Issuu on Google+

TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

PRACTICE REPORT

Lithuania (Klaipeda), 2013 1


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

List of participants

Name, surname

Institution

1.

Farangiz Yusupova

I. Kant Baltic Federal University, Kaliningrad

2.

Mariia Kapustina

I. Kant Baltic Federal University, Kaliningrad

3.

Sergey Shabarshin

I. Kant Baltic Federal University, Kaliningrad

4.

Liubov Kuleshova

I. Kant Baltic Federal University, Kaliningrad

5.

Anastasiia Aslanova

6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19.

Signature

State Marine Technical University of St. Petersburg (SMTU) State Marine Technical University of St. PeAnna Zakovranova tersburg (SMTU) Russian State Hydrometeorological University Elena Rumyantseva (RSHU), St. Petersburg Russian State Hydrometeorological University Dmitrii Frolov (RSHU), St. Petersburg Russian State Hydrometeorological University Igor Vasilevich (RSHU), St. Petersburg Russian State Hydrometeorological University Anna Sokolovskaia (RSHU), St. Petersburg Russian State Hydrometeorological University Aleksandra Karpova (RSHU), St. Petersburg Russian State Hydrometeorological University Anna Studenikina (RSHU), St. Petersburg Russian State Hydrometeorological University Igor Mishurov (RSHU), St. Petersburg Kristina Stekliannikova Russian State Hydrometeorological University (RSHU), St. Petersburg Russian State Hydrometeorological University Egor Artemev (RSHU), St. Petersburg Russian State Hydrometeorological University Kseniia Zayarnaiia (RSHU), St. Petersburg Russian State Hydrometeorological University Dmitrii Ignatov (RSHU), St. Petersburg Russian State Hydrometeorological University Alena Timoshina (RSHU), St. Petersburg Saint-Petersburg State University (SPbSU), St. Olga Karpichenko Petersburg

2


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

20.

Anastasiia Fedorova

21.

Giulia Mussap

Saint-Petersburg State University (SPbSU), St. Petersburg University of Cadiz Practice tutors

Name, surname

Institution

1.

Nikolai Popov

2.

Alexandra Ershova

3.

Alexander Kileso

Russian State Hydrometeorological University (RSHU), St. Petersburg Russian State Hydrometeorological University (RSHU), St. Petersburg I. Kant Baltic Federal University, Kaliningrad

4.

Loreta Kelpšaitė

Klaipeda University, Lithuania

5.

Inga Dailidienė

Klaipeda University, Lithuania

6.

Vitalijus Kondrat

Klaipeda University, Lithuania

7.

Toma Mingėlaitė

Klaipeda University, Lithuania

8.

Edvardas Valaitis

Klaipeda University, Lithuania

9.

Edgaras Luksys

Klaipeda University, Lithuania

10.

Aidas Figoras

Klaipeda University, Lithuania

Signature

3


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

Table of content

1. Introduction 2. Physical – geographical characterization of the Baltic Sea 3. Geomorphology of the Baltic Sea coasts 4. Monitoring of Baltic Sea 5. Measurements during practice: 5.1measurements of main water quality parameters; 5.2 shoreline changes; 5.3 beach profiling. 6. Conclusion

4


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

Introduction. Oceanography practice is important part for high-skilled specialists training. It is organized by Lithuanian and foreign universities, marine research centre, in Environmental Protection Agency's department, Hydrometeorological service units, and other institutions or organizations on a contractual basis. Students acquire practical skills while working with advanced equipment and techniques, using new methods, organizing work and during the scientific-diplomatic interaction with other agencies and institutions. Students perform oceanographic, marine environmental researches, also study scientific literature and prepare scientific reports. Due to this practice, there is the real ability to estimate and critically valuate differences in natural and living environment and humanity’s world. Also students will be able to apply the latest geographical research methods, general physical principles during the analysis of geospheres, sea processes in local, regional and global level. Young scientists should be conduct a search for literature, to use databases, expert systems and other sources of information, to interpret and to make a compendium on certain topics. Trainees should acquire the skills of planning and carrying out analytical and experimental research. The program of this practice is set to the involvement of young scientists in science and further motivation of the students. During practice, students can express their creativity and resourcefulness, inventiveness and innovation. Practice goals - to consolidate the knowledge, abilities and skills while monitoring, analyzing, during self-involvement and taking the practice experience from the institution where the practice is performed, also to assimilate modern techniques, performance skills and work organization methods. Main topics of practice are: 1.

Physical – geographical characterization of the Baltic Sea. 5


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

2.

Geomorphology of the Baltic Sea coasts, coastal protected methods.

3.

Monitoring of the Baltic Sea.

4.

Measurements

6


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

1. Physical – geographical characterization of the Baltic Sea. 1.1 Geographical placement of Baltic Sea Baltic Sea is small and shallow, rather a series of basins, and connected to the main Atlantic Ocean only via the Danish Straits. The exchange of water through these straits is quite limited, and as a consequence of the positive freshwater balance the Baltic Sea water mass is brackish, with the mean salinity about 7%-one-fifth of the salinity of normal ocean waters. This elongated sea lies between maritime temperate and continental sub-Arctic climate zones. In winter it is partly icecovered and during the most severe winters it is completely frozen over. The variable coastal geomorphology and the wide archipelago areas give the Baltic Sea its individual appearance. Pic. 1.1 View of Baltic Sea from the space

7


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

Table 1.1 Comparison between the Baltic Sea and other intra-continental seas and large lakes (M.Lepparanta and K.Myberg 2009)

Mean salinity

Fresh water

(%)

bud get

54

7

+

Half

436

1,197

20

+

Northeast

Gulf of Ob

41

12

5

+

All

60o N 20o E 43o N 35o E 73o N 74o E

Chesapeake Bay

12

6

15

+

Shores

38o N 76o W

Hudson Bay

1,232

128

30

+

All

58o N 85o W

Red Sea

438

491

40

-

None

22o N 38o E

Persian Gulf

239

25

40

-

None

27o N 52o E

Caspian Sea

374

211

12

0

North

43o N 50o E

Lake Superior

82

149

<0.1

0

All

48o N 88o W

Area

Mean depth

(x10 3km2)

(m)

Baltic Sea

393

Black Sea

Basin

Ice cover on average

Location centre (lat., long.)

The present Baltic Sea is classified as a small, intra-continental sea of the Atlantic Ocean. The Baltic Sea consists of three parallel straits: the Little Belt, the Great Belt, and the Oresund (sometimes called â&#x20AC;&#x153;the Sound'' in English language texts), and together they constitute the Danish Straits. After the boundary comes the Kattegat, which is the transition zone between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea and between brackish and oceanic watermasses. In the north, the Kattegat extends to Skagerrak, which is the outermost part of the North Sea and has an oceanic watermass.

8


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

Pic. 1.2 Map of the Baltic Sea (www.helcom.ru)

East and north of the Gotland Sea there are three major gulfs: the Gulf of Riga, the Gulf of Finland, and the Gulf of Bothnia. The Gulf of Bothnia is the northernmost part of the Baltic Sea, surrounded by Finland and Sweden. It is a large water body consisting of four basins: the Aland Sea, the Archipelago Sea, the Sea of Bothnia, and the Bay of Bothnia. The Gulf of Riga is surrounded by Estonia and Latvia and is relatively isolated from the Gotland Sea. The Gulf of Finland is an 9


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

eastward elongated basin with no sill toward the Gotland Sea surrounded by Estonia, Finland, and Russia. Table 1.2 The principal characteristics of the Baltic Sea (the open ocean boundary is taken as the southern edge of the Kattegat) (M.Lepparanta and K.Myberg 2009)

Quantity

Value

Surface area

392,978 km 2

Mean depth/maximum depth

54.0/459 m

Volume

21,205 km 3

Surface area of drainage basin

1,633,290 km 2

Age

7,500 years as a brackish basin, 2,000 years at the present salinity level

Actual land uplift

0 to 9 mm/year

Water renewal time

50 years

Mean salinity

7.4% (1/5 of normal ocean salinity)

Salinity range

0-32%

Salinity in the Golf and Sea (surface/bottom)

6-7%/11-13%

Annual ice extent

12.5%-100% of the total area of the Baltic

Annual ice season

5-7 Sea months

Number of coastal countries

9

Number of countries in the drainage basin

14

Population in the drainage basin

85 million people

The surface area of the Baltic Sea is 392,978 km2 and the mean depth is 54 m. The North Sea is considerably larger (750,000 km2) and deeper (95 m). In the Atlantic Ocean the surface area is 88 million km2 and the mean depth is 3,300 m, while in the (European) Mediterranean Sea these numbers are 2.5 million km2 and 1,500 m. Thus, the surface area and mean depth of the Baltic Sea are just 0.5% and 1.7% of the Atlantic dimensions or 16% and 3.6% of those of the Mediterranean Sea. Land 10


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

uplift is still rather strong in the Baltic Sea region, non-existent in the south but up to 9 mm per year in the north. The freshwater budget is strongly positive due to river discharge, and the water mass is consequently brackish. Salinity decreases from 25% in the Danish Straits to zero in river mouths, and the water renewal time is some 50 years. Occasionally, during strong inflow events, salinity has been as high as 32% in the Danish Straits. The location of the Baltic Sea is at the edge of the seasonal sea ice zone of the World Ocean, and climate variations show up strongly in the ice season. The length of the ice season is 5-7 months, and the maximum annual ice extent has ranged within 12.5%-100% of the surface area of the Baltic Sea. The corresponding averages are 6.4 months and 45%. (M.Lepparanta and K.Myberg 2009) That way, the Baltic Sea is a unique basin of the World Ocean. Nine countries (Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, and Sweden) have coastlines in the Baltic Sea, and apart from Russia all belong to the European Union. The drainage basin area covers about four times the area of the Baltic Sea and includes five more countries (Belarus, Czech Republic, Norway, Slovakia, and Ukraine) in addition to the coastal countries. The population of the drainage basin totals some 85 million. So very important to control activities around the Baltic Sea. 1.2 Climate and it’s trend 1.2.1 Atmospheric circulation of the Northern Hemisphere The climate of the Baltic Sea basin (i.e., the Baltic Sea and its catchment area), located between 50 °N and 70 °N in the coastal zone of the Eurasian continent, is embedded in the general atmospheric circulation system of the Northern Hemisphere with mean westerly air flow of annually varying intensity. The strong westerly air flow provides for maritime, humid air mass transport particularly into the southwestern and southern parts of the Baltic Sea basin, while in the east and north the maritime westerly 11


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

air flow is weakened, providing for increasingly continental climate conditions. There are two main climatic types dominant in much of the Baltic Sea basin: 1) most of the middle and northern areas are dominated by the temperate coniferous-mixed forest zone with long, cold, wet winters, where the mean temperature of the warmest month is no lower than 10°C and that of the coldest month is no higher than 3°C, and where the rainfall is, on average, moderate in all seasons; and 2) much of the southwestern and southern areas belong to the marine west-coast climate, where prevailing winds constantly bring in moisture from the oceans and the presence of a warm ocean current provides for moist and mild winters, with frequent thawing periods even in mid-winter. 1.2.2 Atmospheric circulation and wind patterns and their changes over the Baltic Sea basin. The Baltic Sea basin is an area of permanent exchange of air masses of different features, resulting in great variability of weather, from day to day and from year to year. Major air pressure systems known to affect the weather and circulation in the Baltic Sea basin are the low-pressure system usually found near Iceland (Icelandic Low) and the high-pressure system in the region over the Azores Islands (Azores High). In addition, the winter high/summer low over Russia may influence the climate and circulation in the Baltic Sea basin. These systems dominate the long-term mean surface air pressure and related mean circulation patterns over Northern Europe, showing a distinct annual cycle. A general description of this annual cycle since 1961 shows that, in the cool season of the year, starting in September, southwesterly air flow prevails, intensifying in October. The mean southwesterly flow is especially intensive in January and February, when the core pressure of the Icelandic Low is deepest and the anticyclone (region of high pressure) over Russia as well as the Azores High is well developed.

