Page 1

Learning GRAMMAR By Vivian Barrascout


1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6)

Chapter 11

Active vs. Passive Tenses form of the Passive Using the Passive The Passive form of Modals and Phrasal Modals Non-Progressive Passive Common Non - Progressive Passive Verbs + Prepositions 7) The Passive with Get 8) Participial Adjective


The Passive Form of the passive Subject + be

+ past participle

Active Voice (Active vs. Passive) (a) Mary helped the boy. Subject verb object Passive Voice (b) The boy was helped by Mary. Subject verb object In the passive, the object of an active verb becomes the subject of the passive verb the boy in (a) becomes the subject of teh passive verb in (b) Notice that the subject of an active follows by in a passive sentence. The noun follos by is called the agent.


Example : Active Voice The boy paints beautiful drawings. Passive Voice The drawings are painted by the boy.


Tense Form of the Passive Active Voice Simple Present Present progressive Present Perfect Simple Past

Passive Voice

The boy is helped by Mary. Mary is helping the boy The boy is being helped by Mary. Mary has helped the boy The boy has been helped by Mary. Mary helps the boy

Mary helped the boy

The boy was helped by Mary.

Past Progressive

Mary was helping the boy The boy was being helped by Mary.

Past Perfect

Mary had helped the boy The boy had been helped by Mary.

Be going to

The boy will be helped by Mary. Mary is going to help the The boy is going t0 be boy helped by Mary.

Future perfect

Mary will have help the boy

Simple future

Mary will help the boy

The boy will have been helped by Mary.


Using the Passive Usually the passive is used without a by-phrase.

The passive is most freguently used when it is not known or not important to know exactly who performs an action.

Snoopy’s house was built in1980. If the speaker knows who performs an action, usually the active is used as the following ex:

My aunt made this rug. Sometimes even the speaker knows who performs an action, he /she chooses to use the passive with the by-phrase in order to focus the attention on the subject of a sentence.

This chicken was cooked by my Snoopy.


The passive form of Modals And Phrasal Modals Passive Form Tom

Modal

Be

Past participle

will

be

The window Children This book This letter Mary Fred

can’t

be

invited to the picnic. opened.

should

be

taught.

had better

be

returned.

ought to

be

sent.

has to is supposed to

be be

told told.

Past pass.form The letter This house

Modal

Have been

Past participle

should

have been

Must

have been

sent last week. Built over 200

Children This book

could’t ought to

have been have been

Offered the job Invited to the party.


Non Progressive Passive

  

The door is green. The door is old. The door is locked.

In this sentences old and green are adjectives and describe the door. Locked is a past participle and it is used as an adjective.

I locked the door five minutes ago. When the passive f orm is used to desThe door was locked by me five mi- cribe an existing situation or state. It´s called non– progressive passive. nutes ago.

Now the door is locked.

 

I don’t know where I am I am Prepositions other tan by can follow non-progressive passive verbs. lost. I can’t find my purse. It’s gone. I don’t know where I am. I am lost. Sentences through are examples of I can’t find my purse. It’s gone. idiomatic usage of the passive form in common, everyday English. I am finished with my work.


Common Non Progressive Passive Verbs + Prepositions

Many non - progressive Passive Verbs are followed by prepositions other than by.

Be concerned Be composed Be excited about Be made of Be tired Be worried against Be frightened be discriminated Be scared Of/by Be known for Be terrified Be prepared Be accustomed Be qualified Be addicted Be remembered Be commited Be well known Be connected Be divorced from Be dedicated Be exhausted Be devoted Be gone Be engaged Be protected Be exposed With/by Be dressed Be limited in Be interested Be married Be located Be opposed Be disappointed Be related Be involved In/with

Be acquainted Be associated Be cluttered Be done Be equipped Be filed Be finished Be pleased Be provided Be satisfied with Be annoyed Be bored With/by Be covered


The Passive with Get Get + Adjective

I’m getting hungry. Let’s eat son.  I stopped working because I got sleepy. 

