Issuu on Google+


< oj; j kpoh; murpay; tuyhw; w py; vd; W k; kpsph; e ; J nfhz; b Uf; f g; N ghFk; xU fyq;fiu tpsf;fhf 2004Mk; Mz; bd; Vg;uy; 02Mk; ehs; jpfog;Nghfpd;wJ. jhafk; - Njrpak; - jd;dhl;rp vd; w jkpoupd; murpay; mgpyhir fSf;F kf;fs; xd;wpize;J toq;fpa murpay; Mizapd; mjpfhuG+u;t ehshf md; i wajpdk; mike; J s; s J. jkpoupd; Vf murpay; gpujpepjpfs; Gypfs;jhd; vd;gij kf;fs; midtUk; xd;Wgl;L thf;fspj;J cyfpw;Fg; giw rhw;wpa ehSk; mJjhd;. jkpou; jhafkhd tlf;F - fpof; fpy; jkpou; $l; l ikg; G g; ngw; W s; s mNkhf ntw;wp Gypfspd; murpaw; gyj; ijAk; cyfpw;F ntspg;gLj;jpAs;sJ. rpwpyq; f h ehlhSkd; w pd; %d; whtJ ngupa murpaw; fl; r pahf> 22 Mrdq;fSld; jkpou; $l;likg;G ,lk; ngw; W s; s J. fle;j ,uz;L jrhg;j fhyj;jpw; Fk; Nkw;gl;l Nghu; tuyhw;wpy; Gypfs; ,af;fk; jkJ ,uhZt gyj;ij Mzpj; jukhf ntspg;gLj;jpAs;sJ. ,g;NghJ> murpaw; jsj;jpy; Gypfspd; jiyikj; JtKk; - mjd; Mw; w Yk; ep&gpf; f g; gl; L s; s J. ,t; t pjk; > murpay; - ,uhZt uPjpapy; <oj;jkpoupd; Vf jiyikahf Gypfs; ,af;fNk cs;sJ. ep&gpf;fg; gl; L tpl; l ,e; j murpay; - ,uhZt ajhu;j;jj;ij rpq;fsNjrKk; - ru;tNjr r%fKk; ,dpNky; kdjpy; epWj; j pf; nfhz; L jkJ murpay; efu; T fis Nkw; n fhs; S k; vd ek; g yhk; . jkpoupd; Njrpa ,dg; gpur;rpid f; F mikjp topapy; murpay; jP u ; T fhZk; cWjpg;ghl;NlhL Gypfs; ,af; fk; cs;sJ. ,e;j Nehf;fj;Jld;> Kd; (1k; gf; f j; njhlh; r ; r p...)

rk;ge;jKkpy;iy vd;gJ jiytU f; F ed; w hfNt njupe; j pUe; j J. vdNt> fUzhitAk; mtuJ Fw;w thspr; rfhf; f isAk; jdpikg; gLj;jp - Nghuhspfisg; ghJfhf;f jiytu; eltbf;iffs; vLj;jhu;. Muk;g eltbf;ifahf fU zhit ,af;fj;jpypUe;J tpyf;fpa Jld; - mtiu xU JNuhfp vd gpufldg;gLj;jpa Gypfspd; jiy ikr; nrayfk; fUzhtpd; JNuhfr; nraiy Nguhirnfhz;l xU jdp kdpjdpd; Raeyr; nraw;ghL vd tifg;gLj;jpaJ. fUzhtpypUe;J tpyfpapUf;FkhW kl;L - mk;ghiw NghuhspfSf;F mwpTWj;jg;gl;lJ. vkJ jiyikg; g P l j; j pd; mwpTWj;jy;fs; kw;Wk; fUzhtpd; jdpg;gl;l Fw;wr;nray;fs; gw;wpa tpguq;fs; Nghuhspfsplk; nrd;wile; jhy; jdJ cz; i kr; nrh&gk; mk;gykhfptpLk; vd;Wzu;ej ; JNuhfp fUzh; me;jj; jfty;fs; Nghuhsp fisr; nrd;wilatplhJ jLf;f Kad;whu;. fUzhtpd; JNuhfk; gw;wpa cz;ikj; jfty;fisj; jhq;fpr;