12


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

Pic. 1.3 North Atlantic Oscillation (HECOM,2007)

The strongest pressure gradient forms over the Baltic Sea basin during this season. The intensity of mean air flow over the Baltic Sea region decreases in March and becomes even weaker in April, when the Azores High starts to stretch into parts of midEurope; the mean flow over the southern Baltic Sea basin becomes weakly anticyclonic (clockwise, in the Northern Hemisphere) and, as a consequence, the mean wind direction changes to west in the north and northwesterly in the southern parts of the basin. The weakest mean pressure gradient occurs during May. In June and July, the direction of the mean air flow is northwesterly to westerly. Thus, the Icelandic Low dominates the basin from October to March, while during May to August particularly the southern part of the basin is influenced by an extension of the Azores High. The strength of the surface air pressure gradient between the Icelandic Low and the Azores High, termed the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), has often been used to characterize the circulation pattern and strength over Northern Europe (HELCOM, 2007). Climate in Klaipeda Processes in the SE part of the Baltic Sea

along the Lituanian coast and

Curonian Lagoon are linked with climate change. In the present time, new results 13


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

were obtained on the influence of global climate change on the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea and Curonian Lagoon. The main conclusions of the study are based on time series for the period 1961â&#x20AC;&#x201C;2005 and can be summarized as follows (Inga Dailidiene at all, 2012). The study revealed clear trends in the behavior of the hydrometeorological parameters. The results indicate the trends of increasing temperature, Baltic Sea and Curonian Lagoon surface temperatures, and sea level since the middle of the 20th century, while the sea-ice cover duration showed a decreasing trend.

Pic. 1.4 Average annual air temperature in Klaipeda, 1977-1971 (http://data.oceaninfo.info)

Impact of climate change: sea level rise, changes in vegetation, changes in precipitation patterns, increasing aridness in some areas and more frequent floods in other. More severe meteorological phenomena are observed around the globe: more frequent and more intense tropical cyclones, tornadoes, thunderstorms, cold and heat waves, etc. Air temperature observations in Lithuania started in 1770 in Vilnius University. More than 240 years of observations gives a good insight into natural and anthropogenic

14


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

causes of climate variability. Rapid increase in average annual temperature in Lithuania is observed in last 30 years.

Pic. 1.5 Average annual sea water level in Klaipėda, 1898-2010 (http://data.oceaninfo.info)

Average annual temperature, compared with the beginning of 20th century, has increased 0.7-0.9 °C. Which leads to more frequent droughts (for example 1992, 1994, 2002, 2006 summer seasons). Changes in precipitation patterns are not homogenous – in some parts of Lithuania it is increasing, in other – decreasing. However, these changes are not very significant. There is an observed tendency of precipitation increase during cold season and decrease during warm season. Liquid precipitation is becoming more frequent in cold season.

15


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

Pic. 1.6 Wind speed, 1977-1992 (http://data.oceaninfo.info)

Studies made in Lithuania suggest that biggest changes in precipitation patterns will be during winter season and will not be so explicit in summer. Precipitation can double in Klaipėda – by the end of century precipitation amount can increase 16-22% compared to the end of 20th century. In Vilnius changes will be not so significant – projected increase is about 9-10 %. Severe thundershowers will be more frequent on the coast (> 30 %) and in Žemaitija uphills. Changes in temperature and precipitation patterns will affect different economical activities and natural ecosystems. Coastal region is one of the most vulnerable regions in Lithuania. Lithuanian coast is in the south-eastern region of Baltic Sea which will undergo biggest changes in 21st century, due to the sink of terrain and sea level rise. Pessimistic scenario suggests that water level in this region can rise by 0,5-1,0 m. In that case, there would be high risk of flooding urban areas in Klaipėda and Palanga. Also wind surge could disturb the port activities in Klaipėda more frequently. To avoid negative impacts on social-economical activities, the existing infrastructure should be improved to adapt to the sea level rise. 16


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

To reduce the impacts of climate extremes it is important to issue timely warnings for the public. Daily meteorological and hydrological observations and forecasts become more and more valuable. With technical improvements should come social and behavioral changes, that society would be capable to adapt and take responsibility for the climate actions (LHMS, 2012). 1.3 General characteristics of the water structure

Pic. 1.7 General characteristics of water structure (O.Kuznetsova,2012)

The Baltic Seaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s hydrological structure features are due to the wide range of factors that create special conditions. These are, first of all, heat and fresh water fluxes through the water surface, river flow and water exchange with the North Sea. 17


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

River inflow totals about 430-470 km3, with the northern areas contributing the greatest proportion of the total inflow. Annual precipitation over the whole Baltic Sea roughly equals evaporation so that freshwater input can be equated to river runoff. The apparent dominance of the freshwater balance receipt component (river runoff + precipitation) over discharge (evaporation) over the sea basin is the cause of the permanent existence of a three-layer vertical structure of water. Fresh upper layer and salt deep layer, which are separated by thin layer with great vertical gradients of salinity (halocline) are distinguished. This is due to the inflow of high salinity waters from the North Sea to the deep layers of the Baltic Sea through the Danish straits. Seasonal fluctuations of heat transfer through the sea surface result in considerable changes in the vertical thermal structure of the upper freshened layer from winter to summer. Rapid srping-sommer heating of the upper layer leads to the formation layer with high vertical temperature gradient (thermocline) at its lower boundary. The lower part of the freshened layer between the thermocline and halocline (cold intermediate layer) is found in thermal isolation with water temperature close to winter values. Thereby, by the end of the summer vertical density structure of waters in the Baltic Sea is characterized by five layers, which have the following characteristics in its south-eastern part (from top to bottom):• The warmest upper (16-18 ° C) and the most freshened (6.5-7.5% 0) mixed layer with a thickness 10-20 m;• thermocline layer with a thickness i20-25 m;• cold intermediate layer thickness is 30-40 m with a temperature 34 ° C and salinity 7.5-8.5% 0;• halocline layer, thickness 20-30 m,• deep layer with a temperature 4-6 ° C and salinity from 9 to 16% and above, the upper boundary of which lies at 60-70 m to 90-100 m depth and the thickness is determined by the depth of the bottom (in the depressions it can be more than 100 m).Cold intermediate water layer 18


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

is appears from March to November at depths 30-40 m in south-western part and between 40-60 m in the middle part of the Baltic Sea. Maximal thickness and length it has in spring and appears over the entire area at depths more than 60 m. Center of cold intermediate water layer which is determined by water temperature minimum is located at depth 40-50 m in spring, during the summer deepens to 50-60 m and in autumn appears at depth about 60 m. In autumn and winter as a result of convective mixing induced by surface cooling, the first three layers are merged into a single mixed layer thickness of 70-80 m, with characteristics similar to those named for the cold intermediate layer, except for the lower limit of the temperature near to freezing point (-0.3 - 0.4 Co). The layers of thermo-and halocline in the Baltic Sea are characterized by high values of hydrostatic stability of water, effectively preventing the vertical turbulent exchange of physical, chemical and biological properties of water between the upper, intermediate and deep layers.

Pic. 1.8 TS-diagram of the Baltic Sea (IOW, monitoring data, May 2005-2006) and vertical distribution temperature in different month (Hydrometeorology-hydrochemistryâ&#x20AC;Ś, 1992, data by Piechura, Gulf of Danzig)

19


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

Temperature Characteristics water temperature in the coastal region were obtained by longterm observations series at a coastal station in Klaipeda (1961-1975). In table 1-3 extreme and normal monthly values of surface temperature are shown. Table 1.3 Long-term mean and extreme month value (as well as day-extremes) of surface water tempoersture (http://data.oceaninfo.info)

Temperature

Month 1

Mean Max Min

11 111 IV

V

VI VII VIII IX

DayX

XI XI Yea ExI r tremes

Klaipeda (1961 —1975) 1,0 1,0 1,4 5,0 10,4 14,2 17,4 17,7 14,8 10,3 5,7 2,4 8,4 2,6 1,8 3,4 7,1 12,0 17,5 19,3 19,0 16,7 12,2 7,0 3,9 -0,3 -0,2 -0,2 2,8 8,2 11,2 16,0 15,5 13,0 9,0 4,1 0,8

25,2 -0,5

Minimal values of water temperature are observed (in fact, freezing temperature) in January and February.

Average distribution of mountly max-temperature in June

and July is rather similar. Absolute daily maximum values change from 23,9 to 25,20С, and absolute daily minimum variations (-0,5-0,90С) are limited by freezing temperatures. That cause general Baltic feature: small variability of thermal regime during cold period. In winter and summer south-eastern part of the sea is characterized by maximal surface temperature. In coastal area in winter and summer temperature is 0.5-1.0 0С less. However, in whole temperature contrasts are small in these seasons throughout this part of the Baltic Sea. In winter massive cold quasihomogeneous layer appears that takes all water layer up to bottom influenced by intensive cooling of the upper layer and convection. At that time faint temperature inversion appears here with temperature decrease approaching to surface. From April to August uneven water heating takes place. It ledes to formation of many temperatutre layers in August, when vertical temperature 20


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

gradient in thermocline come up to 1,ОС/m. In bottom layer slow heating continues to October. Autumnal cooling of upper layers in November results in temperature homogenization throughout the layer with subsequent reduction to winter value. Salinity Long-term characteristics of water salinity in the coastal region of the southeastern Baltic depend on nearness of freshening point source very much. Therefore these characteristics are very different at a distance of 10 km. As shown in table … midyear salinity values in Klaipeda coastal region are in 1.7% less than in Swetlororsk outskirts. At the same time, the range of annual salinity cycle in Klaipeda-area is 5 times more and range of day-extremums is 2.5 times more than in Swetlogorsk area.

Table. 2.4 Long-term mean and extreme month value (as well as day-extremes) of surface (http://data.oceaninfo.info)

Salinity

Month

1

11 111 IV

Mean 6,46 6,04 4,93 3,67 Max 7,65 6,96 6,17 5,32 Min 3,46 4,31 3.05 1,28 Mean 7,59 7,56 7,51 7,26 Max 8,74 8,51 8,49 7,88 Min 6,79 6,96 6,85 6,75

V

VI VII VIII IX

DayExtremum X

Klaipeda (1960—1976) 4,86 6,00 6,38 5,53 6,19 5,77 6,60 6,87 6,69 6,65 7,01 6,59 1,15 2,63 4,35 3,98 3,61 3,19 Swetlogorsk (1960—-1976) 7,66 7,31 7,18 7,18 7,23 7,30 7,82 7,84 7,60 7,61 7,72 7,84 6,05 6,00 6,65 6,82 6,86 6,81

XI XII Yea r 6,18 5,90 5,66 6,92 7,22 4,19 3,22

10,12 0.00

7,28 7,28 7,36 8,04 7,80 6,94 6,88

9,11 5,05

Horizontal structure of salinity distribution in subsurface layer has single-type character during all seasons. Salinity values go up from north-east to south-west. This is due with disposition of general source of desalination and salinization. General difference between summer and winter distribution of surface salinity is expansion of area with salinity smaller 7%о to the south. 21


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

Transparency Water transparency decreases from center of the Baltic Sea to coast. The most transparent water appears at the center and in the Gulf of Bothnia, where water is bluegreen. In coastal region water is yellow-green and sometimes has brownish tint. Minimal transparency appears in summer because of phytoplankton bloom. Eutrophication Hydrological regime changes because of flow quality alteration. In recent decades in the Baltic’s basin mineral fertilizers usage has increased significantly. And because of this nitrogen and phosphor salt wash out from the fields a lot. Rivers and seas water obtain superfluous quantity of nourishments and in summer eutrophication appears: smallest algae’s of phytoplankton develop intensively. 1.4 Geology and tectonics of the Baltic Sea. The Baltic Sea depression has a tectonic origin, which is a structural element of the Baltic Shield and its slopes. The average water depth is 51 meters. In areas of shoals around the islands there are small depths (up to 12 meters). There are several basins, which reach depths of 200 meters. The deepest basin is Landsortskaya (58 ° 38 'N. 18 ° 04' E. ) with a maximum depth of the sea - 470 meters. In the Gulf of Bothnia the maximum depth is 254 meters. In the Gotland Basin, 249 meters of the sea are plains and in the north part the relief is uneven and rocky.