Get may be followed by certain adjetives, Get gives the idea of change the idea of becoming, beginning to be, growing to be.

Common adjetives that follow get * angry * cold * fat * hungry *anxious *comfortable * full *late *bald *dark *good *light *better *dizzy *hard *mad *big *easy *healthy *nervous *busy *empty *heavy *noisy *chilly *famous *hot *old Get + Past Participle

I stopped working because I got tired.  Theay are getting married next month. 

*quiet *ready *rich *ripe *serious * sick *sleepy

*tall *thirsty *warm *well *wet *worse

Get may also be followed by a past participle. The past participle functions as an adjetive; it describes the subject. The passive with get is common in spoken English, but not in formal writing.


Common past participles with get

Get + Adjective Get accepted (for, into) dressed (in)

Get invited (to)

accustomed to

Get drunk (on)

Get involved (in, with)

acquainted (with)

Get elected (to)

Get killed (by, with)

Get arrested (for)

Get enganged (to)

Get lost (in)

Get bored (with)

Get excited (about)

confused (about)

Get finished (with)

crowded (with)

Get fixed (by)

divorced (from)

Get hurt (by)

Get married (to) Get prepared (for Get scared (of) Get sunburned Get worried (about)

done (with)

Get interested (in)


Participal Adjectives Get + Adjective 

The problem confuses the students The present participle serves as an

(a) It is a confusing problem  The students are confused by the problem. (b) They are confused students

The story amuses the children. ( c ) It is an amusing story. 

The children are amused by the story. (d) They are amused children. 

adjective with an active meaning. The noun it modifies performs an action. In (a): The noun problem does something; it confuses. Thus, it is described as a “confusing problem”. The past participle serves as an adjective with a passive meaning. In (b) The students are confused by something. Thus, they are describe as “confused students” In ( c): The noun story performs the action. In (d): The noun children receives the action.


1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8)

Chapter 12

Introduction Noun Clauses Beginning with a Question Word Noun Clauses Beginning with Whether or If Question Words Followed by Infinitive Noun Clauses Beginning with That Quoted Speech Reported Speech: Verb Forms in Noun Clauses Using ever Words


Noun Clauses Beginning Question Noun Clause Where does she live?

I don’t know where she lives.

What did he say ?

I couldn’t hear what he said.

When do they arrive?

Do you know when they arrive ?

S

I don’t know who lives there.

V

Who lives there ? Who is at the door?

I wonder who is at the door.

Where she lives is the object of the verb Know in a noun clause, the subject precedes the verb. Do not use question Word order in a noun clause. The Word order is the same in both the question and the noun clause because who is the subject in both.

Whose house is that ?

I don’t know who those men Those men is the subject of are. the question, so it is placed I wonder whose house that is. in front of the verb be in the noun clause.

What did she say ?

What she said surprised me.

What should they do?

What they should do is obvious

V

S

Who are those men ?

What she said is the subject of the sentence.


Noun Clauses Beginning with Whether or If Yes/No Question Will she come ? Does she need help ?

Noun Clause I don’t know whether she will come. I don’t know if she will come. I wonder whether he needs help.

When a yes/no question is changed to a noun clause, whether or if is used to introduce the clause.

I wonder if he needs help.

Note: Whether is more commonly if in formal English. Both whether and if are commonly used in speaking.

I wonder whether or not she will come.

Notice tha the noun clause is in the subject position.

I wonder whether she will come or not. I wonder if she will come or not. Whether she comes or not is Unimportant to me.

Notice that the noun clause is in the subject position.


Question Words Followed by Infinitives 

I don’t know what I should do.

Question words :

I don’t know what to do.

Pam can’t decide whether she should go or stay home.

Pam cant’t decide whether to go or stay home.

Please tell me how I can get to the bus station.

Please tell me how to get to the bus station.

Jim told us where we could find it.

Jim told us where to find it.

When

* Where

How

* Who

Whom

* Whose

That

* Which

Whether

may follow by infinitive. Each pair of sentences in the examples has the same meaning. Notice that the meaning expressed by the infinitive is either should or can / could.


