progress. This way the Tower will become not only a testament to yesteryear, but also a place where the citizens will be able to familiarize themselves with their 500 year old history.

Sterijin muzej Kuća Jovana Sterije Popovića koja se nalazi u samom centru Vršca na Trgu Svetog Teodora Vršačkog br. 11, uskoro će biti obnovljena i pretvorena u muzej posvećen velikom piscu. Sterijina kuća je od 1977. pod zaštitom države kao spomenik kulture, a 1991. je proglašena za spomenik od velikog značaja. Zgradu je 1868. godine podigao Đorđe Popović, brat Jovana Sterije Popovića, na mestu stare porodične kuće iz 18. veka u kojoj je rođen Sterija. Po završetku radova u kući će se nalaziti muzejski eksponati i autentičan nameštaj koji je sačuvan. U najvećoj prostoriji biće knjige, informativni panoi sa fotografijama i platna sa Sterijinim portretima kao i njegova bista.

Hammerstiel’s Museum Robert Hammerstiel (1933-), a world famous painter from Vršac, living and working in Austria, was born in Gudurica, where a museum was recently opened in his honor, in the house where his mother and grandparents lived. The museum was opened on May 28th 2010, as a subunit of the Vršac Town Museum. Besides Hammerstiel’s works, you can also see the works of three other painters from Vršac as well: Javor Rašajski MA, Zvonimir Santrač MA and Dragan Jevdić MD. Robert Hammerstiel’s wish was that every year top artists from across Europe and all over the world would exhibit in this museum, and, in exchange, painters from Vršac would present themselves at renowned European galleries. Robert Hammerstiel became a member of the Vojvodina Academy of Sciences and Arts in 2006, and an honorary citizen of Vršac in 2009. He is a winner of the most prestigious international awards.

The Town Museum in Vršac This museum is one of the four oldest museums in Serbia, whose founding was initiated by the discovery of a large amount of the Emperor Constantine’s money in Veliki rit near Vršac in 1882. In 1894, after an appropriate building was found and purchased, the museum finally established its premises. For storing the collections the town allocated two rooms in the Konkordija building (at the time a public school), so in 1898 the museum first opened its doors to the public. The number of collections rapidly increased, which demanded more room, so in 1899, the museum was placed along with the library in the building of the German kindergarten at the time, where it still is today. The Pharmacy on the Stairs building This is one of the oldest and most representative buildings of old Vršac, built in the second half of the 18th century for the needs of the first Vršac pharmacy. By its architectural composition and the arrangement of the rooms, this building belongs to the classicistic style, while its constructive composition is typically baroque. Rather specific is the vaulted basement, which is under the entire building and the double attic – adapted for the drying and processing of medicinal herbs, as well as to be a pharmacy. In this building, the first pharmacy in Vršac was founded in 1784, named At the Saviour’s. The building functioned as a pharmacy all the way until 1971, at which time it was put under the protection of the state and turned into an exhibition space of the Vršac Town Museum as a subunit with a permanent exhibition. The first room, oficina, retained its furniture and appearance from the 19th century and presents a rare specimen of a pharmacy preserved from that period in Serbia. 8

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Sterija’s Museum The house of Jovan Sterija Popović which is located in the very centre of Vršac at 11, Saint Theodor’s Square, will soon be renovated and turned into a museum dedicated to the great writer. Since 1977, Sterija’s house has been under the protection of the state as a cultural monument, and in 1991 it was declared a Monument of Great Importance. The building was built in 1868 by Đorđe Popović, Jovan Sterija Popović’s brother, in the same location as family’s old 18th century house, where Jovan was born. Once the renovations have been completed there will be museum exhibits and authentic furniture that has been preserved. In the largest room there will be books, infoboards with photos, canvas portraits of Sterija, as well as a bust of him.


International Folk Festival “The Wreath of Vršac”

Međunarodni festival folklora „Vršački Venac”

A meeting place for cultures from all over the World

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Mesto susreta kultura Sveta

he International Folk Festival “The Wreath of Vršac” is an event which was started in 1993 with the intention for Vršac to become, during the festival days, a meeting place for cultures from all over the world. It originated in the tradition of the Zagreb Folk Festival and is the oldest festival to cherish folk traditions in the country. For the past 14 years, Vršac has been a place for promoting the ethno-cultural traditions of nations and countries from all over the world, which gives the festival, and the town, a special place in tourist calendars both here and abroad. From the very beginning, the International Folk Festival “The Wreath of Vršac” has been following the defined program concept which implies three lines of development: the main program, a non-competitive review program and accompanying events. During the peak time on the main stage guest ensembles perform, while in the early afternoon, on the same stage, a program is

Piše: Jelena Gorički

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eđunarodni festival folklora „Vršački venac” je manifestacija osnovana 1993. godine sa namerom da Vršac tokom festivalskih večeri postane mesto susreta kultura sa svih meridijana. Nastao je po ugledu na zagrebački festival folklora i najstariji je festival koji neguje folklorne tradicije u zemlji. Proteklih 14 godina Vršac je bio mesto promocije etno-kulture i tradicije naroda i zemalja širom planete što je Festivalu i gradu dalo posebno mesto u turističkim kalendarima u zemlji i inostranstvu. Međunarodni festival folklora „Vršački venac” od svog osnivanja prati definisanu programsku koncepciju koja podrazumeva tri razvojne linije: glavni program, revijalni program i prateće sadržaje. Tokom udarnih termina na velikoj sceni u centru grada nastupaju ansambli zemalja gostiju dok se u ranim popodnevnim časovima na istoj

performed where the skills of the local cultural-artistic associations are presented. Accompanying events are a component part of “The Wreath of Vršac”, so during the Festival throughout the town various programs dedicated to culture and ethnotradition can be visited: exhibitions, seminars, film projections, an ethno-fair and presentations of the cuisines of the participating countries etc. During festival nights the entire town emits the aromas of exotic and far away cultures, while in the streets an amazing variety of languages can be heard, but by some miracle people manage to understand each other perfectly. The organization of “The Wreath of Vršac” has for years been assisted by numerous volunteers who act as tour guides and are the best promoters of the host town during the event, thus becoming a trademark of the festival. The stage performances on warm July evenings under the open sky in the very heart of Vršac are attended by several thousand viewers. During the previous 14 festivals close to 300 ensembles from all over the world have taken part in them, including Spain, France, Slovakia, the Czech Republic, Poland, Georgia, Romania, Macedonia, India, Mexico, the Republic of Srpska, Montenegro, Canada, Moldavia, Ukraine, Russia, Hungary, Slovenia, Turkey, Greece,

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sceni odigrava program u kome svoje umeće predstavljaju članovi lokalnih kulturno-umetničkih društava. Prateće manifestacije su sastavni deo Festivala, pa se tokom njegovog trajanja na različitim punktovima u gradu mogu posetiti raznovrsni programi posvećeni kuturi i etno-tradiciji: izložbe, seminari, filmske projekcije, etno-sajam, promocije nacionalnih kuhinja zemalja učesnica… Čitav grad tokom festivalskih večeri odiše mirisima egzotičnih i udaljenih kultura, a na ulicama se mogu čuti najrazličitiji jezici, ali svi ljudi se nekim čudom savršeno razumeju. Organizaciju „Vršačkog venca” već godinama prati veliki broj mladih volontera koji tokom manifestacije postaju turistički vodiči i najbolji promoteri grada domaćina, pa su tako postali i zaštitni znak Festivala. Programe na bini u toplim julskim večerima


Cyprus, Ivory Coast, Bulgaria, Afro Columbia, Croatia and Sri Lanka. Equally impressive, the science meetings have gathered more than 50 eminent ethnologists, ethnomusicologists and choreographers from all over the country and abroad, such as: Milina Barišić PhD, Petar Vlahović PhD, Nikola Pantelić PhD, Nice Fracile, Emilia Komišel, Stoiu Đouđev, Lajoš Vargas, Vilma Niškanović, Vesna Marijanović, Dragana Jovanović, Desanka Đorđević, Bogdanka Đurić and many others. Thanks exactly to the authentic concept of a small town for five days becoming a place for cultures from all over the world to meet and intermingle, for years “The Wreath of Vršac” has been attracting large numbers of tourists not only from the country, but also from abroad.

pod otvorenim nebom, u samom srcu Vršca, prati po nekoliko hiljada gledalaca. Na proteklih 14 festivala učestvovalo je blizu 300 ansambala iz celog sveta: Španije, Francuske, Slovačke, Češke, Poljske, Gruzije, Rumunije, Makedonije, Indije, Meksika, Republike Srpske, Crne Gore, Kanade, Moldavije, Ukrajine, Rusije, Mađarske, Slovenije, Turske, Grčke, Kipra, Obale Slonovače, Bugarske, Afro Kolumbije, Hrvatske, Šri Lanke i Bugarske, a naučni skupovi okupili su više od 50 najeminentnijih etnologa, etnomuzikologa i koreografa iz zemlje i inostranstva kao što su: dr Milina Barišić, dr Petar Vlahović, dr Nikola Pantelić, Nice Fracile, Emilia Komišel, Stoiu Đouđev, Lajoš Vargas, Vilma Niškanović, Vesna Marijanović, Dragana Jovanović, Desanka Đorđević, Bogdanka Đurić i mnogi drugi. Upravo zbog autentične koncepcije u kojoj jedna varošica tokom pet dana postaje mesto susreta i prožimanja kultura iz čitavog sveta, „Vršački venac” već godinama privlači veliki broj turista ne samo iz zemlje već i iz inostranstva.

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Piše: Dragana Rakić

JOVAN STERIJA POPOVIĆ Smehotvorac za sva vremena

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An all-time entertainer

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ršac is known as Sterija’s town, the reason being that Jovan Sterija Popović (1806−1856) lived and worked there. He was not only the best Serbian playwright of the 19th century, the father of Serbian drama’, but also one of the most interesting and most complex literary phenomena of his time. This unusual man, “lawyer gentlemen” was remembered by his contemporaries as a physically weak, mild and quiet person, who liked to walk in the streets of Vršac, wearing a blue cloak. He enjoyed most walking along Jabučki Drum (Apple Road) and around the town park. He lived in his house at 43, Gospodska Street (now called Sterijina Street) and he was married to Jelena Manojlović, who looked after her husband until the day of his death. The great writer was born on January 13th 1806, in Vršac, in his family’s house at the Great Market, which still exists today. His father was Sterio Papaz, a famous merchant in Vršac, originally Aromanian. As many Aromanians in Vršac, he Serbinized his surname and took the name Popović. His mother Juliana was the daughter of the great painter Nikola Nešković and considered to be one of the most beautiful and wisest women in Vršac. Young Jovan was a sickly child, and therefore less often played with children, and more often sat inside, listening to folktales and songs. He loved spending time in his father’s shop, observing and studying people and their characters. His fellow citizens will later become immortalized as characters in his comedies. Sterija read a lot, even by moonlight, since his father was so frugal that he never allowed candles to be bought. His father’s character served Sterija as an inspiration for the unforgettable character of Kir Janja from the comedy Tvrdica. Jovan Sterija Popović finished primary school in Vršac, whereas he attended grammar schools in Sremski Karlovci, Timişoara and Budapest. After that he went to Késmark in Slovakia where he completed his law studies in 1830. After he graduated, he worked as a Latin teacher in Vršac, and then as a lawyer from 1835. When Licej (at the time the highest ranking school in Serbia) was established in Kragujevac in 1840, Sterija was offered to teach natural law. The next year Licej was moved from Kragujevac to Belgrade, so Sterija did too. He was appointed head of the Ministry of Education in 1842. He was very important on the Belgrade social scene, both as a writer and as a public figure – his books and scientific works being printed and his plays being performed. Sterija played a major part in organizing the educational system and culture in the young state, and took part in the founding of Društvo Srpske Slovesnosti (today’s Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts), the National Museum and the National Theatre in Belgrade. He also 15

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a Vršac kažu da je „Sterijin grad” jer je u njemu živeo i radio Jovan Sterija Popović (1806−1856), ne samo najbolji srpski dramski pisac 19. veka, „otac srpske drame” nego i jedna od najzanimljivijih i najsloženijih književnih pojava svog vremena. Ovog neobičnog čoveka, „gospodina advokata”, savremenici su pamtili kao fizički slabašnog, blagog i tihog čoveka koji je voleo da šeta vršačkim ulicama ogrnut plavom pelerinom. Najviše su mu prijale šetnje Jabučkim drumom ili da u večernjim časovima prođe Gradskim parkom. Stanovao je u svojoj kući u Gospodskoj ulici br. 43 (danas Sterijina) i bio oženjen Jelenom Manojlović koja je vodila brigu o suprugu sve do njegove smrti. Veliki pisac rodio se 13. januara 1806. godine u Vršcu, u porodičnoj kući na Velikoj pijaci, koja i danas postoji. Otac mu je bio poznati vršački trgovac, poreklom Cincarin, po imenu Sterio Papaz, koji se u Vršcu, poput mnogih Cincara, posrbio i uzeo prezime Popović. Majka Julijana mu je bila kći velikog srpskog slikara Nikole Neškovića i važila je za jednu od najlepših i najumnijih žena u Vršcu. Mladi Jovan bio je od detinjstva bolešljivo dete, te se manje igrao sa decom, a više sedeo u kući slušajući narodne priče i pesme. Voleo je da boravi i u očevoj trgovini i posmatra i proučava Vrščane i njihove naravi. Sugrađane će kasnije učiniti besmrtnim likovima u svojim komedijama. Puno je čitao, čak i pri mesečini, jer mu je otac bio toliko štedljiv da nije dozvoljavao kupovinu sveća. Steriji će očev karakter poslužiti kao nadahnuće za nezaboravni lik Kir Janje iz komedije „Tvrdica”. Jovan Sterija Popović završio je osnovnu školu u Vršcu, dok je gimnaziju pohađao u Sremskim Karlovcima, Temišvaru i Pešti. Potom je otišao u Kežmark u Slovačkoj gde je završio studije prava 1830. godine. Po završetku pravnih studija radio je u Vršcu najpre kao nastavnik latinskog jezika, a zatim od 1835. kao advokat. Kada je u Kragujevcu osnovan Licej (1840), tada najviša škola u Srbiji, pozvan je za profesora prirodnog prava. Već iduće godine Licej se seli iz Kragujevca u Beograd, a sa njim i Sterija. Godine 1842. postaje načelnik Ministarstva prosvete. U Beogradu je on u središtu zbivanja i kao pisac i kao čovek – štampaju se njegove knjige i naučni radovi i igraju pozorišni komadi. Odigrao je značajnu ulogu u organizovanju prosvete i kulture u mladoj kneževini, učestvovao u osnivanju Društva srpske slovesnosti (danas Srpska akademija nauka i umetnosti), Narodnog muzeja i pozorišta u Beogradu, pisao školske udžbenike iz raznih predmeta. Na ovom položaju ostao je do 1848. godine, kada, nezadovoljan prilikama u kojima je radio, podnosi ostavku i vraća se u Vršac gde će ostati do smrti (1856). Iako nema još ni pedeset godina, hronično bolestan, veliki pisac sve teže je podnosio breme mnogih poslova koje je obavljao, pa je poželeo da se u miru bavi advokaturom i pisanjem.

