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Spatiality in Contemporary Japanese Housing


|Author

|Year

|Student Number

|Tutor’s Name

Vivian Johnny

2012

s3231658

Sean McMahon


Japanese Contemporary Houses Precedence Research Tadao Ando

7-15

Osamu Ishiyama

16-18

Kei’Ichi Irie

19-26

Waro Kishi

27-36

Edward Suzuki

37-42

Shigeru Ban

43-53

Hiroyuki Arima

54-57

Junya Ishigami

58-60

Kengo Kuma

61-63

Kazuyo Sejima

64-67

Kazuihiro Kojima

68-70

Riken Yamamoto

71-73

Kunihiko Hanakawa

74-76

Japanese Tradisional House and Tatami Research Traditional Japanese House Layout

78-80

Japanese Interior Architectural Elements

81-86

Japanese Tatami Sizes Japanese Tatami Layout

87 88-89

Traditional Japanese House Precedence Research Chochiku-kyo

91

Ishizu House

92

Saito House

93

Villa Coucou

94

Shigetsu-tei

95

Shikumshien / Kitamura House

96

House in Kureha

97

Kan-kyo

97

List of Content


Detailed Japanese Houses Analysis Azuma House

Tadao Ando

100-110

4 x 4 House

Tadao Ando

111-114

Engawa House

Tetzuka Architects

115-122

House N

Sou Fujimoto

123-128

House in Suzaku

Waro Kishi

129-133

List of Content


In this folio, I ve’ look into the spatial quality of Contemporary Japanese Houses in term of the way Japanese architects deal with the transition between public and private, open and enclosed space, indoor and outdoor, smooth and textured materials, warm or cold colour. The contrast of each of these pairs always have a sophisticated “in between” (transition) that the architects deal with elegantly. I particularly interested in the concept of “Engawa”. I think engawa is the best part in Japanese Housing. It is a narrow space that serves as a transitional space between indoor and outdoor. During the warmer season, it is a place where one could appreciate the beauty of nature. Engawa plays a role to introduce the beauty of the nature to the interior space of the house. -Vivian Johnny


Japanese Contemporary House Precedence Research 6


1941 Born in Osaka, September 13 as a brother of twins 1966 Travelled America Europe Africa and Asia for 4 years using the fund he earns by interior design and furniture 1969 Established Tadao Ando architectural laboratory 1976 The work “Azuma House” was rated highly. He had won the prize of Japan architect society as the first person to achieve it with small scale house but not purblic architecture. 1987 Yale University guest professor 1988 Columbia University guest professor 1989 Harvard University guest professor 1990s Increase pubic architecture, art museum, and the whole of Japan and oversea 1991 One-man exhibition in The museum of Modern Art, New York 1993 One-man exhibition in Pompidou Centre 1997 Take office as a professor in University of Tokyo 2000 Establish Setouchi olive foundation 2002 University of Southern California guest professor 2003 Retired University of Tokyo and become Professors emeritus 2005 Achieve eternal name in University of Tokyo 2008 Become Osaka prefecture politic adviser

Tadao Ando 安藤忠雄 7


It is an early Ando work which began to show elements of his characteristic style. It consists of three equally sized rectangular volumes: two enclosed volumes of interior spaces separated by an open courtyard. By nature of the courtyard’s position between the two interior volumes, it becomes an integral part of the house’s circulation system. On the ground floor are located the living room and a kitchen, separated by the central outside courtyard and the staircase that leads to the upper floor, where the two bedrooms are joined by a walkway. The central uncovered area is the only source of natural light throughout the house. The courtyard, which acts as the hub of daily life in the house, separates the living room located at one end of the ground floor from the kitchen-dining room and bathroom, located in another end. On the top floor, the children’s rooms on one side face the master bedroom on the other side of the central courtyard, which is reached by a bridge. The building shows a blind or solid facade to the street. The presence of a door suggests the use of this box.

8

|Building Name

|Year

|Location

Azuma House 住吉の長屋

1976

Sumiyoshi, Osaka, Japan


“The house, by Tadao Ando for the designer Koshin, is a veritable maze of lights and shadows. Like Barragan, the architect seeks to reconcile the tenets of international modernism with tradition and landscape, in this case, Japanese. So , The House Koshin is an example of contemporary architecture built in two parallel wings that barely interrupt the landscape. “ The use of concrete, simplicity and treatment of light, typical features of the architecture of the Japanese. Another factor worth noting is that there are no decorative elements. The view provided by the wide openings along with the shadows cast by the narrow openings and skylights, and the texture of the concrete both combined, operate as the only ornamentation. All the walls are made polished concrete and are free of ornamentation and in their natural form. Tadao Ando used this material because it is a way to admit light and wind within the walls and creating a sense of serenity and wide open spaces. Another reason why using this material is due to industrialization and technological resources to which access is the architect living in a developed country such as Japan.

|Building Name

|Year

|Location

Koshino House

1984

Ashiya, Kobe, Japan 9


This spacious house was built as a home for three families: a newlywed couple and both sets of parents. In actuality, there are three homes, one on each floor. The main goal of the project was to maintain the independence of each house and each family. The entire project consists of a cube, 12 meters per side, in the center of the plot and a curved wall in front near the entrance. The blind wall of the front facade follows the profile of the street, curving inward to introduce the entrance to the house. A split entry features two staircases, one up to the second floor “home” and the second down below wtreet level to a garden, through which access to the other two floors is obtained. This interior courtyard helps to maintain the independence of each living space.

10

|Building Name

|Year

|Location

Kidosaki House 城戸崎邸

1976

Setagaya, Tokyo, Japan


11


Ando’s first free-standing building in the United States is a introverted house in his signature concrete, steel, and glass style. Very little is visible of the house. A monolithic concrete wall with a large steel door faces the street, while garage doors and more concrete back the alley. The two-story house is a long U-shape in plan, wrapping itself around a reflecting pool to create an oasis within the city.

12

|Building Name

|Year

|Location

Lee House (Nakamura House)

1997

Chigago, United States


13


“The building is composed of a group of units, each measuring 5.8 meters by 4.8 meters. In section, it conforms to the slope, and in plan, it is symmetrical. In ascending the slope, gaps are intentionally created. The gaps relate to each other and unite the entire building; at the same time they serve as a plaza. A total of 20 units are mounted along the slope creating exclusive terraces facing various directions overlooking the ocean. I expect that life in these diverse units will concentrate around the terrace and the opportunity to communicate with nature.�

14

|Building Name

|Year

|Location

Rokko Housing

1999

Rokko, Kobe, Japan


15


1944 Born in 1st of April 1966 Graduated from Waseda University, Department of Architecture 1968 Finished graduate studies at Waseda University 1985 Awarded the Tenth Isoya Yoshida Prize for his work on the Izu Chohachi Sakan-art Museum 1988 Began work his as a professor at Waseda University’s Department of Architecture 1995 Received the Design Award from the Architectural Institute of Japan for his work on the Rias Ark Museum of Art 1996 Golden Lion Award, Venice Biennale 6th International Architecture Exhibition 1998 Japan Inter-Design Forum Award 1999 Oribe Award 2002 Art Encouragement Prize from the Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology

Osamu Ishiyama 石山修武 16


Osamu Ishiyama’s Gen-An (Fantasy Villa), a project he describes as a “hut in the age of industrialization,” appears to be anything but the product of Japanese manufacturing. Employing the inexpensive vernacular building materials of rural Japan, including corrugated steel and cheap wood, the Gen-an House is simultaneously steeped into tradition and entirely novel. The Gen-an, built as a prototype in Archi Prefecture, is a semi-cylindrical volume with a generously proportioned poured concrete foundation, corrugated steel sheeting, and a playfully decorated glass and wood at front and back. A lofted sleeping space distinguishes the simple living quarters from the more private area above.

|Building Name

|Year

|Location

Gen-an (Fantasy Villa)

1975

Archi, Japan 17


The house is a semi-cylindrical volumes that is ornamented with simple geometry motif. Again, this house illustrates the essence of tradition and yet it has an entirely novel design. These simple houses required only the cheapest of materials and a low standard of construction skills, symbolizing the architect’s commitment to making housing easily available to the public.