Noun clauses beginning with That Verb + That clause a) I think that Bob will came. b) I think Bob will come.

    

Agree that Believe that Decide that Discover that Explain that

* feel that *find out that *forget that * hear that * hope that

In That Bob will come is noun clause. It is used as the object of the verb think. The Word that is usually omitted in speaking as (b) * know that *learn that *notice that *promise that *read that

* remember that * say that *tell someone that *think that *understand that

Person + be + adjective + that clause That clauses commonly follow cerJan is happy (that) Bob called.

tain adjectives, such as happy, when the subject refers to a person (S).


Noun clauses beginning with That    

I’m affraid that *Al is certain that * we’re happy that *Jan is sorry that I’m amazed that *Al is confident that *we’re pleased that *Jan is sure that I’m angry that * Al is disappointed that *We’re proud that *Jan is surprised I’m aware that *Al is glad that *We’re relieved that that * we’re relieved that

Person + be + adjective + that clause That clauses commonly follow cerJan is happy (that) Bob called.

tain adjectives, such as happy, when the subject refers to a person (S).

It * Be * adjective * that . Cluases It is clear (that) Ann likes her new job. That clauses commonly follor adjectives in sentences that begin with it * be, as in the example.

*It’s amazing that *It´s interesting that *It´s clear that *It’s likely that *It´s good that *It´s lucky that *It´s important that *It’s nice that

*It´s obvious that *It’s posible that *It’s strange that *It´s surpising that

*It´s true that *It´s understand that *It´s wonderful


Quoted Speech Quoted speech refers to reproducing words Exactly as they were originally spoken.

( “ ” ) are used.

Quoting One sentence (a) She said, “My brother is a student”.

In (a): Use a comma after she said. Capitalize the first Word of the quoted sentence. Put the final quotation marks outside the period at the end of the sentence.

(b) “My brother is a student,” she said.

In (b) Use a comma, not a period, at the end of the quoted sentence when it precedes she said.

( c) “My brother,” she said, “Is a student.”

In (c) If the quoted sentence is divide by she said, use a comma after the


Quoted Speech Quoting more than One sentence (d) “My brother is a student. He is attending a university.” She said.

( e) “My brother is a student.” she said. “He is attending a university”

Quoting a Question or an Exclamation (f) She asked, “When will you be here ?” (g) “When will you be here ?” she asked. (h) She said, “Watch out ! “

In (d) Quotation marks are placed at the beginning and end of the complete quote. NOtice: There are no quotation marks after student. In ( e) Since she said comes between two quoted sentences, the second sentence begins with quotation marks and a capital letter. In (f) The question mark is inside the closing quotation marks. In (g) Since a question mark is used, no comma is used before she asked. In (h) The exclamation point is inside the closing quotation marks.


Quoted Speech (i ) “My brother is a student,” said Anna. “My brother, ”said Anna, “Is a student.”

In (i) The noun subject Anna follows said. A noun subject often follows the verb when the subject and verb come in the middle or at the end of a quoted sentence. Note: A pronoun almost always precedes the verb. “My brother is a student, ” she said.

( j ) “Let’s leave, ” Whispered Dave.

Say and ask are the most commonly ( k ) “Please help me , ” begged the unfortuna- used quote verbs. te man. Some others, add, agree, announce, answer, beg , begin, comment, com( L )”Well,”Jack vega, “It´s a long story” plain, confess, continue , explain, inquqire, promise, remark, reply, respond, shout, suggest,


Reported Speech: Verb Forms in Noun Clauses Quoted speech “I watching TV every day” “I am watching TV every day.” “I have watched TV” “I Watch TV” “I will watch TV” “I am going to watch TV ” “I can watch TV” “I may watch TV”

Reported Speech She said she watched TV every day. She said she was watching TV every day. She said she had watched TV. She said she had watched TV. She said she would watch TV. She said she was going to watch TV. She said she could watch TV. She said she might watch TV.