Jovan Sterija Popović


nauka o srpskoj književnosti počela je da ga poima kao ostvarenje koje je u Sterijinom celokupnom opusu barem toliko važno koliko i dramska ili pesnička ostvarenja. Osobenost ovog romana jeste njegov multižanrovski sklop koji se odlikuje obiljem dramskih, esejističkih, književnokritičkih, satiri��nih fragmenata, ali i basnama, zagonetkama, dijalozima, stihovima, pa čak i vanknjiževnim elementima (filozofske i estetičke rasprave, dokumenta). U ovom kontekstu ponajpre treba istaći izrazitu, intertekstualnost i metatekstualnost „Romana bez romana”, a to su upravo dva poetička zaštitna znaka postmodernizma. Istinski novo putovanje kroz Sterijin opus odvijaće se i tokom 21. veka. U svakom slučaju, biće uzbudljivije nego što slutimo. Polifonijska suština Sterijinog dela predstavlja zagonetku vrednu odgonetanja i u vremenima koja dolaze.

Although the critics of that period were friendly disposed to sad plays, Sterija was aware that comedies suited him best. After he published his first drama of the kind, Laža i Paralaža, he wrote to Vuk Sefanović Karadžić: “So, after wandering and zigzagging for a long time, I barely stepped out in the right way, hoping that I will not go astray…” Sterija’s gift for writing comedies created powerful works of literature that are even greater considering the fact that he was actually the first to pave the way to comedy. Although he relies on great European comedic tradition, Sterija deviates significantly from classical comedy, especially in his dramas’ endings. There are no happy endings with Sterija. His Scrooge (Tvrdica) does not get his money back, but gets fooled in order to realize that stinginess is a flaw that harms himself most. In a discrete and ironical way, Sterija poses a question to the reader/viewer: what is, actually, merry about it? Do not his famous comic characters also have a tragic feature? Was not our great entertainer in the humorous subtext in fact deeply skeptical and pessimistic? The significance and contemporariness of Sterija’s comedies are indeed confirmed by the fact that they are performed successfully today. His stage polyglossia, puns, characterizations, overlapping of meaningless and absurd, as well as actualization of traditional topics and motifs – are all ways in which his merry plays surpassed the frames of classicistic poetry and announce the most modern comedic aspirations. Although he started his literar y work with verses, Sterija distinguished himself fully as a poet only in the last years of his life. He made a careful selection for his first book of poetry Davorje in 1854, which is today considered to be one of the best songbooks of the time. His poetry is meditative, didactic, intellectual, and contains gloomy thoughts of an ill and disappointed man withdrawn from public life. As a poet, Sterija is today made modern by deviating from the Romantic pathos of the literature of that time and, somewhat outdated, returning to antiquated spiritual ideals and sources. From a contemporary receptive and poetic perspective, his most intriguing literary work was Roman Bez Romana (A Novel without a Novel, 1832). Although representing a poetically quite challenging, innovative and far-reaching piece of writing, for a long time his novel was in the shade of his comedies and then his poetry. Only recently has the Serbian literary field started to understand this novel as a creation no less important than his dramas and poems. The peculiarity of this novel is that it includes many genres with plenty of drama, essayistic, critical and satirical elements, but also fables, riddles, dialogues, verses, and even non-literal elements (philosophical and aesthetic discussions, documents). Within this context first of all the intertextuality and metatextuality of Roman Bez Romana should be emphasized, since it is exactly these two characteristics which are trademarks of postmodernism. A truly new journey through Sterija’s work will continue during the 21st century as well. In any case, it will be even more exciting than we think. The polyphonic essence of his work represents a riddle well worth solving in the times to come…

wrote school books for various subjects. He was at this position until 1848 when, being dissatisfied with working conditions, resigned and went back to Vršac, where he stayed until the day of his death (1856). Although not yet 50, the great writer was chronically ill and could not bear the burden of the many jobs he was performing, so he wished to practice his legal profession and write. A Serbian Molière The most significant area of Sterija’s literary work was drama. He simultaneously wrote historical tragedies (he called them sad plays) and comedies (merry plays). His historical dramas, although outnumbering his comedies, are less important. At the time, his sad plays were very popular because of their historical content and patriotic tone. Nowadays, readers are disquieted by their sentimentality, melodramatic effects and insufficient plot and character development. 16

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Srpski Molijer Najznačajnije područje Sterijinog književnog rada jeste drama. Pisao je uporedo istorijske tragedije (žalosna pozorja, kako ih je sam nazivao), i komedije (vesela pozorja). Istorijske drame, iako brojem i obimom prevazilaze njegov komediografski rad, manje su značajne od komedija. U to vreme Sterijina žalosna pozorja bila su vrlo popularna zbog istorijske sadržine i rodoljubivog tona. Današnjem čitaocu smeta njihova naglašena sentimentalnost, težnja za melodramskim efektima i nedovoljna motivisanost radnje i likova. Iako je kritika toga doba bila naklonjenija žalosnim nego veselim pozorjima, Steriji je od početka bilo jasno da mu komedija najviše odgovara. Pošto je objavio prvu dramu ove vrste, „Lažu i paralažu”, napisao je Vuku Karadžiću: „Dakle posle dugog tumaranja i krivudanja jedva na pravac iziđoh, a nadam se da neću s ovog puta svrnuti…” Sterijina komediografska nadarenost stvorila je snažna književna dela koja su tim veća što je u srpskoj književnosti u stvari tek on utro put komediji. Iako se naslanja na veliku evropsku komediografsku tradiciju, Sterija u mnogome odstupa od klasične komedije, naročito u završecima drama. Kod Sterije nema srećnih završetaka. Njegov tvrdica ne dobija novac natrag, već biva izigran da bi tako shvatio da je tvrdičenje mana koja najviše škodi njemu samom. Sterija na diskretan i ironičan način postavlja pred čitaoca (gledaoca) pitanje: šta je, zapravo, tu veselo? Ne sadrže li slavni Sterijini komički likovi i crtu tragičnog, nije li naš veliki smehotvorac u podtekstu humornog zapravo duboko skeptičan i pesimističan? Značaj, aktuelnost i modernost Sterijinih komedija svakako potvrđuje činjenica da se i danas uspešno izvode. Sterijina scenska poliglosija, jezičke igre, načini karakterizacije likova, neretko dodirivanje besmislenog i apsurdnog, kao i aktuelizacija tradicionalnih tema i motiva – po svemu tome njegova vesela pozorja prevazilaze okvire klasicističke poetike i nagoveštavaju najsavremenije komediografske težnje. Iako je književni rad započeo stihovima, Sterija se kao pesnik ostvario u punoj meri tek u poslednjim godinama života. Godine 1854. načinio je strog izbor za prvu knjigu poezije „Davorje” koja se danas smatra jednom od najboljih pesničkih zbirki tog vremena. Njegova je poezija refleksivna, didaktička, intelektualna i sadrži sumorna razmišljanja bolesnog i razočaranog čoveka koji se povukao iz javnog života. Steriju kao pesnika danas čini modernim otklon od romantičarskog patosa tadašnje književnosti i pomalo starinsko vraćanje antičkim duhovnim uzorima i izvorima. Iz savremene recepcijske i poetičke perspektive, najintrigantnije Sterijino delo je „Roman bez romana” (1832). Iako predstavlja poetički veoma izazovno, inovativno i dalekosežno delo, ovaj roman dugo je bio u senci njegove komediografije, a potom i poezije. Tek u novije vreme


Piše: Dragana Kuručev

Život je divan san na ovome svetu… Life is a beautiful dream in this world…

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a slikarstvo kažu da je to jedna od profesija dugovečnih umetnika. Dug i srećan život Paje Jovanovića (1859−1957) to najbolje i potvrđuje kao i njegova čuvena misao da je „život divan san na ovome svetu, jedina mu je mana što isuviše brzo prolazi”. U samom vrhu srpskog slikarstva, ovenčan nagradama i medaljama, Paja Jovanović je umetnik koji zauzima posebno mesto u kulturi i slikarstvu našeg naroda. Zahvaljujući kontinuiranom i poštenom profesionalnom odnosu prema radu, on je uspeo da naše slikarstvo uvede u prostor evropskog i svetskog likovnog univerzuma. Paja (Pavle) Jovanović se rodio u Vršcu, 4. juna 1859. godine, u porodici fotografa Stevana Jovanovića i Ernestine, rođene Deot. Detinjstvo, školovanje i prve doživljaje umetnosti tadašnjeg Vršca, opisuje u svojim memoarskim beleškama. Slike iz porodične zbirke, ikone u crkvi, kao i dela poznatih majstora koji su nekad stvarali u Vršcu – Nikole Neškovića, Pavela Đurkovića,

Arse Teodorovića i Jovana Popovića, bila su prva umetnička ostvarenja koja su se duboko urezala u maštu nadarenog dečaka. Osnovnu školu i nekoliko razreda gimnazije završio je u Vršcu, gde je dobio i prve pouke o crtanju od nastavnika vršačke gimnazije Vodeckog. Godine 1875. Jovanović sa ocem odlazi u Beč, gde se 1877. upisuje na Akademiju likovnih umetnosti, u klasu profesora Kristijana Gripenkerla. Kao odličan student bio je stipendista Matice srpske. Po završetku studija na Akademiji, nastavlja studije u majstorskim školama Kristijana Gripenkerla i Leopolda Karla Milera. Već 1882. godine dobija nagradu Akademije i carsku stipendiju za sliku „Ranjeni Crnogorac”. Evropska javnost, zainteresovana za zbivanja na Balkanu, usmerava svoju pažnju na mladog slikara, a on 1883. godine sklapa povoljan ugovor sa londonskom galerijom „Frenč”. Iako je kasnije putovao po Turskoj, Maroku, Egiptu, Kavkazu, Italiji i Španiji, na samom početku slikarske karijere radi slike sa temama iz života balkanskih naroda. Tako je slikao čitav niz žanr-scena iz Srbije, Crne Gore, Hercegovine i Albanije. Mnoštvo skica, zabeležaka, studija, zajedno sa prikupljenim predmetima iz narodnog života, naći će svoje mesto u čuvenim žanr-kompozicijama, kao što su: „Mačevanje”, „Kićenje neveste”, „Borba petlova”… To slikarstvo donelo mu je veliku popularnost, međunarodna priznanja i otvorilo vrata velikih privatnih i drugih kolekcija, pretežno u zemljama Evrope. Ugled i slava Paje Jovanovića u svetu imali su odjek i u srpskom narodu. Već 1893. godine proglašen je za člana Srpske kraljevske akademije. Nakon bogatog iskustva u slikanju žanr-scena okreće se i monumentalnim kompozicijama sa temama iz istorije Srba, ali i drugih naroda. Tada nastaju: „Seoba Srba”, „Takovski ustanak” i „Proglašenje Dušanovog zakonika”. I ove slike donose mu mnoga javna priznanja – medalje i diplome na međunarodnim izložbama. Pored žanr-kompozicija i dela istorijske sadržine, umetnik stiče popularnost i kao izuzetan portretista. Već prvi portreti izloženi na međunarodnim izložbama

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hey say painting is one of the occupations of long-lived artists. Paja Jovanović’s (1859-1957) long and happy life proves this best, as well as his famous thought that “life is a beautiful dream in this world, with a single flaw – it passes to fast”. As one of the most prominent Serbian painters, with many awards and medals to his credit, Paja Jovanović holds a special place in the culture and art of our nation. Thanks to consistent and honest professionalism in his work, he managed to introduce Serbian painting into the European and global painting universe. Paja (Pavle) Jovanović was born in Vršac on June 4th 1859, to Ernestina Diot and Stevan Jovanović, a local photographer. His childhood, education and earliest experience of art in Vršac were described in his memoirs. Paintings from his family collection, church icons, as well as works of famous artists who had been working in Vršac (Nikola Neškovic, Pavel Đurković, Arsa Teodorović and Jovan Popović) were the first works of art deeply engraved on the imagination of this gifted boy. 18

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Paja Jovanović finished primary school and attended several forms of grammar school in Vršac where he had his first lessons about art from Mr. Vodecki, the grammar school teacher. In 1875 Paja went to Vienna with his father where he enrolled at the Academy of Fine Arts in 1877 in the class of Professor Christian Griepenkerl. Being an excellent student, he was named a Matica Srpska scholar. After he graduated from the Academy, he continued studying at Christian Griepenkerl’s and Leopold Carl Müller’s schools. By 1882, he had already won an Academy award and the Emperor’s scholarship for The Wounded Montenegrin. The European public, interested in the happenings in the Balkans, directed attention on the young painter, who concluded a favorable contract with the French Gallery in London. Although he later traveled to Turkey, Morocco, Egypt, the Caucasus, Italy and Spain at the very beginning of his career, the topic of Paja’s paintings were from Balkan people’s lives. He painted a whole selection of scenes from Serbia, Montenegro, Herzegovina and Albania. Numerous sketches, notes and studies, along with collected objects from the lives of common people, found their place in his famous genre-compositions The Fencing Lesson, Decorating of the Bride and Cockfighting among others. These paintings brought


godina, za Muzej su prikupljeni i jedan broj pisama iz lične prepiske, fotografije, dnevnik, kutija sa bojama. Pored nekoliko poklonjenih slika od porodice Jo­ vanović i slikar lično Muzeju daruje gotičku drvenu skulpturu Madone i egipatske figurine koje kupuje na mnogim putovanjima. Vrščani su takođe dobili i dva monumentalna platna: „Sveta majka Angelina” i „Sveti Nikola spasava osuđenike” koje poseduje Saborna crkva Svetog Nikole. U poznim godinama, tačnije 1933, Paja Jovanović, veliki humanista i darodavac, poklonio je kuću svojih roditelja u Sterijinoj ulici vršačkoj deci i opremio je za obdanište. Kao rodni grad, Vršac je u biografiji i životu Jova­ novića zauzimao uvek posebno mesto. Rano prikupljene slike Jovanovića činile su, svojevremeno, nukleus osnivanja Umetničkog odeljenja Gradskog muzeja u Vršcu. Tradicionalno negovanje memorijalnih postavki, spomen-kolekcija, legata, ili bilo koje vrste javnog sećanja, pokazalo se kao dobra ideja kulturne politike. Zato je Gradski muzej u Vršcu, nezaobilazno mesto posete za sve istraživače i poštovaoce dela Paje Jovanovića.