18

|Building Name

|Year

|Location

Kaitakusha

1986

Nagano, Japan


1950

Born in Tokyo

1974

Graduated from Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music

1976

MFA Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music

1976-80

Kazuo Shinohara Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology

1980

Architectural design firm founded Irie

1985

Awarded “Parco Prize”, ‘Violinoizer’, in Japan modern object exhibition

1987

Renamed the Power Unit Studio

1991 Awarded “Tokyo Architect Association Special Prize”, ‘Monol’, Industrislized housing complex. Awarded “Good Design Prize”, ‘Prototype for Sekisui House Co.,Ltd.’ 1994

Awarded “Architecture of the year”, ‘Isiuchi Dam Museum’

1996

Competition Second Prize, ‘Kirishima Art Hall’

1997

Awarded “Yosioka Prize”, ‘W house’

2005

Selected for the permanent collection of the FRAC Center (France), ‘Y house’

Current

Graduate School of Arts and Sciences Professor, University of Lecturer, Shibaura Institute of Technology Kobe lecturer

Kei’ Ichi Irie 入江

経一 19


A private residence in the city center. The second and third floor are for residences. The piloti on the first floor is only for the glass circular entrance and parking lot. On the second floor, living space and a stairwell face the courtyard, and the bathroom, the toilet etc. are put on the backside of the curved wall. The bedrooms are arranged on the third floor which looks like a form of beans.

20

|Building Name

|Year

|Location

Bean House

1992

Suginami-ku, Tokyo, Japan


The combination of a concrete box and a wooden box made this building. The basement floor is an office for rent as well as a garage, the first floor is a private residence for an elder couple and the second and third floor is a private residence for a younger couple. Since the site faces two roads running north-south, both ends of the wooden sections (the second / third floor) are widely open to allow for light. Whereas the concrete parts forming the foundation of the building are closed and solid which contrasts with the open and bright wooden sections.

|Building Name

|Year

|Location

N House

1999

Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan 21


In downtown Tokyo, two brotherly residences are located in the same site. The two places with “C” type sections face each other and stand in parallel without contact. In one of the “C” type spaces, there is a living room and dining room on the three different floor levels. Another “C” type space across the stairwell is used for multiple purposes. The private rooms and the bathroom are arranged linearly on the first floor. The glass wall along the corridor connects the private alley-space in front of the residence and the internal space.

22

|Building Name

|Year

|Location

C House

2001

Arakawa-ku, Tokyo, Japan


This area used to be a part of the seafront and still reminds a beach side atmosphere. Pine trees were left as in the original site. A “C” type section intersecting in an “L” shape defines the living and dining room on the second floor. The bedroom, child room and bathroom are arranged on the first floor. The 4M high glass wall enclosing the courtyard draws a natural curve avoiding the pine trees.

|Building Name

|Year

|Location

Ta House

2001

Ichikawa-shi, Tokyo, Japan 23


A suburban private residence on nestled in the wooded hillside slope. Inside the residence, a inclined floor reflecting the hillside slope leads you to the main space (living dining room) downstairs. This space is lifted with the cantilever on the slope. A thick frame is situated for a window view that cuts out an impressive scenery. The foundation of the building is the bed room on the basement floor. The long main bed room on the road level floor will be divided as a child room in the future.

24

|Building Name

|Year

|Location

YHouse

2003

Chita-shi, Aishi, Japan


A private residence built on a residential street in Tokyo. Bed room and bathroom are arranged on the first floor. Living room, dining room and study room are on the second floor. A part of the space on the second floor is elevated slightly providing and study room giving a raised ceiling to the espective are on the first floor. Also the lifted space lets in light from the aisle side window and a lighting-yard. The space created by the sloping roof and inserted slanting wall gives a reverse perspective from both ends, and therefore providing a more spacious environment.

|Building Name

|Year

|Location

O House

2004

Meguro-ku, Tokyo, Japan 25


From the approach road, the bridge leads the car directly to the garage on the top floor. Going down the stairs from the bridge to the entrance courtyard, where an abstract sculpture placed at the center, is the second floor of the house. From the entrance, where actually high above the hill, panoramic views of the range of mountains in a far. Embracing these views, a large space which is in white is the living, dinning space with kitchen, and the long wide deck is cantilevered out in the air. The first floor which is still floating above the ground, is a private area . The exterior is painted in dark to get acclimated into the surroundings, but the interior is based on white.

26

|Building Name

|Year

|Location

I House

2007

Karuizawa, Nagano, Japan


1950

Born in Yokohama, Japan

1973

Graduated from Department of Electronics, Kyoto University 2010 Professor, Kyoto University

1975

Graduated from Department of Architecture, Kyoto University

1978

Completed post-graduate course of Architecture, Kyoto University

1981-93

Taught architectural design in Kyoto College of Art

1993-2010

Professor, Kyoto Institute of Technology

2003

Visiting professor, University of California, Berkeley

2004

Visiting professor, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge

Waro Kishi 岸

和郎 27


The small house is located in one of Osaka’s downtown areas, where row houses with pre-war plottages line the streets, interspersed with factories and warehouses. For the building, part of a row house was removed. In the site thus created, a double-deck steel construction (with a frontage of one bay of 2.58 m and a depth of three bays of 5.4 m) was erected with a small courtyard at its center. The floors of both the courtyard and the dining room are covered with white tiles, so that both areas form a single space without distinction between indoors and outdoors, when the doors between them are fully opened. “The project was carried out under extremely difficult conditions, as both the plot and the budget were limited. However, this did not negatively affect the building’s design; instead, it taught me that such difficulties can actually stimulate the imagination.”

28

|Building Name

|Year

|Location

Kim House

1987

Ikuno-ku, Osaka, Japan


This house is located in north Kyoto, in a residential area that was mainly developed after World War 2. Inserted in the house’s concrete box is a 2x3 span steel-frame construction, with outdoor elements such as a central court, a terrace, and a piloti. The whole plan, one might say, is minimized: a concrete and steel framework with the least possible number of vertical planes (glass screens and walls as partitions) and only absolutely necessary horizontal planes (roof and floor). “As a result of this deliberate frugality, the interior space, encapsulated in glass, gives the impression of floating in a transparent exterior space. In this work, I intended to build into a box with clearly defined dimensions (by the size of the plot) a landscape as deep as possible. At the same time, the building provided a first opportunity for me to think about such typical elements of traditional urban housing architecture in Japan as toori-niwa and tsubo-niwa (two types of small garden).”

|Building Name

|Year

|Location

House in Rakuhoku

1989

Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, Japan 29


This house is located in the center of Kyoto City. Covering the entire site area, the building consists of an oblong concrete box with a frontage. A 2.75m stretch of the long axis is used for a court (nakaniwa). Each floor floats in the homogeneous space of the concrete box, connected by the garden in the east and a staircase in the west. This effect is further enhanced by the grating floors of the second and third floor balconies jutting into the court, and by the punched metal sheets of the stair. Both the nakaniwa and staircase are closed to the outside environment on lower levels, and gradually open the higher one ascends. In this way, the court, flanked on ground level by a Japanese-style room, is virtually undisturbed by street noise. The whole construction seems to be filled with the same tranquility that was characteristic of the tiny tsuboniwa of a machiya (town house).