02

ida muNrhL xU njhlu; Ngr;Rthu;j; ijia Gypfs; ,af;fk; R%fkhf elhj;jp te; j J. rpq; f s muRld; vl; l g; g l; l Nghu; epWj;j cld;ghl;ilAk; Gypfs; ,af;fk; rupahff; filg; g pbj; J tUfpd; w J. vdpDk;> jkpo; kf;fisg;Nghy;> rpq;

fstupd; thf;Fj;jPu;g;G rkhjhdj;jpw;fhd njspthd kf; f s; Mizahf ,Uf; f tpy; i y. Fog; g fukhd jiyikiaAk; Ml; r papy; mku; j ; j pAs; s du; . uzpypd; fl; r papdu; > jkpou; gFjp apd; ajhu; j ; j j; i j Vw; W f; n fhz; L xU cWjpahd rkhjhdj;jpw;F Miz Nfl;b Ue;jdu;. rpq;fs thf;fhsu; uzpiy Ml;rpg; gP l Nkw; w kWj; J tpl; l du; . Mdhy;> re;jpupfh - N[.tp.gp $l;l zpapdu; rpq;fs Nkyhjpf;fj;Jld; $ba xU rkhjhdg; Ngr;rpw;fhd nfhs;ifia Kd;itj;jdu;. rpq;fs thf;fhsu; mjw;Nf

nrd;w jkpo;g; gj;jpupiffs; gwpf; fg;gl;L jPaplg;gl;ld. gj;jphpif tpepNahfq;fs; jilnra;ag;gl;ld. mj;Jld; Nghuhspfspd; thndhypg; ngl; b fs; gwpKjy; nra; a g; g l; L mtu;fs; jfty; ,Ul;by; itf;fg; gl;ldu;. jiytu; gpughfudpd; cU tg; glq;fs; vkJ Kfhk;fspy; ,U e;J mfw;wg;gl;ld. vkJ Nghuhsp fspd; jpdg; gzpahfpa cWjpg; gpu khzk; nra;tjpypUe;J Nghuhspfs; jLf;fg;gl;ldu;. jiytu; gpughfuid ,opTgLj;Jk; tifapy; fUzh FO tpdu; NghuhspfSf;F fUj;Jf;fs; $wpdu;. vd;d eilngWfpd;wJ vd;W mwpahkYk; - Fog;gj;jpYk; ,Ue;j Nghuhspfs; jiytu; gpughfuid mt kupahij nra;J fUzh FOtpdu; fUj; J f; f s; $wpaNghJ me; j j; JNuhfpfspd; cz;ikr; nrh&g j;ij mwpaj;njhlq;fpdu;. ,Njrkak; fUzhtpd; mlh tbj;jdq;fs; kl;L - mk;ghiw kz; zpy; mjpfupf;fj;njhlq;fpd. vkJ Mjuthsu;fs; rpyUk; - Nghuhspfs; rpyUk; fUzh Fk;gyhy; nfhy;yg;

Miz toq; f pAs; s du; . njd; ,yq; i fapy; jkpou; f s; fzprkhf tho; e ; J tUk; Nju; j y; kht l;lq;fspy; uzpypd; fl;rpapdu; ntw;wp thif #bAs;sdu;. jdpr;rpq;fs Nju;jy; khtl; l q; f spy; Njhw; W s; s du; . uzpypd; rkhjhd Kaw;rpfSf;F jkpoupd; MjuTk;> rpq;fstupd; vjpu;g;Gk; cs;sij ,e;jj; Nju;jy;KbT fhl;Lfpd; wJ. ePz;l NghUk; - mJ nfhLj;j murpay; tpopg;Gzu;Tk; rpq;fs kf;fs; kj;jpapy; ghupa kdkhw;wj;ij Vw;gLj;jp As; s J vd; w nghJthd mgpg; g puha j;ij ,e;jj; Nju;jy; KbT ngha;ahf;fp As; s J. rpq;fs kf;fsJ ,e;j ,dthj kdepiy ru;tNjr r%fj;ij Mr;rupag; gLj;jpapUf;Fk;. Mdhy;> jkpo;kf;fisg; nghWj; j tifapy; ,J guP r ; r akhd njhd; w hFk; . rpq; f sj; j py; Ml; r paikj; J s; s Gjpa $l;lzpapd; ntw;wp jkpopdj;jpw;F xU rthyhfNt tpsq; f g; N ghfpd; w J. Gjpa $l;lzp muR tpUk;Gk; rkhjhdg; Ngr;Rf;fspd; jpl;lq;fs; Gypfs; ,af; fj;jpd; murpay; epiyg;ghl;bw;F Kuzh fNt cs; s J. Gypfs; ,af; f j; j pd; rkhjhd murpay; ntspg;gilahdjhfTk; - ru;t Njr r%fj;jpd; MjuTlDk; cs;sJ. Nju;jypy; fpilj;j kf;fs; MizAk; Gypfspd; murpaw;gyj;ij mjpfg;gLj;jp As; s J. rpq; f stupd; ,dthj Mirfs; ,uhZt uP j pahfTk; rup - murpay; uPjpahfTk; rup epiwNtw;wg;gl Kbahj msTf; F Gypfs; ,af; f k; ,uhZt uPjpahfTk; murpay; uPjpahfTk; gykhf cs; s J.