him great popularity, international awards and opened the doors of great private and other collections, mostly in European countries. The world reputation and fame of Paja Jovanović had a response in Serbia as well. As early as 1893 he was proclaimed a member of the Serbian Royal Academy. After extensive experience in painting genre-scenes he turned to monumental compositions with historical topics of Serbia, but also other nations. Serbian Migrations, Takovo Uprising and The Proclamation of Dušan’s Law were painted then. These paintings also brought him numerous public awards – medals and diplomas in international exhibitions. Besides genre-compositions and works of historical content, the artist increased in popularity as a distinguished portrait painter. His very first portraits in international exhibitions in Vienna, Munich and Paris brought him several awards. He immortalized royals, artists, the wealthy, scientists and beautiful women. His famous portraits are of the painter Simington, Montenegrin princess Milica, Mihajlo Pupin and King Aleksandar Karađorđević. Especially interesting are the portraits of his wife and model Muni. Paja Jovanović was also interested in works of other character and purpose. He painted iconostases in Dolovo and Novi Sad. His religious art paintings are also in a temple in Sremski Karlovci and in a Mormon church in Salt Lake City. Less often he painted mythological scenes, landscapes, nudes, still lifes, as well as illustrating books and drawing sketches for bank notes. 20

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u Beču, Minhenu i Parizu donose Jovanoviću priznanja. Ovekovečio je krunisane glave, umetnike, naučnike, bogate ljude, lepe žene. Čuveni su portreti slikara Simingtona, crnogorske princeze Milice, Mihaila Pupina, kralja Aleksandra Karađorđevića… Posebno su interesantni portreti modela i supruge Muni. Oblast Jovanovićevog interesovanja čine i dela drugog karaktera i namene. Naslikao je ikonostase u Dolovu i Novom Sadu. Slike crkvene umetnosti ostavio je još u hramu u Sremskim Karlovcima i u mormonskoj crkvi u Solt Lejk Sitiju. Nešto ređe, bavio se mitološkim prizorima, aktom, pejzažem, mrtvom prirodom, ilustrovanjem knjiga, nacrtima za novčanice… Dela ovog umetnika se danas nalaze u Narodnom muzeju u Beogradu, Galeriji Matice srpske u Novom Sadu, Vršcu, javnim i privatnim kolekcijama širom sveta. Znatan broj radova i ličnih predmeta poseduje Legat Paje Jovanovića koji pripada Muzeju grada Beograda. Paji Jovanoviću su se na najlepši način odužili njegovi sugrađani Vrščani, tako što su ga 1940. proglasili počasnim građaninom. Konačno, za javnost, 1977. godine, Gradski muzej u Vršcu otvara spomen-sobu „Sećanje na Paju Jovanovića” u zgradi „Apoteka na stepenicama”. Kolekcija dela slavnog slikara, formirana poklonima i otkupom, prava je dragocenost u centru grada Vršca i nezaobilazna tačka pažnje za sve turiste. Tu se, pored izuzetno poznatog „Triptihona”, čuvaju žanr-slike sa tematikom iz života naroda Balkana, skice-crteži, Portret kompozitora Uroša Džimića, Portret Laze Dunđerskog, Portret kralja Aleksandra Karađorđevića… Tokom niza

This artist’s works are today in the Belgrade National Museum, Matica Srpska Gallery in Novi Sad, in Vršac, and in public and private collections all over the world. A considerable number of his works and personal possessions are owned by the Legacy of Paja Jovanović, which belongs to the Belgrade City Museum. Paja Jovanović’s fellow citizens rewarded him greatly by giving him the Honored Citizen Award in 1940. Finally, in 1977, the Town Museum in Vršac opened to the public a memorial room, Remembrance of Paja Jovanović, in the Pharmacy on the Stairs. A collection of the famous painter’s works, both donated and purchased, is a real treasure in the center of Vršac, and a must see for all tourists. Besides the extremely famous Triptych, sketches – drawings and genre-paintings with subject matter from the life of Balkan people are kept, as well as Portrait of the composer Uroš Džimić, Portrait of Laza Dunđerski and Portrait of King Aleksandar Karađorđević. For many years, a number of letters from personal correspondence have been collected for the museum, as well as some photographs, a diary, and a box with colors. Besides several paintings given as a present by the Jovanović family, the painter himself presented the museum with a gothic wooden sculpture of Madonna and Egyptian figures which he had bought on his numerous journeys. The people of Vršac were also given two monumental canvases – Saint Mother Angelina and Saint Nicholas Saves the Convicts, owned by St Nicholas Saborna Church. In his late years, in 1933, Paja Jovanović, a great humanitarian and donor, gave his parents’ house in Sterijina Street as a present to the children of Vršac and equipped it as a kindergarten. As his hometown, Vršac always had a special place in his biography and his life. His early collected paintings made, at the time, the core of the Art Department in the Town Museum of Vršac. Traditional cherishing of memorial exhibitions, commemorative collections, legacies, or any kind of public remembrance, appeared to be a good idea of cultural politics. That is why the Town Museum in Vršac is an unavoidable place to visit for all the researchers and admirers of the work of Paja Jovanović.


Vasko Popa

Vasko popa

myth, magic, poetry

Piše: Vesna Zlatičanin

mit, magija, poezija

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asko Popa, one of the last original poets of Serbian modern literature, was born on June the 29th 1922 in the village of Grebenac near Vršac. After finishing Real grammar school in Vršac, he enrolled at the Faculty of Philosophy in Belgrade. He continued his studies in Bucharest and Vienna. During World War II, he was imprisoned in a concentration camp in Bečkerek (Zrenjanin today). After the war ended, he graduated from the Romanic group at the Faculty of Philosophy in Belgrade. He published his first poems in Književne Novine magazine and Borba newspaper. From 1954 to 1979 he worked as an editor in Nolit publishing house. By interweaving oral heritage, folk games and riddles, Popa created a special poetic language of modern Serbian poetry. He published his first book of poetry named Kora in 1953, after that Nepočin Polje, Sporedno Nebo, Uspravna Zemlja, Vučja So, Kuća Nasred Druma and Živo Meso, and in 1981 Rez. In addition, he edited anthologies Od Zlata Jabuka, where the poetic world of folk creations was presented in a new light, as well as Urnebesnik and Ponoćno Sunce. Vasko Popa is one of the most translated Serbian poets. He himself did translations from French. He founded the Literary Municipality of Vršac (Književna Opština Vršac – KOV) and started an unusual library on postcards, named Slobodno Lišće (‘Free Leaves’). The same year, he was chosen to be a corresponding member of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts. He is one of the founders of Vojvodina Academy of Sciences and Arts, founded on December 14th 1979 in Novi Sad. In 1995, the Vasko Popa award was established in Vršac for the best poetry book in Serbian, and it is given every year on the day of the poet’s birth, June 29th. He died on January 5th 1991 in Belgrade and he was buried in the Alley of the Greats in Belgrade’s New Cemetery.

asko Popa, jedan od poslednjih originalnih pesnika srpske moderne književnosti, rođen je 29. juna 1922. godine u selu Grebencu kraj Vršca. Nakon završene Realne gimnazije u Vršcu, upisuje se na Filozofski fakultet u Beogradu. Studije nastavlja u Bukureštu i Beču. Za vreme Drugog svetskog rata, zatvoren je u nemačkom koncentracionom logoru u Bečkereku (današnjem Zrenjaninu). Nakon završetka rata diplomira na romanskoj grupi Filozofskog fakulteta u Beogradu. Prve pesme objavljuje u listovima „Književne novine” i „Borba”. Od 1954. do 1979. godine radio je kao urednik u izdavačkoj kući Nolit. Preplitanjem usmenog nasleđa, narodnih igara i zagonetki, Popa je stvorio poseban pesnički jezik moderne srpske poezije. Prvu zbirku poezije pod naslovom „Kora” objavljuje 1953, zatim slede „Nepočin-polje”, „Sporedno-nebo”, „Uspravna zemlja”, „Vučja so”, „Kuća nasred druma”, „Živo meso” i „Rez” 1981. Priredio je zbornike: „Od zlata jabuka” u kom je u novom svetlu prikazan poetski svet narodnih umotvorina, kao i „Urnebesnik” i „Ponoćno sunce”. Vasko Popa je jedan od najprevođenijih srpskih pesnika, a i sam je prevodio sa francuskog jezika. U Vršcu, 29. maja 1972. godine osniva Književnu opštinu Vršac (KOV) i pokreće neobičnu biblioteku  na dopisnicama, nazvanu „Slobodno lišće”. Iste godine izabran je za dopisnog člana Srpske akademije nauka i umetnosti. Jedan je od osnivača Vojvođanske akademije nauka i umetnosti, osnovane 14. decembra 1979.godine u Novom Sadu. Godine 1995, u Vršcu je ustanovljena nagrada „Vasko Popa” za najbolju knjigu pesama na srpskom jeziku i dodeljuje se svake godine na dan pesnikovog rođenja, 29. juna. Vasko Popa je umro 5. januara 1991.godine u Beogradu i sahranjen je u Aleji zaslužnih građana. Vasko Popa i ono što je u pesmi glavna stvar O poeziji Vaska Pope kao hermetičnoj, teško razumljivoj, pisanoj isključivo za znalce često čitamo, kao kada čitamo o Borhesovoj poeziji, ali sećam se da sam kao učenica petog ili šestog razreda u čitanci pročitala čuvenu Popinu pesmu „Ružokradice”, iz zbirke „Nepočin-polje” (ciklus „Igre”). Volela sam da za vreme školskog odmora, otvorim čitanku i čitam Ružokradice. Evo te pesme:

Vasko Popa and what is the main thing in a poem We often read about Vasko Popa’s poetry as hermetic, difficult to understand and written exclusively for experts, as when we read about Borges’s poetry, but I remember reading in my textbook as a fifth or sixth grade student, Popa’s famous poem Ružokradice (‘Rose-poachers’), from his Nepočin Polje collection (Igre cycle). I loved to, during a break, open my textbook and read Ružokradice. Here is the song:

Neko bude ružino drvo Neki budu vetrove kćeri Neki ružokradice

Someone is a rose tree Some are daughters of the wind Some are rose-poachers

Ružokradice se privuku ružinom drvetu Jedan od njih ukrade ružu U srce je svoje sakrije Vetrove se kćeri pojave Ugledaju obranu lepotu I pojure ružokradice

The daughters of the wind appear See the harvested beauty Chase the poachers

Otvaraju im grudi jednom po jednom U nekoga nađu srce U nekoga bogami ne

Open their chests one by one In someone’s find a heart In someone’s not indeed 22

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Rose-poachers sneak to a rose tree One of them steals a rose He hides it in his heart


They open and open their chests Until they find a heart in one’s And in the heart the stolen rose.

Otvaraju im otvaraju grudi Sve dok u jednog srce ne otkriju I u srcu ukradenu ružu.

The poem was written as the rules of a game, which is certainly being played in life, and as a child I could understand it easily. As if somebody explained to you the rules for hide-and-seek or oduzimanje zemlje (‘taking the ground’), and then, the song is easily understandable. So it seems to me that Vasko Popa’s poetry should be read with the naivety of a child that understands much more, because it is ready to let itself surrender to playing and imagination, and then the poetry reveals itself as well as its multilayered meanings. Nevertheless, Vasko Popa’s poetry is unambiguously connected to Vršac and his homeland, understood in a philosophical sense as the result of all human wandering and searching in life. In the Lepa Varoš V cycle of poems, some streets, buildings and historical figures are interwoven in Vasko Popa’s recognizable poetic style, and become an amalgam of a future interpretation of the town history and the people that live in this area. The cycle of poems Lepa Varoš V is unfinished, but it shows how, with the passing of years, Vršac had been taking an increasingly more important place in the poetic expression of Vasko Popa.

Pesma je pisana poput pravila neke igre, koja se svakako igra u životu, a kao dete sam to mogla lako da razumem. Kao kada bi vam neko objašnjavao pravila za igranje „žmurke“ ili „oduzimanje zemlje“ i onda je pesma lako shvatljiva. Tako mi se čini da treba čitati poeziju Vaska Pope, sa naivnošću deteta koje razume mnogo više, jer je spremno da se prepusti igri i mašti, a onda se i poezija otkriva i njeni mnogobrojni slojevi značenja. Ipak, poezija Vaska Pope je nedvosmisleno vezana za Vršac i zavičaj, shvaćen u filozofskom smislu kao ishodište svih čovekovih lutanja i traganja tokom života. U ciklusu pesama „Lepa varoš V“, pojedine ulice, zdanja i istorijske ličnosti prepliću se u prepoznatljivom pesničkom stilu Vaska Pope i postaju amalgam nekog budućeg tumačenja istorije grada i ljudi koji žive na ovom podneblju. Ciklus pesama „Lepa varoš V“ je nedovršen, ali pokazuje kako je sa godinama koje su prolazile Vršac zauzimao sve značajnije mesto u pesničkom izrazu Vaska Pope.

