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Report Annual 2010 VRAI DEVELOPMENT @ Photograph Francois Razon

Following independence in the 1960s, Madagascar’s economy stagnated under oppressive political rule characterised by corruption and very little economic or public investment. Upon the election of President Ravalomanana in 2001-2, the island was recognised as one of the most impoverished countries, ranked bottom 30 of 177 nations in the Human Development Index (HDI) with more than 8/10 people living on less than $2/day. Since then the Government of Madagascar (GoM) has embarked on an ambitious Poverty Reduction Strategy, dubbed the “Madagascar Action Plan” (MAP), with the objective of reducing to 50% the proportion living below the poverty line in 2012. Realizing the MAP will be the important first stage in achieving the country’s long-term vision of a transition from subsistence to a market-oriented economy based on protection and sustainable use of natural resources. The MAP emphasizes the importance of health, education and the environment as prerequisites for development. It outlines key challenges to be urgently addressed within 8 sector-wide Commitments based on the Millennium Development Goals. During Ravalomanana’s two terms in office, concerted political will and extensive financial and technical support from donors and others enabled Madagascar to achieve some satisfactory progress towards international indicators human development. Economic reforms resulted in positive growth and the state made steps towards decentralisation of services. By 2006 the poverty rate had decreased, thanks to improvements in education and progress in national health programmes. In the 2008 HDR Madagascar was one of few low income countries considered “on track” to achieve the MDG targets for reduced infant mortality and universal primary education. Despite these gains the Report shows that, at the midpoint, Madagascar is not on course to reach other MDG targets due to chronic poverty and increasing problems related to climate change. Of particular concern are the lack of progress towards targets for poverty and hunger, access to water and sanitation and deforestation, along with the growing disparity between regions. In the southern regions of Anosy, Androy and AtsimoAndrefana, isolated from the rest of the country, poverty indicators are far below national averages. There is very limited transport and communication infrastructure or access to markets, with basic services poorly resourced and inaccessible to remote communities. Chronic poverty is perpetuated through this basic disempowerment, with communities unable to adopt improved livelihood strategies or influence service delivery. Natural resources are rural household’s primary asset and safety net, a dependence which is degrading the environment and undermining coping strategies. Madagascar is highly vulnerable to the effects of natural disasters, (droughts, cyclones and flooding) which routinely affect the food situation of hundreds of thousands of people. In recent years recurrent drought in the south has become steadily more severe, further impacting on livelihoods of the country’s most vulnerable people. The overarching challenge the country faces is in resource and capacity mobilisation to ensure effective, speedy implementation of development programmes in these excluded areas. Azafady, a small, UK-registered charity partnering with a Malagasy NGO, has been operating on the island since 1999. Azafady’s mission is to alleviate extreme poverty and protect the important forest environments in SE Madagascar by empowering the poorest, most marginalised people to improve health and wellbeing and establish sustainable livelihoods. The NGO intervenes at the level of the Fokontany (village) and household in Fort Dauphin Urban Commune and the surrounding Rural Communes in the Anosy Region which has approximately 600,000 inhabitants. Since 2006 the NGO’s strategy for working with the most vulnerable has aligned projects with communities bordering the New Protected Areas (NAP) of forest. These have been established as part of the GoM’s laudable attempt to conserve critical biodiversity and ecosystem services and are proving effective at reducing deforestation. They are also impacting negatively on @ Photograph Francois Razon

those who traditionally depend on these forests, increased people’s vulnerability to shocks. Azafady design and carry out community-based projects which are built around direct requests for support from local populations and align with the Community Health, Livelihoods, and Environment objectives of regional development programmes. Technical departments adopt an integrated, coordinated approach to the interrelated issues of income generation and food security, environmental degradation and health. Projects aim to break the cycle of chronic poverty for households by building local capacity for more sustainable self-reliance where services are lacking, and by working with partner organisations to strengthen the GoM’s decentralization process within the education, health, nutrition, forest management and rural development sectors. Projects improve local access to assets - education, training and inputs - enabling adoption of new, improved practices. Other activities aim to create a supporting environment allowing vulnerable people to access their rights and development opportunities. In 2001 Azafady began their award-winning volunteering programme, “Pioneer”, bringing individuals and specialists from across the globe to visit Madagascar and contribute to NGO projects on the ground. This has successfully increased NGO capacity whilst raising awareness of poverty in Madagascar. Over the last 4 years the effectiveness of Azafady’s projects has led the organisation to grow in size and reputation. The NGO is recognized as having close, trusted links with communities and an ability to build grassroots capacity in a number of critical sectors. Since implementation of the PRSP, Azafady;s work has included Improving access to water and sanitation: Waterborne disease is the second cause of infant mortality in Madagascar. An estimated 80% of Anosy Region’s rural population lacks access to safe water, (against a national average of 47%) and sanitation facilities are almost non-existent. Communities lack education about causes of disease. Since 2005 Azafady’s Project Salama has worked to reduce incidence of waterborne disease amongst 32,000 people in 19 vulnerable communities. The project integrates health education with essential infrastructure provision and training for community health workers, proven to sustain behaviour change and health benefits. It improves understanding of the causes of poor health and empowers communities to identify and realise their own solutions. Access to potable water is now 47% in Communes which previously had no access. Village pharmacies report a steady increase in families seeking treatment whilst some of Madagascar's most vulnerable people report fewer cases of disease compared to the situation 3 years ago. Improving access to education: Achieving the targets of the international ‘Education for All’ (EFA) initiative is critical for attaining other MDGs, given the direct impact of education on child and reproductive health and poverty. In many rural villages in the South, access remains negligible given the lack of infrastructure and difficulty of sourcing teachers for remote environments. In others there is massive discrepancy between primary enrollment and completion rate or secondary enrollment. The MAP aims to address these issues with strategies for construction, curriculum development and teacher training. Azafady’s Project Sekoly is working with the Education Authority to improve access to and quality of primary education for the most disadvantaged children in Anosy region. Up to four schools are built every year in villages for which the state sources teaching staff. This will enable over 18,000 children to attend primary school within the next decade. Schools are equipped with water and sanitation, contributing to MAP goals for health in these communities and improving conditions for teachers.