gl;lNghJ eltbf;ifapd; fLik ahd fl;lj;jpw;Fr; nry;y jiytu; mtu;fs; epu;g;ge;jpf;fg;gl;lhu;. JNuhfp fUzhit vkJ jhafj;jpypUe;J fistjw;F jPu; khdpf;fg;gl;lJ. kl;L - mk;ghiw tpNrl jsgjp uNkrpd; jiyikapy; Gypfspd; gil> eltbf; i fapy; ,wq;fpaJ. re;ju;g;gj;ij vjpu;ghu;j; Jf; fhj; J f; f ple; j Nghuhspfs; fUzh Fk;gypd; cj;juTfSf;F fPo;g;gba kWj;J - Gypfspd; kPl;G mzpfsplk; te;JNru;e;jdu;. ,ij aLj;J JNuhfp fUzhTk;> mtUld; ,ize;J $l;Lf;Fw;wk; Gupe;j xU rpy rfhf;fSk; xd;WNru;e;J jkpou; jhaf kz;iz tpl;Nlhb vjpupaplk; nrd;wile;jdu;. Gypfs; ,af; f j; j pw; F s; fUzh Vw;gLj;jpa ryryg;ig xU ghupa gpsTNghy tu;zpj;j rpq;fs - kw;Wk; ,e;jpa Clfq;fs; fUzh Fk;gy; jkpo;kz;iz tpl;L tpul;lg; gl;l NtfKk; - tpjKk; fz;L tha ilj;Jg; NghAs;sd. fUzhtpd; JNuhfj; j hy; vOe;j ryryg;ig xU rhl;lhf

itj;J jkpoupd; murpay; mgpyhir fSf;F Mg;Gitf;f Mirg;gl;l Ngupdthj rf;jpfSk; ,g;NghJ Vkh w;wk; mile;Js;sd. Nghu;f;fsq;fspy; jhk; re;jp j;j khngUk; ,uhZtj; Njhy;tp fistpl; Gypfs; ,af;fj;ij eRf; Fk; xU ngupa tuyhw;W tha;g;ig ,oe; J tpl; l JNghy rpq; f sNjrk; kdKile;J NghAs;sJ. Gypfs; ,af;fj;jpd; vOr;rp Ak; - tPo;r;rpAk; vd;nwhU E}iyNa vOj Mirg;gl;l rpq;fsg; gj;jpupif cyfk;; fUzhtpd; vOr;rpAk; tPo;r;rpAk; vd;nwhU fl;LiuAld; Kbj;Jf;nfhs;s Ntz;ba epiyapy; cs;sJ. vd;Wkpy;yhj msTf;F jkp ou; xw;WikAk; - jkpou; Njrpa vOr;rpAk; jkpou; jhafj;jpy; ,d;W epyTfpd;wJ. jiytu; gpughfudpd; jiyikapy; jkpou; Njrpak; gykil e;J tUfpd;wJ. murpay; uPjpahfTk; - ,uhZt uPjpahfTk; jkpou; gyk; tYtile;J tUfpd;wJ. gpufhrk; kpf;f xU vjpu;fhyj;ij Nehf;fp jkpo;kf;fisj; jiytu; mtu;fs; topelj;jpr; nry;fpd;whu;.