Reported speech refers to using a noun If the reporting verb (the main verb of the clause to report what someone has said. sentence) Is siple past, the verb in the No quotation marks are used. noun clause will usually also be in a past form, as in these examples.


Reported Speech: Verb Forms in Noun Clauses Quoted speech “I should watch TV.” “I ought to watch TV” “ I might watch TV”

In Should, ought to , and might do not change.

Reported Speech She said she should watch TV. She said she ought to watch TV. She shaid she might watch TV:


Inmediate reporting Later reporting *What did the reacher just say *He said he wants us to read Chapter 6.

? I didn´t go to class yesterday. Did Mr. Jones give any assigments ? Yes. He said he wanted us to read Chapter 6.

Changing verbs to past forms in reported However, sometimes in spoken speech is common in both speaking and English, no change is made in the noun clause verb, especially if the writing. speaker is reporting something immediately or son after it was said. “The world is round.” “She said the world is round.”

Also, sometimes the present tense is retained even in formal English when the reported sentence deals with a general truth.


“ I watch TV every day.”

* She says she watches TV every day. * She has said that she watches TV every day. * She will say that she watches TV every day.

“Watch TV.”

* She told me to watch TV.

“ I watch TV every day.” “ I watch TV every day.”

Is reported speech, an imperative sentence is changed to an infinitive. Tell is used insteas of say as the reporting verb.

Using ever

Words

The following ever words give the

Idea of “any”. Each pair of sentences in the examples has the same meaning.

Whoever

(a) Whoever wants to come is welcome. Anyone who wants to come is welcome.

Whatever

He always says whatever comes into his mind.

Whenever

She can go wherever she wants to go. She can go anyplace that she wants to go.

However

The students my dress however they please.

He always says anything that comes into his mind.

The students my dress in any way that they please.


Chapter 13

1) Adjective Clause Pronouns Used as the Subject 2) Adjective Clause Pronouns Used as the Object of a Verb 3) Adjective Clause Pronouns Used as the Object of a Preposition 4) Using Whose 5) Using Where in Adjective Clauses 6) Using When in Adjective Clauses 7) Using Adjective Clauses to Modify Pronouns 8) Punctuating Adjective Clauses 9) Using Expressions of Quantity in Adjective Clauses 10) Using Which to Modify a Whole Sentence 11) Reducing Adjective Clauses to Adjective Phrases


Adjective Clause Pronouns Used as the Subject I thanked the woman I thanked the woman

I thanked a woman =a main clause who helped me = an adjective clause

I thanked the woman. She helped me. An adjective clause modifies a noun. (woman) Who helped me. That helped me. Who is the subject of the adjective clause. That is the subject of the adjective clause. The book which is on the table is mine Who is used for people. The book that is on the table is mine. Which is used for things. The book is mine. It is on the table. That used for both people and things.

Adjective Clause Pronouns Used as the Object a verb The man who(m) I saw was Mr. Jones. Notice that the adjective clause pronouns are The man that I saw was Mr. Jones. placed at the beginning of the clause. Who is The man … I saw was Mr. Jones. usually used instead of whom, especially in sp. The movie wasn’t very good. We saw it last night. The movie which we saw last night wasn’t very good.

An object pronoun is often omitted from an adjective clause. Who(m) is for people which used for things that used for both people and things.


Adjective Clause Pronouns Used as the Object of a Preposition She is the woman about whom I told you. She is the woman who(m) I told you about. She is the woman that I told you about.

In very formal English, the preposition comes at the beginning of the adjective clause,. Usually however, in everyday usage, the preposition comes after the subject and the verb of the adjective clause, as in the other examples.

The music to which we listened last night was good. The music which we listened to last night was good. The music that we listened to last night was good.

If the preposition comes at the beginning of the adjective clause, only whom or which may be used. A preposition is never inmediately followed by that or who.

The music O we listened to last night was good.


Using whose I know the man whose bicycle was stolen. ( I know the man . His bicycle was stolen.) The student whose composition I read writes well. (The student writes well. I read her composition.)