30

|Building Name

|Year

|Location

House in Kamigyo

1990

Kamigyo-ku, Kyoto, Japan


The house was built on an extremely small plot of land in downtown Osaka. The structure not only emphasizes the vertical direction but takes full advantage of the depth of the narrow site. The building has two main themes. One is the verticality of urban life. The other is the creation of a floating living space (the top floor) that is cut off from the noise of the street and is close to Nature. “If modern architecture can be called revolutionary, then it is partly because it abolished the roof.” “I do not know whether this house with its tiny terrace and dining room can be called a work of modern architecture. However, I am convinced that there is one thing we need to avoid, and that is to be blind to what our age has wrought.”

|Building Name

|Year

|Location

House in Nipponbashi

1992

Naniwa-ku, Osaka, Japan 31


House in Nakagyo stands in the middle of a typical Kyoto district with mixed-use commercial and residential buildings to the south. It is designed for a dealer of antiques and the first floor provides a place to receive visitors, while the second and third floors provide residential quarters. The house is enclosed two-story-high concrete box whose facade takes up almost the entire width of the site. The upper level presents the city as if it were a landscape, creating a distance from the city rather than allowing one to feel a part of it.

32

|Building Name

|Year

|Location

House in Nakagyo

1993

Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto, Japan


This two-storied house is located in an urban area at the foot of the Kitayama mountains in the northern part of Kyoto. The rest of the house consists of a steel frame with exterior walls made of formed cement plates, steel window frames, and gate doors. Designing this house, I was fully aware that contemporary urban houses seem real only to the extent that they are unique solutions to a number of fixed preconditions. “In designing the house, privacy was not my main concern. Instead, I focused on the relationship between the exterior space that is, the inner court and the rooms facing it. The result is a large three-dimensional living space, with individual rooms that are independent yet interrelated. Nor was I concerned too much with the structure. Instead, I treated it as merely one of the basic elements from which the whole is assembled, in order to create the effect of a single functional unit. It seems to me that, several decades having passed since the heroic age of modern architecture, the time has come to reconsider the implications of the machine age for architecture.�

|Building Name

|Year

|Location

House in Shimogamo

1994

Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, Japan 33


The site is a lot in a terraced subdivision, typical of the vast suburban developments being constructed in the hills of north Osaka. It is on the west edge of the development and faces a very deep valley. On the outer edge is a road. The valley retains its original topography and a natural environment characteristic of north Osaka. This led the architect to consider the relationship between the house and the valley. The interior spaces of the house relate to the valley, not directly, but through the mediation of private outdoor spaces, such as balconies and terraces. The house has a courthouse plan. Continuity between the exterior space of the valley and the interior space of the living room is a very important aspect of this house. The house can be likened to a ship about to embark on a voyage down the valley.

34

|Building Name

|Year

|Location

House in Takarazuka

1995

Takarazuka, Hyogo, Japan


Despite its proximity to megalopolitan Tokyo, the site is encompassed by monotonous, semi - urban surroundings, typical of north Kanto - a setting that discourages description as a “city suburb.” He proposed a house having a closed attitude towards its surroundings and an interior court. “What was needed, I thought, was a building closed to such surroundings while yet open in its interior space.”

The house has a rectangular plan that is tripartite in function. The south part contains the private elements - the garage and bedrooms - on two levels. A court with a pool is placed between them in the center of the building. “By using factory materials and leaving visible the stark structural details, the building obtains architectural character. Which may sound paradoxical. Yet, the way to confront those stark surroundings, I felt, was by presenting not a space replete with the warmth of congenialmaterials but rather an aggressive deployment of materials and structures that proliferate in the surroundings.”

|Building Name

|Year

|Location

House in Fukuya

2001

Fukuya, Saitama, Japan 35


By the time of the renovation in 2011, only the parents were living in the house. The children had already left the nest and their life style had varied. “What surprised me most by visiting the site after 24 years was that the houses on the both sides have remained the same.”

Despite the intense economic change the country experienced over the last 24 years, this area had barely changed. Naturally, the theme for this renovation project was to re-examine the relationship of the house with the city. The facade, which was meant to be closed in 1987, has become open instead. There is no need to be so protective any longer in 2011. Also, how the house takes in light and wind from the courtyard reflects the context of contemporary taste. “What I was most conscious of was the things that have

changed and not changed with the passage of 24 years, including myself.”

36

|Building Name

|Year

|Location

Kim House

2011

Ikuno-ku, Osaka, Japan


1947

Born in Sayama City, Saitama Prefecture, Japan

1966-71

B.A. of Architecture,University of Notre-Dame, on Ford Scholarship

1973-75

M.Arch. in Urban Design, Harvard University

1974

Buckminster Fuller and Sadao, Inc., Cambridge, Mass.Isamu Noguchi Studio, New York

1975-76

Kenzo Tange and URTEC, Tokyo

1995 Visiting Professor, Rhode Island School of Design, Providence Visiting Critic, GSD, Harvard University 1998 6th Public Architecture Award (Akayu Station) GOOD DESIGN Award (Ohmagari Station) 2000 GOOD DESIGN Award (Saitama Shin-Toshin Station) JCD Design Award (Saitama Shin-Toshin Station) 2002

20th Century Environment Design Award (Saitama Shin-Toshin Station)

2003

GOOD DESIGN Award (EDDI’S HOUSE)

2004

9th Public Architecture Award(Saitama Shin-Toshin Station)

2005

9th Brunel Award(Saitama Shin-Toshin Station)

2008

KOMAE CITY ENVIRONMENT DESIGN AWARD(EDDI’S TOWN)

2010

UNIVERSITY OF NOTRE DAME “ASIAN STUDIES ADVISORY BOARD” MEMBER

Edward Suzuki 鈴木エドワード 37


A private residence that contained the three generation in a family. “Since it was my third house that was to be built, I boldly asked Mr. Suzuki upon the premise that this will be my final home. My mother-in-law, my son and his wife, as well as ourselves - these are the three generations that occupy the building. The light pours in during morning and daytime, while the moon and the stars can be seen at night through the three floors of glass, making it extremely satisfactory. I am now 67 and will be home often, so I will take good care of the house and hope to spend my time at leisurely pace.� - Shiro Kawanishi, Client

38

|Building Name

|Year

|Location

Kawanishi Residence

1995

Setakaya, Tokyo, Japan


This is the first case of an industrialized house in Japan (and perhaps in the world) and built by a major housing manufacturer, Daiwa House Kougyo, in a collaborative effort. The house is named after the architect’s nickname and also stands for Edward Daiwa-House Design Innovation. The architect has to design under the assumption that the site on which the house would be placed is not surrounded by environment friendly conditions, and thus the house should look not outward but inward. The design concept is “Go in to go out,” meaning that the house has an outside patio at the center of the house onto which each and every room looks out. The house with its central patio is designed to allow as much of not only direct natural sunlight but also cross ventilation as possible to provide for maximum energy efficiency.

|Building Name

|Year

|Location

Eddi’s House

2002

Nara, Japan 39


The neighboring houses and shops encroach upon the site rather closely, so much so that from the start the idea to “look out” from the property was abandoned to instead “look inward” was adopted. Since the client-owner wished to display art collections in the new house, the theme “House like a Museum” became the design generator. The theme, “Go in to go out,” used in the prefabricated housing system “EDDI’s House” designed and built in collaboration with Daiwa House Industry, was once again applied to the design of this house and, as a result, the rectangular silhouette of the house was pushed to the boundary limits. Much effort has been made to “borrow” from and apply the wisdom of traditional Japanese house design vocabulary such as “Engawa” (peripheral corridor) that fuses or separates as required the inside and the outside, “Tsuboniwa” (tiny patios), “Hisashi” (roof overhangs), “Tsuufuu” (cross ventilation), all basically “passive” means of applying natural energy efficiency instead of “forced” mechanical ways expending unnecessary energy.