gq; F dp-rpj; j p; i u-2004


kidapy; jq;f Neupl;lJ. [{d; 06> 1945y; eilngw;w Nehu;khz;bj; jiu apwf;fj;ij ,uz;lhk; cyfg; Nghupd; kpfr; rpwe;j fsg;glg; gpbg;ghsu;fspy; xUtuhd nwhNgl; fg;gh (ROBERT CAPA) glk; gpbj;jhu;. `d;Nfup ehl;by; 1913y; gpwe;j ,tu; tpaw;ehk; Nghupd;NghJ xU fz;zpntbia kpjpj;J capupoe;jhu;. fsg;glg;gpbg;gpy; <LgLk; gy;yhapuf; fzf;fhNdhUf;F nwhNgl; fg;gh xU khdrPf FUthfj; jpfo; f pwhu; . jdJ capiuj; Jr; r khf kjpj; J g; gzpahw;WtJ ,tUila jdpj;Jtkhd ghzp. njhopy; El;gr; rpwg;gpw;fhf ,tUila Gifg;glj; njhFjpfs; ghlkhfg; gbf;fg;gLfpd;wd. ,uz;lhk; cyfg; Nghupd; ngz; fsg;glg;gpbg; ghsu;fspy; yP kpy;yu; (LEE MILLER) vd;w mnkupf;fu; Kjyplk; tfpf;fpwhu;. 1904y; epA+Nahu;f; efupy; gpwe;j ,tu; ,sk; tajpy; xU nkhly; mofpahfg; gupzkpj;jhu;. 1942y; mtu; INuhg;ghTf;F mDg;gg;gl;l mnkupf;fg; gilfspd; cj;jpNahfG+u;tg; glg;gpbg;ghsuhf epakpf;fg; gl;lhu;. gpuhd;rpw;Fs; Kjd;Kjyhf Eioe;j mnkupf;fg; gilfSld; ,tUk; nrd;whu;. Nrhtpaj; xd;wpaj;jpd; nrk;gilAk; mnkupf;fg; gilfSk; N[u;kdpapy; tuyhw; Wr; re;jpg;ig Nkw;nfhz;lNghJ yP kpy;yu; mijg; glkhf; fpdhu;. xU nghwpayhsupd; kfshd ,tu; kpfr; rpWtajp NyNa fkuhf;fis jpUj;jk; nra;Ak; jpwikiag; ngw;wp Ue;jhu;. khfNuw; G+u;fN ; f - itw; vd;w ,uz;lhk; cyfg; Nghu;ff ; hyg; ngz; glg;gpbg;ghsu; xU Gifg;glj;Jiw rk;ge;jkhd mupa jj;Jtj;ij Kd;itf;fpwhu;. ~jd; tho; ehspy; xU glg;gpbg;ghsu; gy;yhapuk; glq;fisg; gpbf;f yhk;> XupU glq;fs;jhd; fhyj;jhy; mopahJ epiyf;fpdw ; d| ,uz;lhk;cyfg;Nghupy; gpbf;fg;gl;l Gifg;glq;fspd; nkhj;jj; njhif gyNfhbfisj; jhz;Lk;> Mdhy; xU rpyjhd; epiyj;J epw;fpd;wd. fhu;s; ikld;]; gpbj;j ,U Gifg;glq;fs; ,e;j tifiar; rhu;ej ; it. mnkupf;fhtpd; kp#upNghu; fg;gypd; Nkw;jl;by; epge;jidaw;w ruzhfjp cld;gbf;ifapy; nkf; Mu;ju; Kd;dpiyapy; [g;ghd; ifr;rhj;jpl;l Gifg; glk; mjpnyhd;W. mLj;jJ gpypg;gd P ] ; ; jPTfis mnkupf; fg; gilfs; kPsf; ifg;gw;wpaNghJ fly; ePiu kpjpjj ; thW n[duy;nkf; Mu;ju; jiuf;F tUk; fhl;rp. MizapwTg; Nghupd;NghJ Nfzy; ghy;uh[; jiyikapyhd Mz;ngz; Nghuhspfs; khKid - ,j;jhtpy;jiuapwf;fj;ij Nkw; nfhz;lNghJ Gypgg ; lg;gpbg;ghsu;fshy; gpbf;fg;gl;l tu;zg; Gifg;glq;fs; ,e;j ufj;ijr; Nru;ej ; it. ,uz;lhk; cyfg;Nghu; fhyj;jpy; nlhf;fpA+ nkd;wwp gpy;k] ; ; (DOCUMENTARY FILMS) tptuzg; glq;fs; Njhw;wk; ngw;wd. ,it nra;jpg; gpd;dzpiaAk;> kf;fs; tho;itAk;> jiytu;fs; epiyg;ghl;ilAk; NghUf; fhd jahu;gg ; Lj;jiyAk; njhFj;J toq;Ftdthf mike; jd. ,Jtiu fhyKk; jahupf;fg;gl;l nlhf;fpA+nkd;wp glq;fspy; kpfr; rpwe;jjhf 1934y; N[u;kd; glg;gpbg;ghsu; Nydp wPgd;];uhy; (LENI RIEFENSTAHL) jahupj;j ~jplrq;fw;gj;jpd; ntw;wp| (THE TRIUMPH OF THE WILL) vd;w jpiug;glk; Vw;Wf; nfhs;sg;gLfpd;wJ. `pw;yupd; tyJ ifNghd;w ,g;ngz; Nghu; Kbe;j gpd; Ner ehLfs; epWtpa Fw;wtpay; ePjp kd;wj;jpy; epWj;jg;gl;lhu;. Nghiu Cf;Ftpj;j Fw;wj;jpw;fhf mtUf;F ehd;F tUlr; rpiwj; jz;lid toq;fg;gl;lJ. 2003y; mtu; jdJ 101k; tajpy; ,aw;if va;jpdhu;. nra;jpg; glr;RUs; (NEWS REEL) jahupjJ ; jpiu auq;FfspYk; jpwe;jntspfspYk; fhz;gpf;Fk; toik ,uz;lhk; cyfg; Nghu; fhyj;jpy; Muk;gpf;fg;gl;lJ. Nghu; nra;jpfis njhFj;J ,it toq;fpd. Ner ehLfspd; ntw;wpfisAk; vjpupapd; Njhy;tpfisAk; ,g;glq;fs; $l;bAk; Fiwj;Jk; ntspapl;ld. gpupj;jhdpah jahupj;j nra;jpg; glr;RUs; fhyzpj;Jt ehLfs; ahtw;wpYk; fhz;gpf;fg;gl;ld. jpiug;glk; njhlq;FKd; ,tw;iwf; fhz;gpf;fNtz;Lk; vd;w fl;lhak; mg;NghJ ,Ue;jJ. ,g;gbahd jpiug;glq;fspy; gpupj;jhdpahitAk; fhydp fisAk; Ml;rpnra;j Mwhk; N[hu;[; kd;dupd; glKk;> gpd;dzpapy; gpupj;jhdpahtpd; Njrpa fPjKk; Kjw;fz; Njhd;Wk; mg;NghJ ghu;itahsu;fs; ahtUk; vOe;J epd;W kupahij nra;thu;fs;. 1993 Nk njhlf;fk; jkpoPo tpLjiyg;Gypfs; xsptPr;R vd;w nra;jpg;glr; RUis ntspapLfpd;wdu;. ,jpy; jkpoPor; nra;jpfSk;> khtPuu;fspd; ngau;> glKk;> kf;fs; mtyj;ij czu;jJ ; k; rpwpa jpiug;glKk; ,izf; fg;gl;bUf;Fk;. Gyk;ngau;ej ; jkpou;fSf;Fj; jhafr; nra;jp fis toq;FtNjhL jhafj; njhlu;ig tYg;gLj;Jk; Nehf;ifAk; xsptPr;Rr; RUs;fs; tYg;gLj;Jfpd;wd. xsptPrR ; vd;w ngaiu cUthf;fpatu; mjd; ,af;Feu; fspy; xUtuhd Qhdujd;. ,Jtiuapy; 103 xsptPr;R ,jo;fs; ntspte;Js;sd. epju;rdk; glj;jahupgG ; epWtdk; ,tw;iwj; jahupff ; pdw ; J. epju;rdj;jpd; gpw jahupgG ; f;fshf 20 KOePsj; jpiug;glq;fSk; 70FWk;glq;fSk; ,w;iw tiu ntspte;Js;sd. ,it midj;Jk; jkpo;$Wk;; ey;Yynfq;fDk; rpwe;j tuNtw;Gg; ngw;Ws;sd. jkpoPo tpLjiyg;Gypfspd; fsg;glg;gpbg;G

