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Professor: Lance Jay Brown Thesis Fall 2012-Sring 2013


EARTHRISE


OVERVIEW

- Project Summary & Original Project Proposal - Evolution of the Moon & The Phases of the Moon - Information About Missions & Distances - Gravity, Day & Night - Safety Concerns & Strategies, Health Mental & Physical - Site Location - Site Information - Landing Choices - Cartography - Geology & Close Up Look at Site

CASE STUDIES

living In Space? - The Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) - IInflatable/Expandable Habitats Extreme Climate Architecture - Eso Hotel on Cerro Paranal - New Monte Rosa Hut in the High Alps - Poseidon Underwater Hotel Fiji

SCHEMES

- Program - Dome - Partial Subterranean - Inflatable & Modular

DESIGN

- Fiction vs. Reality - Oxygen & Water - Pelimenary Drawings - Partial Schedual, Materials - Sustainable Systems, Envelope - Program Massing, Structure - Wall/Elevations

FINAL DESIGN

- Sections,Renderings,Axonometric,Plans

T A B L E O F C O N T E N T


P R O J E C T S U M M A R Y

This project is an exploration into design of a self-sustaining enviorment on the surface of the moon. The site is located on the northern part of the rim of Copernicus Crater. The site was chosen due to the richness of its varying geology and high concentration of minable materials which can be used in construction. Unique conditions of space such as no oxygen or any atmoshpere, high radiation, large temperature change, and little to no gravity have a strong direct influnce on the project. For in hazardous areas such as this the design of an enviorment for human habitation has to address the issue of shelter first.


FRONTIERS

Humanity has always had frontiers which lead it to dream explore. From following heard of animals thousands of miles in the earliest periods to lands never before touch or seen by humans, to conquest of fabled lands of fortunes just like alexander the great, to crossing oceans in search of unknown lands as Marco polo or Christopher Columbus. There have always been those mysterious frontiers which drove us to grow, strive, and overcome ourselves as to uncover the truth. Well we have finally reached a turning point in our history where before us is the unfathomable frontier of space which we can simply not ignore due to our imbedded mind set to strive find understanding of the unknown.

CURRENT STATE OF AFFAIRS

Government funding for NASA is estimated to be less than 0.1% of the total budget and this is the quite disturbing as it clearly shows how little the United States cares about research and development that isn’t part of the military. But space exploration has been on the rise in the recent years and quite unsurprisingly (relative to history) it has immerged strongly in the private sector with companies like Virgin Galactic. Virgin Galactic has developed its own spacecraft’s to take interested customers out into outer earth orbit for $200,000 dollars a ticket. Now for comparison the first trans-Atlantic flights cost about $200,000 dollars as well (relative to the worth of money then). Virgin Atlantic has even built the first commercial space terminal in the world ‘Spaceport America’ by Foster + Partners in New Mexico, USA . There are many other private companies doing research into space exploration and so even if it’s not being led by government funding it is definitely something that will only grow and expand.

PROJECT GOALS & OBJECTIVES

The next logical step beyond space flight is space colonization and what better place to start as with our closest space neighbor the moon. This is something that has been giving thought for years in NASA and many other companies. But I honestly feel that the private sector has a better chance of building a facility on the moon. That facility being under private management would most likely be a mixture of hotel, casino, and research buildings. My objective is to design that lunar facility.

GOALS

- Study previous proposals for space facilities and human life in space. - Learn about the possibilities of materials and design in an environment with no wind loads as gravity that is 1/6th that of earths. - Research as develop methods that can be used to transport as build a facility on the moon. - Create a self-sustaining environment which can survive as thrive without contact with earth. - Design safety systems that could prevent loss of life due to possible accidents. - Develop an immersive architecture that would connect its occupants to other space and offer experiences that would simply be impossible on earth. - Define Future opportunities for the facility.

P R O P O S A L


M O O N S E V O L U T I O N

MOON FORMATION

SOUTH POLE-AITKEN BASIN

COOLING PERIOD

END OF COOLING PERIOD

BASIN FORMATION/HEAVY BOMBARDMENT

INTERMEDIATE CRATERING

SOURCE: NASA’s Evolution of the Moon

FORMATION OF RAY CRATERS

MARE VOLCANISM

TODAY’S MOON

LINK: http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/vis/a010000/a010900/a010930/


T H E M O O N S

The Moon’s Endless Dance As the Earth and Moon orbit the sun together, the pattern of day and night on the lunar surface constantly changes. we refer to the precentage of illumination on the visible face of the moon at the moon’s phases. There are 8 major named pahses.