Training and enterprise development: The town of Fort Dauphin has exploded in size in recent years - a consequence of population growth and immigration from rural areas. With limited secondary or tertiary industry and lack of vocational training, it is no surprise that unemployment has risen steadily. Only a small proportion of the workforce in Fort Dauphin receives regular monetary wages, impacting negatively on the population and the regional economy. Women are particularly disadvantaged, many having had very little education and the vast majority working at home rather than in income generating activity. Azafady’s Project Lanirano has seen construction of a training centre and development of a vocational curriculum for women with little formal education, teaching skills which could be practiced to generate a regular, sustainable income. Complementary courses were held for young people – the rising unemployed - in English language and IT to aid their chances of benefiting from recent economic development (mining and tourism) in the town. The project was one of the first cash transfer programmes in the country, linking training in enterprise management to small grants for purchase of assets, enabling training graduates to develop their own businesses. The regular income has had knock on benefits to family nutrition, health and child education. Food insecurity and malnutrition: Food insecurity is a pressing problem in the SE, caused by a harsh climate, lack of access to agricultural inputs and isolation of communities from health services or nutritional advice. Madagascar has some of the highest levels of chronic and acute malnutrition in Southern Africa, especially in the South East which since 2005 has experienced three years of crop failure. UNICEF statistics estimated in 2007 that 40% of children were chronically malnourished and 13% suffered from acute malnutrition. Political commitment to the problem has been strong, complemented by concerted effort from donors and NGOs. The EC funded a large scale programme which funded Azafady, amongst others, to implement the government’s National Community Nutrition Programme in the 7 worst affected Communes in Anosy region. Project Votsotse is establishing locally-managed ‘proximate services’ in which community health volunteers are trained to regularly monitor the growth of children under 5 and educate mothers in essential actions that they can take to reduce malnutrition. The project promotes the nutritional support services for severely malnourished children available at government health posts. It has enabled early detection of acute malnutrition cases for referral, diagnosis and treatment. Conservation and rural livelihoods: For twenty years the country’s primary forests have been the focus of international conservation efforts on account of the threat posed to the extraordinary levels of biodiversity (with 80% of fauna and 90% of flora being found nowhere else on earth) and ecosystem services by the widely documented degradation of this habitat. Drivers of deforestation in the South include slash and burn agriculture for subsistence, non-timber products (firewood and charcoal) and timber logging for local construction. Madagascar’s biological wealth is considered by the GoM to be the most significant national asset for the country’s future development. Madagascar has been something of a testing ground for ‘new’ models of conservation, including devolution of management responsibility to villages through community committees (COBA). Following the GoM’s decision in 2003 to triple the area of protected terrestrial habitat from 1.7millon ha of traditional strictly protected areas to a Madagascar Protected Areas System (SAPM) incorporating an additional 3.8 million ha of ‘New Protected Areas’ (NAP), at various stages of implementation. However, whilst the NAPs include new categories of protection which tolerate more human uses than the strict old style reserves, the SAPM was set up with very little consultation with or recourse to communities for alternatives to slash-and-burn agriculture, production of charcoal, firewood and local timber collection essential for livelihoods. The SAPM effectively reduces access to what for some is the only safety net available during times of hardship. Highest rates of deforestation @ Photograph Francois Razon