22


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

Pic. 1.0 Baltic Sea relief map (www.baltic-map.ru)

According to modern concepts, the main sea bed unevenness caused by block tectonics and structural-denudation processes. The northern part of the seabed is composed mainly of Precambrian rocks, overlain by a discontinuous cover of glacial and recent marine sediments. In coastal areas among the bottom sediments spread sands but most of the sea bottom is covered with deposits of silt clay green, black or brown color glacial origin. In the central part of the sea are traced numerous stone ridges, scarps in the central part of the sea are a continuation of the Cambrian-Ordovician (on the northern coast of Estonia to the northern end of the island Eland) and Silurian limestone cliff, valley, flooded by sea ice-accumulative relief forms, hidden under a layer of sub-glacial and marine sediments considerable power. The presence of submerged river valleys and the absence of a layer of glacial deposits of marine sediments suggest that in proglacial time the Baltic Sea was dry land. 23


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

During the last Ice Age the Baltic Sea basin was completely filled with ice. Only about 13 thousand years ago there was a connection to the ocean, and sea water filled the basin, formed Joldia Sea (named after the mollusk Joldia). Yoldia Sea phase somewhat earlier (15 thousand years ago) was preceded by a phase of the Baltic Ice Lake, which has not reported to the sea.

Pic. 1.11 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancylus_Lake

About 9-7,5 thousand years ago as a result of tectonic uplift in Central Sweden, communication Yoldia Sea to the ocean ceased, and the Baltic Sea has become a lake again. This phase of the Baltic Sea is known as Ancylus Lake (named after the mollusk Ancylus). 24


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

The new land subsidence in the area of modern Danish Straits, which occurred around 7-7.5 thousand years ago, and large-scale transgression led to a renewed connection with the ocean and the formation of Litorina Sea. The level of the last sea was the a few meters above the present, and the salinity more. Litorina transgression sediments are well known in the modern Baltic Sea. The secular uplift in the northern Baltic Sea continues and now is reaching the Gulf of Bothnia to the north 1 meter for a hundred years and gradually decreasing to the south.

25


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

Pic. 1.12 Scheme of the main stages of the postglacial evolution of the Baltic Sea (By Demel) Scheme "A" - Baltic glacial lake; Scheme "B" - Yoldia Sea (named after the snail Ioldia arctica); Scheme "C" - Ancylus Lake (named after the cup snail Ancylus fluviatilis); Scheme "D" - Litorinal Sea (named after the snail Littorina littoraea). The present stage of evolution of the Baltic Sea, continuing for more than two and a half thousands of years called Mia (named after the sandy shell Mia arenaria).

26


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

1.1

2 Geomorphology of the Baltic Sea coasts; coastal protected methods. 2.1 The coastline of the Baltic Sea According the different stages of the Baltic Sea genesis (Baltic Ice Lake, Yoldia Sea, Ancylus Lake, Littorina Sea, Post–littorina Sea), that have been described previously, water basin have left their traces in the coastal area (fig. ). Many present coastal lakes originated from the lagoons which formed when waters of the Littorina Sea were receding. Former coastlines of the Ancylus Lake and Littorina Sea still can be observed in some parts of the coastal landscape. The total coastline of the Baltic Sea is ca. 8000 km long, out of which 1847 km stretches along Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia. It differs within the Baltic countries and consists of a remarkable diversity of shore types – moving dunes, sandy beaches, rocky shores, limestone cliff shores – due to the dynamic processes forming the coastline (Ruskule et al. 2009). Baltic Sea coast are dominated by: •

Accumulated coast – most of the Baltic coast,

Cliff Coast – north of Estonia, the southern Baltic coast,

Fjord Coast – North-East Germany, southeastern Denmark, western Fin-

Lagoon coast – south-west Lithuania, the Kaliningrad region, Northern Po-

Skerry Coast – South West Finland.

land,

land,

27


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

Pic. 2.1 Sweden shore. Right –Shore of Bornholm (Smotret-Mir.ru)

Pic. 2.2 Nature Reserve “Stony Beach of Vidzeme”, the Latvian coastline (Ruskule et al. 2009). Right - Flat and wide sandy beach in Zelenogradsk, Kaliningrad region.

Pic. 2.3 The Curonian Spit, sand dunes. Right - Flat and wide sandy beach in Zelenogradsk, Kaliningrad region. ((Smotret-Mir.ru))

The coasts of Sweden and Finland are highly fretted and generally rocky, whereas those of the southern Baltic are flat and rather featureless. Where the crystalline rocks of the ancient rock mass of the Baltic Shield outcrop along the northern coasts, partly ob28


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

scured by glacial drift and marine deposits, they are often fringed by the low, rocky islands known as a skerry guard. These are most numerous in the Saltsjön (Salt Bay) between Stockholm and the open waters of the Gulf of Bothnia and off the southwest coast of Finland. Off southeastern Sweden the narrow, elongated islands of Öland and Gotland consist of ancient limestone partly covered by sandy drift deposits. The rectangular island of Bornholm off southern Sweden was formed from a detached fragment of granite, and its high cliffs were shaped by faulting and shearing of the rock strata (figure 7). The coastal features of eastern Denmark are the outcome of Pleistocene glaciation and of subsequent changes in sea level. The east coast of Jutland, north of the Djursland peninsula, is smooth and low-lying. To the south are shallow bays divided by low promontories. In the area around Schleswig, shallow straight-sided fjords (fjord) (Förden) occur, and the Flensborg Fjord (Flensburger Förde) forms part of the boundary between Denmark and Germany. The islands of the Danish archipelago have a broken coastline, with a number of shallow inlets and also bars, notably the Odense bar on the island of Funen. Where terminal moraines (moraine) (deposits marking the farthest extent of glaciers) reach the sea, low promontories are formed. Solid rock seldom outcrops, except for the moderate-sized chalk cliffs along the eastern coast of the island of Møn. The Baltic coastline of western Germany is one of shallow fjords and bays. Kiel lies at the head of one such inlet, south of the entrance to the Kiel (Baltic–North Sea) Canal (Kiel Canal), which runs through German territorial waters. Farther to the east, the German coast of Mecklenburg–West Pomerania is flat and low-lying. A series of long shingle bars (Nehrungen), capped by moving sand dunes, has been built up there, cutting off the distinctive shallow lagoons (lagoon) (Haffs) from the open sea. Examples are the west-east spit of Darsser-Ort, on the island of Rügen, and the link (near Świnoujście, Pol.) between the islands of Usedom (Germany) and Wolin ( Poland), 29


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

which isolate Szczeciński Lagoon from the open sea. East of the Polish frontier, the port of Szczecin lies at the mouth of the Oder River. Solid rock outcrops conspicuously only on the island of Rügen, where the remarkably irregular coastline includes chalk cliffs that reach a height of about 400 feet (120 metres). East of Szczecin the coast of Pomerania (Pomorze) is generally flat and featureless, with sand dunes and spits bounding brackish lagoons. The Vistula River drains into the Baltic through a number of distributaries; the historic city of Gdańsk lies on the most westerly of these, the Motława. To the east, spectacular lagoon and shingle bar features have developed. Sand dunes, covering an elongated shingle spit, almost enclose the brackish Wiślany (Frisches) Lagoon, at the northeastern end of which lies Kaliningrad. At the northern end of the triangular inlet of the Curonian Lagoon, at the mouth of the Neman River, lies Klaipėda, Lith., the most northeasterly city of Germanic origin in the Baltic. Cutting off the lagoon from the Baltic is another shingle spit (the Curonian Spit), some 60 miles (100 km) long, capped by low fixed dunes and fringed by high moving dunes of white sand. In the eastern Baltic, glacial deposits cover solid rock, and the coast is broken by broad bars, such as those on which the Latvian port of Riga lies.

30


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

Pic. 2.4 Different geomorphological coastal zone types in the Baltic Sea (Kallio 2006)

The shores of the Baltic Sea are exposed to processes of erosion and accumulation. •

Erosion – a process when coastal sediments or rocks are permanently

washed away by the sea and the coastline is retreating towards inland. Coasts formed by sandy sediments are the most eroded, while sandstone and clay containing stones are more resistant to this process. Eroded material is sorted by waves – stones remain on the beach, sand is washed in the shallow coastal waters or taken over by the sediment flow, while more tiny particles like clay and dust are carried into the deeper waters. Characteristic features of eroded coastlines are cliffs or rather narrow stony beaches. •

Accumulation – a process typical of the stretches where waves and under-

water currents are losing their power and sand transported along the coast is washed out from the sea. The accumulating sand forms wide beaches, gradually increasing in the direction of the sea. During dry and windy weather, sand is blown inland and forms 31


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

foredunes. The growth of vegetation covering the foredunes prevents the sand from moving further inland (Ruskule et al. 2009).

On most of the coastline the erosion and accumulation processes are more or less in balance and the shape of beach is rather stable. However, observations show that during the last decades the coastal erosion is increasing dramatically, caused by factors such as the following (Ruskule et al. 2009): •

Increasing occasions of strong storms (when wind speed exceeds 30 m/s

water level increases more than 1 m above average);

Artificial constructions such as piers at harbours that obstruct the sediment

and cause accumulation of the sand in front of the pier and intensified ero-

and

flow;

sion behind it; •

Sediment deficit within the sediment flow caused by the damming up of

rivers; •

Shortage of ice cover along the coast which protects the coast from erosion;

Rising of the mean water level in the World Ocean.

32


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

Pic. 2.5 Erosion coast between Klaipeda and Palanga, 2012/07/07, Iakushin Nicolay

Another process impacting the coastline character is slow fluctuation of the Earth’s crust such as the continuing post–glacial process of land uplift. During the Ice Age the large, heavy ice sheet exerted differing pressure on the land in different areas and formed depressions. After the ice melted, the land slowly started to rise again. This process still can be observed in the areas around the Gulf of Bothnia, reaching as far as the Estonian coastline. Currently land uplift in these areas achieves ca. 4–10 mm per year; estimations suggest that it will continue for another 10 000 years. Estimations are that, about 2000 years from now, rising land will form a bridge between Finland and Sweden, transforming the Gulf of Bothnia into a lake. Typical landscape for land uplift areas are archipelagos consisting of thousands of islands and tiny islets gradually emerging from the sea (Ruskule et al. 2009). 33


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

Thus, Baltic coastline, which is shared by nine countries: Sweden and Finland in the north, Russia, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania in the east, Poland in the south and Germany and Denmark in the west, – is very variable, non-uniform. There are many types of shores in different parts of the coastline. The southern and the eastern coasts of the Baltic Sea are predominantly abrasive-accumulative type, low-lying, sandy, lagoon, from the land – sand dunes, covered by forest, from the sea – sand and shingle beaches. The northern and western coasts is high, rocky, mainly skerry type with fiords. The coastline is strongly indented, forms numerous bays and coves. Such variety in the exposure of the northern and southern slopes is due to their differences in geological structure. The northern Baltic Sea region – the Gulf of Bothnia and the rocky coast of Sweden is an area of old rocks such as schists and granites of Archean-Proterozoic age. The indented, steep coastline indicates the glacial activity that occurred here in the glacial epoch (the ice sheet, exaration). Furthermore, the existence of many small rocky islands, small bays and peninsulas indicates that this land was subject to flooding in the interglacial periods. In the southern Baltic Sea glaciation effects appeared less intense – there was no ice cover, during interglacial stage occurred with the transfer of moraine material from Scandinavian peninsula to the south, south-east, territory of the Kaliningrad region, Lithuania and Latvia were subjected to water-glacial erosion. According to Gudelis (1973), isostatic processes played a major role in the formation of the Baltic south-eastern coastal area. The Sambian Peninsula was formed by raised lip of the Cenozoic rocks, and then blocked by glacial deposits. In general, the coastline of the peninsula is slightly dissected due to the peculiarities of the geological structure of the coast. Headlands, which are separated by the shallow bays, usually consist of glacial till (the capes of Taran, Kupalny, Guardeskiy). Coast concavity corresponds to areas, which include easily eroded sandy-clay fluvioglacial deposits (Bay of 34