Phase Locked

The Moon always shows Earth the same side of itself, this is due to the Moon rotating at the same speed around the Earth as it rotates around its own axis. This is a “phase lock” and it occured due to Earths and Moons gravities acting on each other similarly to friction. With enough time the same will occur to Earth in respect to the Moon. LINK: http://www.moonconnection.com/moon_phases.phtml

P H A S E S


F A C T S A S D A T A


KNOWN FACTS ABOUT THE MOON Adjective Orbital Characteristics Perigee Apogee Semi-major axis Eccentricity Orbital period Synodic period Average orbital speed Inclination Longitude of ascending node Argument of perigee Satellite of Physical Characteristics Mean radius Equatorial radius Polar radius Flattening Circumference Surface area Volume Mass Mean density Equatorial surface gravity Escape velocity Sidereal rotation period Equatorial rotation velocity Axial tilt Albedo Surface temp. equator 85°N Apparent magnitude Angular diameter Atmosphere Surface pressure Composition

lunar, selenic 362,570 km (0.0024 AU) 405,410 km (0.0027 AU) 384,399 km (0.00257 AU) 0.0549 27.321582 d (27 d 7 h 43.1 min) 29.530589 d (29 d 12 h 44 min 2.9 s) 1.022 km/s 5.145° to the ecliptic (between 18.29° and 28.58° to Earth’s equator) regressing by one revolution in 18.6 years progressing by one revolution in 8.85 years Earth 1,737.10 km (0.273 Earths) 1,738.14 km (0.273 Earths) 1,735.97 km (0.273 Earths) 0.00125 10,921 km (equatorial) 37,930,000 km2 (0.074 Earths) 2.1958 × 1010 km3 (0.020 Earths) 7.3477 × 1022 kg (0.0123 Earths) 3.3464 g/cm3 1.622 m/s2 (0.165 4 g) 2.38 km/s 27.321582 d (synchronous) 4.627 m/s 1.5424° (to ecliptic) 6.687° (to orbit plane) 0.136 min mean max 100 K 220 K 390 K 70 K 130 K 230 K −2.5 to −12.9 −12.74 (mean full moon) 29.3 to 34.1 arcminutes 10−7 Pa (day) 10−10 Pa (night) Ar, He, Na, K, H, Rn

F A C T S A S D A T A


D I S T A N C E S


D I S T A N C E S

LINK: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/82/Orbitalaltitudes.jpg


D E S I G N F A C T O R S

Radiation Radiation is not something we think about as naturally within earth’s environment. But in reality it is heavily abundant in our environment and especial in space. The main source of it is the sun and it staying under it to long doesn’t come with much bigger risks then a sun burn on earth but that is due to the earth’s protective atmosphere which filters out most of the harmful parts of radiation. In space and on the moon there is no protective atmosphere, meaning even short exposure can come with serious health risks. Issues - Major Health Risk since particle radiation in space goes right through the human body and can destroy strands of DNA, the software of life that resides inside every cell nucleus. Damaged cells can lose the ability to function properly and in worst cases could become cancerous. Shielding from radiation is among the most crucial factors on the facilities design. Benefit - Direct sun exposure without an atmosphere to weaken the sun rays means that solar energy becomes a much more powerful source of energy than it could ever be on earth. Possible shielding forms 1) Water – a layer about 2 feet thick around the exterior of the buildings could act as a good shield but would be quite difficult to implement as all the water would have to be delivered from earth. 2) Electromagnetic shielding – This type of shielding is still under research but theoretically possible. Machines would be places around the outside of the facilities and they would generate electromagnetic waves which would disrupt the radiation before it even reaches the outside surfaces of the buildings. 3) Digging in – This method works in the way that the buildings would be dug in like bunkers underneath the moon surface and the mass of the moon rock would stop most of the radiation from reaching the living facilities. This method is not very exact because space radiation changes in intensity and might still be able to penetrate all the way down to the living spaces if another type of protection method isn’t utilizes as well. 4) High-Tech Materials – New materials such as graphite Nano fiber are extremely strong and light. These they of materials would be relatively easy to transport to the moon and use as building materials, but most importantly they can be enriched with things like trapped hydrogen which would act as a very good form of shielding against space radiation. There are issues such as high cost of production and figuring out how to produce large quantities of these new materials but it is a possibility.