Whose is used to show possession. If carries the same meaning as other possessive pronouns used as adjectives; his , her , its, and their, and are connected to a noun. Both whose and the noun It is connected to are place at the beginning of the adjective clause. Whose cannot be ommited.

I worked at a Company whose employees wanted to form a union.

Whose usually modifies people, but it may also be used to modify things.

That’s the boy whose parents you met.

Whose and who’s have the same pronunciation.

That’s the boy who’s in my math class. That’s the boy who’s been living at our house since his mother was arrested.

Who’s can mean who is,.


Using Where in Adjective Clauses The building where he lives is very old The building in which he lives is very old . The building which he lives is very old. THe building that he lives is very old.. The building O he lives in is very old.

Where is used in an adjective clause to modify a place. If where is used, a preposition is not included in the adjective clause. If where is not used, the preposition must be included.

Using When in Adjective Clauses I’ll never forget the day when I met When is used in an adjective clause to modify a you. I’ll never forget the day on which noun of time.(year, day, time, century, etc.) I met you. The use of a preposition in an adjective clause I’ll never forget the day that I met you that modifies a noun of time is somewhat I’ll never forget the day O I met you. different from that in other adjective clauses, a proposition is used preceding which.


Using Adjective clauses to modify Pronouns *There is someone I want you to

meet. *Everything he said was pure nonsense. *Anybody who wants to come is welcome

Adjective clauses can modify indefinite pronouns. Object pronouns that, who (m),which are usually omitted in the adjective clause.

*Paula was the only one I now at Adjectives clauses can modify the

the party. one(s) and those. *Scholarships are available for those who need financial assitance. *It is I who am responsable.

He who laughs last laughs best.

Adjective clauses are almost never used to modify personal pronouns. He is used as an indefinite pronoun meaning anyone or any person.


端Punctuating Adjective Clauses General guidelines for the punctuation of adjective clauses: *Do not use commas if the adejective clause is necessary to identify the noun it modiies. *Use commas if the adjective clause simply gives additional information and is not necessary to identify the noun it modifies. *The profesor who teaches Chemistry 101 is No commas are used. The adjective clause is neccesary tio identify which profesor is an excellent lecturer. meant. * Professor who teaches Chemistry 101, is an Commas are used. The adjective clause is not necessary to identify Professor Wilson. excellent lecturer.

We already know who he is: he has a name. THe adjective clause simply gives additional information. *Hawaii, which consists of eight principal Use commas, if an adjective clause modifies a proper noun. That begins with a capital letter. islands, is a favorite vacation spot. If no commas are used, any posible proMrs. Smith, who is a retired teacher, does noun may be used in the adjective clause. Object pronouns may be omitted. volunteer work at the hospital. *Theman who(m)I met teaches chemistry If no comas are used, any posible pronou may be used in the adjective clause. *Mr. Lee, whom I met yesterday, teaches Objects pronouns may be omitted. Where commas are necessary, the pronoun that Chemistry. may not be used and object pronouns cannot omitted.


Using Expressions of Quantity in Adjective Clauses In my class there are 20 students. Most of them are from Asia. * In my class there are 20 students, most of whom are from Asia. * He gave several reasons, only a few

An adjective clause may contain an expression of quantity with of: some of, many of, most of, none of, two of, half of, both of, etc. The expression of quantity precedes the pronoun. Only whom, which, and whose are used in this pattern.

Using Which to Modify a whole Sentence Tom was late. That surprised me. Tom was late, which surprised me.

The pronouns that and this can refer to the idea of a whole sentence with comes before.

The elevator is out of order. This is too The Word that refers to the whole sentence Tom was late. bad. The elevator is our of order. This is too Similarly, and adjective clause with which may modify the idea of a whole sentence. Using bad. The elevator is out of order, which to modify a whole sentence is informal which is too bad. and occurs most frequently in spoken English. This structure is generally not apropriate in formal writing. Whenever it is written, however it is preceded by a comma to reflect a pause, in speech.