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

Filino, Svetlogorsk). The coastline is formed nowadays under the influence of storm waves, coastal currents and winds. 2.2 The coastline of Lithuania Lithuania has the shortest stretch of coastline – just around 90 km – mostly characterised by an accumulation process forming the sandy beaches and dunes. The outstanding feature of the Lithuanian coast is the Curonian Spit – 97 km long (51 km of which belongs to Lithuania) and an up to 3.8–km wide curved peninsula, where you can find the highest drifting dunes in Europe: the highest reaches 60 m, although most of the spit is covered by forest. The spit separates the sea from the Curonian Lagoon – the largest of the lagoons in the south–eastern coast of the Baltics, shallow and an almost freshwater body connected to the Baltic Sea through a very narrow strait at Klaipeda. It is one of the most productive waters in the Northern and Eastern part of Europe, hosting 50 fish species1. To protect the unique ecosystem of the Curonian Spit and the Curonian Lagoon, the Kuršių Nerija National Park was established in 1991, and later, the Natura 2000 site (Povilanskas et al., 2002). The morphological structure of the Lithuanian coast is rather simple (see Figure 1). The southern half is formed by the Curonian Spit, a narrow concave peninsula separating the Curonian Lagoon from the Baltic Sea. The Curonian spit is a sandy stretch of land extending 98 kilometres, half of which belongs to Lithuania, the other half to Russia. The width of the peninsula varies from 400 metres to 3.8 kilometres. The Curonian spit is separated from the mainland coast by a narrow Klaipeda strait. The strait serves as an outlet for the Nemunas river discharge to the sea, and as a Klaipeda seaport gate as well. The mainland coast of Lithuania stretches to the north of the Klaipeda strait. It changes into erosive - accumulative coastline, where cliff and dune coasts occur alternately. It has a shape of three concave arcs, which are separated by rather indistinct heads. Such shape of the shoreline reflects the morphological structure of the mainland, 35


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

where the eroded heads – ledges of the winding longshore ridges of Pleistocene moraines and/or Holocene dunes provide sediments filling the adjacent low-lying accretioncoast (Povilanskas et al., 2002).. Till bluffs formed at the eroded heads are up to 20 m high. At the promontories the beach is only 10 – 15 m wide. Beach of the accretion coast is 30 – 50 m wide and relatively steep (i= 0.07). The onshore part of the sedimentary coast is nearly everywhere framed by the artificially created 8 – 15 m high foredune behind the beach. Behind the modern foredune there are 20 – 25 m high ancient formations left by the Littorina sea transgression: the ancient marine scarp and/or parabolic dune ridges. The foreshore bottom relief mirrors the onshore one. Several (2–3) shore-parallel underwater sand ramparts feature the flat foreshore of the sedimentary coastal area, while the hard bottom bench in front of the eroded soft bluffs has a more fragmented relief (Povilanskas et al., 2002).. Three different morphodynamic coastal strips could be distinguished in the case study area, from south to north: South: the coastal strip between Smiltyne and Melnrage is characterized by a relatively strong accretion. The beach is wide (50-70 m), covered by a well-sorted medium-sized sand. It is framed by a 12 – 14 m high artificial foredune. The foreshore is very shallow, it has three ramparts and sandy bottoms down to the 20-30 m depth (Povilanskas et al., 2002).. Middle: coastal scarps and bluffs of glacial drift deposits prevail between Giruliai and Nemirseta. They are overtopped by the Aeolian sand of the Holocene period. A terrace from Littorina sea transgression with steep scarps forms another important coastal landscape feature with numerous coastal wetlands, rivulets and dense mixed old forest plantations. It gradually descends down northwards and southwards from the gla-

36


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

cial bluff of Olando kepure, where it reaches 25 m height. A relative height of the Littorina sea terrace slope varies from 8 to 11 m (Povilanskas et al., 2002).. North: north of Nemirseta the grading of the coast during the series of the Baltic Sea transgressions all through the Holocene created favourable conditions for sand accretion. The shoreline is relatively stable (except the places adjacent to the Palanga pier and near Latvian border). The beach is relatively wide (50 – 90 m), covered by a wellsorted medium-sized sand. It is framed by a 3 – 6 m high artificial foredune. There is a coastal accumulative plain covered by the Aeolian sand of the Holocene period behind the foredune. The Littorina terrace is much lower and much wider there compared to the area south of Nemirseta. It is covered by numerous coastal wetlands, rivulets, pineforest plantations. The major landmark of this area is Birute hill – a 20 m high parabolic dune. The foreshore is relatively shallow. It has three ramparts and sandy bottoms. Glacial drift deposits come to the bottom surface at the depth of 4 – 6 m, where bottom topography becomes fragmented (Povilanskas et al., 2002).. 2.3 Influence of hydrotechnical constructions on the shore dynamics: the case of Palanga 2.3.1 Introduction In the recent years, increase in water level in seas and oceans due to the greenhouse effect, and for other reasons became a problem that causes scientists from various countries concerned. The general public and various sectors of society are shocked by the increasing frequency of hurricanes, tornadoes, tsunamis and other hazards. Earlier, people were trying to settle as close to a large water bodies, now it became clear that it is unsafe. In the last century, mean sea level in Klaipeda rose by 15 cm.Increasingly, the consequences of hurricanes is the catastrophic water level rises, leading to severe coastal erosion. This is a very actual problem on the east coast of the Baltic Sea. Coming from the south-west cyclones attack sandy eastern shores of the Baltic Sea with a 37


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

very large force. For example, measurements in 1967 after the strongest storm in the Baltic Sea showed that the sea level in Klaipeda rose up at 185 cm above the zero point of Baltic Elevation system. Sea level reached and even surpassed the gauge reading 150 cm in 1983, 1999 and 2005 as well. All these cases have caused great damage to the coast. In 1997-1998 after the removal of the under-pier groyne in Palanga a focus of aggressive coastal erosion occurred there (Dubra, 2006). 2.3.2 Description of the Lithuanian shore dynamics: the main processes In 1960-1964, investigations of Rudolfs Knaps, a Latvian hydrotechnician, showed that the near shore streams carrying sand had the northward direction, and that a yearly amount of it was 250–500 thousand cubic metres (Knaps 1966). The method of investigation was detecting of marked sand transition and using of automatic current recorders. Further studies have shown that: 

The main reasons of deflation on the Lithuanian shore are currents, strong

waves and wind (Dubra, 2006). 

Predominantly cyclonic regime of sea and atmosphere dynamics is explain

sediment transport regime. 

Hydrotechnical constructions stabilize shore well only In periods with low

natural hazard activities (Dubra, 2006). 

Fast rise of sea level through hurricanes leads to precarious situations (Du-

bra, 2006). The recent investigations of the Lithuanian coastal area show the decreased volume of the sediment transport. According to Žilinskas et al. (2003), the budget of continental coastal surface sediments (1993–2003) was negative and annual loss of sediments is about 48,000 cubic metres of sand on the average. Distribution of current directions according to the drift is following: 38


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

Direction

%

Northward Westward Southward Eastward

55.3 3.3 35.7 5.7

39


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

Pic. 2.6 Map of Palanga suburbs (1874)

40


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

The highest speeds of currents occur in one directed northward and southward currents. Due to the cyclonic circulation of air masses and the shore topography the maximum height waves exceeding 4–6 metres occur from southwest, northwest and especially from the west (Dubra & Dubra 1994). The important event occurred in 1997-1998 is demolition of groyne in Palanga. The result was the accumulation of sand stopped. The excess of sediments moved along the shore to Latvia (Dubra, 2006). Beach width narrowed from one hundred to twenty metres in some areas in Palanga. Not long after the pulling down of the groyne the hurricane “Anatoly” occurred. This hurricane leads to very serious damages on the Lithuanian shore, such as destroying of protective foredune near the promenade pier in Palanga (lost over twenty metres of its width), separating pier from dune and its damage. During the past years there were several protective measures. This protection worked during several storms but during the hurricane “Erwin” the protective dune lost round ten metres and some constructions were also destroyed. In the middle of 2005, after arranging 150 metres long stone construction, the width of beach near the pier began to increase. 2.3.4 Hydrotechnical activities on Palanga coast The most significant changes on Palanga coast appeared after the periods of 1882–1888 and 1997–1998. The first period is the result of the construction of the groyne and partly the wooden pier. It leads to accumulation o sediments in this area. The original condition of Palanga coast we can find on Figure 2 (Map of the suburbs of Palanga issued by General Staff of Russia, 1874 (by the courtesy of the History Museum of Lithuania Minor)). A map issued by the General Staff of Russia in 1874 shows that there isn’t any cape-like formation near Palanga. But long process of accumulation change the appear-

41


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

ance of this coast. We can see it on map of 1922. (Fig. 3. City scheme of Palanga, 1922 (by the courtesy of the History Museum of Lithuania Minor)). In the course of time this new cape didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t change its geometrical form. It was because of the cyclonic circulation. The most intensive process of transported sand accumulation took place southwards from the newly installed hydrotechnical structure. Northwards from it a little bend in the coastal line occurred. This structure of water engineering had suffered considerable damages during storms of hurricane strength. The greatest damages were made by hurricanes and storms of October 1967; January 1983; January 1993; December 1999; and January 2005.

Pic. 2.7 City plan of Palanga (1922)

The main reasons of deflation on the Lithuanian shore are currents, strong waves and wind. Predominantly cyclonic regime of sea and atmosphere dynamics is explain sediment transport regime. Hydrotechnical constructions stabilize shore well only In periods with low natural hazard activities. Thatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s why Lithuanian shore need to have a net 42


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

of different protective constructions (groynes, etc.). Fast rise of sea level through hurricanes leads to precarious situations. 2.4 Coastal typology of Lithuania based on benthic biotope and community data. Resume Coastal typology is a necessary basement of the coastal zone management and a prerequisite for the evaluation and risk assessment of losses or changes of coastal resources. The scientifically sound coastal typology should be based on detailed information on the distribution, quality and quantity of various physical-geographical and biological features, however, in many cases such information may only be derived from heterogeneous data sets with different quality and longevity of observations. Comparative characteristics of the environmental conditions of both aquatic systems are generalized in Table. Table 2.1 Environmental changes along the salinity and depth gradients from the Curonian Lagoon to the coastal areas of the Baltic Sea, Lithuanian waters. (Olenin and Daunys (2004))

Area

Depth,m

Salinity PSU

Temperature C

Main bottom substance

Wave exposure

Antropogenic pressures

Curonian lagoon Central 1-3

<0.5

0-24

Moderate

Eutrophication

Northern 1-3

<3

0-24

Weakmoderate

Eutrophication

Klaipeda 5-14 strait

<7.5

0-22

Sand, silt, shell deposits Sand, silt, shell deposits Sand, moraine clay, artificial hard substrates

Moderate

Different wastes

0-20

Sands

0-20

Stone,

StrongEutrophied moderate Lagoonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s water Strong-moderate

South-eastern Baltic South of 5-30 6-8 Klaipeda North of 5-30 6-8

43


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

Klaipeda Offshore 30-55

7-8.8

0-11

sands Silt

Weaknone

Dredge dumping

spoil

According to Olenin and Daunys (2004), the classification and description of coast types showed in Figure 3 and 4.

44


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

45 Pic. 2.8 (Olenin and Daunys (2004)


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

2.4.1 Biotopes of the northern open coast type

The northern coastal type stretches from the Curonian Lagoon outlet to the Latvian border (coordinates: N 56°03’, N 55°43’, E 21°03’, N 20°03’). 1. Soft bottom biotopes. Include Sand banks in the middle sublittoral and fine sand in the lower sublittoral (20-30 m).The first biotope typically occupies a wide (up to 6 km) band within the depth range from 5 to ca.15 m along the shore in Butinge area (close to Latvian border); it shrinks to few fragments within large stony fields near Palanga. 2. Stony bottom biotopes within the euphotic zone (NOC.STE in Fig. 3) include “Boulder reefs and “Stony and gravel bottoms. The first biotope consist of fields of densely packed stones and large boulders with very little or no sand and gravel parches. This biotope is found in front of Palanga, where it occupies a small area (ca. 1 km2) within the depth range 5 to 10 m. In another biotope, stony and gravel bottoms. 3. Stony bottom biotope in the aphotic zone (NOC. STA in Fig. 3) includes fields of densely packedstones and large boulders. This biotope occupies the area off Palanga in the depth range of ca. 15-20 m, where the abrasive effect of sand and gravel is low. 4. Biotopes of mixed bottoms (NOC.MIX in Fig. 3) comprise stony and gravel fieldsThese heterogeneous biotopes are the most typical for the entire northern coastal area within approximately 5 to 25 m depth range. Here stony areas and large boulders alternate with patches and stripes of sand, gravel, pebbles and moraine on a scale of meters – tens of meters. 2.4.2 Biotopes of the southern open coast type

The southern coastal type is situated along the Curonian Spit (coordinates: N 55°43’,N 55°16’, E 21°04’, N 20°40’).