40

|Building Name

|Year

|Location

F House / House like a Museum

2008

Kamakura City, Kanagawa, Japan


It is basically a wooden structure with the peripheral balconies in steel. The design is adapted from passive energy principles applied in the world-famous Katsura Imperial Villa in Kyoto. Natural passive energy means include but are not limited to the following: 1) Exterior insulation with 2) Air circulation paths in between exterior and interior finishes 3) Cross ventilation under the ground floor to protect against humidity 4) Overall cross ventilation with openable windows 5) Complete fenestration on the south with 6) Airtight, high-insulation composite sash with 7) Double-pane glass 8) Allowing low winter sun penetration and blocking high summer sun 9) Use of deciduous trees in the south similarly allowing low winter sun penetration and blocking high summer sun 10) Extended eaves to provide shade

|Building Name

|Year

|Location

House of Maple Leaves

2010

Karuizawa Japan 41


This residence is for a family of four with a private Studio/Office attached for the husband. Located on the bluff of Yamate district in the seaport city of Yokohama, it commands a magnificent view of the townscape below on the South. The space boasts a voluptuous volume of two floor heights to which a mezzanine could be added in the future if and when necessary. The Living room too is two stories high with the Master Bedroom on the second floor overlooking it. The second floor is primarily sleeping quarters with a family Bathroom. It also accommodates a Japanese tatami (straw mat) room with a private viewing garden that could be used as an occasional guest room. A wooden louver which helps to preserve the privacy for the Japanese room adds some natural warmth and color to the monotone.

42

|Building Name

|Year

|Location

House in the Bluff

2012

Yamate, Yokohama, Japan


1957

Born in Tokyo

1977-80

Southern California Institute of Architecture

1980-82

Cooper Union School of Architecture

1982-83

Worked for Arata Isozaki, Tokyo, Japan

1984

Bachelor of Architecture, Cooper Union School of Architecture

1985

Established private practice in Tokyo, Japan

1993-95

Adjunct Professor of Architecture, Tama Art University

1995

Established VAN (Voluntary Architects’ Network)

1995-99

Consultant of United Nations High Commissioner for Refgees (UNHCR)

1995-99

Adjunct Professor of Architecture, Yokohama National University

1996-2000

Adjunct Professor of Architecture, Nihon University

2006-2009

Jury of Pritzker Architecture Prize

2009 2011-

Grand Prize of AIJ 2009

2012

Mainichi Art Prize

2012

Minister of Education Award for Fine Arts

Professor, Kyoto University of Art and Design

Shigeru Ban 坂 茂 43


Situated in a quiet residential area of Tokyo, the site is portioned from a triangular plot surrounded by two roads and a river. The spatial composition is based on the same concept seen in Three Walls House, but modified a little here. The walls are self-standing, including an L-shaped wall which defines the interior space, a circular core which houses the kitchen and bathroom functions, and a triangular glass-block enclosure at one corner of the site. A square-shaped core housing a fireplace and the circular core support the horizontal roof. On the second floor is an open living room with a high ceiling-as requested by the client. This attangement provides the living room with a level of privacy and a clear view across the river.

|Building Name

M Residence 44

|Year

|Location

1989

Tokyo, Japan


This square building is placed at a 45-degree angle to the property line to ensure a good view to the south. To make the second floor living room fully open to the landscape on the north and south sides and to private proper ventilation, two wooden walls are set parallel to each other on the east and west sides. In order to make these two walls stand by themselves and resist the lateral stresses without the need for bracing or supporting walls they, along with the steel folded plate roof structure, are tensioned by steel rods anchored to the ground outside. In this project, the folded plate roof is given a tensile function. The interior’s structural plywood is used as a finishing material as well as bracing, providing that a single material can bear two functions at once to help promote low-cost construction.

|Building Name

|Year

|Location

I House

1991

Tokyo, Japan 45


The construction system for the Furniture House features factory produced full-height units that function as structural elements as well as spacedefining elements. Since these units are pre-fabricated, construction time on-site is greatly reduced and cost-effective. Serving both as the furniture and as the building material, these units enable a reduction of equipment and labor, as well. (The dimensions of the units used in this house are 2.4 meters high, 0.9 meters wide, with an 0.45 meters depth for bookcases and a 690mm depth for other units.) An individual unit, weighing about 79.2kg, can be easily handled by a single person, and its self-supporting function makes the arrangement simple.

46

|Building Name

|Year

|Location

Furniture House 1

1995

Yamanashi, Japan


47


The house is intended to be a reflection of the owner’s lifestyle. It is open to the outdoors and utilizes contemporary materials in new interpretations of traditional Japanese styles. Wide deck spaces are attached to the east and south sides of the second-floor living room and tent-like curtains are hung on the outer facade between the second and third floors. Interior conditons are controlled by opening and closing this Japanese-style “curtain wall”. In winter, a set of glazed doors (in combination with the curtain) can completely enclose the house for insulation and privacy. This thin membrane takes the place of shoji and sudare screens, and fusuma doors that appear in the traditional Japanese house.

48

|Building Name

|Year

|Location

Curain Wall House

1995

Tokyo, Japan


|Building Name

|Year

|Location

Koshino House

1984

Ashiya, Kobe, Japan 49


The house is built on a sloping site, and in order to minimize the excavation work the rear half of the house is dug into the ground, the excavated earth being used as fill for the front half, creating a level floor. The floor surface at the embedded rear part of the house curls up to meet the roof, naturally absorbing the imposed load of the earth. The roof is flat and is fixed rigidly to the upturned slab freeing the 3 columns at the front from any horizontal loads. As a result of bearing only vertical loads these columns could be reduced to a minimum 55 mm in diameter. In order to express the structural concept as purely as possible all the walls and mullions have been purged leaving only sliding panels. Spatially, the house consists of a ‘universal floor’ on which the kitchen, bathroom and toilet are all placed without enclosure, but which can be flexibly partitioned by the sliding doors.

50

|Building Name

|Year

|Location

Wall-less House

1997

Nagano, Japan


A gentle hill continues up from the ocean’s edge, and near its peak is the location of the site; a place that, amazingly in Japan, is uncluttered by any unsightly distractions. The first time I set foot on the site, my immediate response was to frame the wonderful view of the ocean stretching horizontally. That is to say that the building itself should become a picture window. Also, to prevent the architecture from becoming an obstacle disrupting the natural sense of flow from the ocean, I’ve thought of maintaining that continuity by passing it through the building up to the woods at the top of the hill. Thus, the whole upper storey became a truss spanning 20 meters, and below, a 20 meter by 2.5 meter picture window was created.

|Building Name

|Year

|Location

Picture Window House

2002

Shizuoka, Japan 51


The site is located in a commercial area a little distance away from a busy shopping street by a train station. The area is mainly comprised of three-story commercial buildings where the ground floor storefront facade is the familiar scene of shutters that continue. Instead of newly inserting an unusual form or facade into the street fabric, I established a similar cubic volume and used the common vocabulary of the storefront shutter facade to adapt to the surrounding streetscape. On the inside of the shutter, there is a three-story and twostory high curtain which is next in this layered composition. The relationship between interior space and exterior space is controlled by completely closing all shutters, or opening just the shutters on the side of the building, or opening just halfway, and further still, when adjusted in combination with the curtains, it becomes possible to create situations to adapt to any occasion. “Architecture which supposedly does not change aspects, has, in this project, become an architecture which can adjust to varying seasons and occasions just as we change clothing accordingly.�

52

|Building Name

|Year

|Location

Glass Shutter House

2003

Tokyo, Japan


|Building Name

|Year

|Location

Koshino House

1984

Ashiya, Kobe, Japan 53


“I used to think of architecture as a system. The system means to standardize and generalize by referring to subjects with universal quality such as mathematic and science. It is not to strike a pose for adapting flexsibly to anyone, but to produce a particular solution by responding to eaach individual condition and client, while trusting today’s standardized technology. Specifically, even some inexpensive industrial products could be utilized through editing process, by maximizing their capacities and distributing them into large or small spaces segmented in accordance with particular activity type. By editing the minute details in a similar manner with the film editing process dealing with a frames or cut, I assumed that architectural forms would naturally follow each individual editing process. It seems that I have been repeating the study for a few years.”