Night & Day The Lunar Days and Nights last 13 days 15 hours 52 minutes. A full day night cycle is 27 days 7 hours 44 minutes. Issues - The long lunar nights are an issue if solar energy is used as a main source of power, since storing enough power to over the day cycle to support the facility during the night would be quite difficult to accomplish. - During the night on the moon it is totally pitch black, only stars in the sky as light reflected of earth will provide minor lighting. Benefits - During the night radiation from the sun is mostly blocked by the mass of the moon. This means that if the facility is only occupied during the night radiation shielding (which is among the most complex and difficult factors to design for in space) can simply be forgone or at the very least simplified. Temperature The temperature on the moon varies greatly between the day night cycle and on the location on the moon. During the day the temperature can reach as high as 120 Celsius and during the night the surface can cool to around -150 Celsius. The temperature can reach even lower extremes in permanently shaded areas such as basins at the poles which are usually around -230 Celsius. Issues - Materials will expand and contract quite a significant amount with such high temperature changes. Benefit - During the day the high temperature can be used as an energy source. One possibility is boiling water and using the steam power turbines. Gravity “The gravity is the first thing which you don’t think” Albert Einstein Lunar Gravity is 1/6 earth gravity. A 200 lbs. person would weigh only 33.33 lbs. on the moon. Issues - Due to the low gravity long exposure can come with health rises such as weakening of bones and loss of muscle mass. Exercise becomes a necessity during prolonged stays. - Human “super strength” becomes a important design factor. Benefits - Since humans muscles are accustomed to earth gravity which is 6 times that of moon gravity every person will experience a superman effect. Jumping 6 times that of what one can on earth, lifting strength is also 6 times that of on earth. - The low gravity means hand railing can be forgone at certain heights since falling 10 feet on the moon will be like falling only 1.66 feet on earth.

D E S I G N F A C T O R S


E N E R G Y O P T I O N S

Design limitations Due to the moons 1/6th earth gravity and complete absence of wind the facilities architectural limitations expand. Cross-bracing can be forgone completely as the facility will be mainly responding to gravity. At the same time due to the much lower gravity elements such as beams and columns become much smaller while spanning further. Energy Energy generation methods would be a large part of a moon facility for without energy a human environment simply cannot exist on the moon. Possible sources 1) Solar power which would have to come from satellites orbiting the moon. Because of the long nights solar panels on the moon surface would not be able to provide the power needed to the facility during the 2 weeks of darkness. Even with batteries that would charge during the 2 weeks of day light it wouldn’t be enough. Beaming energy down to the surface of the moon from satellites which can theoretically collect it even during the night periods is a possibility. 2) Thorium Nuclear Reactor is the more probable solution to the problem. Thorium is widely available on the moon and earth. It can be used in nuclear reactors to generate the energy needed and it doesn’t require water to cool it like a regular nuclear reactor does (due to the nature of thorium). This means the reactor is very small, light, and generates the power needed. This makes the thorium nuclear reactor a perfect solution to the power issue on the moon

Solar Power Satellite


E N E R G Y O P T I O N S


S I T E L O C A T I O N


Location Crater Copernicus

S I T E Drawing of a dome covered environment with in Copernicus Crater

To the north of this location is a mountain range of peaks and plains. Past the mountain range are the almost uninturupted as leveled basiltic plains called the lunar mare (dark gray regionst in the images) which were formed by ancient volcanic eruptions. The region south of the location is rougher. Lastly to the east is located a well known crater called copernicus with a diameter of 57.80 miles and a depth of 2.36 miles (it can be seen from earth with a pair of binoculars).