Reducing Adjective Clauses to Adjective Phrases CLAUSE: A clause is a group of relaCLAUSE: ted words that contains a subject and The girl who is sitting next to me is Mai. a verb. The girl (whom) I saw was Mai. PHRASE: A phrase is a group of relaPHRASE: ted words that does not contain a The girl sitting next to me is Mai. subject and a verb.

CLAUSE: PHRASE: The man who is talking to John is from The man talking to John is from Korea. Korea. The ideas presented in that book are good. The ideas which are presented in that Ann is the woman responsable for the error. book are good. English has an alphabet consisting of 26 letters. Ann is the woman responsable for the Anyone wanting to come with us is welcome. error. English has an alphabet that consists of 26 letters.


Chapter 14

1) Gerunds: Introduction 2) Using Gerunds as the Objects of Prepositions 3) Common Verbs followed by Gerunds 4) Go + Gerunds 5) Special Expressions Followed by ing 6) Common Verbs Followed by Infinitives 7) Common Verbs Followed by Either Infinitives or Gerunds 8) It + Infinitives; Gerunds and Infinitives as Subjects 9) Reference List of Some Verbs Followed by Gerunds 10) Reference List of Some Verbs Followed by Infinitives


Gerunds: Introduction Playing tennis is fun. We enjoy playing tennis. He’s excited about playing tennis.

A gerund is the ing form of a verb used as a noun, a gerund is used in the same way as a noun, as a subject or as an object. Playing is a gerund.

Using Gerunds as the Objects of Prepositions We talked about going to Canada for our vacation.

A gerund is frequently used as the object of a preposition.

Sue is in charge of organizing the meeting.

To is a prepositions, not part of an infinitive form, so a gerund follows.

I’m interested in learning more about Negative form, not precedes a gerund. your work. I’m used to sleeping with the window open. I’m accustomed to sleeping with the window open. I look forward to going home next month.


Common preposition combinations followed by gerunds Be excited Be worried ———about doing it Complain Dream Talk Think ————about of doing it Apologize Blame someone Forgive someone Have an excuse Have a reason Be responsable Thank someone ——-for doing it Be tired Insist on doing it ——of from doing it Be accustomed In addition Be committed Be devoted Look forward Be used —————- to doing it

Keep someone Prevent someone Prohibit someone Stop someone

——————from doing it

Be interested Believe Participate Succed

———————— in doning it

Be accused Be capable Be guilty Instead Take advantege Take care

———————- of doing it


Common Verbs Followed by Gerunds I enjoy playing tennis. V G Joe quit smoking. Joe gave up smoking.

Gerunds are used as the objects of certain verbs. Enjoy is followed by a gerund (playing.) Enjoy is not followed by an infinitive. The examples have the same meaning. Some phrasal verbs. Are followed by gerund. See these phrasal verbs in parentheses below.

Verb + gerund Enjoy Appreciate Mind Quit (give up) Finish (get through) Stop avoid

Postpone (put off) Delay Keep (keep on) Consider Discuss Mention suggest


Go + Gerund Did you go shopping ? We went fishing yersterday.

Go is followed by a gerund in certain idiomatic expressions to express, for the most part, recreational activities.

Go + gerund

go running

go biking go birdwatching go boating go bowling go camping go canoeing/kayaking go dancing go fishing go hiking go hunting go jogging

go sailing go shopping go sighteseeing go skating go skateboarding go skiing go sledding go snorkeling go swimming go window shopping


Special Expressions followed by ing We had fun. We had a good time — playing volleyball I had trouble I had difficulty I had a hard time I had a difficult time —finding his house

IING forms – follow certain special expresisons: Have fun/a good time + ing Have trouble/diffuculty + ing Have a hard tiem /difficult time + ing

Sam spends most of his time studying. }I waste a lot of time watching TV. She sat at her desk writing a letter. I stood there wondering what todo next. He is lying in bed Reading a novel. When I walked into my office, I found George using my telephone. When I walked into my office, I caught a thief looking through my desk drawers.