46


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

1.

The mobile sand biotope (SOC.SFT in Fig. 3) was defined by the

analogy with the same biotope in the northern coastal area. 2.

The soft bottom biotope (SOC.SFT in Fig. 3) in the southern coastal

area occupies the largest area in the Lithuanian coastal zone, stretching along the entire Curonian Spit within the depth range from ca.10 to 30 m. The bottom substrate is much more monotonous than in the same biotope in the northern area.

47


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

Pic. 2.9 Location of coastal types and benthic biotopes. Open coast biotopes: 1 – mobile sand, 2 – soft bottoms, 3- stony bottoms in the euphotic zone, 4 – stony bottoms in the aphotic zone, 5 – mixed bottoms. Curonian Lagoon biotopes: 6 – sandy bottoms, 2 – mud (Olenin and Daunys (2004)

48


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

The Lithuanian coast have 7 different bottom types. Each bottom type is a result of interaction between different natural forces. Features of each type of bottom with complex of natural processes have influence on distribution of sediments. 2.5 Coastal protection structures The main reason for the destruction of the coast is the lack of longshore transport, which is formed due to the reduction of the solid runoff of rivers as a result of economic activity: The beach removal of material for building, construction on the coast of the speakers in a sea of waterworks that violate the natural regime of sediment movement. Coastal protection structures are among the most common marine hydraulic structures intended to protect the coast from the destruction of excitement, currents and ice, as well as to create a beach by the accumulation of sediment. Coastal protection structures are built both within the port waters and the open sea coasts, and in places the main interface port facilities to protect against erosion of undeveloped shorelines, coastal human settlements and industrial facilities. In addition, structures of this type are built to protect against erosion of the existing or newly created beach, to prevent or reduce the development of the coastal slope landslides, coastal erosion when the earth can bring an array of equilibrium. During the construction of coastal protection of fortifications used passive and active methods of protecting the coast from the destruction. All types of coastal protection structures can be divided into lateral, located perpendicular to the shoreline (groynes) and longitudinal (breakwaters and construction of a passive method of protecting the coast).

49


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

Structures based on the passive protection method most frequently applied in the ports directly protect the coastal slope from the effects of emotion, currents and ice. By this type structures are shore protection walls and structures sloping, halfsloping and the step types. With the active method used to protect the open sea coasts, built structures, which are much dampen wave energy at the approach to the shore. These include the construction of in the form of underwater or, sometimes undrowned breakwaters and groynes. For protection of open sea coasts in some cases applied Coastal protection construction of the combined type, i.e. They are combined in a passive and active protection methods. Coast protection walls are used in the presence of a steep coastal slope and dense soil at the bottom. Most often the destruction of the walls is due to washing away bases and tipping it into the sea or from the leaching soil behind the wall bursts and the subsequent wave of destruction. With a curved edge walls is greatly reduced danger of washing away the foundation, and wave bursts dropped towards the sea, which contributes to the quenching of the wave energy on the approach to construction. Studies have shown than the positive same outline of the front face, the less destructive effect waves in this case, increasing the amount of work in their construction and increases the cost of construction. Buildings constructed in the type half- sloping where they can simultaneously be used as shallow-water berths. Buildings used in sloping type canopy profile of the coastal slope and should have reliable coverage over the entire height of waves rolling in order to avoid beginning with the destruction of excitement at the top is not fortified parts of the building. During the construction of buildings graded type because this kind of surface slope is achieved reducing the height of rolling 50


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

waves, in connection with this may decrease the width of the strip strengthened by the coast. Breakwaters (undrowned) as the type of active structures protection of the coast, built mostly in cases where the required full protection of the coastal slope from the effects of disturbances, i.e. in areas with insufficient intake of sediment, or inappropriate formation of an artificial beach. A common type of coast protection structures are submerged breakwaters, which use eliminates the formation of the reflected waves and, consequently, minimizes the effect of diluting them. In addition, facilities of this type contribute to the accumulation of sediment in the excited space, which is very important because the presence of natural or artificially formed beach is the best way to protect the coast from collapsing. In this regard, the construction of underwater breakwater does not intend to, breakwater to ensure complete quenching of the wave energy. For prevent alongshore currents and unwanted movement of sediment underwater breakwater connects traverses the shore, the distance between them depends on local conditions (usually an average of 250-300 m). In areas of the coast severe storm regime erected to strengthen coastal protection combined type as a breakwater and the sloping wall or two or three breakwaters. Based on these studies, and experience with underwater breakwaters as a coast-fortifications, it was found that: - When approaching the breakwater to the shore improved holding the blower the effect of structure, but the degree of suppression waves deteriorates;

51


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

- Beach storage intensity in this case depends on the many factors, including the depth to the breakwater and mark the crest of the breakwater, as the lowering of the crest of the breakwater to increase the revenue of sediment can cause their reverse hijacking and emerging countercurrents intense destruction of the coast not canceled waves; - Reduction of the steepness of the front face and destroy the waves on the breakwater without the formation of the reflected waves, which create the risk of erosion of the base before the construction. Groyn, preventing the movement of sediment along the coast, contribute their accumulation and the formation of artificial beaches. In addition, the groynes being built also for the protection of artificially backfilled beaches with weak longshore movement of sediment. When using the integrated shore stabilization groynes and coastal protection wall, and the first built groynes. The most frequently used groynes gravity from ordinary arrays or concrete pontoons, but pile groynes are used and the construction of stone or sketches, having the form of dams. One way to protect the coast are free beaches inwashed artificial sand beaches, performing the role of independent wave suppressant facilities without bun and breakwaters The free beaches are under the influence of waves and alongshore currents, arising from the storm surge and lose part of the sand and, therefore, they require constant replenishment, until a dynamic equilibrium does not occur and the amount of losses will not be permanent. The advantage of the beaches is free first of all, their use is not violated a natural dynamic mode in the coastal zone, and they do not distort type of shore. 52


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

Type of coast protection structures shall conform to hydrometeorological conditions of the proposed construction site. Experience shows that it is very important in the design process predict the nature of the interaction of waves with a shore-construction and take into account the experience of operating similarstructures. Invalid account the impact of individual factors can lead to the destruction of buildings, and at the same time, excessive caution will result in a significant increase in the cost of construction. Groynes and breakwaters designed to protect the coastline from the destruction of port facilities and the influence of dynamic factors in the marine environment are the most often used structures in Lithuania. Also, to protect sand dunes from erosion branches of trees could be used.

Pic. 2.10 Groyn. 2012-07-05

53


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

Pic. 2.11 2012, 10 july

54


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

3. Monitoring (oceanography) of the Baltic Sea. Monitoring - collection of observed data, its analysis to control environmental conditions and forecast possible changings. Monitoring of this part of Baltic Sea is important due to:  Recreation meaning of coastal territory, especially beaches of Palanga resort  Presence of oil stations in south-east part of the Baltic Sea and on the shore near Klaipeda  Providing safety of the ecosystem of natural reserved park – Curonian Spit  Need to evaluate injuries and predict and prevent possible damages from the sea transport and in particular from Klaipeda harbor 3.1 Location Practice took place in the Klaipeda, Lithuania.

Pic. 3.1 Map of Baltic Sea (pood.regio.ee)

55


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

3.2 Measurements Field practice consists of two parts: 1. Measurements of main water quality parameters 2. Measurements of shoreline changes and beach profiling Main water quality parameters were measured during the day cruises into the Baltic Sea. It is collected in Table 4.1. Table 3.1 Expedition works.

Date

Place

03.07.2013

Opposite Klaipeda and Palanga Opposite Klaipeda and Palanga Curonian lagoon Curonian lagoon

04.07.2013 08.07.2013 09.07.2013

Amount of stations 7

Number of sections

7

#1, #2

8 9

1 1

#1, #2

56


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

Pic.3.2. Map of field works 34.07.2013

Pic.3.3. Map of field works 8-9.07.2013

During this work such parameters were measured: Meteorological data in each station:  Wind speed  Wind direction  Cloudiness Sea-water parameters:  Temperature  Salinity  Dissolved oxygen 57


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

 Transparency (depth of Secchi disk)  Wave height  Wave direction All measurement were collected in Table 4.2. Measurements of shoreline changes and beach profiling were done during field works in 3-4 and 8-9 July 2013. During the trip from the North (Latvian/Lithuanian border) to south (Klaipeda harbor) along the cost were measured:  Current location of shoreline (GPS observation)  Beach profiling each 500 m (GPS observation) and measuring the length of sand sections  sand samples each 1 km

4.3 Instruments Bathometer is an instrument for picking up water samples from various depths. This water samples are used to define salinity, amount of dissolved oxygen, nitrogen’s, phosphates, silicates and dangerous substances. Instrument consists of plastic cylinder, metallic holder, rope, weight and pipe for flushing away water. Also it includes thermometer that is used for measuring water temperature. In our work it was used to receive water temperature from 3 levels: top, middle of all width and bottom with accuracy 0.1 °C.

58


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

The CTD90M

Pic. 3.4 The CTD90M Table 3.2 The CTD90M (Manual document)

Sensors Range Accuracy Pressure 10, 20, 50 bar ± 0,1 % f.s. Temperature - 2 ... + 32 °C ± 0,005 °C Oxygen 0 ... 150 % sat. ± 2 % sat. pH 4 ... 10 pH ± 0,1 pH CTD is a high quality, high accuracy multiparameter logging probe for oceanograp hic and limnologic measurement of physical, chemical and optical parameters in up to 500 m water depth. SST's CTD90M runs from an internal battery and records date at programmable time intervals or pressure stamps in a non-volatile flash memory with a capacity of 4 Mbytes. A standard RS-232 interface is used for programming, telemetry output and date extraction. The supplied Standard Date Acquisition Software package "SSTSDA" includes the handling of the logging 59


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

process and the display of online or recorded date with a shared graphic user interface. In our work we analyzed water temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen concentration. The Secchi disk

Pic. 3.5 The Secchi disk

The Secchi disk is a white round disk used to measure water transparency of water in different basins. The disk is attached to the marked rope and should be sunk slowly in water. The depth at which disk is not seen is taken as a measure of the transparency of the water. This should be done from the shady side of the expedition ship. This depth is known as the Secchi depth and is related to water turbidity. Accuracy of Secchi disk is about 0,3 meters, it depends of weather conditions.

60


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

Garmin 550t

Pic. 3.6 The Garmin 550t

Garmin 550t is a device that receives GPS signals to determine the device's location on Earth. It provides latitude and longitude information. This device measures with 2 meters accuracy and was used in our work to tak

61


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

4. Measurements during practice 5.1 Measurements of main water quality parameters: The Baltic Sea

Pic. 4.1 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Station map of open sea

62


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

Weather conditions Table 4.1 - Weather conditions on 03.07.13

Name of the ship

Delfinas

Station

Latitude

Longitude

Date

Time

Depth, m

Secchi depth, m

Wind speed, m/s

Wind direction

Wave height, m

Wave direction

Cloudiness

R/M-1

55 44,726

20 01,476

03.07.2013

9:55-10:04

20.2

3.25

1

-

0.5

NW

1

R/M-2

55 44,945

20 57,593

03.07.2013

10:30-10:37

24.2

4.25

1

-

0.4

W

1

R/M-3

55 45,718

20 50,446

03.07.2013

11:05-11:11

36.0

5.25

1

-

0.3

-

2

R/M-4

55 46,742

20 54,074

03.07.2013

11:35-11:42

42.0

5.25

1

-

0.5

-

2

R/M-5

-

-

03.07.2013

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

R/M-6

55 52,119

20 50,315

03.07.2013

12:30-12:40

33.0

5.10

0

-

0.2

W

3

R/M-7

55 51,454

20 55,087

03.07.2013

13:15-13:30

30.0

3.50

0

-

0.5

SW

5

R/M-8

55 50,426

20 59,217

03.07.2013

14:00-14:07

22.0

4.30

2

-

0.2

-

7

During the expedition the following weather conditions were observed: wind speed 1-2 m/s, wind direction was not measured, waves westwards up to 0,5 m. In the beginning of the observations little cloudiness was observed (1 point). Over time, it increased, reaching full cloudiness (7 points) by the end of the expedition.