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The Bishop’s Palace

The Episcope’s residence

Vladičanski dvor

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Piše: Jovanka Erski

rezidencija episkopa

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eličanstveno zdanje smešteno u centru grada, Vladičanski dvor, više od dva stoleća predstavlja rezidenciju vladika i sedište Srpske pravoslavne crkve Eparhije banatske. Podigao ga je vladika Jovan Đorđević koji je izdejstvovao da se sedište Eparhije iz Karansebeša preseli u Vršac sredinom 18. veka, 1749. godine. Prema pisanim tragovima, vršačke vladike su u dalekoj prošlosti boravile u manastiru Mesiću, sklanjajući se od turskih očiju, a sedište Eparhije, početkom 18. veka, biva preseljeno u Karansebeš. Vrativši sedište Eparhije u Vršac, vladika Jovan je obećao vernicima da će sazidati veličanstvenu građevinu, kakva dolikuje rezidenciji episkopa banatskih. Tako je i bilo, 8. maja 1757. postavljen je kamen temeljac. Ime projektanta Vladičanskog dvora nije ostalo zabeleženo u istorijskim spisima. Zna se jedino da je bio Prus, kao i da je lično rukovodio radovima sve do 1763. godine kada je gradnja dvora završena. 26

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magnificent building located in the town centre, the Bishop’s Palace has been the bishops’ residence and the centre of the Serbian orthodox church of the Banat eparchy for more than two centuries. It was built up by the bishop Jovan Đorđević, who had procured for the center of the Eparchy to be moved from Karansebeš to Vršac, in the middle of the 18th century (1749). According to written records, the bishops of Vršac used to live at the Mesić monastery, away from Turkish eyes, and the centre of the Eparchy, at the beginning of the 18th century, was moved to Karasebeš. Having returned the centre of the Eparchy to Vršac, the bishop Jovan promised believers to build a magnificent building, befitting the residence of the bishop of Banat. And so it was, on May 8th 1757, the cornerstone was laid. The name of the architect wasn’t recorded in historical written documents. What is known is that he was Prussian, and that he himself managed the construction works until the very completion of the palace building in 1763. Thus a magnificent baroque style building, which to this very day is considered one of the most beautiful buildings in the region, arose in the very centre of Vršac. During the last two and a half centuries, the Bishop’s


Palace has undergone some significant changes. The first alteration was commissioned by Arsenije IV Jovanović Šakabenta, back in 1787. During the renovations made in the 19th century, no radical changes were made, which cannot be said for the renovation project carried out by the bishop Gavrilo Zmejanović, in 1902. It was a radical adaptation, which left visible marks on the Bishop’s Palace. The baroque-classicistic façade formerly decorating the palace, was enhanced with rich architectural decorations, a combination of neo-baroque and neorenaissance. It is believed that the renovation was guided by Mihajlo Garminc, known amongst architects as the designer of Saborna Church of St. George in Novi Sad. The interior of the Bishop’s Palace is quite true to its original form. In the centre part of the building is the temple of the Holy Archangels — a small chapel in the north wing of the palace, decorated by the famous painter Nikola Nešković. Here is the miraculous icon of Bogorodica Vinčanska-Bezdinska. The palace houses collections of old valuable manuscripts, books and icons, and its walls are decorated by the portraits of former bishops of Banat, famous people from Vršac and church dignitaries. The Episcopal residence has undergone noticeable changes in recent years. The centuries-old building has been painted and reorganized, the old garden style of the park in the yard has vanished, and evergreen bushes have been replaced by flower gardens and a fountain. 28

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U samom centru Vršca, nikla je velelepna građevina u baroknom stilu, koja i dan-danas nosi epitet jedne od najlepših u regionu. Tokom protekla dva i po veka Vladičanski dvor je pretrpeo znatne izmene. Prvu adaptaciju je realizovao Arsenije IV Jovanović Šakabenta, davne 1787. godine. Tokom adaptacija obavljenih u 19. stoleću, dvor nije radikalno menjan, ali to se ne može reći za poduhvat renoviranja koji je uradio vladika Gavrilo Zmejanović, 1902. godine. Beše to radikalna adaptacija koja je ostavila vidne tragove na Vladičanskom dvoru. Barokno-klasicistička fasada, koja je prvobitno krasila dvor, obnovom je dobila bogate arhitektonske ukrase, kombinaciju neobaroka i neorenesanse. Pretpostavlja se da je adaptacijom rukovodio Mihajlo Harminc, arhitektama poznat kao projektant Saborne crkve Svetog Georgija u Novom Sadu. Enterijer Vladičanskog dvora prilično je veran prvobitnom izgledu. U centralnom delu objekta je pridvorni hram Svetih arhangela — mala kapela u severnom krilu dvora, koju je ukrasio poznati slikar Nikola Nešković. Tu se nalazi čudotvorna ikona „Bogorodica VinčanskaBezdinska”. U Vladičanskom dvoru se nalaze zbirke vrednih starih rukopisa, knjiga, ikona, a dvorske zidove krase portreti nekadašnjih banatskih vladika, znamenitih Vrščana, crkvenih velikodostojnika. Episkopska rezidencija doživela je vidljive promene poslednjih godina. Vekovno zdanje je okrečeno, uređeno, nestao je stari baštenski stil parka u dvorištu, a žbunje zimzelenog rastinja zamenile su cvetne površine i fontana.


statueta ukrašeni su ornamentom izvedenim tehnikom urezivanja sa ispunom od bele paste. Ukrasi i nakit na odelu statuete, inače uobičajeni za kasno bronzano doba, naročito su precizno predstavljeni. Smatra se da figura na kolima predstavlja božanstvo plodnosti, dok su barske ptice koje vuku kola njihov redovan pratilac i takođe jedan od simbola plodnosti. Pojava božanstva, gospodara sunca, mogla bi se dovesti u vezu sa mitom o delfijskom Apolonu obučenom u ženske haljine, koji jedan deo godine boravi u dalekoj, maglom pokrivenoj zemlji Hiperborejaca, a drugi, u svom hramu u Delfima.

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decorated with solar symbols and swastikas. Although damaged, the votive cart from Dupljaja is one of the most significant objects kept today in the Vršac Town Museum. The other, bigger and better preserved sample was purchased by the National Museum in Belgrade. A round

wo votive cart specimens, discovered at the beginning of the 20th century near the village of Dupljaja, represent the highest artistic achievement of the Dubovac and Yellow Hill cultural group which was wide-spread in the regions of Serbian Podunavlje (the Danube river basin) and Southern Banat at the end of the Bronze Age. The time and conditions of the discovery are not very well known, which, along with the unusual construction of the carts, were responsible for some scientists expressing doubt about their authenticity. Feliks Mileker believed that both items were found before 1903 in the north-east part of the Dupljaja-Grad site. Leonard Bem, a collector from Bela Crkva, bought the fragmented carts from the man who found them and, with some help from a craftsman, skillfully reconstructed them. They had been in Bem’s ownership until 1929, when his son Karl offered to sell them to Feliks Mileker, the custodian of the Vršac Town Museum. Having managed to collect only a part of the asking price, Mileker bought the smaller two wheeled cart and anthropomorfic statue with a patterned bird face 30

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va primerka votivnih kolica otkrivenih početkom 20. veka nadomak sela Dupljaja, predstavljaju najviši umetnički domet nosilaca dubovačko-žutobrdske kulturne grupe, koja je krajem bronzanog doba rasprostranjena na području srpskog Podunavlja i južnog Banata. Vreme i uslovi nalaska nedovoljno su poznati, što je uz neuobičajenu konstrukciju kolica doprinelo da neki naučnici izraze sumnju u njihovu autentičnost. Feliks Mileker je smatrao da su oba primerka pronađena pre 1903. godine u severoistočnom delu lokaliteta DupljajaGrad. Kolekcionar iz Bele Crkve Leonard Bem, otkupio je od nalazača fragmentovana kolica i uz nečiju zanatsku pomoć, vrlo vešto ih rekonstruisao. U Bemovom vlasništvu nalazila su se do 1929. kada ih je njegov sin Karl ponudio na prodaju Feliksu Milekeru, kustosu Gradskog muzeja u Vršcu. Sakupivši samo jedan deo tražene sume, Mileker otkupljuje manja kolica sa dva točka i antropomorfnu statuetu sa šematizovanim ptičjim licem ukrašenu solarnim simbolima – svastikama. Iako oštećena, votivna kolica iz Dupljaje, jedan su od najznačajnijih predmeta koji se danas čuvaju u Gradskom muzeju u Vršcu. Drugi, veći i bolje očuvani primerak otkupio je Narodni muzej u Beogradu. Kola kružnog oblika u kojima se nalazi figura muškog božanstva obučenog u žensku odeću sa širokom zvonastom suknjom, vuku dve barske ptice dok se treća nalazi na mestu kočijaša. Kolica i


PRELISTAVANJE PROŠLOSTI

Some of the oldest and most valuable publications in Latin were thoroughly studied ten years ago by an Italian philologist Italo Ronka PhD, during his research in our town. At this time we can mention the incunabula (the term used to mark books printed up to 1500) named Pisma Eneja Silvija. This is an interesting historical and political writing whose author was no other than pope Pije II himself (1405-1464), one of the most prominent humanists of the early renaissance. Emphasizing the importance of political correspondence between Western European countries and Turkey, professor Ronka translated from Latin a letter in which pope Pije II invites sultan Muhamed II to, with a little holy water used for baptizing, change to Christianity and solve all the current conquest related problems burdening bilateral relations. The letter full of subtle medieval insults, among which was an allusion to a defeat Muhamed II suffered by Transylvanian military leader Joan Korvin Janku, was never replied to by the sultan. The same year (1459), in the next text, in the famous and impassioned speech given in Mantova, Pije II invited Christian rulers to, under his leadership, start a new crusade. The result was published five years later in the papal bull About a Crusade Against the Turks. In the Vršac Town Library there is also an Arabian manuscript of unknown origin about sharia law from the 17th century, which is, as most of the preserved antiquities, waiting for a new reading and contemporary interpretation of past times. Research like professor Ronka’s could, from the shelves of Vršac’s library, bring into the light of the day many forgotten stories from the past.

Piše: Jelena Marinkov

bibliotečko blago vršačke Gradske biblioteke kao izazov za turiste

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edan od razloga zbog kojih bi Vršac mogao postati nezaobilazno mesto za turiste – ljubitelje književnosti, filologe ili istoričare jeste proučavanje bogatih fondova Gradske biblioteke. Za mali grad kakav je Vršac izgleda neobično da ima tako veliku biblioteku, koja čuva latinske, nemačke i srpske rukopise od 13. do 19. veka, stare srpske, ruske, latinske i nemačke knjige štampane od 15. do 19. veka, veliku zbirku starih srpskih časopisa 19. veka (Letopis, Serbske pčele, Danica, Sedmica, Javor, Brankovo kolo, Srpski Sion…). Ali treba znati da je Vršac kroz period od tri veka u nekim dobima predstavljao značajan verski, školski i administrativni centar, ali i višenacionalni, jer su se u njega doseljavali ljudi sa raznih strana sveta i sa sobom donosili i knjige kao važan deo prtljaga. Pravo bogatstvo Gradske biblioteke predstavlja njen zavičajni fond pod nazivom „Banatika”. Ovaj termin je preuzet od Feliksa Milekera (1858−1942), osnivača i prvog bibliotekara vršačke biblioteke. Banatika broji preko 5.000 knjiga u kome posebno mesto zauzimaju zbirke zavičajne štampe na svim jezicima naroda koji ovde žive, kao i kompletna zbirka kalendara i školskih izveštaja štampanih i objavljivanih u Vršcu od 1851. do 1941. godine.

Browsing the Past

Treasure of the Vršac Town Library as a challenge for tourists

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ne of the reasons for Vršac to become unavoidable for tourists – literature fans, philologists or historians, is studying the rich literary holdings of the Town Library. It is unusual for a small town such as Vršac to have a library so large, holding Latin, German and Serbian manuscripts from between the 16th and 19th centuries, old Serbian, Russian, Latin and German books printed between the 15th and 19th centuries and an extensive collection of 19th century Serbian magazines (Letopis, Serbske pčele, Danica, Sedmica, Javor, Brankovo kolo, Srpski Sion and others). But it should be known that, during a period of three centuries, Vršac represented, at times, not only a significant religious, educational and administrative center, but also a multinational one, since many people from all over the world used to settle here, bringing books as an important part of their luggage. The true wealth of the library is its homeland collection called Banatika (this term was taken from Feliks Mileker (1858-1942), the founder and the first librarian of the library). This collection has more than 5,000 books, with a special place for collections of local papers printed in the languages of all the nationalities that have lived here, as well as a complete collection of calendars and school reports printed and published in Vršac from 1851 to 1941.

Neka od najstarijih i najvrednijih izdanja na latinskom, pre deset godina, prvi je detaljno obradio italijanski filolog dr Italo Ronka, prilikom studijskog boravka u našem gradu. Ovoga puta predstavićemo inkunabulu (termin kojim se označavaju knjige štampane pre 1500. godine) pod nazivom „Pisma Eneja Silvija”, a pod kojom se krije zanimljivo istorijsko i političko štivo čiji je autor niko drugi do papa Pije II (1405–1464), jedan od vodećih humanista rane renesanse. Ističući značaj političke korespondencije u svetlu zapadnoevropskih i turskih odnosa, profesor Ronka sa latinskog prevodi pismo pape Pija II kojim sultana Muhameda II poziva da „sa malo vode” i to one svete, kojom se pokrštava, jednostavno pređe u hrišćanstvo i reši sve tekuće osvajačke probleme koji su opterećivali međusobne odnose. Na pismo puno suptilnih srednjovekovnih uvreda, među kojima je i podsećanje na poraz koji je Muhamedu II naneo transilvanski vojskovođa Joan Korvin Janku, sultan nikada nije odgovorio. Iste godine (1459), a u sledećem tekstu, u čuvenom i strasnom govoru održanom u Mantovi, Pije II je pozvao hrišćanske vladare da udruženi pod njegovim vođstvom krenu u novi krstaški pohod. Rezultat je ispisan pet godina kasnije u papskoj buli „O pohodu protiv Turaka”. U vršačkoj Gradskoj biblioteci postoji i arapski rukopis šerijatskog prava iz 17. veka, nepoznatog porekla koji kao i većina sačuvanih antikviteta, čeka na novo čitanje i savremeno tumačenje prohujalih vremena. Istraživanja poput ovoga profesora Ronke, mogla bi sa polica vršačke biblioteke doneti na svetlost dana mnogo zaboravljenih priča iz prošlosti.


Raskošna oaza flore i faune Rich oasis of flora and fauna

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Vršac Mountains

Piše: Daniela Stojanov

VRŠAČKE PLANINE J

edinstvenost Vršca kao malog vojvođanskog grada, osim njegove bogate kulturno-istorijske tradicije, ogleda se svakako i u činjenici da je lociran u podnožju Vršačkih planina – jedinog planinskog sistema u Banatu koji, uz Frušku goru, predstavlja najznačajnije uzvišenje u Vojvodini. Čak i za one koji ne znaju da su Vršačke planine nekada bile ostrvo u Panonskom moru, pogled na nepreglednu ravnicu sa bilo kog vidikovca na bregu, ostavlja utisak gledanja ka morskoj pučini. Vršačke planine prostiru se na površini od 170 km², od čega većim delom u Srbiji (122 km²), a manjim delom u susednoj Rumuniji (48 km²). Gudurički vrh, sa 641 m nadmorske visine, najviša je tačka ovih planina kao i cele Vojvodine, ali su za ljubitelje planinarenja podjednako interesantni i vrhovi: Mala čoka, Lisičija glava, Srednji vrh,Vršački vrh, Đalu Veršišor – iza koga se nalazi državna granica sa Rumunijom, Đakov vrh, Turska glava i Vršačka kula. Svet flore i faune Vršačkih planina možemo, u najmanju ruku, nazvati raskošnim. Ovde je registrovano čak 1.017 vrsta viših biljaka, od kojih se 7 nalazi u Crvenoj knjizi flore Srbije kao retke i ugrožene vrste. Posebno bogatstvo Vršačkih planina čini i fauna ptica, koja broji više od 130 vrsta, od čega su oko 90 vrsta gnezdarice. Upravo zbog toga, Vršačke planine su 2000. godine postale međunarodno značajno stanište ptica u Evropi

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esides its rich culturally-historical tradition, the uniqueness of Vršac as a small Vojvodina town is reflected in the fact that it is located at the foot of the Vršac Mountains. Other than Fruška Gora, this is the only mountain system in all of Banat, which represents the most significant elevation in Vojvodina. Even for those who do not know that the Vršac Mountains were once an island in the Pannonian sea, a look at the vast plain, from any overlook on the hill, leaves an impression of looking out at the open sea.