Hiroyuki Arima 有馬裕之 54


An architect who thinks a lot like a photographer and a photographer who thinks a lot about architecture joined forces to produce Second Plate. Hiroyuki Arima and his firm, Urban Fourth, designed this house and studio for Kouji Okamoto, the preferred cameraman of many Japanese architects. While Okamoto’s chosen career requires close observation of built form, Arima’s design sensibilities reveal an unusual attunement to twodimensional views from in and outside of his buildings. The result of this rare architect-client alliance, Second Plate’s elegant composition of abstract white boxes, wafer-thin planes, and taut lines prompts strong 2D readings that offer a perfect foil for the lives of its occupants—and for the camera. This project represents a big step up from the contractorproduced home the client had previously owned. Divided into public and private zones, Arima’s design consists of two independent steel-frame structures—a 581-square-foot front building, containing a guest suite on the ground floor and the photographer’s office above, and the 1,216-square-foot back building, or residence. Clad in cement panels painted white, the two volumes flank a triangular cypress deck and reflecting pool.

|Building Name

|Year

|Location

Second Plate

2004

Fukuoka, Japan 55


“The music player can produce a music of the place and the moment. Even in this case, I am more curious about the multivalent quality with some aspects of classicism, which is opened up and expanded out from the notion of “modernity = univalent’. I feel like designing architecture by replacing such multivalent quality into a graphic.”

56

|Building Name

|Year

|Location

Kyushu Office

2009

Kyushu, Japan


57


1974 2000

58

M,F,A, in Architecture, Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music joined Kazuyo Sejima & Associates

2004

established junya.ishigami+associates

2005

SD Prize SD Review Kirin Prize, Kirin Art Project

2008

Kanagawa Cultural Award Iakov Chernikhov Prize

2009

純也

2000-04

2009

Junya Ishigami 石上

born in Kanagawa, Japan,

Lecturer, Tokyo University of Science Contract world award 2009 Bauwelt Prize 2009 Architectural Institute of Japan Prize (2009)


|Building Name

|Year

|Location

Row House

2005

Tokyo, Japan 59


60

|Building Name

|Year

|Location

House in Tsukuba

2005

Ibaragi, Japan


1954

Born in Kanagawa, Japan

1997

Architectural Institute of Japan Award for “Noh Stage in the Forest” First Place, AIA Du PONT Benedictus Award for “Water/Glass” (USA)

2001

Togo Murano Award for “Nakagawa-machi Bato Hiroshige Museum”

2002

Spirit of Nature Wood Architecture Award (Finland)

2008

Energy Performance + Architecture Award (France)Bois Magazine International Wood Architecture Award (France)

2008

LEAF Award (commercial category)

2009

Decoration Officier de L’Ordre des Arts et des Lettres (France)

2010

Mainichi Art Award for “Nezu Museum”

2011

The Misister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology’s Art Encouragement Prize for “Yusuhara Wooden Bridge Museum”

2010

Mainichi Art Award for “Nezu Museum”

Kengo Kuma 隈

研吾 61


I have employed plastic for the project, the house for a mother (writer) and a son (photographer). The dwelling stands in the center of the city and various parts of ‘living’ are open to the urban condition. Mother’s room is a small antique museum and there is a constant flow of people in and out the studio. Outdoor open space on the ground floor is a tearoom without roof where the client holds the tea ceremonies for his friends. The roof terrace is his outdoor studio and also the party space in the air. I intended to form such a relationship to the city through the use of plastic (FRP). In Edo period the material, wood lead the tenant housing to the creation of the cityscape. Relation is not to be described=realized by its plan. It is to be realized by its materiality. FRP is 4mm thick material in various shapes from pultrusion. I created relationships of different qualities by combining these shapes. It is a very unique material that sometimes appears like rice paper and sometimes like bamboo due to the quality of contained fibers. I designed details with special treatment not to lessen this quality. Instead of using bead at joints, butyl rubber and plastic screws were selected for the construction. The materiality of plastic that appears like a living creature would stand by using these details then the material starts to communicate to our body. In this project I thought of ‘living’ not through the plan, but through the material.

62

|Building Name

|Year

|Location

Plastic House

2002

Tokyo, Japan


Using 3.2mm thick corrugated steel plates, a house of monocoque construction which resembles a freight car was made, with out having any beams or columns. The client, Professor Hirose, has been a devoted fan of railroads cars since childhood, and stores a few thousand models of trains in his home. He himself had wanted to live a kind of life in a freight-car environment. Fitting in to the L-shaped site, the house looks like a freight car stopping on a slope, curving in to an L-shape. The body of the railroad car was originally designed based on the idea of structure+skin, yet the division of structure and skin has disappeared, and now is designed based on the Monocoque structure. In that context, this house intermediately exists between a railroad car and architecture. The basic idea of the architectural structure is to bend the steel plates to gain strength. By bending them, the detail of the bent parts tells us how soft the material of steel is. If the steel plates were used without being bent and the surface were to be painted, we would not be able to recognize that the material used is steel. There would only be the presence of a white abstract plane, the same as plaster boards or concrete. With such abstract detail, communication does not exist between the substance of steel and people. On the other hand, the detail created by bending the steel establishes communication between the steel and us. Based on these ideas, we have been creating architectures from materials such as stone and wood. This idea is applied by using the material of steel for the body of this house.

|Building Name

|Year

|Location

Steel House

2007

Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan 63


1981

Joined Toyo Ito Architect & Associates

1981

Graduated from Japan Women’s University with M. Arch. degree

1987

Established: Kazuyo Sejima & Associates

1988

Selec­ted for De­sign Com­pe­ti­tion - MCH House Ka­jima Prize, SD Re­view 1988

1989 1990

Spe­cial Prize for Re­si­den­tial Ar­chi­tec­ture, Tokyo Ar­chi­tect As­so­cia­tion The Yo­sioka Prize, the Japan Ar­chi­tect 2nd Prize, BL In­ter­na­tio­nal In­dus­trial De­sign Com­pe­ti­tion

1991

2nd Prize, Na­suno­ga­hara Har­mony Hall De­sign Com­pe­ti­tion

1992

2nd Prize, GID Com­pe­ti­tion ‘92 2nd Prize, Com­mer­cial Space De­sign Award ‘94 Awar­ded Japan In­sti­tute of Ar­chi­tects “Young Ar­chi­tect of the Year”

1994

Grand Prize, Com­mer­cial Space De­sign Award ‘94 Awar­ded “Ar­chi­tec­ture of the Year ‘94”

1995

3rd Prize, Yo­ko­hama In­ter­na­tio­nal Port Ter­mi­nal De­sign Com­pe­ti­tion

2010

Se­jima and Nis­hi­zawa were awar­ded the Pritzker Prize

Ho­no­r­able men­tion, la Mai­son de la Cul­ture de Japon, Paris SD Prize, SD Re­view 1990

Kazuyo Sejima 妹島 64

和世


The history of this project started when a small family decided to commission Kazuyo Sejima designing their house because she creates ‘light, clean and white, no bravado at all’ projects. It’s defined as a mind refuge, a place to enjoy the garden plum groves. These were the family requeriments for their home. Challenging the common housing scheme [bedrooms + living room + dining room + kitchen] the project affords a compact style house. Dividing space into small rooms lets everyone occupies according to one’s mood. A young couple with two children and a grandmother chose Kazyuo Sejima to be their architect. They valued her for being the author of works of architecture that was “light, clean and white, no bravado at all,” qualities that they thought would help to find the right tension between the privacy found in a dwelling and the public character of a house in a garden. “A shelter for the mind” and “a place to enjoy the blossoming plum trees in the garden”; these were the family’s wishes when they commissioned the house.

|Building Name

|Year

|Location

House in Plum Grove

2003

Tokyo, Japan 65


As public housing has become high-rise, continuous balconies and open corridors have become the rule for reasons of safety and economy. Instead of basing the layouts of apartments on some preconceived image of a family, the architect produced apartments with different cross sections, using the rooms the basic unit of design. The majority of balconies are integrated into the individual apartments and called “large verandas�. Then there are the double-height dining rooms next to terraces. These elements create a seemingly randomly arranged exterior. The manipulations are intended to introduce outdoor spaces into everyday life as much as possible. The building, only 7 meters wide, introduced to Japan European style of apartment building characterized by large windows and terraces framed by walls.