63


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

Table 4.2 - Weather conditions on 04.07.13

Name of the ship

Delfinas

Station

Latitude

Longitude

Date

Time

Depth, m

Secchi depth, m

Wind speed, m/s

Wind direction

Wave height, m

Wave direction

Cloudiness

R/M-1

55 44,726

20°01,476

04.07.2013

10:00-10:14

20,2

5,25

2.0

SE

0,30

SE

9

R/M-2

55 44,945

20°57,593

04.07.2013

10:30-10:46

29,7

5.00

5,6

NW

0,20

NW

7

R/M-3

55 45,718

20°54,073

04.07.2013

11:05-11:23

34,1

4,25

5.0

SE

0,20

S

8

R/M-4

55 46,742

20°50,446

04.07.2013

11:33-11:53

38,2

4,75

5.0

NW

0,15

S

6

R/M-5

-

-

04.07.2013

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

R/M-6

55 52,119

20°50,315

04.07.2013

12:30-12:43

32,8

5,25

2.0

NW

0,10

NW

9

R/M-7

55 51,454

20°55,087

04.07.2013

13:15-13:29

29.0

4,50

2.0

SE

0,10

NW

9

R/M-8

55 50,426

20°59,217

04.07.2013

13:50-14:02

21,4

4,25

5.0

SW

0,15

SW

8

The next day, 04.07.2013, variable directions wind with speed up to 5-6 m/s was observed at those points. Wave height values reached up to 0.3 m, prevailing direction of the waves - the western and southern. Overall cloudiness was about 6-9 points.

64


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

Secchi depth

Pic. 4.2 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Secchi depth on 03.07.13

Analyzing the graph it can be seen that the highest transparency is founded at points 3 and 4, where the depth has also the greatest values. On the first point

65


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

transparency has the minimal value, where the depth is also minimal. So we can say that with increasing of the depth values transparency from point 1 to point 4.

Pic. 4.3 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Secchi depth on 04.07.13

66


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

Analysis of this graph shows that the largest depth is observed at 4 th point, the smallest one is on the stations 1. Despite the depth changing, transparency varies from 4.25 to 5.25 m. It can be due to increasing of wind activity, so the waves also increase. Near Klaipeda water is more transparent, and going further from Klaipeda water becomes more turbid. That happens because of Neman river brings more dirty waters, besides the depth there is not large. Salinity

Pic. 4.4 – Salinity section #1 on 03.07.13 (this profile were made by program “Surfer”)

On the graph we can see, that stations 2 and 1 have an coastal upwelling, meaning that there is a more saline layer at the top, than it is at the bottom. This can be explained with the fact that when the measurements took place, there was a western wind and it was pushing and shifting the off-shore surface water towards the coastal area. But because wind was light, difference in salinity between top layer and the deeper one is rather small. Halocline is approximately 25-27 m deep. Below this boundary maximum values of salinity are observed – 7.4 ‰.

67


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

Pic. 4.5 – Salinity section #2 on 03.07.13 (this profile were made by program “Surfer”)

On the graph we can see the same situation like at the previous graph: between first and second stations there are an coastal upwelling. This can be also explained with the fact that when the measurements took place, there was a western wind and it was pushing and shifting the off-shore surface water towards the coastal area. But because wind was light, difference in salinity between top layer and the deeper one is rather small. There is area of mixing water between 17 and 27 m deep. The situation is the same, because stations 1-4 and 6-8 are parallel.

Pic. 4.6 – Salinity section #1 on 04.07.13 (this profile were made by program “Surfer”)

68


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

On this graph we can observe normal differentiation of the water salinity layers, that is - top layer is less saline, bottom layer has maximum salinity. Halocline lies 17 m deep at the station 4 and 22 m deep at the station 2.

Pic. 4.7 – Salinity section #2 on 04.07.13 (this profile were made by program “Surfer”)

Analyze of this graph shows that on stations 6-8 there is normal differentiation of the water salinity layers. Also we can see the area of mixing water from 15 to 25 m deep. On the first day of the observation in the open sea wind was blowing mostly from the west, that is why coastal upwelling was observed. In the line 1-4 halocline was clearly seen, in the line 6-8 there was an intermixing zone. This situation possibly could have been a result of the submarine streams, which have mixed some layers of water. If we compare this day to the second one, small change can be seen – coastal upwelling is no longer observed. Halocline in the line 1-4 is as clear as on the first day, and is not present in the line 6-8, where an intermixing zone is once again. 69


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

Temperature

Pic. 4.8 – Temperature section #1 on 03.07.13 (this profile were made by program “Surfer”)

On this graph we can see clear differentiation on two water masses. The first water mass is located at 0-20 m depth near the shore, and 0-15 m in offshore area. The temperature of this water mass ranges from 16 to 17°C. The second water mass is located between the thermocline and the bottom. Its temperature ranges from 4 to 5 °C.

Pic. 4.9 – Temperature section #2 on 03.07.13 (this profile were made by program “Surfer”)

70


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

On this graph we can also identify warm and cold water masses, and area of its mixing. The warm water mass reaches the bottom at the 8 station and it reaches 16 m at 6th and 7th stations. Its temperature ranges from 17 to 18 °C. The cold water mass of 5-6 °C, is located between 15 m and the bottom at the 6 th station, and from 25 m to the bottom at the 7th station. The area of water mixing is located between 6th and 7th stations from 15 m to 25 m deep, and temperature of water ranges from 8 to 14 °C.

Pic. 4.10 – Temperature section #1 on 04.07.13 (this profile were made by program “Surfer”)

On this graph we can see two water masses with thermocline at 15 m deep. From surface to 15 m deep warm water mass has a temperature 15-17 °C. From 15 m to the bottom cold water mass has a temperature 4-6 °C.

71


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

Pic. 4.11 – Temperature section #2 on 04.07.13 (this profile were made by program “Surfer”)

On this graph we can identify two water masses: warm water mass has 1618°C temperature, and cold water mass has 4-6 °C. Between its we can see the area of mixing water 5 m wide which is located between 6th and 7th stations. Its temperature is varied from 8-12 °C.

72


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

Bathometer Table 4.3 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 4.4 - Parameters (bathometer) on 03.07.2013 and 04.07.13

Parameters (bathometer), 04.07.2013 Sampling depth, m tempreture

Parameters (bathometer), 03.07.2013 Station Sampling depth, m tempreture

Station

R/M-1

1.0 10.0 20.0

17.2 16.5 16.1

R/M-1

1.0 10.0 20.0

18.0 17,2 18.0

R/M-2

1.0 11.5 23.0

17.2 16.2 17.0

R/M-2

1.0 15.0 30.0

18.0 16.0 8,5

R/M-3

1.0 17.0 34.0

17.2 6.8 5.0

R/M-3

1.0 17.0 33.0

17,9 15,5 7,5

R/M-4

1.0 21.0 37.0

17.0 4.2 4.0

R/M-4

1.0 19.0 37.0

16,5 16.0 6,5

R/M-5

-

-

R/M-5

-

-

R/M-6

1.0 16.0 32.0

16.0 9.0 6.5

R/M-6

1.0 16.0 32.0

16,5 15.0 7.0

R/M-7

1.0 15.0 30.0

19.0 15.5 8.5

R/M-7

1.0 15.0 29.0

17,5 15.0 11,5

R/M-8

1.0 10.0 21.0

19.0 18.5 18.5

R/M-8

1.0 10.0 20.0

19.0 17,6 17.0

73


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

Oxygen

Pic. 4.12 –Dissolved oxygen section #1 on 03.07.13 (this profile were made by program “Surfer”)

Pic. 4.13 –Dissolved oxygen section #2 on 03.07.13 (this profile were made by program “Surfer”)

From the plot there is seen that the amount of dissolved oxygen varies between 12 mg per liter and 3 mg per liter. The level of oxygen decreases from east to west. The highest quantities of oxygen is observed at the first point at upper water layers. The lowest quantities are located only at the bottom layers of water where the depth is significant – points 2,3 and 4 and further to points 6 and 7. Stratification is found. Comparing this with the salinity graphs we have made, it is 74


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

obvious, that the border between rich-oxygen and poor-oxygen waters matches the border between less- and more saline waters. So, more dense waters lie at the bottom, preventing the water from mixing. And this way, bottom waters cannot be enriched with oxygen.

Pic. 4.14 –Dissolved oxygen section #1 on 04.07.13 (this profile were made by program “Surfer”)

Pic. 4.15 –Dissolved oxygen section #2 on 04.07.13 (this profile were made by program “Surfer”)

75


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

From the plot there is seen that the amount of dissolved oxygen varies between 12 mg per liter and 4.5 mg per liter. The highest quantities of oxygen is observed at points 7 and 8, at the bottom waters. The lowest quantities are observed at the bottom layers of point 2. The depth there is between 25 and 20 meters. It is quite different picture, than a day before. Now the precise border cannot be defined. It must be because of more strong winds, which made higher waves and mixed the water. Despite the values of dissolved oxygen look normal (bigger ones at the upper water layers, and smaller ones at the bottom), such low quantities at the bottom can`t be trusted. It is so, because the depth is just 30-35 m., and coastal waters at such depth are usually well mixed and enriched with oxygen. The reason of such low values can be some kind of mistake of sensor, or because it wasn`t calibrated well.

76


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

The Curonian lagoon

77


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

Pic. 4.16 Map of lagoon stations (1 st groop)

78


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

Pic. 4.17 Map of lagoon stations (2 nd groop)

79


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

Weather conditions Table 4.5 - Weather conditions on 08.07.13

Name of the ship

X-day

Secchi depth, m

Wind speed, m/s

Wind direction

Wave height, m

Wave direction

Cloudiness

Station

Latitude

Longitude

Date

Time

Depth, m

R/M-1

55 38,679

21 08,128

08.07.2013

9:45-9:57

7.66

0.9

2

S-SW

0.1

N

9

R/M-2

55 36,423

21 08,922

08.07.2013

10:22-10:26

3.20

0.4

3

SW

0.1

NE

9

R/M-3

55 35,223

21 08,763

08.07.2013

10:41-10:50

3.00

0.5

3

-

0.3

-

9

R/M-4

55 34,172

21 08,513

08.07.2013

11:00-11:04

3.70

0.5

1

SW

0.2

NE

6

R/M-5

55 33,028

21 07,977

08.07.2013

11:19-11:25

2.90

0.2

2

-

0.2

-

7

R/M-6

55 31,967

21 07,477

08.07.2013

11:36-11:44

2.20

0.2

3

-

0.1

-

2

R/M-7

55 29,248

21 07,875

08.07.2013

12:10-12:13

3.00

0.4

3

SW

0.3

NE

2

R/M-8

55 28,401

21 06,500

08.07.2013

12:30-12:33

2.60

0.3

2

SW

0.1

N

2

80


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

On 08.07.2013 northwestern wind was observed with speed of 3 m/s. Also, the waves of the northern and northwestern direction with height of 0.1 - 0.3 m were observed. In the beginning of the observation sky was overcast (9 points). Over time cloudiness has decreased to a small one (2 points). Table 4.6 - Weather conditions on 09.07.13

Name of the ship

X-day

Depth, m

Secchi depth, m

Wind speed, m/s

Wind direction

Wave height, m

Wave direction

Cloudiness

09.07.2013 9:45-9:55

8.5

1.50

4

N

0.1

N

3

21 08,900

09.07.2013 10:10-10:18

4.0

1.00

6

N

0.1

NW

3

55 35,228

21 08,746

09.07.2013 10:30-10:36

3.0

1.25

6

N

0.1

NW

3

R/M-4

55 34,186

21 08,478

09.07.2013 10:45-10:52

3.3

1.00

6

N

0.5

N

2

R/M-5

55 33,592

21 08,495

09.07.2013

11:00-11:05

2.6

0.90

6

N

0.3

N

2

R/M-6

55 33,089

21 08,100

09.07.2013 11:09-11:12

2.8

0.75

6

N

0.2

N

2

R/M-7

55 31,979

21 07,471

09.07.2013 11:23-11:26

2.2

0.75

6

N

0.3

NW

2

R/M-8

55 29,240

21 07,830

09.07.2013 11:53-12:00

3.0

0.50

6

N

0.4

NW

1

R/M-9

55 28,415

21 06,521

09.07.2013 12:10-12:16

2.7

0.75

8

W

0.3

NW

1

Station

Latitude

Longitude

R/M-1

55 38,598

21 08,038

R/M-2

55 36,500

R/M-3

Date

Time

81


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

On 09.07.2013 wind speed increased to 6-8 m/s. Wind direction - north. There were waves of the northern and north-western direction with height up to 0.5 m. Little cloudiness was observed (1-3 points).