L O C A T I O N


S I T E I N F O R M A T I O N

COPERNICUS CRATER Type: Crater Geological period: Copernician (From -1.1 billions years to present days) Size: Dimension: 95.0x95.0Km / 56.0x56.0Mi Height: 3760.0’ / 11400.0ft Height/Wide ratio: 0.0404 Description: Young and isolated formation with hexagonal form. Bright rays all around. Very steep slopes dominant Mare Insularum of 900 m tormented and supporting Fauth to the South and Gay-Lussac to the North. Floor flatter to the North that to the South. Three central mountains (1200 m). Hills and ruins in the arena. Observation: Interest : Exceptional formation Observation period: 2 days after First Quarter or 1 day after Last Quarter Minimal Instrument: 50 mm refractor Position: Longitude: 20.0° West Latitude: 9.7° North Quadrant: North-West Area: Copernic crater region Atlas: Rukl map: 31 Copernicus Viscardy page: 294 Hatfield map: 5 e4 Westfall Atlas: 018C 024C 029C 191C 201C Charles Wood article: ST02/01 MM15 MM47L100/005

Lunar Orbiter: IV-114-M IV-121-H1 IV-121-H2 IV-126-H2 IV-126-M IV-133-M IV-138-M Name Origine: Detailed Name: Nicolas Copernic 16 th century polish Astronomer born in Poland Born at: Torun in 1473 Dead at: Frauenburg in 1543 Important Facts: Canon of Frauenburg in 1479. Doctor of the university of Ferrare in 1503. Author of the ‘De revolutionibus orbium coelestium ‘ in 1543 presenting the heliocentric system in which the Earth and planets turn around the Sun. Name Author: Riccioli (1651) Name by Langrenus: Philippi IV Name by Hevelius: Insula Sicilia + Mons Aetna Name by Riccioli: Copernicus


S I T E I N F O R M A T I O N


L A N D I N G C H O I C E


L A N D I N G C H O I C E


C A R T O G R A P H Y


C A R T O G R A P H Y Copernicus Crater Slopes Map


C A R T O G R A P H Y


C A R T O G R A P H Y Copernicus Crater Landing Suitability Map


G E O L O G I C A L O V E R L A Y


G E O L O G I C A L O V E R L A Y


S I T E C L O S E U P


S I T E C L O S E U P


S I T E C L O S E U P


S I T E C L O S E U P


The Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU)

C A S E S T U D I E S

The Habitation Systems Project is a unique project from a multi-center team of NASA architects, scientists and engineers, working together to develop sustainable living quarters, workspaces, and laboratories for next-generation space missions. The knowledge gained from low-Earth orbit projects, such as the International Space Station, and Earth-based analog research from the Desert Research and Technologies Studies (Desert RATS) field test is being used in this project to find out what is required to expand human presence to more formidable environments, like an asteroid, Lagrange points, the moon or Mars. This Habitation system is even capable of self assembly.


Inflatable/Expandable Habitats Currently the main limiting factor when it comes to space architecture Is weight. Today it costs around $10,000 dollars to send only one pound of material out into space. Inflatable and expandable designs are centered around minimizing the weight and transportation size of the habitats. Once deliverer to the site the inflatable habitats also have the advantage of quick set up since all that needs to be done is for the habitats to be inflated which can even be done using what’s available in the environment such as lunar regolith. This would also give the habitats a solid construction without the need to bring extra weight along.

C A S E S T U D I E S


ESO Hotel On Cerro Paranal in Chile

C A S E S T U D I E S

The ESO Hotel is located in a extreme climatic environment where intense sunlight, dryness, and great fluctuations in temperature are all present. The barren surroundings can be compared to the environment one would expect to find on mars. It’s location and program made it a perfect candidate for further study.

ance section through entrance

ground floor level -2

ESO, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, operates the so-called Very Large Telescope at an altitude of 2600m in the Atacama desert. Scientists and technicians, who work here in extreme conditions, require accommodation which enables the required regeneration between tiring work shifts and which, in terms of an “oasis”, offers the necessary amenities.

Client

ESO European Southern Observatory, Munich

Completion

2002

GFA I Volume

12.000m2 I 40.000m3

Work phases

2-6

Total costs (KG 200-700 gross)

11,0 Mio. Euro

Awards

2005 Cityscape Architectural Review Awards 2004 Leaf-Awards, categories „New Build”+ „Overall”

Auer+Weber+Assoziierte

Stuttgart I Munich, Germany


ESO Hotel on Cerro Paranal - Chile

C A S E S T U D I E S Auer+Weber+Assoziierte

Stuttgart I Munich, Germany


New Monte Rosa Hut In The High Alps

C A S E S T U D I E S

The Monte Rosa Hut is a mountain hut located near Zermatt at the foot of Monte Rosa (15,203 feet) at an altitude of 9,170 feet. This buildings geographic surrounding are similar to those that one would expect to see an the rim of the Copernicus crater. The way it sits on the rocks and deals with the extreme temperatures was of great importance to understand.