nationally continue in the three southern regions where communities have no alternative. Since then various efforts have been coordinated in an effort to reduce negative impacts of conservation policy on communities. This has included establishment of production plantation sites and implementation of a community reforestation policy under which reforested land becomes locally managed for community needs. In 2007 Azafady began Project Volyhazo with communities bordering the Ambatoatsignana protected area in Anosy region, planting over 90 hectares with fast growing trees for community use. Azafady consulted local people regarding how protected areas limit livelihood opportunities and integrated training in alternative livelihood activities (fuel-efficient stoves and improved cultivation practices) into the project. This means that whilst the reforestation zones take time to mature the project brings immediate benefits to communities. Stoves reduce firewood consumption by 55-75% and free up women’s time for economic activities. Alternative crops are curbing slash-and-burn and improving local diet. This has increased local support for conservation: 82% people interviewed now recognize the importance of conservation for their community. The project is expanding to communities bordering other NAPs in the region and is sharing lessons through the SAPM committee. In the last 3 years, the poorest people have been made increasingly vulnerable by a vicious cycle of recurring natural hazards leading to decreasing food security, reduced resource access and increasing malnutrition and environmental degradation. In late 2008 the impact of several events in close succession, coming on top of these cumulative difficulties, meant the population had no time to recover from the losses of previous seasons. The harsh lean period characterizing life in the South was prolonged for the third time in five years through unusually severe drought, ravaging maize, sweet potato and cassava output. A run of cyclones on the eastern seaboard affected 114,000 people and disrupted agricultural production. At the same time a political crisis developed when demonstrations against the government led to the ousting of the President and installation of a Transitional Authority. This upheaval plus the international economic downturn were anticipated to have enormous repercussions for exports, tourism, construction, public finance and for the functioning of government, agricultural channels and industries. The 12 months since March 2008 saw prices for cereal and root crops rise to up to 400% of their value. In December 2008 Azafady voiced concern about the impact of drought with the Regional Nutrition Office (ORN). Young children weighed as part of Project Votsotse were critically malnourished and unable to gain weight due to the food shortages. The national early warning system confirmed 31 Communes in the Anosy, Androy and Atsimo Andrefana regions were in a state of food insecurity and an additional 23 Communes were in a ‘severe economic situation’, with households resorting to unsustainable coping strategies including distress sales of essential assets to feed their families. The situation was compounded by a lack of resource capacity in many of the Communal Health Centres, leading to non-functioning of 65% of the systems for Community Management of Severely Acutely Malnourished Children (CRENAS). In March 2009 a UNICEF study confirmed the rate of Global Acute Malnourishment (GAM) amongst children under 5 was 14.5% and 10.9% respectively in Anosy and Androy. Related concerns pertained to water and sanitation. An estimated 60,000 people had no access to potable water. Data collected from Communal Health Centres indicated a 200% increase in waterborne disease from 2008 to 2009. In April 2009 it was estimated that 2.5 million people across the country needed immediate aid. The UN Consolidated Appeals Process was launched to provide a rapid humanitarian response to these concurrent crises. Between April and July 73% of the $11,681,860 raised was destined for the Southern regions to support the estimated

276,000 people affected by drought. Activities have been implemented through government bodies, NGOs including Azafady, community organisations and private companies, focusing on nutritional support to malnourished children and families plus related agricultural, water and health interventions/ Almost 56% of the total fund was spent on food security and nutritional interventions in the 3 regions, providing lifesaving assistance to 116,000 people. Nutritional screening by trained community workers between April and June detected over 4000 Seriously Acutely Malnourished children were detected between April and June. UNICEF trained Communal Health Centre staff, extending coverage of the CRENAS support service to screen and treat acute malnutrition to all centres. Malnourished children received Ready Use Therapeutic Food (RUTF/Plumpy Nut) rations, with 1,200 MT of food aid distributed to the families of malnourished children and to 24,000 pregnant and lactating women (PLW). Azafady were responsible for coordinating child nutritional screening and food distribution across 15 of the worst affected Communes. 27% of the CAP fund was allocated to address the urgent water and health needs within the drought zone. By July this had included: water trucking and distribution of WASH kits to Communal Health Centres benefiting 99,000 people, rehabilitation of water tanks at 85 Centres and water points in 30 villages and provision of water treatment for 16,000 families. By August the FAO/WFP Crop Assessment Report noted that a good rice harvest in the country’s major producing regions and a Southern counter-season harvest reduced pressures somewhat on poor households. However the report emphasized that national level statistics concealed a cereal shortfall and precarious situation in much of the south. The counter-season harvest was 30-40% below average, insufficient to enable families, who have no reserves to fall back on, to meet basic needs during the lean season. The early warning system identified 44 Communes in the south likely to be classified as ‘foodinsecure’ in late 2009. In these regions there are an estimated 7000 cases of SAM children. The appeal was extended to October 2009 to focus on additional safety net activities for the very vulnerable plus recovery elements to support livelihood resilience, to safeguard gains and prevent a new nutritional crisis. This provided additional treatment for SAM children, distributed family food rations, provided 30,000 of the poorest households with assistance through Food for Work and replenishing the essential inputs (seeds, cuttings and tools) lost through poor harvest and fire sales. This should have helped to stabilize nutritional and health indicators in the region. However the situation for Madagascar’s poor continues to look bleak. At the time of writing the political crisis is deadlocked despite the best efforts of the African Union, South Africa Development Committee and international community to get Madagascar’s political leaders, with no release of the $600 million development aid frozen as a result. The interim government has managed to absorb this since April by freezing all but the most essential public expenditure. However the World Bank predicts the full negative impact will be felt in the next 6 months, when the erosion in tax revenues will kick in and when salaries of public servants have to be paid without recourse to external assistance. Worst hit will be those in the drought-affected south. Future humanitarian actions in the short-term are clearly vital, however these must not overshadow a continued long-term commitment to fulfilling the goals of the MAP or communities will loose capacity for self reliance. Despite the shadow of uncertainty accorded by the political tension, Azafady urge partners, donors and influential stakeholders to look to the following: • Unfreeze development aid, perhaps disbursed through other channels, so that communities are not punished further for events beyond their control.