Secchi depth

Pic. 4.18 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Secchi depth on 08.07.13

From this graph it can be seen that the highest transparency is observed at point 1 where the depth is the largest. The least value turbidity of water is observed at points 5 and 6. So, we can say that with the depth increasing transparency of water also increases.

82


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

Pic. 4.19 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Secchi depth on 09.07.13

Analysis of this graph shows that the most transparent water is located at the first point, where the depth is also the highest. The less transparent water is found at 8 th point. It can be seen from the graph that value of transparency decreases from station 1 to station 2, then transparency increasing. Value of transparency increase from station 3 to station 8, then transparency increasing. This can be explained by the increasing of wind speed, as due to the waves also increase and so the turbidity also increases this way. Thus, we can see that the transparent water is found in the north part of exploration area. The least transparent water is found south part of exploration area. This can occur due to fresh waters of Neman river, which bring different suspensions.

83


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

Salinity

Pic. 4.20 – Salinity section on 08.07.13 (this profile were made by program “Surfer”)

On this graph we can see, that nearby Klaipeda harbor salinity on the first station increases with depth, which indicates low inflow of sea water into Curonian Lagoon. But because of southwest wind direction in the day of the measurements, further stations data shows rapid decrease of salinity and absence of the layer differentiation, since Curonian Lagoon has rather small depth, and water in it is intermixed well.

Pic. 4.21 – Salinity section on 09.07.13 (this profile were made by program “Surfer”)

84


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

On graph 4.21 we can see clear layer differentiation of salinity at the first station: salinity increases with depth. It indicates that more dense sea water flows under the less dense water of the lagoon. There can be several reasons for that. Most important of them all is wind speed and direction. The day when the measurements were made, there was a northern wind blowing with a speed of 6 m/s, which explains presence of sea water in the lagoon. As the graph shows, sea water went in to the lagoon as far as the area between stations 4 and 5. Further, stations 5 to 9 salinity decreases with depth. Starting with station 7, water becomes completely desalinated and undifferentiated. On the 8th of July southwestern wind was blowing, that means that it was blowing from the lagoon towards the sea. That is the reason for almost no sea water in the lagoon. Next day the situation has changed entirely, wind was blowing from the north, that means toward the lagoon from the sea, pushing the water into the lagoon. Trail of the salt water reached 10 km into of the lagoon. That is why we see, that with the proximity of the sea salinity at the bottom layer increases. That is because sea water is more dense and more saline. Temperature

Pic. 4.22 – Temperature section on 08.07.13 (this profile were made by program “Surfer”)

85


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

On this graph we can see the increasing of temperature from the north to the south in rates 20.5-21.9 °C. More warm water is located in the south part of lagoon from 4th to 8th stations. To the north of this mass more cold water mass is located, as water of lagoon mix with sea water.

Pic. 4.23 – Temperature section on 09.07.13 (this profile were made by program “Surfer”)

On this graph we see that colder sea water under the influence of the north wind flows into the lagoon more intensively. So temperature in the north part of lagoon becomes 18-19 °C. These values are less than previous ones on 2-3 °C. Total Temperature distributions, acquired in open sea on 03.07.2013, correspond with those, acquired on 04.07.2013, because there were no significant atmospheric phenomena, which could have influenced changes in sea water characteristics distributions. If we compare temperature distributions in the Curonian Lagoon, we can see that because of the wind direction change water from the open sea began to enter the lagoon on 09.07.2013 more intensely than it did on 08.07.2013. On 09.07.2013 we have determined that sea water covered 10 km of the lagoon.

86


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

Bathometer Table 4.7 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 4.8 - Parameters (bathometer) on 08.07.2013 and 09.07.13

Parameters (bathometer), 08.07.2013 Station Sampling depth, m Tempreture

Parameters (bathometer), 09.07.2013 Station Sampling depth, m tempreture

R/M-1

0.0 6.0

20.5 21.0

R/M-1

R/M-2

0.0 3.0

21.0 20.5

1.0 4.0 7.0

18.5 18.0 18.0

R/M-2

0.0 2.5

21.5 22.0

1.0 3.0

18.8 18.5

R/M-3

0.0 3.5

21.0 21.5

1.0 2.5

19.0 18.8

R/M-4

R/M-5

0.0 2.9

22.0 21.5

1.0 1.5 3.0

19.5 19.0 19.0

R/M-6

0.0 2.2

22.0 21.5

R/M-5

1.0 2.6

19.0 19.0

R/M-7

0.0 3.0

21.5 21.5

R/M-6

1.0 2.8

19.0 18.0

R/M-8

0.0 2.6

22.0 21.5

R/M-7

1.0 2.2

21.0 20.0

R/M-8

1.0 3.0

24.0 23.0

R/M-9

1.0 2.7

22.0 21.0

R/M-3 R/M-4

87


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

Oxygen

Pic. 4.24 –Dissolved oxygen section on 08.07.13 (this profile were made by program “Surfer”)

Looking at the plot it can be seen, that the amount of dissolved oxygen varies between 12.1 mg per liter ad 9.6 mg per liter. The highest oxygen levels are observed near point 8 and point 7. This can happen due to fresh water of Neman river, which flows from the west and brings dissolved oxygen. The lowest quantity of dissolved oxygen is observed at the point 3, at the bottom layer of water. It is necessary to say that there is a large mass of water with lower oxygen level at points 4,3 and 2.

Pic. 4.25 –Dissolved oxygen section on 09.07.13 (this profile were made by program “Surfer”)

88


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

From this plot we can realize that water oxygen level changes from 10 mg per liter to 4 mg per liter. The highest levels of oxygen are founded at the upper water layers from points 1 to point 6. The lowest ones are located between point 7 and point 9, also at the upper water layers. This data looks completely different from the previous one, it must be because of some kind of mistake of the tool we used. Near the points 6-9 at the upper water layers there are observed very low quantities of dissolved oxygen, which increase with the depth. It is impossible in natural conditions. It can be caused by incorrect work of STD-sensor, it should be calibrated once again and then make new measures. But as the mistakes were found only at the data calculations, we weren`t able to measure dissolved oxygen again.

89


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

Station 8

Pic. 4.26 Profile of temperature and salinity on station 8 (8.07.13)

Temperature obtained 08.07.2013 on station R8, varied from 21.8 ° C to 21.3° C, and salinity - from 0.19 ‰ to 0.27 ‰. (Pic. 5.26) The data of oxygen varied from 12 mg/l to 13 mg/l on all depth. Transparency measured on disk Secchi ranges 0.4 m. 90


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

91


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

92


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

4.2 Shoreline changes Introduction The problem of coastal erosion is becoming increasingly visible at the southeastern coast of the Baltic Sea. Usually sandy beaches were heavily affected by storms at the end of the 20th century (Žilinskas et al., 1994; 2000; Jarmalavičius et al., 2001). Despite relatively long calm periods between these events, the recovery processes are hardly noticeable; on the contrary, the costal erosion proceeds further (Minkevičius, 1999; Žilinskas et al., 1998, 2001). The Palanga area is the most important recreation area in the continental part of the Lithuanian coast of the Baltic Sea. Large dunes and beaches were formed here after an impermeable pier (Old Palanga Bridge) was built there in 1892 (Žaromskis, 2005). However, time, sea waves and wind devastated this construction. It became partially permeable in the second half of the 20th century. In 1997, a new bridge 470 meters long (Palanga Bridge) was constructed. The new Palanga Bridge is founded on piles and hence is completely permeable (Zemlys et al., 2007). Methodology To calculate shoreline change rates in Lithuania, we digitize the toe of the beach as our shoreline position on satellite images and according GPS-data taken in different years: 2005, 2010 and 2013. GPS data was collected with Garmin Oregon 550t (pic. 5.27). Oregon 550t combines rugged outdoor touchscreen navigation with a 3.2 megapixel digital camera. With preloaded U.S. topographical maps, highsensitivity GPS, barometric altimeter, 3-axis electronic compass and microSD™ 93


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

card slot, it's a multipurpose device that will make your biggest adventures even more memorable.

Pic. 4.27 Garmin Oregon 550t

To carry out shoreline changes this study has been incorporated Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS), which is an extension for ArcGIS software developed by USGS was employed. This extension contains three main components that define a baseline, generate orthogonal transects at a user defined separation along the coast, and calculate rates of change. We employ with Net Shoreline Movement (NSM). The NSM was used to calculate a distance, not a rate. The NSM is associated with the dates of only two shorelines. It reports the distance between the oldest and youngest shorelines for each transect. This represents the total distance between the oldest and youngest shorelines. NSM (m) = distance between the oldest and the youngest shorelines (pic. 5.28) (Valaitis et al., 2012).

94


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

Pic. 4.28. Above in the example, the net shoreline movement is the distance of 76.03 meters between the most recent shoreline from 2005 and the oldest shoreline from 1936 (Himmelstoss, 2009).

Shoreline position is highly variable on short time scales. Storm, wind-set-up and other natural fluctuations affected sea level rise and change coastline position, so is important introduce additional uncertainties. These uncertainties have been identified, rigorously calculated, and included in shoreline change models to ensure that the shoreline change rates will be affected. The errors are squared and summed to get a total positional uncertainty (Genz et al., 2007). Ut = Er 2  Ed 2  E p 2  Es 2  Ec 2 , where Er – rectification error, Ed – digitizing error, Ep – pixel error, Es – sea level fluctuation error, whose included maximal sea level fluctuation rate per day, Ec – GPS survey error. From 2005 to 2010 Ut = ± 4,3 m From 2005 and 2010 to 2013 Ut = ± 3,6 m

95


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

Data analysis These graphs show the changes of the coastline of the Baltic Sea from the north of Klaipeda to Sventoji. Enrollment period from 2005 to 2010 and from 2005 to 2013. The most visible coastline changes is shown in the lines in the graphs (pic. 4.29, 4.30). We can see the following changes: The erosion processes are visible to the north of Klaipeda: the length of erosion in this place is about 1.2 km, and the change of coastline is 25.4 km. To 2013, the extent of erosion is 2 km, and the change of coastline is 35 m. To 2010 in the north of Klaipeda erosion was less visible than in 2013. The following changes can be observed near the pier of Palanga, for the distance over 6 km : very high level of the accumulation due to the sand reclamation in 2011, erosion decrease from 35.5 km to 25 km. In the area of Sventoji the erosion increased from 65.2 km. up to 93 km., the level of accumulation does not change to 2013.

96


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

Pic.4.29 Net Shoreline Movement (NSM) for 2005-2010

97


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

Pic. 4.30 Net Shoreline Movement (NSM) for 2005-2013

98


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

Pic. 4.31 Total length (km) of erosion (left), stable (center), accumulation (right) areas of Lithuanian shoreline

Pic. 4.31 represents the overall trends of erosion, accumulation and stable coastal process in 2005-2010, 2010-2013 and 2005-2013. In 2005-2010 the process of accumulation dominates. Therefore, the shore on that interval expands. In 20052013 accumulative and erosive processes are at the same level, obvious changes are not observed. There is a significant erosion of the coast in 2010-2013. Finally, the length of the erode coast quickly increases, and the length of the accumulation is reduced. More detail information about erosion-accumulation areas of Lithuanian

shoreline

is

represented

at

pic.

5.32.

99


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

Pic. 4.32 Dynamics of shoreline changes (2005-2010, 2005-2013)

100


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

Our fieldwork data allowed to state that shoreline movement in 2005-2013 period has clear tendency of accumulation and erosion. Dynamics of shoreline changes shows following features: near Klaipeda erosion zone rises from 710 meters to 1400 m (pic. 5.33).

Pic. 4.33. Shoreline changes near Klaipeda for 2005-2010 (left pic.) and 2005-2013 (right)

Baltic Sea continental shoreline Klaipeda-Nemerseta has tendention to erode, especially at 7 km northerly of Klaipeda. In this research were identified zone of strong accumulation southern from the Palanga pier. The accumulation zone has grown until 2 km (in comparison with 800 m in 2010) (pic. 4.34).