Poseidon Underwater Hotel Fiji Poseidon Undersea Resorts was a proposed chain of underwater five-star resorts that was first slated to open by September 2008. The first was to be located on a private island in Fiji. The project was to be the world’s first permanent one-atmosphere seafloor structure. It has not been built but the compartmentalized design and the environmental conditions related closely to the nature of this project. The main features of this design were large shared public spaces, and compartmentalized unites designed around giving the best views. A special coating was to be used on the glass to make in impossible to look into a unit from the outside hence protect the privacy of the guests.

C A S E S T U D I E S


Programs Nature Due to the lack of a real precedent for this project the program was work on/developed just as every other aspect of the project. Hotels, Cruise Ships, and the International Space Station were looked at. This represents the Kickoff program.

Productive Nonproductive Guest-Room Space Productive Nonproductive 25,500 (T) (each 250 sq ft) 102 Rooms (including both, closet and vestibule) (+ 40% of above) 10,200 (T) Auxiliary Space (corridors, stairs, elevators, maid’s 1,100 (G)closet, walls, and partitions) 600 (G) 200 (G)General Service Space 150 (G) 140 (G) Manager’s Office 100 (G) 100 (G) Secretary’s Office 100 (G) 150 (G) Accounting Office 120 (G) 140 (G) Sales and Reservations Office 40 (G) 40 (G) Printing Room 350 (B) Linen Room 700 (B) Laundry 180 (B) 360 (B) Men’s Toilet and Locker Room 100 (B) 360 (B) Women’s Toilet and Locker Room 400 (B) Maintenance Shops 250 (B) Furniture Storage 2,400 (G) (each 800 sq ft) 250 (B) Records Storeroom 600 (B) (each 200 sq ft) 250 (B) General Storeroom 600 (B) Boiler Room 150 (B) Water Heater Tank Space 1,500 (G) (90 seats) 200 (B) Fuel Storage 1,100 (G) 100 (B) Transformer Vault 200 (G) 400 (B) Refrigeration Compressor Room 800 (G) (50 seats) 400 (B) Fan Rooms, Ventilation Equipment 750 (G) 750 (G) (250 + 500 sq ft) (B) Basement 1,400 (B) (G) Ground Floor 450 (B) (T) Typical Floor 140 (B) 350 (B) 220 (B) Total Productive Area 33,980 sq ft 400 (G) Listed Nonproductive Area 21,500 sq ft 180 (B) (Add for Basement Corridors, Walls, Stairways, and Elevators 2,500 sq ft) 300 (B) (Add for Ground Floor Stairways and Elevators 500 sq ft) 180 (G) Total Nonproductive area 24,500 sq ft 80 (G)

HOTEL PROGRAM OF A TYPICAL 100 ROOM HOTEL

P R O G R A M

Public Space Lobby and Front Office Lounge Corridors Adjoining Men’s Toilet for Guests Women’s Toilet for Guests Women’s Restroom for Guests Coat Check Room Bellman’s Checkroom Concession Space Barber Shop Valet Shop Sub Rental Space 3 Rented Stores 3 Storage Rooms Food and Beverage Service Space Main Dining Room Main Kitchen Bake Shop Coffee Shop Bar and Cocktail Lounge Private Dining Rooms Banquet-Ballroom Banquet-Ballroom Foyer Banquet-Ballroom Storage Banquet Serving Pantry Employees Dining Room Steward’s Storeroom Beverage Storerooms China, Glass, and Silver Storage Receiving Room Garbage Room

GRAND TOTAL OF AREAS 58,480 sq ft


P R O G R A M


S C H E M E S


Dome (Scheme 1) This scheme was heavily inspired by the science fiction and the geodesic dome. This scheme gives alot of design flexibility and freedom to design large open spaces within the confines of the dome itself. The dome acts as the main envelope of the complex meaning that once it’s complete the space inside will be habitable and the rest of the construction can take place under those conditions, and allow for relatively quick habitation. It would also allow for a 360 degree angle of view but at the same time be exposed to dangers such as micro meteorites, meaning it would need to be protected with elements such as moveable shutters which could close of the dome when danger is immanent.