• Integrate the National Action Plan for Adaptation and efforts for Disaster Risk Reduction into all key sectors of the MAP, so as to ensure development plans are simultaneously prepared for and adapt to the growing issue of climate change. • Build closer links between socio-economic development and environmental sectors, so that poverty reduction and conservation strategy are mutually reinforcing rather than antagonistic. • Further integrate local NGOs, which proved effective at implementing the humanitarian rapid response, into national development strategy and sources of funding. • Leverage additional resources to deal with particular challenges facing the poor in the South. • Build on the pilot projects elsewhere on the island to investigate ways in which REDD (Reduced Emissions for Deforestation and Degradation – a mechanism for compensating forested countries for curbing their C-emissions through avoided deforestation) can effectively and quickly reduce forest degradation and the most pressing vulnerabilities (food insecurity and water and sanitation) for communities in the South. @ Gabriel Smith Azafady 2009 @ Photograph Francois Razon

Introduction to the Project 

October 2009  Because  we  bring  children  to  life,  it  is  our  duty to carry them onto the right tracks so  they can blossom, make the right choices in  the  context  they  are  and  live  the  best  possible way. Education is key to achieving  this.  And  education  begins  from  birth,  we  would  even  say  before  then,  through  the  parents.  Indeed,  education  is  not  only  scholar.  In  fact  it  is  the  multitude  of  tools  we  present  the  child  with  in  order  to  maximize  his  chances  of  a  sound  and  healthy existence. 

1998). This  may  however  depend  on  the  existing  choices.  Article  25  specifies  that  ‘’motherhood  and  childhood  benefit  from  the right to special assistance. All children,  whether  born  within  or  outside  marriage,  benefit from the same social protection”. 

The  present‐day  World  is  a  fabric  of  challenges:  social,  economic,  environmental, local and global ones. These  naturally lead every parent to question the  favored  way  to  raise  their  offspring,  at  a  personal  level,  but  also  in  the  collective  sense.  Naturally,  a  fisherman  earning  less  than  a  Euro  a  day  will  not  make  the  same  decision  regarding  the  path  chosen  for  his  child  than  a  trader  in  a  developed  country  regarding  the  many  choices  presented  to  his. And so the array of possible paths for a  child varies even more. 

Later  in  1990,  the  Jomtien  Declaration  on  Education for All of the United Nations (UN)  declared  that  from  then  on,  each  country  had to consider education of the very young  child  (pre‐school)  as  integral  to  basic  education.  This  claim  is  further  supported  by  the  globally  established  belief  that  poverty  can  only  be  alleviated  through  education  (other  than  health  and  the  environment). The challenge henceforth lies  with nations, for them to mobilize funds in  order to develop this field.     Indeed, up until now, education of children  under‐six  years  of  age  has  not  been  a  governmental priority, and is only recent in  developed  countries.  Also,  the  conference  participants stressed the need to encourage  collaboration  between  the  non‐profit  sector  and  the  private  sector  (lucrative)  in  order  to  adopt  an  efficient  strategy  in  disadvantaged countries. 

In  1948,  the  Human  Rights  Declaration  stated  that  ‘’every  person  has  the  right  to  education…  aiming  at  a  complete  fulfillment  of  the  human  personality…  parents  are  entitled  and  have  the  right  to  chose  the  type  of  education  they  wish  to  give their children” (Art.26, HRD 1948‐  


It is  within  this  framework  that  the  approach  to  develop  the  concept  of  a 

ZAZACADEMY pre‐school center in  Fort  Dauphin  was  born  (zaza  means  children in Malagasy). The aim is to have an  establishment  that  functions  according  to  two  collaborative  legal  basis.  One  will  belong  to  the  non‐profit  realm,  allowing  fundraising to benefit the largest number of  disadvantaged children possible. The other  will belong to the private sector, enabling a  strong  and  durable  structure,  aiming  at  financial sustainability.    The  2007  World  Report  on  Education  for  All  (UN‐EFA)  indicates  that  only  14%  of  African  children  benefit  from  preschool  education  (including  nursery  school).  Although this statistic has double in the last  ten  years,  it  remains  dismal  and  concerns  essentially the wealthier families. 

  Today  however,  it  is  globally  recognised  that early childhood is the most important  stage  for  cerebral  development  (cognitive  and  psychomotor),  a  vital  and  seminal  period  for  future  apprenticeship.  In  addition,  UN  research  results  on  the  ‘’Education  for  All’’  campaign  demonstrate  that  investments  in  Education  and  Protection  of  the  early  stages  of  childhood  lead  to  strong  economic  yields,  and  even  more so for the poorest families. The report  underlines  that  early  pre‐school  education  is  an  efficient  tool  that  contributes  to  the  development  of  the  workforce  and  a  nation’s economy.  Madagascar  is  part  of  those  poorest  nations  where  governmental  will  for  early  childhood  education  is  embryonic.  Looking  after small children is generally undertaken  within the family or the close by community  

in a society where the social and economic  advantages of early and later education are  yet unknown or not well understood. 