66

|Building Name

|Year

|Location

Gifu Kitagata Apartment

1998

Gifu, Japan


67


1958 Born in Osaka Japan. 1982 B. Arch., Kyoto University. 1984 M. Arch., Tokyo University. 1986 Established COELACANTH Architects. 1998 Reorganized C+A (COELACANTH AND ASSOCIATES). 2005- Reorganized CAt (C+A Tokyo). Currently working as Partner, CAt Professor, Science University of Tokyo Visiting professor, Kyoto Institute Technology

Kazuihiro Kojima 小島一宏 68


The concept of Space Block is said to have been conceived in the course of a search for a mechanism that would make it possible to consider space directly in three dimensional media. The project in Kamishinjo was a challenge to see how diversity could be mass-produced within this controlled formal framework. Three to five of these blocks can be joined together in 39 ways. Using those variations, the architect developed 22 different units that are consistent with the concept of a service core for rental apartment buildings and the market economy principle that floor areas of unit be uniform. A structural rule to have a wall or a slab at all corners of a cube and the idea of zigzag arrangement of wet areas made spatial complexity possible. The outer shell of the building was given a complex form in response to the ambience of the district as well as internal demands.

|Building Name

|Year

|Location

Space Blocks Kamishinjo

1998

Kamishinjo, Japan 69


70


1945 Born in Beijing, China 1968 BA from Department of Architecture, College of Science and Technology, Nihon University 1971 MA from Tokyo University of the Arts, Faculty of Architecture Hara Laboratory at Institute of Industrial Science,the University of Tokyo as a research Student 1973 Founded Riken Yamamoto & Field Shop Co., Ltd. 2002 Kogakuin University Department of Architecture Professor (-2007) 2007 Yokohama Graduate School of Architecture, Yokohama National University(Y-GSA) Professor 2011- Graduate School of Architecture, Yokohama National University Visiting Professor Graduate school of Engineering , Nihon University Special-appointment Professor

Riken Yamamoto 山本

理顕 71


This is a housing development with 110 units. The main residential blocks are arranged to form an enclosure such that the resulting central court is not accessible from the exterior. In other words, the court is a place for the exclusive use of the residents. The residences are the “shikii (threshold)� to the court. The courtyard staircases leading from each unit also provide access to common roof terraces. Family rooms face the central court and are made as open as possible, and the courtyard itself, rather than being merely an open space, has positive meaning as a place for living.

72

|Building Name

|Year

|Location

Hotakubo Housing

1991

Kumano, Japan


73


1941 Born in Tokyo 1966 Graduated from Waseda University Joined Takenaka Corporation, Design Dept. , Tokyo (-1977) 1967 Won First Prize, JA Annual Competition 1971 Master of Environmental Design, Graduate School of Achitecture,Yale University Joined Moshe Safdie and Associates, Montreal (-1972) 1976 Won Second Prize, International Competition for Design of Low Income Community in Manila, Philippine 1978 Established Kunihiko Hayakawa Architect and Associates, Tokyo Won Honarable Mention, International Competition for Design of Pahlavi National Library in Iran 1983 Visiting Architect, School of Architecture, Waseda University 1984 Lecturer, Japan AIR-Project, Rotterdam 1985 Won Annual Award of the Japan Architect Association 1986 Won Honarable Mention, Competition for Design of Shonandai Cultural Center in Fujisawa City 1992 Won the Japan Cultural Design Award 1994 Won the Prize of Architectural Institute of Japan (Design)

Kunihiko Hayakawa 早 川邦彦 74


ATRIUM is a rental apartments for 11 families . Using the Gestalt theory, the architect wanted to give a dramatic charater to the Atrium as ground in contrast to the residential part of the structure which is seen as figure. But the impression of the whole, so far as we can see, is much more Amerivan than Japanese

|Building Name

|Year

|Location

Atrium

1985

Tokyo, Japan 75


76


Traditional Japanese House and Tatami Mat Research 77


Toilet

Washitsu Japanese-Style Room Guest Room [Day] Bedroom [Night]

Genkan The Entrance

Getabako Shoes Cabinet

Mizuya

Ingawa The Inside Outdoor Space

Washitsu Japanese-Style Room (Living Room)

Tokonoma Alcove

Chashitsu Japanese-Style Room (Guest / Tea Room)

Bamboo Outdoor Deck

Traditional Japanese House Layout 78


Mizuya Tea Preparation Area

Chadantsu Built-in tea chest

Tokonoma Japanese Style recessed space for artistic appreciation purpose.

Host Mat Fusuma Interior Room Partition

Hearth Tatami Japanese rice straw mats

Host ‘s Entrance

1st Guest Shoji Sliding Paper Screen Door

2nd Guest 2nd Guest

Guests’ Entrance

Guests’ Mat

Chashitsu Tea House / Room

Japanese Tea House / Chashitsu 79


Shoji Sliding Paper Screen Door

Kamoi Upper wodden rail to support shoji and fusuma

Fusuma Interior Room Partition/ Room Divider

Mizuya Tea Preparation Area

Tokonoma Japanese Style recessed space for artistic appreciation purpose

Tatami Japanese rice straw mats

Shikii Lower wooden rail to support shoji and fusuma

Japanese Interior Architectural Elements 80


Shoji Sliding Paper Screen Door

Kamoi Upper wodden rail to support shoji and fusuma

Fusuma Interior Room Partition/ Room Divider

Mizuya Tea Preparation Area

Tokonoma Japanese Style recessed space for artistic appreciation purpose

Tatami Japanese rice straw mats

Shikii Lower wooden rail to support shoji and fusuma

Japanese Interior Architectural Elements 81


Tokonoma Kakejiku Hanging Pictorial Scroll, Flower Arrangement, Bonsai and etc Highly respected space where stepping within it is strictly forbidden, except to change the display.

Japanese Interior Architectural Elements 82


Tokonoma Kakejiku Hanging Pictorial Scroll, Flower Arrangement, Bonsai and etc Highly respected space where stepping within it is strictly forbidden, except to change the display.

Tatami Zataku Low Table to serve Guests

Japanese Interior Architectural Elements 83


Tokonoma Kakejiku Hanging Pictorial Scroll, Flower Arrangement, Bonsai and etc Highly respected space where stepping within it is strictly forbidden, except to change the display.

Tatami Zataku Low Table to serve Guests

Zabuton Floor Cushion to sit on

Japanese Interior Architectural Elements 84


Tokonoma Kakejiku Hanging Pictorial Scroll, Flower Arrangement, Bonsai and etc Mizuya Chadantsu Built in tea chest in the tea preparation area

Highly respected space where stepping within it is strictly forbidden, except to change the display.

Tatami Zataku Low Table to serve Guests

Zabuton Floor Cushion to sit on

Japanese Interior Architectural Elements 85


Tokonoma Kakejiku Hanging Pictorial Scroll, Flower Arrangement, Bonsai and etc Wachitsu Shinto Family Alter

Mizuya Chadantsu Built in tea chest in the tea preparation area

Highly respected space where stepping within it is strictly forbidden, except to change the display.

Tatami Zataku Low Table to serve Guests

Zabuton Floor Cushion to sit on

Japanese Interior Architectural Elements 86


Size of Tatami Mats

Layout of a tatami with all full mats

In Japan, the size of a room is typically measured by the number of tatami mats, about 1.653 square meters (for a standard (Nagoya) size tatami).. The size of tatami differs between different regions in Japan. Kyoto Nagoya Tokyo

Measurement : 955m by 1.91m_Kyōma tatami Measurement : 91m by 1.82m_Ainoma Measurement : 88m by 1.76m_Edoma or Kantōma tatami

In terms of thickness, 5.5cm is average for a Kyōma tatami, while 6.0cm is the norm for a Kantōma tatami. A half mat is called a hanjō, and a mat of three-quarter length, which is used in tea rooms (chashitsu), is called daimedatami. In terms of traditional Japanese length units, a tatami is (allowing for regional variation) 1 ken by half a ken, or equivalently 6 shaku by 3 shaku – formally this is 1.81818... meters × .90909... meters, the size of Nagoya tatami. Note that a shaku is almost the same length as one foot in the English measurement system.