101


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

Pic. 4.34 Shoreline changes near Palanga for 2005-2010 (left pic.) and 2005-2013 (right)

From Sventoji to the South we indicate about 6 km accumulative-stable zone. Near Sventoji seagates (to the North) the zone with the fastest erosion rates is occured(to 92.57 m) (pic. 4.35), due to human factors (reconstruction of the Sventoji Port).

102


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

Pic. 4.35 Shoreline changes near Sventoji for 2005-2010 (left pic.) and 2005-2013 (right)

Conclusion The Lithuanian coast suffers intensive erosion due to the natural processes of wind and wave action. In the last decade, the problem has been severely works, deepening of the Klaipeda port and recreational activities. The continental coast changes into a coastline characterized by an erosionaccretion pattern as cliffs and sand dunes interchange. This part of the coast is exposed the most strong and frequent storms and erosion. The problem is particularly serious for Lithuaniaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s largest resort, Palanga (Dailidiene et al., 2006). However, nowadays the coasts of Lithuania mostly characterized by accumulation because of human activity (ex.: coastal washing, create the coastal protection and etc). Adverse situation is founded nerby Klaipeda and Sventoji because of the high level of erosion. 103


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

4.3 Beach profiles

Pic. 4.36 Length of beach and sand composition

104


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

The figure shows data on the width of the beach and the sand composition obtained 04/07/2013 by measuring tape. Profiles are taken every 500 m. In this picture you can see that on 22-26 profiles there are average, coarse sand and stones, which speaks about the process of erosion. Furthermore, up to 36 the profile is observed small and very fine sand, which is a consequence of the removal of river runoff. Then again, there is medium sand, which can also indicate erosion.

105


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

Conclusion Education practice is the most important part of the training of young professionals. Here the student gets acquainted with the modern equipment and instruments, acquires the necessary experience and knowledge that will form the basis of his research activities in the future. Education practice fully allows the student to learn the nuances of the future profession, helping him to decide on further specialization, to get intellectual attitudes, such as creativity, innovative approach, enthusiasm, discipline, and motivation; learning skills indispensable for continuous professional growth; to be prepared for academic and research work. During practice we had undertaken much of the research work, the main aim of which was: to consolidate the knowledge, abilities and skills while monitoring, analyzing, during self-involvement and taking the practice experience from the institution where the practice is performed, also to assimilate modern techniques, performance skills and work organization methods. During the field work we have carried out measurements of shoreline change, the measurement of the main parameters of Oceanology. We listened to lectures about the types and the coast, about erosion on the coast of Lithuania, biological invasions in aquatic ecosystems and familiarized with the program ArcGis, which has helped us to analyze the changes in the coastline. In addition to the curriculum, as well was the entertainment program, which included visits to museums and walks on the beaches of the Curonian Spit and coast near the town of Palanga. We visited the Museum of blacksmithing in Klaipeda Maritime Museum on Curonian spit and a lot of sights. It should be noted bike ride, during which we visited the "Dutchman`s cap", a botanical garden, Palanga and its famous bridge.

106


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

In conclusion we can say that the goals set before us, have been successfully completed and the program will be the most valuable experience in our subsequent research.

107


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

108


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

Literature 

D ailidiene I., Davuliene L., Tilickis B ., Stankevicius A., Myrberg K., 2006, Sea level variability at the Lithuanian coast of the Baltic Sea , Boreal Environment Research vol. 11 p. 109-121

Z emlys P., Fröhle P., Gulbinskas S., Davulienė L. Near-shore evolution model for Palanga area: feasibility study of beach erosion management. Geologija. Vilnius. 2007. No. 57. P. 45–54. ISSN 1392–110X.

H immelstoss, E.A. 2009. “DSAS 4.0 Installation Instructions and User Guide” in: Thieler, E.R., Himmelstoss, E.A., Zichichi, J.L., and Ergul, Ayhan. 2009 Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 4.0 — An ArcGIS extension for calculating shoreline change : U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 2008 - 1278. *updated for version 4. 3.

G enz, A.S.; Fletcher, C.H.; Dunn, R.A.; Frazer, L.N., and Rooney, J.J., 2007. The predictive accuracy of shoreline change rate methods and alongshore beach variation on Maui, Hawaii. Journal of Coastal Research, 23(1), 87– 105. West Palm Beach (Florida), ISSN 0749-0208.

V alaitis Edvardas; Vitalijus Kondrat; Loreta Kelpšaitė, 2012. short-term changes of the Baltic Sea shoreline and alongshore beach variation on Palanga.

D ailidiene I., Davuliene L., Tilickis B ., Stankevicius A., Myrberg K., 2006, 109


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

Sea level variability at the Lithuanian coast of the Baltic Sea , Boreal Environment Research vol. 11 p. 109-121 

Z emlys P., Fröhle P., Gulbinskas S., Davulienė L. Near-shore evolution model for Palanga area: feasibility study of beach erosion management. Geologija. Vilnius. 2007. No. 57. P. 45–54. ISSN 1392–110X.

H immelstoss, E.A. 2009. “DSAS 4.0 Installation Instructions and User Guide” in: Thieler, E.R., Himmelstoss, E.A., Zichichi, J.L., and Ergul, Ayhan. 2009 Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 4.0 — An ArcGIS extension for calculating shoreline change : U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 2008 - 1278. *updated for version 4. 3.

G enz, A.S.; Fletcher, C.H.; Dunn, R.A.; Frazer, L.N., and Rooney, J.J., 2007. The predictive accuracy of shoreline change rate methods and alongshore beach variation on Maui, Hawaii. Journal of Coastal Research, 23(1), 87– 105. West Palm Beach (Florida), ISSN 0749-0208.

V alaitis Edvardas; Vitalijus Kondrat; Loreta Kelpšaitė, 2012. short-term changes of the Baltic Sea shoreline and alongshore beach variation on Palanga.

D ailidiene I., Davuliene L., Tilickis B ., Stankevicius A., Myrberg K., 2006, Sea level variability at the Lithuanian coast of the Baltic Sea , Boreal Environment Research vol. 11 p. 109-121

Z emlys P., Fröhle P., Gulbinskas S., Davulienė L. Near-shore evolution mod110


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

el for Palanga area: feasibility study of beach erosion management. Geologija. Vilnius. 2007. No. 57. P. 45–54. ISSN 1392–110X. 

H immelstoss, E.A. 2009. “DSAS 4.0 Installation Instructions and User Guide” in: Thieler, E.R., Himmelstoss, E.A., Zichichi, J.L., and Ergul, Ayhan. 2009 Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 4.0 — An ArcGIS extension for calculating shoreline change : U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 2008 - 1278. *updated for version 4. 3.

G enz, A.S.; Fletcher, C.H.; Dunn, R.A.; Frazer, L.N., and Rooney, J.J., 2007. The predictive accuracy of shoreline change rate methods and alongshore beach variation on Maui, Hawaii. Journal of Coastal Research, 23(1), 87– 105. West Palm Beach (Florida), ISSN 0749-0208.

V alaitis Edvardas; Vitalijus Kondrat; Loreta Kelpšaitė, 2012. short-term changes of the Baltic Sea shoreline and alongshore beach variation on Palanga.

D ailidiene I., Davuliene L., Tilickis B ., Stankevicius A., Myrberg K., 2006, Sea level variability at the Lithuanian coast of the Baltic Sea , Boreal Environment Research vol. 11 p. 109-121

Z emlys P., Fröhle P., Gulbinskas S., Davulienė L. Near-shore evolution model for Palanga area: feasibility study of beach erosion management. Geologija. Vilnius. 2007. No. 57. P. 45–54. ISSN 1392–110X.

H immelstoss, E.A. 2009. “DSAS 4.0 Installation Instructions and User Guide” 111


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

in: Thieler, E.R., Himmelstoss, E.A., Zichichi, J.L., and Ergul, Ayhan. 2009 Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 4.0 — An ArcGIS extension for calculating shoreline change : U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 2008 - 1278. *updated for version 4. 3. 

G enz, A.S.; Fletcher, C.H.; Dunn, R.A.; Frazer, L.N., and Rooney, J.J., 2007. The predictive accuracy of shoreline change rate methods and alongshore beach variation on Maui, Hawaii. Journal of Coastal Research, 23(1), 87– 105. West Palm Beach (Florida), ISSN 0749-0208.

V alaitis Edvardas; Vitalijus Kondrat; Loreta Kelpšaitė, 2012. short-term changes of the Baltic Sea shoreline and alongshore beach variation on Palanga.

M atti Leppäranta, Kai Myrberg - Physical Oceanography of the Baltic Sea, (2009)

D obrowolski, Zalogin - Seas of the USSR, (1982)

Z alogin B.S., Kosarev AN - The Sea (1999)

L eonov A.K. - Regional oceanography, (1960).

S hamrayev I., Shishkin, L.A. - Oceanology, (1980)

I PCC, 2007 112


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

B ACC Author Team, 2008; Lehmann et al., 2009; MacKenzie and Schiedek, 2007

B ACC Author Group, 2008

P ilkaityte˙ and Razinkovas, 2006; Razinkovas, Dailidiene˙ , and Pilkaityte˙ , 2008

V oipio 1981, referred by Esping and Grönqvist 1995

D obrivolskij, Zalogin, Morja SSSR, Moscow-1964, 350 p.

Z alogin, Kosarev, Morja, Moscow-1999, 400 p.

I OW, monitoring data, May 2005-2006)

H ydrometeorology-hydrochemistry…, 1992, data by Piechura, Gulf of Danzig)

A nna Beliaeva, Land reclamation “Baltic media Group”, URL: http://www.baltinfo.ru/2012/02/13/Namyv-bez-vytekayuschikh-posledstvii259378, 2012.02.13, access free – 2012.07.15.

D ubra, V., 2006. Influence of hydrotechnical structures on the dynamics of sandy shores: the case of Palanga on theBaltic coast. Baltica, Vol. 19 (1), 3– 9. Vilnius. 113


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

G udelis V. Relief and quaternary deposits of the Baltic, Vilnus, Mintis, 1973.

K luikov Y., 1999. Engineering oceanography, RSHU

K naps, R. 1966. Sediment transport in the coastal area of the Eastern Baltic. In: Development of marine coasts within the conditions of fluctuation movements of the Earth crust. Tallinn, Valgus. In Russian.

G rachev N.R. et al., Estimation of the principle possibility of the improvement quality sea water beside seasides of the resort region St. Petersburg upon completion construction of the complex of the defensive buildings), Uchenye zapiski № 14, Science-theoretical journal. – SPB.: publ. RSHU, 2010. – 210 p.

M alinin V., reports PITER.TV, URL: http://www.gazeta.spb.ru/590583-0/, access free – 2012.07.15

O lenin S., Daunys D., 2004. Coastal typology based on benthic biotope and community data: The Lithuanian case study. Baltic Sea Typology Coastline Reports 4 (2004)

P ovilanskas R. et al., 2002. Klaipeda (Lithuania), EUCC Baltic Office.

R BK-News, 310th Flood in St. Peterburg, 2011/11/28.

114


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

R iabchuk D.V. and et al., Resort region of St. Petersburg and problem of seashore protection.

R uskule A. et al., 2009. See the Baltic Sea.Unique assets we share. Baltic Environment Forum, Riga, 2009.

I nstruction Manual TN-100/ T-100 Portable Turbidimeter

I nstruction Manual The CTD90M

h ttp://www.sea-sun-tech.com/oceanography.html

h ttp://ecodevice.com.ua/ecodevice-catalogue/cdom-flu

I .Bagdanavičiutė, L.Kelpšaitė, D.Daunys “Long term shoreline changes of the Lithuanian Baltic Sea continental coast”

M .Crowell, St. P. Leatherman, M.-K. Buckley “Shoreline Change Rate Analysis: Long Term Versus Short Term Data”

w ww.nemunodelta.lt

w ww.museums.lt

w ww.muziejai.lt 115


TEMPUS IV eMaris - Applied Marine Sciences Education International marine student practice in Klaipeda University 1-16 July, 2013

ď&#x201A;ˇ

C astle museum magazines

116


"eMaris" Practice report