S C H E M E S


Partial Subterranean (Scheme 2)

S C H E M E S

This scheme was heavily influenced by the need for safety within the inhospitable environment of the lunar surface. By submerging the complex within the hill side multiples things are accomplished. Firstly the threat of micro meteorites is minimized as exposure in minimized. Secondly the layer of soil/rock acts as radiation and temperature shielding. Thirdly the stone itself can be used as building material, by carving and reusing blasted rock for walls a much larger architecture is possible than if need be transported from earth in parts. Lastly since only one face of the complex is exposed as soon as it’s completed the inside of the complex could be made into a habitable environment quite quickly.


Inflatable & Modular (Scheme 3) This scheme was based on the use today’s most likely method of establishing a moon base which would be with the use of collapsible/inflatable habitats. The whole complex would be made up of elements shipped from earth and then inflated at the location, a process akin to pitching a tent. By building everything on earth there are multiple positive factors. Firstly everything is built under factory conditions meaning it would be tested and much less likely to fail. Secondly the construction time on the moon is minimized meaning the complex can be open almost right after its delivered/inflated.

S C H E M E S


F I C T I O N V S R E A L


F I C T I O N V S R E A L


O X Y G E N & W A T E R


O X Y G E N & W A T E R


P E L I M E N A R Y D E S I G N


P E L I M E N A R Y D E S I G N


P E L I M E N A R Y D E S I G N

SEC. B

PLANS

SCALE 1/16” = 1’T

SCALE 1/32” = 1’

SEC. B

TERRACE LEVEL 1

TERRACE LEVEL 2

TERRACE LEVEL 3


P E L I M E N A R Y SEC. A

SCALE 1/16” = 1’

L U N A R

TERRACE LEVEL 4

TERRACE LEVEL 5

C AC NO OM PP F YL O E R X

R E A S E A R C H

L E I S U R E

BY: VLADIMIR SHUMOVYCH

D E S I G N


P A R T I A L S C H E D U L E

Pre-main Construction Phase (priority is short setup period) Goal: To establish all facilities that would support long term stay. 1) (Temporary Base) Establish a temporary living space for small crew of worker, inflatable technology best suited due to being light weight and quick to get up and running on site. (Temporary supplies of oxygen, and food needs to be delivered during this time). 2) (Electric Power) Launch a geostationary Solar Reflecting Satellite about Lunar site (Build Microwave Receiver) Install 5’ by 5’ panels on relatively flat ground (Panels come with leveling jacks) 3) (Sustainable Oxygen & Water) Install the Solar Furnace Tower and Solar Reflectors. Only the Furnace requires machinery to install due to its weight, the reflectors are extremely light and quick to install by hand. Robotic regolith harvesting Rovers delivered during this phase. 4) (Glass Workshop) This should be located near the Solar Furnace in order to take advantage of pure oxygen supply as the heat generated. Glass is formed at 2,400 degrees Fahrenheit. Machines for rolling and cutting glass to shape are included. 5) (Stone Work Shop & Robotic Builders) This is made up of all the tools that would be required to build the main base. Made up of a large CNC cutting machine, large 3d printer which would use regolith as a printing material, hand tools for working /laying stone, as robots that would help with moving larger elements as installing them. First Construction Phase Step 1: Blasting (Priority Is Accuracy & Speed) Main Goal: To excavate site Using quarry explosives techniques for excavation of the site allows for short excavation time as a high degree of accuracy. 1) (Drilling holes) Robots use GPS to accurately drill holes for the explosive charges and pneumatic tipping cushions. 2)

(Explosive are placed as detonated) This phase will shatter the rock

3) (Pneumatic tipping cushions are inflated) The cushions will be inflated after blasting and move the shattered rock debris downhill. 4) (Repeat Phases 1,2,3) The explosive excavation will be done in stages as at relatively small scales in order to allow for a higher degree of accuracy and to eliminate the need of heavy machinery that more than likely would be required to move rock if much larger blasts were to be used.