Spend + expression of tiem or money + ing Waste + expression of time or money + ing Sit +expression of place + ing Stand +expression of place + ing Lie+ expression of place + ing Find+ pronoun + ing Catch + pronoun+ ing.


Common verbs followed by infinitives VERB + INFINITIVE I hope to see you again son. He promised to be here by ten. He promised not to be late.

An infinitive = to  the simple form of a verb.  Some verbs are followed inmediately by an infinitive. Negative form not precedes the infinitive.

Common verbs followed by infinitives: Hope to do something + promise to Plan to + agree to Intend to + decide to Offer to + refuse to Seem to +appear to Offer to + ask to Expect to +want to Would you like to + need to

VERB + OBJECT + INFINITIVE

Common verbs followed by nouns and Infinitives: Tell someone to +invite someone to Advise someone to +encourgase some Remind someone to +warn someone to Require someone to + order someone to Forcé someone to +ask someone to Expect someone to +need someone to

Mr. Lee told me to be here at ten o’clock. The police ordered the driver to stop. Some verbs are followed by a noun object and then an infinitive, these verbs are followed inmediately by and infinitive when they are used in the passive.


Common verbs followed by Either Infinitives or Gerunds Some verbs can be followed by either with difference and no difference in

and infinitive or a gerund, sometimes meaning.

GROUP A: VERB + INFINITIVE OR GERUND WITH NO DIFFERENCE IN MEANING Begin like hate start love Can’t stand continue prefer

The verbs may be followed by either an infinitive or a gerund with Little or no difference in meaning. It began to rain. It began raining. It was beginning to rain.

VERB+INFINITIVE OR GEURND, WITH A DIFFERENCE IN MEANING Remember regret stop forget Try Judy alwasy remembers to lock the door. Sam often forgets to lock the door. I remember seeing the Alps for the first time I regret to tell yu that you failed the test. I’m trying tolear English.

May be followed by either an infinitive or a gerund, but the meaning is different. REMEMBER +INFINITIVE—remember to perform FORGET + GERUND– forget something that happened in the past.


Infinitive; Gerunds and Infinitives As Subjects It is difficult to learn a second language. Often an infinitive phrase is used with it as the subject of a sentence. The Word If refers to and has the same meaning as the infinitive phrase at the end of the sentence. Learning a second language is difficult.

A gerund phrase is frequently used as the

To learn a second language is difficult.

An infinitive can also be used as the subject of a sentence, but far more commonly as infinitive phrase is used with if.

It is easy for Young children to learn a second language.

The phrase for soemone may be used to specify exactly who the speaker is talking about.

Learning a second language is easy for Young children. To learn a second language is easy for Young children.


Reference List of Some Verbs followed by Gerunds Verbs with a bullet can also be followed By infinitives. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18.

admit Advise Anticípate Appreaciate Avoid Can’t bear Begin Complete Consider Continue Delay Deny Discuss Dislike Enjoy Finish Forget Hate

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18.

He admitted stealing the money. S’llhe advised waiting until tomorrow. I anticípate having a good tiem on vacat I appreciated hearing from them. He avoided answering my question. I can’t bear waitingo in long lines. It began raining. I finally completed writing my term I will consider going with you. He continued speaking. She denied committing the crime. They discussed opening a new business I dislike driving long distances. We enjoyed visiting them. She finisihed studying about ten. I’ll never forget visiting Napoleon’s tomb I hate makins silly mistakes. I can’t help worrying about it.


Reference List of Some Verbs followed by Infinitives Verbs with a bullet can also be followed

By gerunds.

1.

Afford

1.

I can’t afford to buy it.

2.

Agree

2.

They agreed to help us.

3.

Appear

3.

She appears to be tired.

4.

Arrange

4.

I’ll arrange to meet you at the airport.

5.

Ask

5.

He asked to come with us.

6.

Can’t bear

6.

I can’t bear to wait in long lines.

7.

Beg

7.

He begged to come with us.

8.

Begin

8.

It began to rain.

9.

Care

9.

I don’t care to see that show.