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The Vršac Mountains cover an area of 170 square kilometers, mostly in Serbia (122 km2), with a smaller part in neighboring Romania (48 km2). Gudurički Vrh (Gudurica Peak), with its altitude of 641m, is the highest point of these mountains and in all of Vojvodina. But for mountaineering fans, equally interesting are the peaks Mala Čuka, Lisičja Glava, Srednji Vrh, Vršački Vrh, Đalu Veršišor (behind this peak is the state border with Romania), Đakov Vrh, Turska Glava and Vršačka Kula. The world of flora and fauna of the Vršac Mountains can be called magnificent at least. No less than 1,017 higher order plant species are registered here, seven of which are listed in the Red Book of Serbian Flora as rare and endangered species. Another special aspect of the Vršac Mountains is the wealth of bird fauna with more than 130 species, about 90 of which are nesting birds. For exactly this reason, the Vršac Mountains became recognized internationally as an important bird habitat (Important Bird Area) in Europe in 2000, which was the best way to acknowledge the global value of the birds in this area. Thanks to its unique position in the Banat plain, the diversity of flora and fauna and beautiful scenery and outlooks, most of the area of the Vršac Mountains was given protection as a Nature Park in 1982, and since 2005 also as an Area of Special Natural Features covering 4,408 hectares, 190 of which have the highest level of protection. The Vršac hill is one of the favorite picnic destinations, both for the local population and for the tourists descending upon Vršac. The first points of interest one encounters when going up the hill are the Church of Holy Cross, also known as Crkvica, and nearby, the new Church of Saint Theodor, built to honor the town saint Teodor Velikomučenik. Both places offer a magnificent view of the town. Whether by the asphalt road or the North path, for those who prefer walking through the forest, you can get to the foot of the Vršac Tower, a medieval fort from the 14th century. Refreshments can be


Today you will not meet former Riklis on the Vršac Hill, but you will encounter plenty of walkers, bike riders and recreational joggers who realize how lush vegetation and the pleasant micro climate of the Vršac mountains favorably effect the human organism, bringing joy to both body and soul of the modern man.

found at the Red Cross children’s recreation centre, or at the Mountain House (Planinarski Dom) with bungalows nearby for guest accommodations at the area called Široko Bilo, which is also a vacation home area. On the southern side of the mountains there is a village called Mesić, with a monastery that has existed since 1225. On the other side of the hill there is another monastery, in the village of Malo Središte. Besides mountaineers, nature hikers, culturally-historical monument admirers or birdwatchers, hunting and fishing fans will also find entertainment for themselves due to the fact that there are natural areas dedicated to these activities. To all those who would rather replace walking with something more dynamic, the Vršac Mountains offer the opportunity to go mountain biking or paragliding as a bit more extreme way to enjoy the natural environment. Guests who come from outside Vršac are not very familiar with the fact that, since the end of the 19th century until the start of World War I, the Association for Health Care and Natural Healing worked in Vršac. It gathered the followers of the teachings of Arnold Rikli, one of the pioneers of naturopathy, a branch of alternative medicine whose therapy is based on the healing power of the Sun, air and water. Vršac’s Riklis rejected drug therapy, and a part of their regular therapy was a walk on the hill early in the morning. There they absorbed the first rays of sun and breathed in the morning air wearing nothing but their swimsuits.

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šetnju nečim dinamičnijim, Vršačke planine pružaju mogućnost za bavljenje mauntinbajkingom ili paraglajdingom, kao nešto ekstremnijim vidom uživanja u prirodnom ambijentu. Gostima koji dođu sa strane malo je poznato da je u Vršcu, od kraja 19. veka pa do početka Prvog svetskog rata, delovalo „Društvo za čuvanje zdravlja i prirodno lečenje”. Ono je okupljalo pristalice učenja Arnolda Riklija, jednog od pionira naturopatije, grane alternativne medicine koja lečenje zasniva na isceljujućoj moći sunca, vazduha i vode. Vršački riklijaneri su odbacivali lečenje lekovima, a deo njihove „redovne terapije” bio je odlazak na breg u ranim jutarnjim časovima gde su obučeni samo u kupaće kostime upijali prve zrake sunca i udisali jutarnji vazduh. Danas na Vršačkom bregu nećete sresti nekadašnje riklijanere, ali hoćete mnoštvo šetača, biciklista, trkača rekreativaca koji su uvideli kako bujna vegetacija i prijatna mikroklima Vršačkih planina povoljno utiču na dušu i telo savremenog čoveka, donoseći mu zdravlje i radost.

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(Important Bird Area) čime je na najbolji način priznata globalna vrednost ptica ovog područja. Zahvaljujući svom jedinstvenom položaju u banatskoj niziji, raznovrsnosti flore i faune, lepim pejzažima i vidikovcima, veći deo područja Vršačkih planina je 1982. godine zaštićen kao Park prirode, a od 2005. godine i kao Predeo izuzetnih odlika na 4.408 hektara, od čega 190 hektara u prvom stepenu zaštite. Vršački breg jedna je od omiljenih izletničkih destinacija, kako za lokalno stanovništvo, tako i za turiste koji pohode Vršac. Prve tačke do kojih se stiže, kada se krene put brega, su Crkva Svetog križa, popularno zvana „Crkvica” i u neposrednoj blizini, nova Crkva svetog Teodora, podignuta u čast gradskog sveca Teodora Velikomučenika. Sa oba mesta pruža se veličanstven pogled na grad. Asfaltnim putem ili Severnom stazom za one koji više vole šetnju kroz šumu, dolazi se do podnožja Vršačke kule, srednjovekovnog utvrđenja iz 15. veka. Mesta za osveženje mogu se potražiti u dečjem odmaralištu Crveni krst, ili u Planinarskom domu sa bungalovima za smeštaj gostiju, koji se nalazi na prostoru zvanom „Široko bilo” koji je ujedno i vikend naselje. Sa južne strane planina nalazi se selo Mesić sa manastirom čije postojanje datira iz 1225. godine, a sa druge strane brda nalazi se još jedan manastir u selu Malom Središtu. Zabavu za sebe, osim planinara, šetača, ljubitelja kulturno-istorijskih spomenika ili uživalaca u posmatranju ptica (birdwatching), naći će i ljubitelji lova i ribolova, s obzirom na to da postoje i delovi prirode namenjeni ovim aktivnostima. Svima onima koji bi radije zamenili


SENOVITE ALEJE VRŠAČKOG PARKA Piše: Daniela Stojanov

Shady Lanes of the Vršac Park

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za potrebe raznih kulturnih manifestacija. Neposredno pre Mađarske bune 1848. godine, Gradski majur dobio je naziv „Gradski park” koji je zadržan do danas. Za vreme Bune poseta parku je zamrla i tek po završetku nemira posvećena mu je veća pažnja. Kampanjom sadnje drveća koju je pokrenula gradska opština 1856. godine i upošljavanjem školovanog baštovana, nekadašnji majur počeo je da dobija formu pravog parka. Najveću ulogu u razvoju vršačkog parka imalo je društvo pod nazivom „Vršačko udruženje ljubitelja parka” osnovano krajem 1883. godine. Oni su započeli novo razdoblje u istoriji Gradskog parka. Prihodi ostvareni održavanjem javnih priredbi kao i novčani prilozi brojnih članova usmeravani su na uređenje i proširenje parka, te njegovu popularizaciju i zaštitu. U godinama do kraja 19. veka, park je dobio novu arenu, staklenik za gajenje cvetnih vrsta, ogradu od kovanog gvožđa, bunar i bazene za snabdevanje vodom, vodotoranj, muzički paviljon, fontanu koja je danas njegov, možda, najlepši ukras. Vremenom je prostor travnjaka i cvećnjaka oplemenjen vajarskim delima, a početkom 20. veka izgrađeno je i dečje igralište. Do 1920. godine Gradski park je dobio vodovod i osvetljenje, a postojeći objekti su rekonstruisani. Time je formiran njegov konačni izgled koji ga čini tako posebnim.

started to be used for public purposes. Taverns and confectioneries were opened, a shooting gallery was built, as well as an ice rink and an arena for the needs of different cultural events. Immediately before the Hungarian uprising in 1848, the Town Homestead got the name Town Park, which has been kept until today. During the Uprising, visiting the park died out, and not before the end of the riots was attention devoted to it. With a tree planting campaign started by the municipality in 1856 and the hiring of a professional gardener, the former homestead started to take the form of a real park. The most important role in the development of the Town Park was played by a group called the Vršac Association of Park Admirers, founded in 1883. They started a new era in the history of the Town Park. Incomes earned by organizing public events as well as monetary donations from numerous members were spent on park expansion and arrangement, as well as its popularization and preservation. In the years leading up to the end of the 19th century, the park got a new arena, a greenhouse for growing flowers, a wrought iron fence, a well and water supply basins, a water tower, a music pavilion, and a fountain which today is perhaps its most beautiful decoration. In time, the lawn and flower garden were enriched by sculptural works, and in the beginning of the 20th century a children’s playground was built as well. By 1920 the Town Park got water and lighting systems, and existing objects were reconstructed. With all this, its final look that makes it so special, was achieved.

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here are very few people from Vršac who haven’t, at least once, sought for shelter from the tumult of city life in the deep shade of hundred years old planetrees in the Vršac Park, making sand castles at the children’s playground, or timidly holding hands with their first love as they took a walk on its shadowy paths. The Vršac Park – town oasis of peace and quiet, has been for a long time one of the symbols of the town under the Tower. The story of Vršac Park starts in the 1830s. The ground where it is situated today belonged to the Gerubels, a reputable noble family of French colonists. From 1775 they had an inn here, with a beautifully manicured garden called Gerubel’s Garden by the local people where they gladly used to stop by. Due to some unpaid debts to the chamber administration, the land was taken from the Gerubel family, and the garden was put up for sale. The Gerubel’s estate was sold at auction on January 15th 1797 to the newly founded municipality of united Serbian and German Vršac and called Trading Homestead (Majur Trgovište). Starting from 1817, when Vršac got free royal town status, the name Town Homestead (Gradski Majur) was used, and its development was guided in the direction of becoming a park. During this period, this space 40

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alo je Vrščana koji nisu, bar jednom, potražili sklonište od gradske vreve u debelom hladu stoletnih platana u vršačkom parku, gradili kule u pesku na dečjem igralištu, ili stidljivo se držeći za ruke sa prvim ljubavima, prošetali njegovim senovitim stazama. Vršački park – gradska oaza mira i tišine, odavno je već jedan od simbola grada pod Kulom. Priča o vršačkom parku započinje tridesetih godina 18. veka. Zemljište na kome se danas nalazi pripadalo je uglednoj plemićkoj porodici francuskih kolonista Fon Šeribl (Gerubel). Od 1775. godine oni su na tom mestu imali gostionicu sa lepo uređenom baštom koju su Vrščani zvali „Šeriblova bašta” i rado u nju svraćali. Zbog neizmirenih dugova komorskoj upravi, taj posed je oduzet porodici Šeribl, a bašta je namenjena prodaji. „Šeriblov majur” je 15. januara 1797. godine na licitaciji za trgovište otkupila novoosnovana opština ujedinjenog srpskog i nemačkog Vršca i nazvala ga „Majur trgovište”. Počev od 1817. godine, kada je Vršac dobio status slobodnog kraljevskog grada, ušao je u upotrebu naziv „Gradski majur” i njegov razvoj je usmeravan u pravcu da postane park. U tom periodu, ovaj prostor počeo je da se koristi u javne svrhe. U parku se otvaraju gostionice i poslastičarnice, grade se streljana, klizalište i arena


Danas je Gradski park pod zaštitom države i prirodni je spomenik vrtne arhitekture. Jedan je od malobrojnih do danas očuvanih parkova karakterističnih za Evropu, pa i naše krajeve u periodu od 18. do 20. veka. Zauzima prostor od blizu sedam hektara i projektovan je u mešovitom stilu u kojem se prepliću uticaji francuskog načina projektovanja rondela i cvećnjaka sa engleskim slobodnim rasporedom drveća, travnjaka i žbunja. Iako je vremenom izgubio veliki deo svoje nekadašnje lepote, slučajni ili namerni prolaznik i dalje u njemu može pronaći sliku ili detalj koji će poneti sa sobom kao uspomenu – senovitu aleju ili u grmu skrivenu klupu, igru svetlosti u granju ili šuštanje opalog lišća pod nogama…

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The park is currently under the protection of the state and is a natural monument of garden architecture. Today, it is one of the few preserved parks characteristic for Europe and for our region from the 18th to 20th centuries. It occupies an area of almost seven hectares and is presented in a mixed style of overlapping influences, the French way of projecting circular flower beds and flower gardens with English free tree, lawn and bush arrangement. Although over time it has lost a great part of its former beauty, a random or deliberate passer-by still can find in it a picture or a detail to take it as a memory; a shadowy trail, a bench hidden in a bush, light playing in the branches or the crackling of leaves under their feet…


Piše: Javor Rašajski

URALSKA SOVA, RETKA GNEZDARICA VRŠAČKIH PLANINA U

ralska ili dugorepa sova (Strix uralensis macroura) spada u vrlo retke gnezdarice Srbije. Jedino poznato gnezdilište kod nas jesu Vršačke planine. Na gnežđenju je konstatovana prvi put 1998. godine na severnim padinama Vršačkih planina, na lokalitetu Kozluk. Došla je sa istoka, sa Karpata, u potrazi za hranom. Uralska sova se hrani sitnim glodarima, a najzastupljeniji u njenoj ishrani su šumski miš i voluharica. Vršačke planine čine zapadnu granicu karpatskih populacija ovih sova gde je njeno prisustvo nešto češće. Od 1998, kada je prvi put ustanovljeno gnežđenje, danas je možemo videti skoro na svim lokacijama planina i broji od osam do deset gnezdećih parova. Zbog relativne izdvojenosti Vršačkih planina od Karpata i Rodopa, ovaj broj ptica zajedno sa lutajućim primercima može se smatrati vojvođanskom populacijom.

The Ural Owl – the Queen of the Vršac Mountains T

he Ural or long-tailed owl (Strix uralensis macroura) belongs to a group of very rare nesting birds in Serbia. The only known nesting place in our country are the Vršac Mountains. It was officially observed nesting for the first time in 1998 on the northern slopes of the Vršac Mountains in the vicinity of Kozluk. It came from the east, the Carpathian Mountains, in search of food. The Ural owl feeds on small rodents, and its diet consists mostly of forest mice and voles. The Vršac Mountains compose the western border of the Carpathian population of these owls, where it is a bit more common. From 1998, when it was confirmed nesting for the first time, till today, it can be seen almost everywhere on the Vršac Mountains and there are from 8 to 10 nesting pairs. Because of the relative isolation of the Vršac Mountains from the Carpathians and Rhodopes, this population of both resident and wandering specimens can be considered Vojvodina’s own.