Step 2: Thermal & Envelope Sealing (Accuracy Is Essential) Main Goal: To create a thermally and air tight environment. 1) (First layer of concrete) A layer of concrete is laid on all the rock surfaces that were excavated with blasting. A undulating form work is used in order to increase the grip of following layers. During the pouring of the concrete carbon fiber rods are placed in order for provide clipping surfaces for outer layers. The pouring should occur on a new day cycle on the moon which will last around 168 hours and provide the concrete with the heat it needs to set. 2)

(Insulation) Insulating layers are attached to all the concrete surfaces. (insulation type not specified yet)

3) (Epoxy sheeting) An epoxy sheet layer is laid and joined /sealed; this is the layer that will give the concrete its air tightness. 4) (Second Layer of concrete) This layer seals the insulation and epoxy sheeting layers. This layer is formed with smooth formwork to create smooth surfaces as these will be interior surfaces. The pouring should occur on a new day cycle on the moon which will last around 168 hours and provide the concrete with the heat it needs to set. 5) (Stone for canopy structure is cut) This stage should start right after the first cycle of phase 3 in blasting phase when the first rock becomes available. This process is time intensive but will be fully computer controlled. The cutting will start from the lowest stones and work upwards so placement could take place even if all stones have not been finished. 6) (Stone panels for canopy structure is cut) This stage should start right after the last canopy structural stone is cut. The cutting will start from the lowest stones and work upwards so placement could take place even if all stones have not been finished. 7) (Glass is manufactured) This phase should start as soon as the solar furnace functional. The Regolith is rich in minerals that could be used to make pure silica glass and due to the lack of hydrogen on the moon it will be made completely anhydrous which would make it optically superior to that produced on the Earth and with significantly improved mechanical properties. 8)

(Pneumatic Framework is inflated) This framework is quick to put in place and remove after work is finished.

9) (Canopy Structure is laid) The stones have been CNC cut with interlocking faces in order for them to act as one element after assembled. 10) (two glass layers installed in canopy panels) Two layers of glass will be installed in the canopy panels prior to installation of the panels. The panels will be air tight and have a vacuum gap in between them (courtesy of no atmosphere), which will help greatly in reducing temperature break due to windows.

P A R T I A L S C H E D U L E


P A R T I A L S C H E D U L E

11) (Canopy Panels Are laid) The panels have also been CNC cut with interlocking faces. A temporary crane that spans between the structural arches is used to support the panels until they are interlocked and start to act as one element and can support each other. 12) (Install Electromagnetic generators) A network of power lines and generators is installed on top of the Canopy Panels. When powered they will generate a magnetic field bubble which will in turn deflect a portion of the harmful solar radiation particles which we are usually protected from on earth by its magnetic field. (the moon’s magnetic field is too weak to provide and meaningful protection) 13) (Fiberglass Frames are get glass installed) Fiberglass is very light, strong, and flexible. This makes it the perfect material to make up the main envelope which will experience huge temperature swings and expand as contract to match. 14) (Frames are Installed) Each frame comes with adjustable jacks in order for quick & easy adjustment on site during installation. 15) (All Gaps & joints in envelope are fiber glassed sealed) since fiber glass sheets can be made airtight with the coating of different types of epoxies its used to seal all joints & gaps. A coat of bonding agent followed by a sheet of fiber glass and a finish coat of an epoxy sealant is applied. Moon Concrete Spec Lunarcrete, also known as “Mooncrete”, is essentially the same as regular concrete on earth. Consisting of aggregate (regolith), water (made on moon by combining extract oxygen with delivered hydrogen), and cement (extract calcium from oxygen extracting process as a by-product). Capable of withstanding compressive pressures of 75 MPa, and losing not more than 20% of that strength after repeated exposure to vacuum. On earth this concrete would be categorized as High-strength concrete since it has a compressive strength greater than 40 MPa (5800 psi). • Lunarcrete production would require less energy than lunar production of steel, aluminum, or brick. • It is unaffected by temperature variations of +120°C to −150°C. • It will absorb gamma rays • Material integrity is not affected by prolonged exposure to vacuum. Although free water will evaporate from the material, the water that is chemically bound as a result of the curing process will not. He observes, however, that Lunarcrete is not an airtight material, and to make it airtight would require the application of an epoxy coating to the interior of any Lunarcrete structure. Bennett suggests that hypothetical lunar buildings made of Lunarcrete would most likely use a low-grade concrete block for interior compartments and rooms, and a high-grade Dense Silica Particle Cement- based concrete for exterior skins.


