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ARP spoofing ARP tutorial with pictures -7

Watch animation to learn networking. • Visualize how ARP translates IP address into MAC. Watch

interactions between ARP Request, ARP Reply, and ARP cache. • This pictured tutorial takes screenshots from ARP spoofing Animation. • OK to republish this slide. Please use hyperlink to point to its source.



ARP animations 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

ARP basic - update For behinners. Observing basic ip-mac binding interactions (ARP Request, ARP reply, ARP cache, ping encapsulation, ping command.) ARP basic - no update Same as above. But the node receiving ARP Request does not update its ARP cache. (It's a vendor decision whether to update ARP cache when receiving RAP request). ARP hub Three hosts are connected to a hub. Run ping to observe how ARP frames and ping packets are being flooded by hub. ARP switch Three hosts are connected to a switch. Run ping to observe ARP frames are being flooded and switched by the switch. ARP router gateway (Lab) Visualize how ARP discovers a MAC in a different subnet when hosts are connected to a router and the router is the default gateway. ARP router proxy (Lab) Visualize how ARP discovers a MAC in a different subnet when hosts are connected to the same router but have no default gateway. ARP spoofing (Theory) Visualize how a hacker can listen and corrupt IP-MAC bindings in other's ARP caches, and kidnap data. ARP spoofing (Lab) Same as above. The animation data is captured from a simulation Lab (dynamips). Timing is realistic.



Brief ďźš ARP spoofing Animation Link

Goal. Visualize how hackers exploit ARP's weakness to fool hosts and steal data with fake ARP reply. Topology: 3 hosts H1, H2, H3, are connected by a switch S1. H3 is the hacker. Steps: 1) When H1 sends ARP request to find H2's MAC, S1 floods the ARP frame. H3 learns H1's MAC. 2) H2 receives ping and can't echo H1. It sends ARP request to find H1's MAC. S1 floods it. Hacker is able to learn H2's MAC. 3) H3 pretends as H1 and sends a fake ARP reply to H2. H2 update ARP cache with the new "H1" MAC. 4) H1 ping H2. H2 sends echo. Switch forwards echo to H3, not H1.



H1 sends ARP request

H1 wants to ping H2 but does not know its MAC. H1 sends ARP request. When switch S1 receives ARP request, it floods the frame to H2, H3 (Attacker). Also, S1 adds the new MAC entry (MAC.H1, F0/1) to its MAC table.



H2, Hacker learn H1’s MAC

- H2 receives ARP request, checks its sender/target's ip/mac, adds H1's MAC to ARP cache, and sends an ARP reply back tyo H1. - H3 (Attacker) receives ARP request, reads protocol's sender ip/mac, and adds H1's MAC to its ARP cache. H3 is a hacker. It ignores the target. It interests in finding sender's address. This is a side effect of broadcasting and flooding: everyone can receive it. 02/01/13


H1 ping H2

When receiving ARP Reply, H1 updates ARP cache, changes (IP.H2, Incomplete) to (IP.H2, MAC.H2) Then H1 ping H2 again. S1 forwards ping to H2, no flooding this time.



H2 can’t echo: ARP Request

H2 receives ping but can't send echo back. Echo fails due to an ARP miss. H2's ARP cache does not contain H1's MAC. So H2 sends an ARP request.



Hacker learns H2 MAC

- S1 receives ARP request and floods it to H1, H3. - When H1 receives ARP request, it sends ARP reply back to H2 to tell its MAC. - When H3 receives H2's ARP request, it steals H2's MAC and stores it in ARP cache. Now H3 has both H1 and H2's MACs. It is ready to act now.



Hacker sends ARP Reply to H2

While H1 is sending ARP reply to H1, hacker (H3) starts to attack. H3 sends an ARP reply to H2 with fake IDs: ARP's sender ip = H1's IP, sender mac = H3's MAC. His goal is to fool H2. It wants H2 to think that H1 has changed its MAC address and the new MAC is H3's MAC. Click ARP Reply to see fake ID in protcol header.. 02/01/13


H2 is fooled by Attacker

H2 receives two ARP Replies. - The first one is from H1. H2 adds a new entry (IP.H1, MAC.H1) to its ARP cache. - The second ARP reply is from H3. H2 changes H1's ARP cache entry from (IP.H1, MAC.H1) to (IP,H1, MAC.Attacker). Now H2 thinks H1's MAC is MAC.Attacker. it is being fooled. But H2 does not know. 02/01/13


H1 ping H2

Now H1 ping H2 again. It is switched by S1 to H2.



H2 echo H1. But received by H3

When H2 receives ping, it responds an echo. H2 encapsulates echo's Link header destination addresses with (IP.H1, MAC.Attacker). When S1 receives echo, it uses echo's destination MAC (MAC.Attacker) to lookup MAC table and forwards echo to F0/3. As a result, H3 (the Attacker) has receives the echo, not H1. Note: This tutorial show how ARP spoofing works. Hackers can do many harmful things. E.g., alter data and retransmit packets to target, store data and use it for illegal actions. 02/01/13


FAQ 1. 2. 3. 4.

What is ARP Spoofing? How does ARP Spoofing work? Why ARP Spoofing? How to prevent ARP spoofing?

( answers in the Comments box )



What is Vlab

• VLAB: Virtual Lab – Theory: Visualize key points of network protocols to help beginners grasp the basic ideas quickly. – Lab: Visualize network activities with packets and router states captured from network simulators (dynamips, packet tracer, and ns2. – Interactively control animation: packet headers, protocol state tables.

• Vlab usage – Self learning, teaching aids, lab book. 02/01/13


ARP spoofing (ARP picture book-7 from VisualLand Animations)  

Visualize how a hacker can listen and corrupt IP-MAC bindings in other's ARP caches, and kidnap data.

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