10. Claim

10. She claims to know a famous movie star

11. Consent

11. She finally consented to marry him.

12. Continue

12. He continued to speak.

13. Decide

13. I have decided to leave on Monday.

14. Demand

14. I demand to know who is responsable.

15. deserve

15. SHe deserves to win the prize.


Chapter 15

1) Infinitve of purpose: In order to 2) Adjectives followed by infinitives 3) Using infinitives with Too and Enough 4) Passive Infinitives and Gerunds 5) Using Gerunds or Passive Infinitives Following Need 6) Using verbs of perception 7) Using the Simple Form after Let and Help 8) Using Causative Verbs: Make, have , get.


Infinitive of Purpose: In order to *He came here in order to study English. *He came here to study English.

In order to i s used to express purpose. It answers the question “Why” in often omitted. To express purpose , use in order to , not for, with a verb.

*I went to the store for some bread. *I went to the store to buy some bread.

For can be used to express purpose,but it is a preposition and is followed by a noun object.

Adjectives followed by Infinitives 

We were sorry to hear the bad news

I was surprised to see Ted at the meeting.

Certain adjectives can be inmediately followed by infinitives, in general these adjectives describe a person or persons, not a thing. Many of these adjectives describe a person’s feeling or attitudes.

Common adjectives followed by infin. 

glad to * sorry to

* ready to

Lucky to *fortunate to*proud to

*anxious to

*prepared to * certain to

*determined to * unlikely to * amazed to


Using Infinitives with Too and Enough 

That box is too heavy for Bob to lift.

That box is very heary, but Bob can lift it.

In the speaker’s mind, the use of too implies a negative result.

I am strong enough to lift that box.

Too heavy . It is imposible for Bob to lift that box.

. I have enough strength to lift that box.

Very heavy. It is posible but difficult for Bob to lift that box.

I have strength enough to lift that box.

Enough follos an adjectives , precedes a noun

Passive Infinitives and Gerunds * I didn’t expect to be asked to his party. 

I enjoy being asked to his party.

My house needs painting.

My house needs to be painted.

TO BE + PAST PARTICIPLE Usually an infinitive follos need. In certain circumstances, a gerund may follow need. The gerund carries a passive meaning. Usually the situations involve fixing for improving something.


Using verbs of Perception 

I saw my friend run down the Street. Certain verbs of perception are followed by either the simple form or the ing form of a I saw my friend running down the verb. Street.

I Heard the rain fall on the root.

When I walked into the apartment. I Sometimes not always ther is a clear diffeHeard my roommate singing in the rence between using the simple form ing shower. form. The use of ING form the idea that an activity is already in progress .

Using the Simple Form after Let and Help  

My father lets me drive his car.

Let is followed by the simple form of a verb, I let my friend borrow my bicycle not an infinitive.

My brother helped me wash my car.

My brother helped me to wash My car.

Help is often followed by the simple form of a verb. Although less common aninfinitive is algo possible.


Using Causative Verbs: Make, Have, Get       

I made my brother carry my suitcase. Make, have and get can be used to express I had my brother carry my suitcase. the idea that X cause Y to do something. When they are used as causative verbs, their I got my brother to carry my suitcase meaning are similar but not identical. FORMS: Makes Has Gets

* do soemething * do something * to do something

CAUSATIVE MAKE  Mrs. Lee made her son clean his room.  Sad movies make me cry.

Causative make is followed by the simple form of a verb, not an infinitive.

CAUSATIVE HAVE  I had the plumber repair the leak.  Jane had the waiter bring her some tea.

Causative have is followed by the simple form of a verb, not an infinitive.

CAUSATIVE GET * The students got the teacher to dismiss class early. * Jack got his Friends to play soccer with him after school. PASSIVE CAUSATIVES:  I had my watch repaired by someone  I got my watch reapired by someone.

Causative get is followed by an infinite. The students managed to persuade the teacher to let them leave early. The past participle is used after have and get to give a passive meaning. I causet my watch to be repaired by someone.

Grammar magazine  

Final Project English Course PEM in English VN

Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you