Fort Dauphin (also called Tolagnaro – Anosy  region)  is  a  small  town  of  the  extreme  southeast  of  the  island,  counting  about  80 000  inhabitants  (close  by  villages  included).  Approximately  60%  are  children,  and  only  2  small  preschool  structures  (before  4  years  of  age)  are  functional.  One  is a kindergarten and the other a small day  nursery.  Both  the  quality  of  infrastructure  and  the  qualifications  level  of  staff  rate  poor,  as  do  the  contents  of  the  activities’  program  and  the  adaptation  to  the  local  context.  The  current  ZAZACADEMY project  aims at remedying the situation in order to  contribute  to  the  sound  development  of  the  region.  It  also  hopes  to  contribute  to  wider challenges set at a larger scale by UN  Member  States  (EFA)  in  the  spirit  of  ‘’Thinking globally, Acting locally” and thus  play a part in reaching Resolution 19 of the  UN Millennium Goals (UN, 2000).  Justification and general approach  The  ZAZACADEMY project  settles  itself  at  the  heart  of  Fort  Dauphin  socio‐ economic  development.  Results  from  an  initial  2007  market  study  show  a  marked  demand  for  pre‐school  structures,  that  is,  for children aged under five.   A  second  study  is  currently  underway  with  results  of  the  middle  and  higher  class  families  already  pointing  to  a  strong  interest  (see  summary  of  preliminary  results  below).  The  questionnaire  to  the  more  disadvantaged  families  has  had  to  be  simplified and is awaited.  2 @ Photograph Francois Razon

Wealthier families  are  generally  the  ones  who  have  easier  access  to  preschool  education  (structured  play),  whether  because  it  is  better  understood  or  because  it  may  be  pricy.  However,  the  current  preschool  project  wishes  for the most disadvantaged kids to benefit from  the  structure  and  this  is  why  it  will  function  on  two  channels  (an  NGO  and  an  Enterprise,  working in partnership).    The principle project initiator has been working  with  NGOs  and  Charities  for  over  15  years  (including  10  in  Madagascar).  For  the  last  five  years,  her  mere  observation  is  that  despite  all  the human and financial efforts that have been  donated  over  20  years,  to  the  environment,  health,  rural  development  sectors,  and  environmental  and  health  public  awareness,  etc…  results  are  not  striking.  Indeed,  most  programmes  are  enacted  over  too  short  a  period of time, often devoid of follow ups, and  often  with  people  who  already  have  their  adult  mind  set.  Furthermore,  these  programmes  generally work in parallel as opposed to hand in  hand  with  the  private  sector.  The  latter,  however, is the real locomotive of development.    In  addition,  let’s  underline  the  fact  that  any  change  in  behaviour  that  could  enable  the  poorest  to  improve  their  living  conditions  does  go  via  education  (health,  environment  and  structured education).    For  example,  in  the  1970s,  European  countries  invested into environmental education. Indeed,  the  global  recognition  that  man  was  an  integral  part  of  its  natural  surrounding  and  that  it  needed protection of the planet survival, lead to  the  big  worldwide  environment  lobby  movement, mainly in industrialized countries.      

In response,  southern  European  countries  invested  in  adult  education,  mid‐latitude  European nations invested half‐half in adult  and  children  education.  And  northern  European  nations  decided  to  place  their  bets on children education. Today, it is only  to  obvious  what  the  results  just  looking  at  environmental matters in Nordic countries!   With  these  facts  in  mind,  the  current 

ZAZACADEMY project aims for the  preschool  center  to  function  according  to  two hand in hand systems.   

One  side  will  be  driven  by  a  non‐profit  entity  working  in  partnership  with  several  non‐profit  organizations,  primarily  ‘Mahakanty  Zaza’  which  deals  with  improving living conditions of children aged  between 0 and 12, ‘Association Cielo Terra’  which  set  up  and  manages  the  only  orphanage  of  the  district,  and  ‘Ein  Welt’  which  provides  medical  and  psychological  help to handicapped children and adults.     This multi‐partnership will play a key role in  calling  for  funding  and  donations  so  that  the  most  disadvantaged  children  benefit  from the structure, in terms of activities but  also  support  to  entry  fees,  for  example.  It  aims  at  lightening  up  the  daily  routine  of  the neediest people, also offering advice to  pregnant  women,  underage  mothers  and  conveying  the  understanding  that  learning  is key to livelihood.     Through  a  structured,  fun  and  locally  adapted approach, essential environmental  and  health  and  hygiene  notions  are  to  be  communicated. 

3 @ Photograph Francois Razon

However, the  future  of  the  structure  cannot  solely  depend  upon  an  association,  financially  wise  in  particular.  This  is  why 


is set  up  as  an  enterprise, thus belonging to the private sector.  Through  that  side  of  the  establishment,  the  financial  viability  and  the  promise  of  proper  salaries for the trained staff will be ensured, as  will  all  the  equipment  and  its  renewal,  consumables,  maintenance,  insurances,  charges  and  so  on.  This  will  be  possible  praise  to  welcoming  children  aged  between  6  months  and 4 years, whose parents can pay monthly or  part‐time  entry  fees  (as  per  the  preliminary  market study), ensuring sustainability.   