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U zavisnosti od količine hrane tokom godine, u martu ili aprilu uralska sova polaže od tri do šest jaja. Za razliku od drugih sova, ona naseljava, ili bolje reći otima gnezda grabljivica, najčešće jastreba mišara i kokošara. Uralska sova ima status stanarice s tim što u zimskom periodu skita. Dimenzije ptice su: dužina oko 65 cm, a u rasponu krila od 130 do 140 cm. Smatra se najagresivnijom pticom Evrope, naročito u reproduktivnom ciklusu. Posebno žestoko brani svoje mladunce ili jaja u poodmakloj inkubaciji. Takva etološka opažanja izneta su u časopisu Ciconia (1999) u radu J. Rašajskog i M. Vučanovića. Dok je snimao mladunce, ženka je žestoko napala koautora, a kasnije joj se pridružio i mužjak. U istom radu opisan je i napad sove u Transilvanskim alpima gde je ornitolog od zadobijenih rana od oštrih i dugih sovinih kandži završio na dve nedelje u bolnici. Čuveni snimatelj ptica Erik Hosking prilikom napada ove sove izgubio je oko. Kao i sve druge vrste sova i uralska spada u veoma korisne ptice jer kontroliše populaciju glodara.

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Depending on the amount of food available during the year, around March or April, the owl lays 3–6 eggs. Unlike other owls, it settles, or perhaps it’s better to say captures, nests of other predatory birds, most often the mouse hawk and the chicken hawk. The Ural owl has resident bird status despite the fact that it roams during the winter. Its dimensions are approximately: 65 cm long, with wing spread of 130 to 140 cm. The Ural owl is considered to be the most aggressive European bird, especially during the mating season. It defends its chicks or eggs in late incubation with particular ferocity. These ethological observations were presented in Ciconia magazine in 1999, in an article by J. Rašajski and M. Vučanović. While filming some chicks, the female fiercely attacked the co-author, and later the male joined her. In the same article another owl attack was described which took place in the Transylvanian Alps, where an ornithologist spent two weeks in the hospital due to wounds suffered from long and sharp owl claws. The famous bird filmmaker Eric Hoskings lost an eye after being attacked by this kind of owl. Like all other owls, the Ural owl is considered to be a very useful bird because it helps control rodent populations.


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ršački vidikovac je možda najmističnije mesto koje bi vam preporučio svaki slučajni prolaznik u ovoj banatskoj varošici. Odatle se prostire prelepa panorama grada koji se utapa u plavičastu beskonačnost ravnice. Meštani kažu da kada duva jugo, možete osetiti blagi miris morske vode koja je još uvek tu negde pod vrelom zemljom ravničarskom. Ponekad, kada to vremenski uslovi dozvoljavaju, sa vidikovca se lepo vidi Dunav kako se zemljom proteže poput velike zlatne zmije i ulazi u Đerdapsku klisuru. Vidikovcem dominira Kapela Svetog krsta sagrađena davne 1720. godine, najstariji katolički hram u Banatu, koji se nalazi na brdu Misa. Uz Vršačku kulu, ovo je najstarija sačuvana građevina u gradu. Do kapele vodi poduže kamenito stepenište, a zbog popriličnog napora koji treba uložiti da bi se pešice stiglo do nje, duž stepeništa postoje mnogobrojne terasice sa klupama na kojima se možete odmoriti. Dok se budete penjali, čitavim putem nailazićete na čudne stubove, takozvane krajputaše i na svakom ćete zapaziti mali reljef. Graditelji kapelice su ovaj put zamislili kao put Hristove golgote koji se završava ljupkom crkvicom Svetog krsta na vrhu stepeništa.

Look to infinity T

he scenic overlook of Vršac is perhaps the most mystical place that would be recommended by any random passer-by in this small Banat town. From here, the breathtaking panorama of the town spreads out before you, melting into the infinite blue of the plain. The local people say that, when jugo (a south wind) blows, you can catch a mild scent of seawater which is still around somewhere under the hot flat soil. Sometimes, when the weather allows it, the Danube can be clearly seen from the overlook, stretching on the ground as a huge golden snake, entering the Đerdap gorge. The overlook is dominated by the Chapel of the Holy Cross built back in 1720, the oldest Catholic temple in Banat, located on the Misa hill. Together with the Vršac Tower, this is the oldest preserved building in the town. There is a rather long stone stairway leading to the chapel, and due to the considerable amount of effort that has to be invested in order to reach it, along the stairway there are numerous small terraces with benches where you can rest. While climbing, along the entire way you will find some strange posts, so-called krajputaši (roadside stones) and on each of them you will notice a small relief. The chapel builders imagined this way as Christ’s road to Golgotha, ending with the lovely little church of the Holy Cross at the top of the stairway.

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Pogled u beskraj Piše: Jelena Gorički

VIDIKOVAC, MESTO NA KOME JOŠ UVEK MIRIŠE PANONSKO MORE


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itiševo, a hamlet near Vršac, situated in the middle of a fertile lowland with a fairy tale view of the Vršac mountains, for several years in a row has been the host of the national carriage driving competition – consisting of two and four horse carriage categories. A nicely arranged racetrack with English style grass, ideal weather conditions, a romantic painter’s canvass sky meets the ground in a clear line, on it, a horse, the most noble of animals, is harnessed to a masterfully produced carriage. And in the carriage, as long ago, gentlemen at the reins wearing smart suits and white gloves and, of course, playful horses. The best stables with their protégés and crews participate in this prestigious contest. One of them is the Vršac crew, owned by Marko Popović, who is also credited for establishing this noble artistry in Vršac. The uncommon sight of horses harnessed in carriages with calm and dignified drivers may be sufficient for the novice viewer. But for those who are a bit more familiar with the sport some details are also important: the pairing of the horses and the synchronization of their walk, the handling of the reins, the look of the carriage, the regalia of the crew members, as well as the overall impression of the carriage. All this is reviewed by the jury consisting of judges, top domestic experts of the sport, respecting the rules of the contest.

itiševo, seoce nadomak Vršca, smešteno sred plodne ravničarske zemlje sa bajkovitim pogledom na Vršačke planine, već nekoliko godina zaredom, domaćin je državnog takmičenja u vožnji fijakera u kategoriji dvoprega i četvoroprega. Lepo uređen hipodrom, sa travom nalik engleskoj, idealno vreme, nebo kao sa platna romantičarskih slikara u jasnoj liniji oslonjeno na zemlju i na njoj najplemenitija životinja – konj, pa još upregnut u karuce majstorske izrade. A u karucama, kao nekada davno, gospoda za kajasima u finim odelima i belim rukavicama i naravno, razigrani konji.

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A slow trot on warm fertile Banat soil

Lagani kas po toploj Banatskoj ravnici Piše: Jelena Gorički

The stairway used to lead to sparse holiday homes and vineyards, because the natives of German origin did not intensively settle the Vršac hills, but the valley at their foot. Nevertheless, in the years to come, people started settling the hill more and more, maybe exactly because of the magic view spreading from it or, again, to be able sometimes to daydream about the sea with its unreal smell, or even to see it for a moment. The overlook is nicely arranged, paved with old Turkish cobblestones, which were abundant in Vršac, and there is also a telescope set up, through which you can have a look at the starry sky.

Stepenište je nekada vodilo do malobrojnih vikendica i vinograda, jer starosedeoci nemačkog po­rekla nisu intenzivno naseljavali vršačka brda već ravnicu u njihovom podnožju. Međutim, u godinama koje su usledile, ljudi su sve više naseljavali brdo, možda upravo zbog tog magičnog pogleda koji se sa njega pruža ili pak da bi ponekad uz nestvarni miris mora mogli da sanjare o njemu, pa čak i da ga ugledaju na tren. Vidikovac je lepo uređen, popločan starom turskom kockom, koje je u Vršcu bilo u izobilju, a postavljen je i teleskop kroz koji možete baciti pogled i na zvezdano nebo.


Najbolje štale sa svojim pulenima i posadama učestvuju na ovom prestižnom takmičenju, a jedna od njih je i vršačka posada, vlasnika Marka Popovića koji je ujedno i zaslužan što se ova plemenita veština nastanila i ovde u Vršcu. Laiku je sasvim dovoljan nesvakidašnji prizor konja upregnutih u fijakere sa smirenim i dostojanstvenim vozačima, dok su onima koji malo više poznaju ovaj sport bitni i neki detalji: hod i uparenost konja, baratanje kajasima, izgled fijakera, uparađenost članova posade, kao i kompletan utisak koji ostavlja zaprega. Sud o ovome donosi žiri koji čine sudije – vrhunski poznavaoci ovog sporta kod nas, poštujući propozicije takmičenja. Ukoliko biste želeli da razumete suštinu fijakerijade, evo ponešto i o pravilima ovog sporta: Cilj dresurne vožnje je ocenjivanje slobodnog, regularnog koraka, harmonije, lakoće, impulsa, pravilne savijenosti nogu i izvođenje radnji bez otpora kod konja. Takmičari se takođe ocenjuju za stil, preciznost, kontrolu nad konjima, dres koji nose, kvalitet amova i vozila kao i za celokupan utisak koji zaprega ostavlja. Takmičar sve vreme mora imati bič u ruci odgovarajućeg stila i dužine. Dres takmičara i pomoćnog osoblja mora odgovarati stilu vozila i amova. Sako, kecelja za vozača, šešir, rukavice i bič u ruci su obavezni. Isto vozilo se mora koristiti za dresuru i za vožnju kroz čunjeve. Polomljeni ili oštećeni deo vozila se sme zameniti. Vozila moraju da imaju lampe, kao i zadnja svetla ili reflektore. Kod jednoprega i dvoprega dozvoljen je samo jedan član pomoćnog osoblja, koji može sedeti pored ili iza vozača, dok su kod četvoroprega dozvoljena dva člana koji moraju sedeti iza vozača.

If you would like to understand the essence of the horse and carriage parade, here are a few of the rules governing the sport: The regular freestep, harmony, easiness, impulse (reaction time), bending of the legs, and obedience are all points of evaluation during the training drive. The contestants are also evaluated on style, precision, control, uniform, harness and vehicle quality, as well as the overall impression left by the carriage. The contestant has to hold a whip of certain style and length at all times. The contestants and their assistants’ uniforms have to match the style of the vehicle and the harness. A jacket, an apron for the driver, a hat, gloves and a whip in hand are obligatory. Assistants are obliged to wear a jacket, hat and gloves. The same vehicle has to be used both for the training and slalom cone drive. Broken or damaged parts of the vehicle can be replaced. The vehicles have to have lamps, as well as rear lights and reflector lights. With one and two horse carriages, only one member of the staff, who can sit next to or behind the driver, is allowed, while with the four horsed carriages two members are allowed, and they have to sit behind the driver.

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The harnesses have to be clean, neat, safe, uniform and in harmony with the complete carriage. The horses have to be harnessed in an appropriate fashion by using bars and straps between the chest part of the harness and the shafts. Tying the tails to the vehicle or the bars is not allowed. The horses’ tongues must not be tied. It is not allowed to connect the bridle of shaft horses to the bridle of the head horses in the four horsed carriages, so that the horses are able to look in the desired direction. The arena for the training drive must be 100m by 40m and set up according to standards for Championship and CAIO competitions. Each judge gives his own mark without concurring with the other judges when the contestant finishes the test. All horses are evaluated together, not individually. A contestant is considered to have started the test when they enter into the arena at point A, and conclude the test with a final greeting with a bow addressed to the judges. From year to year this noble skill and sport has been increasing in popularity, so more and more people attend the competition, perhaps because of the horses, perhaps because of the well dressed gentlemen, perhaps for the opportunity to see some lady driver, or it might be because of the nostalgia taking

Amovi moraju biti čisti, uredni, bezbedni, uniformni i u skladu sa kompletnom zapregom. Konji moraju biti upregnuti na pravilan način korišćenjem štrangi i remena između grudnog dela ama i ruda. Nije dozvoljeno vezivanje repova za vozilo ili za štrange. Jezici konjima ne smeju biti vezani. Nije dozvoljeno povezivati oglav rudnih konja sa oglavom prednjih u četvoropregu, radi toga da konji gledaju u željenom pravcu. Arena za dresurnu vožnju mora biti dimenzija 100 x 40 m i postavljena prema standardima za Šampionate i CAIO takmičenja. Svaki sudija daje ocenu u svoje ime i ne sme biti naknadnog dogovora među sudijama kad takmičar završi sa testom. Svi konji se ocenjuju kao jedan, a ne kao individualni konji. Smatra se da je takmičar započeo test ulaskom na slovo A u arenu, a da ga je završio poslednjim pozdravom sa naklonom upućenim sudijama. Iz godine u godinu ova plemenita veština i sport, dobija na popularnosti, pa sve veći broj ljudi prati takmičenje, možda zbog konja, možda zbog gospode u lepim odelima, možda i zbog koje gospođe koja se nađe za kajasima… A možda i zbog nostalgije koja vuče ka korenima, običajima i načinu života kojim su živeli naši preci na ovoj plodnoj banatskoj crnici.


The Villa Breg hotel offers all the opportunities for business meetings, but also for relaxing and fun. The hotel Spa Centre consists of two swimming pools, a heated one indoors, and an outdoor one. Besides that, there are two hydro massage bath tubs, a fitness room with the most modern cardio lines, a Finnish sauna, Turkish bath, two massage rooms, solarium, derma-life capsule and a bar. The Centre offers therapeutic and relaxation massage services, and represents a true oasis of peace and relaxation.

Hotel Villa Breg na najlepšem mestu, u najboljem društvu

Piše: Jelena Cvetković

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otel visoke kategorije „Villa Breg” počeo je sa radom pre šest godina. To je jedini hotel sa pet zvezdica u regionu. Smešten je na sunčanim padinama Vršačkog brega, odakle se pruža veličanstven pogled na ceo grad Vršac. Osim u panorami grada, gosti hotela mogu da uživaju u dobrom vinu i muzici na hotelskoj terasi, igraju bilijar u Kamin baru ili se kupaju i odmaraju na bazenima. Iako po broju soba Hotel Villa Breg spada u manje hotele jer raspolaže sa 44 sobe i 4 luksuzna apartmana, njegove zelene površine, prelepo aranžirani vrtovi i SPA centar čine površinu od čak 7.200 m2. Sobe su izuzetno prostrane i opremljene su zasebnim regulatorom centralnog sistema klimatizacije, satelitskom TV, mini barom, sefom, brzim kablovskim internetom i ostalom opremom koju podrazumeva hotel najviše kategorije. U vrhunskom hotelskom restoranu „Eol” gosti uživaju u čaroliji gastronomskih umeća domaće i internacionalne kuhinje. Restoran tople atmosfere i zavidne elegancije, raspolaže sa 120 mesta u zatvorenom prostoru i istim brojem na delimično pokrivenoj terasi. Hotel „Villa Breg” je pravo mesto za održavanje seminara, kongresa i poslovnih sastanaka. Velika Kongresna dvorana, kapaciteta 140 mesta, opremljena je vrhunskom prezentacionom video-tehnikom, kao i opremom za simultano prevođenje. Višenamenska Banket sala, kapaciteta do 60 mesta, prigodna je za organizovaje svih vrsta proslava i koktela, a po potrebi se pretvara u salu za svečanu večeru do 40 mesta. Dve dodatne sale za sastanke, kapaciteta 6 odnosno 18 mesta, takođe poseduju vrhunsku tehničku opremljenost.