Laboratory-Determined Properties For Lunarcrete Compressive Strength

39–75.7 N/mm2 (MPa)

Young’s Modulus

21.4 kN/m2

Density

2.6 g/cm3

Temperature Coefficient

5.4 × 10−6 K−1

Structural Glass Material performance -Careful installation of structural glazing is important to maintain integrity of fireproofing, air and water infiltration prevention methods. -Requires frequent cleaning with water and mild detergent unless self-cleaning glass utilized. Dimensional and opening restriction -Economy standards limit most products (glass, drywall, plywood, insulation, etc.) to 4’x8’ dimensions. -Most exterior systems are custom made for the buildings floor-to-floor dimensions. Unitized systems are more common these days and old stick-built curtain wall systems are becoming obsolete. -Standard glass thickness ranging from 3/32” to 2”, with tempered and laminated structural fins on average 3/4” to 1”. -Structural glass can span indefinite area according to support structure and stacking of many glass plates. -Based on support/tensile structure used and the specific engineering of each individual case study. Acoustic property -Poor acoustical control properties. Primary structural use -Tension and compression -Structurally glazed systems use a structural sealant to hold the glazing panel in place, against the window mullion. This allows for a capless mullion system which can profile a building with a clean modern finish. Typically a cap serves as a compression plate to hold the glazing panel in place.

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The Envelope Essentially the roof envelope consists of multiple layers of glass panes merged tighter into one large unit with the use of carbon fiber mullions which are extremely strong and flexible. The flexibility and strength are a must due to the large temperature changes that this surface will undergo. It will expand and contract and due to the need for it to be airtight at all times the expansion is dealt with by letting the whole roof rise up during expansion and then come back down to a resting position during cooling. This process is supported by the use of hydraulic supports which would move with the envelope as is moves. The last layer of glass is actually below the hydraulic supports imbedded between the stone roof and it acts as a secondary ridged envelop. Air is circulated within the gap between the main exterior envelope and the secondary ridge one to provide extra cooling to reduce expansion movement as store the heat provided by the sun for the much colder nights. The partial schedule covers in more detail the envelopes construction and parts.


The Interior Massing The interior massing was an extremely important element of the design as it was the going to be the main elevation and public space of the project. The most important thing to me was to avoid an architecture which could be understood quickly and could get boring over short periods of time for a lack of interesting moments. It is important to understand that some visitors might be staying for long stretches of time hence it is important to design for long stays. To accomplish this I looked towards European hill side towns as I was looking to create a town like environment. I kept the shitting of the massing within rectangular like quadrants as to place the main structural elements at the quadrants adjoining shift lines.

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Massing Structure These sketches are just a few of the ideas that were being looked at for structure for the interior massing. The idea behind them was to create a stone structure which tries to defy its compressive nature and seem go into tension through the use of stereotomy. The main things take from these studies was the correct placing of structure within the massing. I choose to forgo these complex structures for more regular post and lintel system since they had seemed to be too intrusive to the massing and the programs within.


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Massing Structure The main structural ribs had two main design criteria, they had to be strong enough to support the main roof as well as be perforated as much as possible to preserve the views/feel of the main space.

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The Interior Massing The wall design had two main iterations, the first was a design centered on the idea of laying stone without mortar and then bracing it with cables that would span from floor to ceiling and attach to the main structural beams. The bracing was necessary only due to human abilities being 6 times that of when on earth, the danger was that someone could push down a portion of a wall if they tried or accidentally. In order to create a much more stable wall puzzle like stones would be cut and would interlock to form a solid element without the need for mortar and cable bracing. Since all the cutting would be done by a cnc machine some of the upper portions of the wall where the weight is less significant would be cut with miniature window. These small windows would act like small stars on the elevation during night similar to how and industrial zone may look at night. And during the day they would bring in an interesting variation of lights and shadows to the interior programs.

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1st Floor Plan (Main Entrance) (This Is The Top Floor)

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2nd Floor Plan

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3rd Floor Plan

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4th Floor Plan

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5th Floor Plan

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6th Floor Plan

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7th Floor Plan (Main Plaza)

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LUNAR CANOPY THESIS  

THE ARCHITECTURAL THESIS DONE BY VLADIMIR SHUMOVYCH FROM FALL 2012- SPRING 2013

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