ZAZACADEMY works in  partnership  with  ZAY !  a  private  sector  entity  that  has  set  up  the  only  outdoors  activity  center  for  children  of  Fort  Dauphin.  They  invest,  on  a  shared  and  equal  basis,  6  000  Euros  into  the  project of the preschool center, all their personal  savings in fact. Their initial investment covers:    • Administrative  costs  of  the  association  and  society and all rights to exercise  • The land rental (60 years renewable)  • The architect work fees (HEQ norms)  • The building permit fees  • The staff training fees (see training plan via the  Chamber of Commerce and Industry below)  • A radio show (22 sessions) for public awareness  on the importance of preschool education  • Safety  and  security  aspects  (in  collaboration  with SOS Intl. and the Rio Tinto Clinique)  • Official  opening  ceremony  of  the  Center  (with  the key authorities people)  • Material,  equipment,  furniture,  games  and  learning  tools  (for  a  functional  start  according  to the educational approach chosen and fitted  to the norm) 

The approach of childhood    The  document  entitled  ‘’Concept  Note’’  presents  the  approach  the  initiators  have  chosen.  What  is  to  retain  is  that  children  can  learn  through  structured  play  and  be  gently  encouraged  to  be  ready  for  fully  benefiting  from  their  forthcoming  social  and  scholar  life.  They  insert  various  methods  from  Montessori,  Loczi  and  Epstein, among others.    The building concept     Today,  it  is  internationally  recognised  that  the  space  used  to  welcome  children  strengthens  his  development  in  terms  of  the  physical  structure  itself,  shapes  and  colours,  light  and  numerous  other  factors.  Architects  and  psychologists  have  teamed  up  on  this  fact  in  order  to  become  precursors  in  the  field,  thus  offering  innovative  design  and  better  adapted  buildings.       Following  several  visits  of  already  existing  buildings,  including  schools,  the  project  initiators  quickly  came  to  the  conclusion  that  these  did  not  match  the  desired  approach.     This  is  why  they  decided  to  work  with  a  local  architect  on  designing  the  adequate  structure  to  build,  fitting  children  needs,  environmental  quality  standards,  international  norms  and  including  some  elements of local style.       

An initial sketch of the building  4 @ Photograph Francois Razon

Preliminary results of the Market Study    The profile of parents who so far have returned the questionnaire is that of the wealthier families.  About a half is Malagasy, a quarter is foreigners, and another quarter is Indian. This questionnaire  was aimed at parents who already have older children in the French school. The questionnaire in  Malagasy is slightly different and responses are awaited. It is to be noted that people who are not  interested  probably  did  not  give  the  questionnaire  back  (about  20  weren’t  returned).  See  results  below.   

Projet d’un Centre d’Accueil pour enfants La réalisation du projet serait prévue pour 2010  Merci de répondre à notre questionnaire – Réponses 48  Concept :  un  centre  ludique  trilingue  (anglais,  français,  malgache)  où  nos  bébés  et  enfants  pourraient  découvrir  et  développer leurs sens, leur confiance en eux et le respect de l’entourage social et naturel, avant d’intégrer la vie scolaire.  Un  accueil  à  la  carte  selon  les  besoins  des  parents.  Un  accueil  maman‐bébé  pour  les  petits  (dès  2  mois).  Des  activités  parascolaires  sportives/créatives  et  ateliers  scientifiques  pour  la  sortie  des  écoles  et  les  après‐midi  libres.  Accueil  impromptu possible. Sorties Nature certains week‐ends et pendant les vacances. Encadrement général par une diplômée de  la psychologie développementale de l’enfant et personnel formé à la gestion de la petite enfance.   « Assurer à votre enfant un bon départ dans la vie »    7h45‐12h / 14h‐18h lu, ma, jeu    7h45‐12h30 / 14h‐18h me, ve    8h30‐11h30 le samedi   Maman‐bébé dès 2 mois. Accueil journalier pour les 6 mois à 4 ans. Accueil parascolaire jusqu’à 11 ans.    1. Pour ceux qui ont ou auront des enfants entre 2 mois et 4 ans, seriez vous intéressé à inscrire votre bébé et/ou  votre enfant dans ce centre ?  oui  /  non 100%  Age de vos enfants dans un an :   moins d’un an : 19 ‐ entre 1 et 4 : 21 ‐ plus de 4 : 8    2. Quels sont les jours et les tranches horaires qui vous intéressent le plus ? (tiquer les cases)      lundi  mardi  mercredi  Jeudi  Vendredi  Samedi  Matin  14+21  12+21  10+21  17+21  14+21  0+12+7  Après midi  6+20  8+21  9+17+8  16+21  9+17+7    Remarques : …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………  3. Pour ceux qui ont des enfants plus grands, scolarisés, seriez vous intéressé :  ‐ par les activités parascolaires   oui / non 8  ‐ par les sorties nature week‐end  oui / non 7  ‐ par les sorties nature vacances  oui / non 5  Remarques : 18 familles d’enfants de plus de 4 ans et n’ayant pas répondu au questionnaire se disent intéressés  par les activités parascolaires et sorties natures en semaine ou le week‐end    4. Quel prix seriez‐vous prêt à payer (Ariary) ? pourcentages arrondis  ‐ Au mois :  50% 120 000ar à 200 000ar  ‐ A la journée :     50% entre 5000 et 10 000 ar  ‐ A la semaine : 50% moyenne de 35 000ar  ‐ A la demi‐journée :   ……………………………..  ‐ pour une sortie nature : entre 10 000ar et 30 000ar  ‐ Pour 2 heures :   ……………………………..        5. A Quelle(s) phrase(s) vous identifiez vous ? – pourcentages arrondis  ˆ Pouvoir  confier  mon  enfant  dans  un  cadre  propre  et  sécurisé,  sachant  que  l’enfant  sera  stimulé  dans  son  développement et entre de bonnes mains; 80%  ˆ Introduire mon enfant à la vie sociale sachant qu’il sera doucement amené à pouvoir intégrer la vie scolaire par la  suite ; 60%  ˆ Rien de scolaire et tout apprendre par le jeu ; 50%  ˆ Passer  un  moment  avec  mon  bébé  dans  un  cadre  qui  permet  l’éveil  de  mon  petit  et  le  développement  de  la  relation mère/enfant ; 40%  ˆ Occuper mon enfant par des activités parascolaires intéressantes / éducatives lorsqu’il n’y a pas école ; 80%  ˆ Pouvoir m’accorder parfois un peu de temps sachant que mon enfant s’amuse ; 65%  ˆ Me permettre de travailler sachant que la nounou pourra amener mon petit au centre à n’importe quel moment.  70%  Merci de nous faire part de toute autre remarque au dos de cette feuille…   