Villa Breg Hotel

Hotel „Villa Breg” pruža sve mogućnosti za poslovne susrete, ali i za opuštanje i zabavu. SPA centar hotela sastoji se od dva bazena – unutrašnjeg, sa grejanom vodom i spoljašnjeg. Osim toga poseduje i dve hidromasažne kade, fitnes salu sa najmodernijim kardio linijama, finsku saunu, tursko (parno) kupatilo, dve sobe za masažu, solarijum, derma-life kapsulu i bar. Centar nudi usluge terapijske i relaksacione masaže i predstavlja pravu oazu mira i opuštenosti.

at the most beautiful place, in the best company

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he Villa Breg, a high class hotel first opened its doors six years ago and it is the only five-star hotel in the region. It is situated on the sunny slopes of the Vršac hill, from which you can enjoy a magnificent view of the entire town of Vršac. Besides the town panorama, the guests of the hotel can also enjoy good wine and music on the hotel terrace, play billiards in the Kamin Bar, or bathe and rest at the swimming pools. With only 44 rooms and 4 luxury suites, the Villa Breg is classified as a smaller hotel. Yet its green surfaces, beautifully arranged gardens and spa centre occupy a surface of no less than 7,200 square meters. The rooms are extremely spacious and equipped with an independent climate control system, satellite TV, a mini bar, a safe, high-speed cable internet and all the equipment required by a hotel of the highest category. At the fashionable restaurant Eol, guests can enjoy the magic of the gastronomic artistry of domestic and international cuisine. The restaurant, with its warm atmosphere and enviable elegance, has 120 seats indoors and the same number on a partially covered terrace. The Villa Breg hotel is the right place for conducting seminars, congresses and business meetings. The great Congress Hall, with a capacity of 140 seats, is equipped with state of the art presentational video equipment, as well as with simultaneous interpreting equipment. A Multifunctional Banquet Hall, with a capacity of up to 60 seats, is convenient for organizing all kinds of celebrations and cocktail parties, and if needed, it can be transformed into a hall for formal dinners with up to 40 seats. Two extra meeting halls, with 6 and 18 places, also have excellent technical equipment.


moment to moment, and to prove this, we show you the data that after the second of a total of four rounds of flying, not less than 24 contestants were in the range of only 17 cm. In the end, it can be said that the first place was fully justifiably shared between Jaka Gorenc from Slovenia and Tomas Lednik from the Czech Republic. After four rounds, both of them had identical scores of 9 cm, with the Czech having two landings at the very center of the target. Had there been a fair play award, it would have been undoubtedly given to the Slovenian national team member Jaka Gorenc, who gave up the trophy for his Czech colleague’s benefit at the closing ceremony. The third place was won by Metodij Metodijev from Bulgaria. In the women’s competition, an absolute triumph for the Indonesians: Sirin Milavati won the first place, Ifi Kurniavati the second, and the bronze medal will decorate Andriane Lis’s cabinet. All the contestants were very satisfied with flying conditions, and especially with the organization of the contest. The full credit for top notch organization is claimed by sport enthusiasts from Vršac – members of the Berkut paragliding club. Berkut gives the opportunity to tourists and all the people interested in flying to fly on a tandem paraglider together with an instructor from a Vršac hill launch point, which at the altitude of 399 m, is one of the best flying sites in Serbia. This flying site is right above the town, so it is easy to get to and gives an unforgettable panorama of the town of Vršac. For further information, you can contact Goran Đurković, a flying instructor and the President of Berkut paragliding Club, who is, at the moment, number one in the world on the FAI (Fédération Aéronautique Internationale) list, at the phone number +381 63 712 765.

Paragliders – decorating the skies Vršac U

nder the patronage of the municipality of Vršac, and organized by paragliding clubs Berkut from Vršac and Košava from Belgrade, the third round of the World Cup was held on the Vršac Hill on March 26th and 27th 2011. This competition will be written in the history of the World Cup with the record number of 104 contestants from thirteen countries. The World Cup in Vršac was filled with excitement when the standings are considered. Competition was fierce, the contestants were changing in the lead from

Piše: Branislav Josimov

PARAGLAJDERI – UKRAS VRŠAČKOG NEBA

Paraglajding klub „Berkut” pruža mogućnost turistima i svim zainteresovanim ljubiteljima letenja, da zajedno sa instruktorom polete u tandem paraglajderu sa poletišta na Vršačkom bregu na nadmorskoj visini od 399 m, koje je jedno je od najboljih letilišta u Srbiji. Ovo letilište se nalazi odmah iznad grada, tako da je lako dostupno i pruža nezaboravnu panoramu grada Vršca. Za dodatne informacije možete se obratiti nastavniku letenja i predsedniku Paraglajding kluba „Berkut” Goranu Đurkoviću, trenutno prvom na svetskoj FAI listi (Fédération Aéronautique Internationale) na telefon 063 712 765.

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od pokroviteljstvom opštine Vršac, a u organizaciji paraglajding klubova „Berkut” iz Vršca i „Košava” iz Beograda, 26. i 27. marta 2011. godine održano je treće kolo Svetskog kupa na Vršačkom bregu. Ovo takmičenje će ostati upisano u istoriji Svetskog kupa kao takmičenje sa najvećim brojem učesnika (104) iz trinaest zemalja. Svetski kup u Vršcu obilovao je uzbuđenjima kada je u pitanju plasman. Takmičari su se smenjivali u vođstvu, poredak među vodećima se menjao iz časa u čas, a kao ilustraciju navodimo podatak da je posle druge od ukupno četiri serije letenja, čak 24 takmičara bilo raspoređeno na rastojanju od 17 santimetara. Na kraju se može reći da su potpuno pravedno prvo mesto podelili Jaka Gorenc iz Slovenije i Tomaš Lednik iz Češke. Obojica su posle četiri serije ostvarili identičan rezultat od 9 centimetra, s tim što je Čeh u poslednje dve serije imao dva doleta u sam centar. Da je postojalo priznanje za fer-plej, bez sumnje bi pripalo slovenačkom reprezentativcu Gorencu, koji se na ceremoniji svečanog zatvaranja odrekao pehara u korist svog češkog kolege. Treće mesto zauzeo je bugarski reprezentativac Metodij Metodijev. U konkurenciji žena, potpuni trijumf Indonežanki: prvo mesto pripalo je Sirin Milavati, drugo Ifi Kurniavati, a bronzana medalja krasiće vitrine Andriane Lis. Svi učesnici su pohvalili uslove za letenje a posebno organizaciju takmičenja. Zasluge za vrhunsku organizaciju pripadaju sportskim entuzijastima iz Vršca − članovima Paraglajding kluba „Berkut”.


Piše: Vesna V. Stankov

Romantične osmatračnice A

ko ste turista koji zanesen lepotom stare arhitekture šeta ulicama Vršca, može vam se lako desiti da nehotice udarite glavom o izbočeni prozor − kibicfenster. Iako prvi susret sa kibicfensterom može biti pomalo bolan, nećete ostati ravnodušni prema njegovoj lepoti. Ovakvi prozori su karakteristični za Vojvodinu, a priča se da su nekada u starim banatskim varošima gospodske i gazdinske kuće imale i do osam prozora. Jedan je obavezno bio izbočen (kutijasti). U Vršcu su takav prozor prvo nazivali finder, ali se kasnije za njega odomaćio naziv kibicfenster koji Vrščani i danas koriste. Kibicfensteri su pravljeni po modi tog vremena, poštujući i želju vlasnika kuće. U istoj ulici mogli su se videti mali i obični, ali i veliki i otmeni prozori sa prelepim rezbarenim ukrasima. Stari tišleri su verovali da u prozoru leži tajna njihovog zanata i po njegovom izgledu znali su da li ga je izradio fušer ili majstor svog zanata. Govorili su da „prozor majstorski obraz čuva”. Oblik, izgled i šara otkrivali su gde je majstor izučio zanat, a znamo da su vršačke kalfe išle na specijalizaciju u Arad, Segedin, Peštu i Beč i donosile znanja, veštine i uticaje iz drugih delova Evrope. Ovakvi prozori pravljeni su prvenstveno za devojke i bili su svojevremeno nešto poput „police” za prikazivanje mladih udavača. Devojka je tek sa 17 godina sticala pravo da se prikaže svetu na tom prozoru i da kroz njega „kibicuje” momke koji prolaze sokakom. Momak je mogao da zapazi udavaču u prozoru, da joj, ako mu se dopadne, da neki znak, pa čak i da izmeni koju reč sa njom. Kibicfensteri imaju, pored centralnog krila i dva krioca sa strane, koja se otvaraju, pa je kroz njih momak mogao devojci dodati bombonu ili kakav drugi poklon. Mogao joj se na kratko i udvarati ili joj dodirnuti ruku, ako je bio dovoljno zaljubljen i hrabar. Osim frajli, kojima je pojavljivanje u ovim prozorima najviše priličilo, stajale su u njima i mlade „raspuštenice” ili starije devojke. Oni su verovatno imali sudbonosan uticaj na mnoge ljubavne veze, pa ih zato nazivamo i prozorima ljubavi.

Romantic

Observatories

These windows were made primarily for girls and they were at the time a kind of showcase for young eligible bachelorettes. Not before the age of 17 were they allowed to present themselves to the world in those windows and to kibitz’ make eyes at young men passing by. A young man could spot a potential bride in the window and, (if he is attracted to her), give her a sign, perhaps even to exchange a few words with her. Kibitzfensters have, besides the central pane, two smaller side panes that can be opened, so the young man was able to give the girl a sweet or some other kind of gift. He could also flirt with her or touch her hand, if he was in love and courageous enough. In addition to the young maidens, who were most commonly seen in these windows, young divorced women or older single women were also very often there. The windows probably influenced numerous relationships, so they are called the windows of love. In corner houses, the room that was on the corner had two kibitzfensters, so that the members of the household could see what was happening on both streets. In multi storey houses these kinds of windows were also upstairs, and they had horizontal glass so the observer could lie in the window, watching passers-by below. Today, there is only one window of the kind left, at 46, Nemanjina Street. On special occasions, such as weddings or funerals, several observers could fit into a window like this. It is hard to say how many kibitzfensters are left in Vršac today, but it is certain that these beauties still exist, warming up and decorating the houses of happy, proud owners. An embroidered velvet cushion or blooming geraniums winking at you from a windowpane can still be seen today.

U „kućama na lakat”, koje su se nalazile na raskrsnicama, soba na uglu imala је i po dva kibicfenstera da bi ukućani mogli pratiti događanja u obe ulice. Kod spratnih kuća, ovakvi prozori – osmatračnice nalazili su se i na spratu, pa si imali i vodoravno ustakljenje, te je gledalac mogao da „leži” u prozoru i posmatra prolaznike dole. Danas u Vršcu postoji samo još jedan takav prozor i on se nalazi u Nemanjinoj ulici br. 48. U naročitim prilikama, kao što su svadbe ili sahrane u ovakav prozor stalo bi više gledalaca. Teško je reći koliko kibicfenstera danas ima u Vršcu, ali je sigurno da ovi stari lepotani još uvek žive na radost i ponos svojih vlasnika i greju i krase mnoge kuće. Još uvek ćete videti poneko izvezeno somotsko jastuče i tek procvetale muškatle kako vam namiguju iza prozorskog okna.

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f you are a tourist carried away by the beauty of the old buildings in Vršac, it can easily happen to you that, while walking around, you accidentally hit your head on a protruding window or kibitzfenster. Although the first encounter with it can be a bit painful, you will not remain indifferent to its beauty. These windows are characteristic for Vojvodina, and it is said that old manor and mansion houses in Banat formerly had up to eight windows. One of them had to be protruding (boxlike). In Vršac, a window of this type was first called finder, but later, the name kibitzfenster became common, which is still used by people in Vršac. Kibitzfensters were made according to the style of the time, respecting the wishes of the houses’ owners as well. In the same street small and ordinary windows could be seen, but also large and classy ones, with beautifully carved decorations. Old carpenters used to believe that the secret of their trade lay in windows, and that by their look they knew whether a botcher or an accomplished craftsmen had made them. They used to say that “a window preserves the craftsmen’s reputation.” Form, look and pattern revealed where the craftsman had studied and practiced. It is known that journeymen from Vršac went for specialization to Arad, Segedin, Budapest and Vienna, and brought back knowledge, skill and influence from other parts of Europe.

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Vekovna tradicija Vršačkog vinogorja

Centuries-old Tradition of the Vršac Hillside Vineyards Povećavale su se površine pod zasadima vinove loze na padinama Vršačkih planina i u atarima okolnih sela. Procvat vinogradarstva doprineo je razvoju mnogih zanata, industrije, trgovine kao i opštem prosperitetu grada, školstva, kulturnog života. Prema beleškama hroničara, do kraja 18. stoleća pod vinogradima je bilo oko 3.500 jutara. Suše, ratni sukobi, otežavali su rad vinogradarima, ali oni su bili uporni. Austrijski stručnjak za vinogradarstvo zabeležio je da je Vršac imao najveću berbu u ondašnjoj Ugarskoj, na 4.500 jutara i godišnjom proizvodnjom od 200.000 akova vina, što je iznosilo oko milion litara.

more favorable conditions for viticultural development. The first significant progress was recorded during the colonization under the reign of Maria Theresa (17401780) when new inhabitants were settling here from various parts of Europe. The size of the vineyards expanded on the slopes of the Vršac Mountains and in the area of the surrounding villages. The blossoming viticulture contributed to the development of many crafts, industries and trading, as well as the general prosperity of the town, educational system and cultural life. According to chroniclers’ notes, until the end of the 18th century, the vineyards covered an area of about 3,500 jutros (one jutro equals 5,754.64 m2). Droughts and wars made it difficult for the vintners, but they were persistent. An Austrian expert recorded that Vršac had the richest harvest in Hungary at the time. With 4,500 jutros the annual production was 200,000 akovs, which was about one million liters.