Layout of a tatami in a Tea Room

Alternatively, in terms of traditional Japanese area units, room area (and especially house floor area) is measured in terms of tsubo, where one tsubo is the area of two tatami mats (a square); formally 1 ken by 1 ken or a 1.81818... meter square, about 3.306 square meters. Some common room sizes are (in the Nagoya region): 4½ mats = 9 shaku × 9 shaku ≈ 2.73 m × 2.73 m 6 mats = 9 shaku × 12 shaku ≈ 2.73 m × 3.64 m 8 mats = 12 shaku × 12 shaku ≈ 3.64 m × 3.64 m Shops were traditionally designed to be 5½ mats,and tea rooms are frequently 4½ mats.

Tatami Layout : Half Mats and Full Mats

Japanese Tatami Sizes 87


ying Your Tatami Mats Layout of Tatami Mats

e traditional Japanese tatami mat patterns are reproduced below. correct layout of Tatami Mat is important in bringing Fortune to Japanese homes. orrectThelayout is important for good luck in Japanese homes. A grid pattern is to be avoided to prevent misfortune to the family. d pattern is to be avoided - offset the mats if possible.

AVOID THIS â–ź

Tatami traditionally made of rice straw to form the core (though nowadays sometimes the core is composed of compressed wood chip boards or polystyrene foam), with a covering of woven soft rush (igusa) straw, tatami are made in standard sizes, with the length exactly twice the width, an aspect ratio of 2:1.

.8

Laying Your Tatami Mats

Usually, on the sides, they have1800 edgingx(heri) of brocade or plain cloth, although some tatami have no edging.1800 1800 x long 2700 3600 1800 x 4500

Some traditional Japanese tatami mat patterns are reproduced below. 3 full fullluck in Japanese homes. 5 full The correct layout is important for 4 good A grid pattern is to be avoided - offset the mats if possible.

2700

1.8 x 1.8

1800 x 2700

2700 x 3600

1800 x 3600

3 full

4 full

2 full

6 full

with half mats

1800 x 4500

1800 x 5400

5 full

6 full

2700 x 4500

use

2700 x 2700 4 full

6 full

1 half

2700 x 3600

6 full

2700 x 4500

7 full

7 full

1 half

The Japanese Shoji & Tatami Company

with full mats

5400 x 5400

2700 x 5400

2700 x 5400

18 ful

2700 x 5400

2700 x 5400

8 full 2 half

2 half

18 full

ull

3600 x 3600

8 full

9 full

21 full

9 full

Teahouse

3600

5400 x 6300

with full mats

1 half

8 full

5400

AVOID THIS â–ź

with half mats

alf

x 5400

6300 x 6300

3600 3600 x 4500 x 4500

10 full

10 full

Western Homes

3600 x 5400

3600 x 5400

4500 x 4500

4500 x 4500

4500 x 5400

4500 x 5400

12 full

12 full

12 full 1 half

15 full

12 full 1 half

24 full 1 half

15 full

In Japanese homes the size of a standard tatami mat is the measuring unit from which all rooms are planned, thus the mats fit each room exactly. When placing the mats in an Australian home it is unlikely that you will get an exact fit, and the mats cannot be trimmed. As a guide, each standard mat has an area of 1.62 sq metres. To work out how many mats you need take the total area of the floor (width x length in metres) and divide that by 1.62. Alternatively you can find the layout closest to your room dimensions above.

JapaneseHomes Tatami Layout estern

Place the mats centrally on the floor, leaving an even gap all around the outside edge. This gap then needs to be boxed up to the height of the mats

panese homes the atimber standard tatami mat issitthe from allway. rooms are planned, thus t 88 (55mm). Usually thissize is doneof with - see photos below. The mats insidemeasuring the border but areunit not fixed to thewhich floor in any


Examples of tatami mats installed

Tatami mat detail

It is an early Ando work which began to show elements of his characteristic style. It consists of three equally sized rectangular volumes: two enclosed volumes of interior spaces separated by an open courtyard. Edging

By nature of the courtyard’s position between the two interior volumes, it becomes an integral part of the house’s circulation system. On the ground floor are located the living room and a kitchen, separated by the central outside courtyard and the staircase that leads to the upper floor, where the two bedrooms are joined by a walkway.

Installation of Tatami Mats Core - compressed rice straw

The central uncovered area is the only source of natural light throughout the house. The courtyard, which acts as the hub of daily life in the house, separates the living room located at one end of the ground floor from the kitchen-dining room and bathroom, located in another end. On the top floor, the children’s rooms on one side face the master bedroom on the other side of the central courtyard, which is reached by a bridge.

Underside

Tatami placed in the central of the room

Tatami Edge Treatment

The building shows a blind or solid facade to the street. The presence of a door suggests the use of this box.

Japanese Tatami Mats 89


Traditional Japanese House Precedence Research 90


|Building Name

|Year

|Architect

|Location

Chochiku-kyo

1927

Koji Fujii

Yamazaki, Japan 91


92

|Building Name

|Year

|Architect

|Location

Ishizu House

1950

Kiyoshi Ikebe

Tokyo, Japan


|Building Name

|Year

|Architect

|Location

Saito House

1952

Kiyoshi Seike

Tokyo, Japan 93


94

|Building Name

|Year

|Architect

|Location

Villa Coucou

1956

Takamasa Yoshizaka

Tokyo, Japan


Genk-an (Entrance) Guest Room Kakejiku Chadansu Tatami

(Hanging Picture and Scroll) (Tea Chest) (Straw Mat)

Bamboo Deck Clay roof

|Building Name

|Year

|Architect

|Location

Shigetsu-tei

1959

Togo Murano

Tokyo, Japan 95


Shikunshien is Sukiya means a house in the style of teaceremony pavilion. It was build in 1944 by a carpenter named Sutejiro Kitamura ,and enlarged in 1963 by Isoya Yoshida who is famous architect in Showa period. There are movable columns in this house where you could slide away the columns and hide the partitions and then slide it back to cover the partitions. It has traditional tatami room as tea room and bamboo blinds to filter out the sunlight at the same time enjoying the view in the courtyard or garden. Traditional element and material has been used in this house such as bamboo, timber, sliding doors and partitions.

96

|Building Name

|Year

|Architect

|Location

Shikunshien / Kitamura House

1963

Isoya Yoshida

Kamo River, Tokyo, Japan


|Building Name

|Year

|Architect

|Location

House in Kureha

1963

Seiichi Shirai

Toyama, Japan 97


98

|Building Name

|Year

|Architect

|Location

Kan-kyo

1965

Sutemi Horiguchi

Tokyo, Japan


Detailed Japanese House Research and Analysis 99


It is an early Ando work which began to show elements of his characteristic style. It consists of three equally sized rectangular volumes: two enclosed volumes of interior spaces separated by an open courtyard. By nature of the courtyard’s position between the two interior volumes, it becomes an integral part of the house’s circulation system. On the ground floor are located the living room and a kitchen, separated by the central outside courtyard and the staircase that leads to the upper floor, where the two bedrooms are joined by a walkway. The central uncovered area is the only source of natural light throughout the house. The courtyard, which acts as the hub of daily life in the house, separates the living room located at one end of the ground floor from the kitchen-dining room and bathroom, located in another end. On the top floor, the children’s rooms on one side face the master bedroom on the other side of the central courtyard, which is reached by a bridge. The building shows a blind or solid facade to the street. The presence of a door suggests the use of this box.