Staff training and social impact    The  training  program  will  be  delivered  via  the  Chamber  of  Commerce  and  Industry  of  Fort  Dauphin  over  8  months.  The  diploma  is  to  be  validated  by  the  Ministry  of  Education  and  is  being  supported  by  existing  foreign  partners.  The  Duale  approach  is  being  adopted  where  20%  is  theory  and  80%  is  practice.  Trainers  flown  in  from  Europe  are  due  to  start  teaching  in  December/January.  Furthermore,  trainers  from  the  most  competent  structure  in  the  country have offered to help. Already 20 women  are ready to commence.     Employing  locally  is  dear  to  the  project  as  unemployment  is  high  in  the  region.  It  also  means  that  the  social  impact  of  the  present  project will enable not only to provide jobs for a  number of women, but also to provide a quality  of day care where mothers who want to go back  to work can entrust to look after their offspring.    In  the  longer  term,  children  who  will  have  benefited from the structure are likely to better  integrate at school. Several studies show better  school results and a larger percentage of higher  education  enrollments  for  those  children  who  have undergone pre‐school structured play.  

Budget     In  order  to  make  this  project  happen,  the  initial  phase  is  to  build  the  structure  while  staff is being trained.     The training costs are being covered by the  project  initiators,  costing  about  500  Euros  per  person.  Flights  will  however  be  taken  care of by partners.     All the equipment, material, games, among  other  sundries,  are  also  covered  by  the  project  initiators.  These  have  been  evaluated  at  about  10 000  Euros  and  donations  have  been  made,  including  by  Kentz,  Colas,  Mandena  Joint  Venture/Rio  Tinto and the Kaleta Group.      The  principal  costs  concern  the  building.  Several  preliminary  quotes  have  been  completed  with  a  total  price  ranging  from  30 000  to  40 000  Euros  including  building  material and the entrepreneur’s fees.    The  project  initiators  are  thus  looking  for  funding  in  order  to  build  the  pre‐school  center, and make the project happen.       



6 @ Photograph Francois Razon


UN Agencies: Investing in development is not only the moral choice, it is also in everyone’s self-interest Time for a new kind of multilateralism: We cannot address the challenges of the 21st Century with 20th Century tools Doha, 29 November 2008 — The United Nations Development Group (UNDG) calls on all members of the international community to honour their commitments and invest more in sustainable human development and the Millennium Development Goals. In a statement issued on the eve of the Follow-up International Conference on Financing for Development to Review the Implementation of the Monterrey Consensus, the UNDG highlights the need to identify concrete ways in which the current multilateral system can be reformed to better respond to the unprecedented challenges posed by the global economic crisis. The Doha Conference comes at a difficult time for the global economy. The world is confronted by a host of multidimensional and interconnected challenges: a global economic and financial crisis and the effects of the continuing volatility of food and fuel commodities, as well as the ongoing challenge of climate change. “From some angles, the situation looks almost insurmountable. But the reality is that while we may face an unavoidable immediate global downturn, it is the decisions we make as policy makers at national and international levels that will determine how deep and long the present recession will be,” said Kemal Derviş, Chair of the UNDG. “We have in our hands the keys that can open up the doors to a future of sustainable and equitable growth.” What we need to do Even though this conference comes at a difficult time for the global economy, the UNDG argues that funding for development is not only a matter of resources, but also of political will. The world spends almost US$1.3 trillion a year on armaments. Many more trillions are being mobilized for the financial crisis. The US$140 billion already pledged for official development assistance by 2010 is therefore clearly affordable. The UNDG says that the increase in aid must be matched with increases in quality and effectiveness. Most notably, we must deliver aid more predictably and transparently, streamline conditionality, and make more strategic use of aid to complement growing new sources of development finance. Extraordinary times require extraordinary actions, the UNDG asserts. The statement appeals to world leaders to find solutions that meet immediate needs and long-term development goals. @ Photograph Francois Razon