Piše: Jovanka Erski

Dunav i železnica otvorili nova tržišta Okolno tržište je postalo malo za plasman vina pa je trebalo pronaći novo. Tridesetih godina 19. veka kada su parobrodi krenuli Dunavom, vršački su vinari odvozili svoje proizvode do Nove Palanke, tovarili burad s viVršac, grad vina Vršac je bio i ostao poznat po svojim vinogradima u kojima se rađaju slatki grozdovi, a vrhunski majstori – vinari proizvode kvalitetna vina po recepturi i zanatskim tajnama svojih predaka. Stari Vrščani kažu da je bilo godina kada su podrumi bili tesni, a vino potocima teklo varoškom sokacima, ali se sećaju i teških vremena kada su bolesti i suše odnosile dugogodišnji trud i muku vinogradara. Proizvodnja vina oduvek je bila značajna grana, praktično okosnica vršačke privrede, kao i zamajac za opšti prosperitet ovog kraja i vršačke varoši. O tome svedoče vinova loza u grbu grada Vršca iz 1804. godine, brojni motivi vezani za vinogradarstvo i vinarstvo uklesani u varoške kapije, fasade, kibicfenstere, burad…

Vršac, a wine town Vršac was and is famous for its vineyards, where sweet bunches of grapes grow, and master vintners produce quality wines using the recipes and craft secrets of their forefathers. The older generations from Vršac say that there were years when their cellars were too small, and the wine was flowing in streams in the streets of Vršac. But they also remember hard times when disease and drought wiped out years of the wine-growers’ hard work and efforts. Wine production has always been an important branch, practically the backbone of the Vršac economy, as well as the fly-wheel for the general prosperity of this area and the town of Vršac. The vine in the crest of Vršac from 1804, numerous motifs connected to viticulture and wine production carved into the town gates, facades, kibitzfensters, barrels and so on, are all a testimonial of this fact. Old times, good wines The history of Vršac’s hillside vineyards goes as far back as the natives of Banat Agathyrsi and the Dacians, as well as the Romans. There are no written records from that period, nor data about which sorts of grapes and wines were produced. The first significant datum left by the chroniclers of the time was that a barrel of Vršac wine was sold at the court of the Hungarian king Vladislav for ten and a half gold coins, all the way back in 1494. The high price was certainly confirmation of the high quality of Bacchus booze which was produced by the local vintners. Clues about Vršac viticulture were also left by a Turkish travel writer Evliya Çelebi who noted down: “On the eastern side of this little town, all the way up to the old town, stretch hills planted with vines. Since the climate is good, the population is healthy. The ruby colored grapes are very tasty…” After hundreds of years of Turkish rule, Banat was liberated in 1717, thus creating 60

The neighborhood market became too small for wine sales so a new one had to be found. In the 1830s, when steamboats started navigating the Danube, Vršac vintners took their products to Nova Palanka and loaded their wine barrels on ships headed for Budapest, Vienna and Prague. The railway also presented new opportunities for wine sales to distant European markets. The completion of the railroad in 1858 opened a new gateway to the world. In only six months time in 1858, about 40,000 akovs of wine went to Vienna and Regensburg, and from there to other European cities. Record sales encouraged vintners to expand their vineyards. Old records say that, in 1873, the Vršac hillside vineyards consisting of 15,000 jutros and 2,255 owners, was the largest complex not only on the old continent, but also in the world. Between 800,000 and 1,000,000 akovs of wine were produced, which is about 5.5 million liters. People from Vršac commonly appeared as exhibitors at the most prestigious exhibitions, and at wine and viticultural equipment fairs. In 1873 in Vienna, at the world exhibition, 37 vintners presented 227 exhibits. At an annual exhibition in Vršac, that had been regularly organized by the Vršac Vintners Association founded in 1874, 257 sorts of grapes and 120 types of wines were presented. According to chroniclers’ claims, one of the most fruitful years was 1875. Every last barrel in the Vršac cellars was filled with wine. A Swiss merchant, Bernhard Staub, decided in those years to build a large wine cellar. So, in 1880, at an exit from Vršac towards the hill, Helvecija sprang up. This building has been a testimonial to the golden age of the local hillside vineyards up until today.

nom na brodove koji su plovili put Pešte, Beča i Praga. Nova šansa za plasman vina na dalja evropska tržišta postala je i železnica. Izgradnja železničke pruge 1858. godine otvorila je novi put u svet. Za samo šest meseci te davne 1858. godine iz Vršca je otišlo oko 40.000 akova vina u Beč i Regensburg, a odatle u druge evropske gradove. Dobra prodaja beše podstrek za vinogradare da prošire svoje zasade. Stari zapisi beleže da je 1873. godine vršačko vinogorje sa 15.000 jutara i 2.255 vlasnika, bilo najveći kompleks ne samo na „starom kontinentu” već i u svetu. Proizvodilo se od 800.000 do milion akova vina, što preračunato u današnje mere iznosi oko 5,5 miliona litara. Vrščani su se već uveliko pojavljivali kao izlagači na najprestižnijim izložbama i sajmovima vina i opreme za vinogradarstvo. U Beču, 1873. godine, na velikoj svetskoj izložbi 37 vršačkih vinogradara predstavilo je 227 eksponata. Na godišnjoj izložbi u Vršcu, koju

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Dobrog vina od davnina Istorija vršačkog vinogorja seže daleko, do starosedelaca Banata Agatirsa i Dačana, ali i Rimljana. Pisanih tragova iz tih perioda nema, ni podataka o tome koje su se sorte grožđa i vina proizvodile. Prvi značajniji podatak koji su ostavili ondašnji hroničari jeste da je bure vršačkog vina prodato na dvoru ugarskog kralja Vladislava za deset i po zlatnika, davne 1494. godine. Visoka cena je, svakako, potvrda vrhunskog kvaliteta Bahusove kapljice koju su tada proizvodili ovdašnji vinari. Tragove o vršačkom vinogradarstvu ostavio je i turski putopisac Evlija Čelebija koji je zabeležio: „Na istočnoj strani ove varoši, sve gore do starog grada, pružaju se bregovi koji su zasađeni lozom. Kako je klima dobra, stanovništvo je zdravo. Grožđe rubinske boje je vrlo ukusno…” Povoljniji uslovi za razvoj vinogradarstva stvaraju se nakon oslobođenja Banata od viševekovne turske vladavine 1717. godine. Prvi značajniji napredak beleži se tokom kolonizacije pod vladavinom Marije Terezije (od 1740. do 1780) kada se doseljavaju novi stanovnici iz raznih krajeva Evrope.

The Danube and railroad opened new markets


The phylloxera took its toll The viticultural blooming was stopped short by the phylloxera, a serious pest which targets grapes. Exactly in 1875, the most fruitful year, the first isolated case of phylloxera was registered. The phylloxera had already devastated all the vineyards of Western Europe in those years making it possible for Vršac wines to be found on dining tables of French and Swiss Bacchus nectar admirers. But, benefiting from someone else’s misfortunes never lasts long. Only a few short years later, Vršac’s vineyards were also destroyed by the disease. Who knows how many times the vintners started from nothing before. Fruitful years followed not so fruitful years, but the vineyards slowly recovered despite the ups and downs in

je počelo redovno da organizuje Udruženje vršačkih vinogradara, osnovano 1874. godine, predstavljeno je 257 sorti grožđa i 120 vrsta vina. Prema tvrdnjama hroničara jedna od najrodnijih godina bila je 1875. I poslednje bure, koje se našlo u podrumima Vrščana, bilo je napunjeno vinom. Švajcarski trgovac vinom Bernhard Štaub odlučuje da tih godina sazida veliki vinski podrum. Tako je davne 1880. godine, na izlazu iz varoši u pravcu brega, nikla „Helvecija”, zgrada koja i danas svedoči o zlatnim vremenima ovdašnjeg vinogorja.

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Filoksera uzela danak Procvat vinogradarstva zaustavila je filoksera, opaka bolest vinove loze. Baš u najrodnijoj godini 1875. registrovan je prvi usamljeni slučaj filoksere, koja je tih godina već poharala sva vinogorja zapadne Evrope. Filoksera i uništeni vinogradi u evropskim zemljama omogućili su da se vršačka vina nađu na trpezama francuskih i švajcarskih ljubitelja Bahusovog nektara. Ali, korist od tuđe štete uvek kratko traje, te su ubrzo, za samo par godina, od pomenute bolesti uništeni i vršački zasadi. Vinogradari su, po ko zna koji put, krenuli od nule. Polako su obnavljani vinogradi, nizali su se padovi i usponi u proizvodnji, rodne i manje rodne godine, istorija je beležila ratove, kolonizacije, ekonomske krize, ali vršačko vinogorje je opstajalo.


Zasadi vinove loze i danas krase padine ovdašnjeg brega, atare Gudurice, Velikog i Malog Središta, što iznosi oko 2.000 hektara. Uz „Vršačke vinograde” a. d., svojevremeno najvećeg proizvođača vina u bivšoj Jugoslaviji, u Vršcu i okolnim selima ima dosta porodičnih podruma koji će vam rado otvoriti svoja vrata i ponuditi najbolju kapljicu koja u sebi skriva grožđani nektar, energiju i miris vršačkog vinogorja, lepotu ovih brežuljaka na kojima su nanizane hiljade i hiljade čokota vinove loze. U vršačkom vinogorju najviše je belih vinskih sorti, a od crnih su to samo manje količine stonog grožđa. Danas se gaje brojne sorte vinove loze, prvenstveno vinske. Tu su i autohtone stare sorte poput župljanke, smederevke, bele šasle, rkaciteli i kreace, bele vinske sorte koja se gajila u Vršcu i Banatu. Brojne sorte grožđa omogućuju bogatu paletu vina. Region Vršca karakterišu vrhunska i kvalitetna vina: muskat otonel, šardone, italijanski i rajnski rizling, pino bjanko, a među vinopijama – špricerašima najpoznatiji i najomiljeniji je banatski rizling, nadaleko čuven, koji se pravi od sorti italijanski rizling, župljanka, smederevka i kreaca.

production. History recorded wars, colonization and economic crises, but the Vršac hillside vineyards survived. Today as well, vine seedlings adorn the slopes of the hill, the districts of Gudurica, Veliko and Malo Središte, which all in all is about 2,000 hectares. Besides Vršački Vinogradi joint stock company, once the largest wine producer in the former Yugoslavia, in Vršac and neighboring villages there are many families that will gladly open their cellar doors to you. There you will be offered the finest booze, and hidden inside it, the nectar of grapes, the energy and smell of the Vršac hillside vineyards and the beauty of the hills where thousands and thousands of vine stocks are formed in long lines. In Vršac’s vineyards there are mostly white species of grapes, and of the black there are only smaller amounts of table wine grapes. Today, numerous sorts of grapes, mostly for wine, are grown. There are also old autochthonous (indigenous) varieties like Župljanka, Smederevka, Bela Šasla, Rkaciteli and Kreace, white grape varieties that were grown in Vršac and Banat. Numerous grape sorts allow for a rich palette of wines. The Vršac region is characterized by top quality wines: Muscat o Tonnel, Chardonnay, Italian and Rhein Riesling, Pionot Bianco, and among winedrinkers – spritzerers, the most famous and favorite is the widely known Banat Riesling, made of Italian Riesling, Župljanka, Smederevka and Kreaca.

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The wine road, the first step towards wine tourism Dozens of private cellars, both large and small, together with the leader Vršački Vinogradi, have laid the groundwork for the development of wine tourism. One of the first steps was the Wine road, a project that came to life many years ago. It is meant for tourists who want to acquaint themselves with the Vršac hillside vineyards and taste local wines. With organized transportation and guides – connoisseurs not only of the viticultural history but also of the wine on offer today, tourists visit the most important points along the way from the vine to the final product – a bottle of wine. The itinerary starts with a visit to the Vršački Vinogradi cellars, the largest in the Balkans. It continues by going through the fields of seedlings and visiting wineries and cellars in Gudurica, the most important village in the wine map of Vršac. The Vršac’s hillside vineyards provide for a rich selection of wine houses and high quality wine cellars. Besides the old cellars of Vršački Vinogradi, worth visiting are the Krstov cellars in Veliko Središte, the Selekta family cellar, The Story of Gudurica, Nedin Cellar, the Vinik family winery, Vetrenjača cellars, As, Vrekić, Cuculj, Todorov, Pinka, Pavlovića cellar and Rab wine house to name a few. You will not make a mistake by visiting any of them, because, although being different, they have one thing in common: top quality wines produced with love and mastery, whose quality is guaranteed by centuries of tradition.

Put vina, prvi korak ka vinskom turizmu Na desetine privatnih podruma, manjih i većih, uz lidera „Vršačke vinograde”, stvaraju sve preduslove za razvoj vinskog turizma. Jedan od prvih koraka bio je „Put vina”, projekat koji je zaživeo pre više godina. Namenjen je turistima koji žele da se upoznaju sa vršačkim vinogorjem i degustiraju ovdašnja vina. Organizovanim prevozom, uz vodiče – dobre poznavaoce istorije vinogradarstva ali i današnje vinske ponude, turisti obilaze najznačajnije tačke na putu od čokota do finalnog proizvoda – boce vina. Maršruta počinje obilaskom Podruma „Vršačkih vinograda”, najvećeg na Balkanu, nastavlja se prolaskom kroz zasade, posetama vinarijama i podrumima u Gudurici, najznačajnijem selu na vinskoj mapi. Vršačko vinogorje ima bogatu ponudu vinskih kuća, podruma vrhunskog vina. Uz stari podrum „Vršačkih vinograda”, vredni posete su podrumi Krstov u Velikom Središtu, Porodični podrum Selekta, Gudurička priča, Podrum Nedin, Porodična vinarija Vinik, podrumi Vetrenjača, As, Vrekić, Cuculj, Todorov, Pinka, Pavlovića podrum, Vinska kuća Rab… Nećete pogrešiti ako posetite bilo koji od njih, jer iako su različiti jedno im je zajedničko: to su vrhunska vina proizvedena s ljubavlju i majstorstvom, čiji kvalitet garantuje viševekovna tradicija.


ISSN

•Vršac lepa varoš • Broj 1, septembar 2011. • Izdavač Turistička organizacija opštine Vršac • Glavni i odgovorni urednik Javor Rašajski • Urednik Dragana Rakić • Likovno oblikovanje Jelena Gorički • Urednik fotografije Jelena Gorički • Tehnički urednik Ivan Kalnak • Fotografije Jelena Gorički, Ivan Kalnak i Dragan Milićević • Prevod na engleski jezik Zlatko Tomić • Lektor Dragana Rakić • Tiraž 1.000 • Štampa Tuli Vršac •

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VRŠAC

Lepa Varoš Charming Little Town



Vrsac lepa varos