100

|Building Name

|Year

|Architect

|Location

Azuma House

1976

Tadao Ando

Sumiyoshi, Osaka, Japan


Roof Plan 1 : 50

Bridge Study Room

First Floor Plan 1 : 50

Courtyard

Dining Room

Ground Floor Plan 1 : 50

Floor Plan Study 101


North Elevation 1 : 50

Front and Rear Elevation 1 : 50

Bridge

Courtyard

Bedroom

Dining Room

Section 1 : 50

Section and Elevation Study 102


8am

10am

Shadow vs. Human Activity Study 103


12pm

1pm

Shadow vs. Human Activity Study 104


2pm

4pm

Shadow vs. Human Activity Study 105


5pm

“In all my works, light is an important controlling factor� Tadao Ando

The Human activities or daily routines within the house is mostly manipulated by the movement of natural sunlight that penetrates through the courtyard.

Shadow vs. Human Activity Study 106


Connection with context /nature

Public Space

Semi-Public Space

Neutral Space

Semi-Private Space

Private Space

Gradient Study (Transition from Public Space to Private Space) 107


“I do not believe architecture should speak too much. It should remain silent and let nature in the guise of sunlight and wind speak.” Tadao Ando

Ando’s Quote 108


“At times walls manifest a power that borders on the violent. They have the power to divide space, transfigure place, and create new domains. Walls are the most basic elements of architecture, but they can also be the most enriching.” Tadao Ando

Ando’s Quote 109


The courtyard is the nucleus of life that unfolds within the house. It is capable of becoming the house’s vital organ, introducing the everyday life and assimilating precious stimuli such as changes in nature.

Spatial Study - Courtyard 110


The initial house was the result of a contest organized by a magazine and approached the client with the famous architect, Tadao Ando. The 4x4 House perfectly adapts to the site requirements. A decisive factor in the project was the Hanshin earthquake, which caused terrible devastation in the area. Once the first house was finished, a second customer asked Ando to build a similar house in the neighboring site. With this second order, the architect was able to complete his original idea of the two houses, but with no communication between them as he had previously thought. Each unit is a block of concrete that serves as a lighthouse overlooking the view of the sea. The first house has minimal floor dimensions, approximately 4x4 meters and instead addresses the necessities of the occupants in height, using a basement, ground floor and three other floors above this. The second house becomes different from the first one when we study the vertical accesses. While the first is developed by a staircase, the second one has an elevator. Another difference between them is the materials that were used; the original house was built entirely in concrete while the second one used wood as well, by request of the customer.v

|Building Name

|Year

|Architect

|Location

4x4 House

2003

Tadao Ando

Akashi, Kobe, Japan 111


Floor Plans and Elevation Study 112


Kitchen and Dining Area Semi-Public

Study Room Semi-Private

Bedroom Private

Entrance and Living Room Public

Program Study

Gradient Study (Public - Private ) 113


Staircase is the core that travels and connects through different programs and different shades of public and private.

Section and Elevation Study 114


The resulting long, one-story house can be completely opened on its interior side, which consists of nine sliding glass panels. Some amazing structural acrobatics are carried out by a single steel beam, which spans the 50-foot façade in its entirety. The same steel-beam trick is used on the opposite side of the house, facing the street, where the upper portion of the wall is dedicated to operable clerestory windows. A tall, expansive shelving and closet unit divides the home’s interior into cubicles that serve as bedrooms and bathrooms, while leaving enough distance from the ceiling so that the interior appears to be one uniform space. In this regard, the house is a modern yet faithful interpretation of traditional Japanese architecture, which often calls for an open floor plan without inner walls. Engawa describes the wide corridor, protected under eaves, that skirts the perimeters of a traditional house. By way of sliding doors, this intermediary space was historically designed to connect a home’s interior and exterior. Typically, an engawa would be used in mild weather, as one could comfortably be seated under the edge of the roof even in the rain, and also be protected from wind and sun. It was intended as a passageway from the garden into the house but equally as a place to entertain guests. “Most elderly people in Japan share the image of grandma or granddad sitting in the engawa telling stories to children,” says Takaharu. Miharu’s parents’ house was built in traditional Japanese style, with an engawa, but one that needed some restorative attention—rather than opening onto a garden, it faced a blank wall. The Tezukas knocked down the wall, creating a larger lot. They situated the new house on the length of the lot, alongside a new garden that extends to the parents’ engawa. “Our house doesn’t have a real engawa,” observes Yui, “but our plan makes the house itself act like one.”

|Building Name

|Year

|Architect

|Location

Engawa House

2003

Tetzuka Architects

Setagaya-ku, Tokyo, Japan 115


Floor Plan Study 116


Section Study 117


Public

Floor Plan Study 118

Kitchen

Semi-Public Semi-Private Study Room

Private

Bedroom


Neighbouring Units

Overlooking Problem

Blinds Prevent Overlooking Problem

Mother’s House

Neighbouring Units- Privacy Issue Axonometric Study 119


Neighbouring Units

Mother’s House

Overlooking Problem

Blinds Prevent Overlooking Problem

Neighbouring Units- Privacy Issue Section Study 120


Study while looking at the nature outside of the house

Spaces with Nature Embracement 121


“We take a bath w ith the doors w ide open,” Miharu reports. “It’s w onderful to sit in the hot w ater, breathing the fresh air and looking at the leaves of the tree.”

Spaces with Nature Embracement 122


A home for two plus a dog. The house itself is comprised of three shells of progressive size nested inside one another. The outermost shell covers the entire premises, creating a covered, semi-indoor garden. Second shell encloses a limited space inside the covered outdoor space. Third shell creates a smaller interior space. Residents build their life inside this gradation of domain. “I have always had doubts about streets and houses being separated by a single wall, and wondered that a gradation of rich domain accompanied by various senses of distance between streets and houses might be a possibility, such as: a place inside the house that is fairly near the street; a place that is a bit far from the street, and a place far off the street, in secure privacy.� That is why life in this house resembles to living among the clouds. A distinct boundary is nowhere to be found, except for a gradual change in the domain. One might say that an ideal architecture is an outdoor space that feels like the indoors and an indoor space that feels like the outdoors. In a nested structure, the inside is invariably the outside, and vice versa. My intention was to make an architecture that is not about space nor about form, but simply about expressing the riches of what are `between` houses and streets.

|Building Name

|Year

|Architect

|Location

House N

2008

Sou Fujimoto

Oita, Japan 123


Site Plan Study 124


Section Study 125


Light Penetration Study 126


Private

Semi-Public Semi-Private

Public

Gradient Study (Transition between Public - Private) 127


House Transparency Study 128


A house in a newly developed residential area in the outskirts of Nara. The basic elements are two separate 9 by 5.4 meter volumes staggered in height and connected by a slope. The composition is that one volume in the east would contain the public areas: living, dining and the roof garden; while one volume in the west would contain the private areas: bedrooms and a tea ceremony room. In between these volumes is the courtyard which provides green nature and which prevents direct sight from one volume to the other because of the staggered height of the volumes. The house is an courtyard type, but is not intended to refuse the city, rather have a controlled openness. This is done through the wood louver walls, glass surface layering of the awning window louvers. These give depth to the outside space in relation to the townscape. With these the garden assumes two faces: a semi-closed one in relation to the townscape and an open liberating one for the interior space of the house while reinforcing the character of the private spaces.

|Building Name

|Year

|Architect

|Location

House in Suzaku

1998

Waro Kishi

Nara, Japan 129


Floor Plans and Elevation Study 130


Volume 1

Courtyard

Wood Louvre Wall Volume 2

Building Components Analysis 131


Semi- Public Semi- Private

Public

Wood Louvre Wall Private

Gradient Study (Transition between Public and Private) 132


Living Room Kitchen

Courtyard

Wood Louvre Wall Bedroom Bathroom

Interior Spatial and Program Study 133


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Biblliography


All Rights Reserved Š 2012

Spatiality in Japan Contemporary Housing_2012  

A Collection of Japanese Housing Research

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