Now, the UNDG insists, is not the time to allow the global fight against poverty, hunger and disease to fall by the wayside. The statement affirms that governments must renew their pledge to spend 0.7 percent of their GNI to Official Development Assistance (ODA). Increasing levels of human development is part and parcel of the process of reviving economic demand and shoring up social stability, as well as being a humanitarian imperative. Otherwise, many countries will see eight years of relative gains, especially in the achievement of halving extreme poverty and hunger by 2015, eroded and—ultimately—reversed. As the costs of dealing with this most recent crisis mount, developing countries could see the current dismal trio of limited access to financing, volatile commodity prices and a diminishing market for exports made worse by shrunken ODA flows. The statement also stresses that developing countries need to mobilize more domestic resources and implement the policies needed to tackle poverty and promote growth and development. Specifically, more resources need to be invested in sustainable human development through concurrent investments in education, nutrition, health, decent work, human capacity, rights and opportunities, social protection, food assistance, agriculture, and infrastructure. There is, the UNDG argues, a unique opportunity to make the global economic recovery sustainable. Strengthened public investment programmes are needed to boost economic demand and employment. The fiscal stimulus required to support global economic growth in response to the financial crisis gives an unprecedented opportunity to invest in new technologies, green jobs and our global green economy. Investments made now in the mitigation of and adaptation to the effects of climate change may provide an opportunity to both boost demand in the short-run and contribute to inclusive economic growth, access to energy and poverty reduction in the long-run. A reformed, stronger and more inclusive multilateralism, affirms the UNDG, is the only option if we are to find workable and fair solutions. We cannot address the challenges of the 21st century with the tools of the 20th century, the UNDG contends. The new structure should recognise the vulnerability of poor countries to the negative impact of interconnected crises: financial instability, climate change, volatile prices for food and energy, and unacceptable levels of hunger, poverty and inequality. And in developing policy responses decision-makers should never forget that the poor and most vulnerable had no hand in precipitating the crisis or the climate challenges we now face. Only a global, equitable, inclusive and stronger multilateral system of international cooperation can generate the kind of investment, collaboration, synergies and innovation needed to simultaneously tackle global poverty, hunger, environmental sustainability, human development and climate change. The UN Development Group stands ready to assist The United Nations has a key role to play in this renewed multilateralism. With its inclusive membership, intergovernmental processes, leadership in peacekeeping, rapid engagement in post-crisis countries, and its ability to learn from the experience of the more than 160 countries UN Development Operations Coordination Office • One UN Plaza, DC1-1600, New York, NY 10017 USA Telephone: (212) 906 5500 • Fax: (212) 906 3609

2 @ Photograph Francois Razon

where it has a presence on the ground, the UN system can play a critical role in transforming development finance into development results. Bringing together the various agencies, funds and programmes of the UN development system, the UN Development Group is a reliable partner with a unique depth of capacity and breadth of voice. It stands ready to strengthen its efforts to assist countries in responding to the current global crises with sustainable solutions to development challenges.

For more information please contact Marco Baumann: UN Development Operations Coordination Office, 1-917-445-2803,

Note to Editors 

The United Nations development system is a neutral partner for developing countries. Its collective presence is global, with teams in 136 countries and programmes in 160 countries. It delivers over $16 billion worth of activities that support development every year and is guided by national priorities within a globally-agreed normative framework of human rights and development goals.

The UN development system helps countries to access sources of development finance, provides policy and technical advice, and strengthens national capacities to respond to existing and emerging development challenges. It plays a crucial role as part of a broader global framework to achieve effective financing for development and attain sustainable and equitable development outcomes.

The UN Development Group unites 33 UN funds, programmes, agencies, offices and departments, and five observers to deliver more effective support to developing countries. The Secretary-General created the group in 1997 as a mechanism to strengthen the UN system and coordinate its operational activities for development at the country level. The UNDG creates common policies and mechanisms to help its members analyse country issues, formulate strategies, implement programmes, monitor results, and advocate for change. This creates synergies, efficiencies, and economies of scale that result in better development assistance.

UNDG members include: ECA, ECE, ECLAC, ESCAP, ESCWA, FAO, IFAD, ILO, ITU, OHCHR, OSAA, SRSGCAC, UN DESA, UN DPI, UNAIDS, UNCTAD, UNDP, UNEP, UNESCO, UNFPA, UN-HABITAT, UNHCR, UNICEF, UNIDO, UNIFEM, UNODC, UNOHRLLS, UNOPS, UNWTO, WFP, WHO, WMO, the World Bank (observer), UNFIP (observer), OCHA (observer), the Office of the Spokesperson for the Secretary-General (observer), and the Office of the Deputy Secretary-General (observer).

For more information on the UNDG, visit:

UN Development Operations Coordination Office • One UN Plaza, DC1-1600, New York, NY 10017 USA Telephone: (212) 906 5500 • Fax: (212) 906 3609


VRAI REPORT 2010 Madagascar  
VRAI REPORT 2010 Madagascar  

Report of the Project with partners in Madagscar