gq; F dp-rpj; j piu-2004

cl;gl Gifg;glk;> jpiug;glk; rhu;e;j eltbf;iffs; ahTk; mikg;gpd; cWg;gpdu;fshy; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLfpdw ; d. ,J Nfzy; fpl;L fhye;njhl;L epyTk; eilKiw. Gifg;glk;> jpiug;glk; rhu;ej ; Ma;T$l eltbf;iffs; (LAB WORK) jpUj;jk; kw;Wk; njhFg;G eltbf;iffs; (EDITING) vd;gdTk; Nghuhspfshy; Nkw;nfhs;sg; gLfpd;wd. cyfpd; ,j;njhopy;rhu; tsu;rr ; p fhuzkhf GjpJ Gjpjhf ntsptUk; etPd fUtpfis cs;thq;fpf; ifahSk; jpwik GypfSf;F epiwa cz;L. Nfzy; fpl;L fhyj;jpNyNa Gifg;gl Ma;T$lq;fs; Muk;gpf;fg; gl;ld. mtiu ,j;Jiwrhu; ~gpjhkfu;| vd;W miog;gJ kpifapy;y. kpfr; rpwpjhf Muk;gpf;fg;gl;l Gifg;glg; gpupT 1990k; Mz;L njhl;Lg; gy Nghuhspfisf; nfhz;lnjhU Kf;fpa gpupthf tsu;rr ; p fz;Ls;sJ. ,jpy; Mz;> ngz; ,UghyhUk; gq;Nfw;fpd;wdu;. aho;Flh> td;dpg; ngUepyg; gug;G> jpUNfhzkiy> kl;L-mk;ghiw gpuhe;jpaq;fs; ahtw;wpYk; Gypfs; <Lgl;l gil eltbf;iffs; Mtzg; gLj;jg;gl;Ls;sd. vkJ tuyhw;wpd; rhd;Wfis Gifg; glq;fshfTk;> jpiug;glq;fshfTk; cs;@u; kf;fSf;Fk;> Gyk;ngau;e;NjhUf;Fk; gpwUf;Fk; ,g;gpuptpdu; toq;F fpd;wdu;. gy glq;fSf;fhf glj;Jiwg; Nghuhspfs; Njrpaj;jiytu; mtu;fsplkpUe;J gupRfisAk; rhd;wpjo; fisAk; ngw;Ws;sdu;. fsg;glg;gpbg;ig khj;jpuky;yhJ Gypfs; gq;Fgw;Wk; Kf;fpa epfo;rr ; pfisAk;> re;jpg;Gf; fisAk; ,tu;fs; glkhf;Ffpd;wdu;. Gifg;glg; gpbg;ig mbg;gilahff; nfhz;l Kf;fpa Clfj;Jiwg; gpupthf ~Gifg;gl ,jopay;| (PHOTOJOURNALISM) ,uz;lhk; cyfg; NghUld; Muk;gpj; Js;sJ. Xuhapuk; nrhw;fspYk; ghu;ff ; xU rpwg;ghd Gifg;glk; $Ljy; tYTld; ,Uf;fpd;wJ. ,e;j mbg;

gilapy; gj;jpupiffs;> rQ;rpiffspy; Gifg;glq;fs; gpuRupff ; g;gLfpdw ; d. fsg;glq;fis ngUtpiy nfhLj;Jf; nfhs;tdT nra;tjw;F Clfj;Jiw epWtdq;fs; jah uhfTs;sd. fsg;glg; gpbg;ghsu;fsplkpUe;J glq;fisf; nfhs;tdT nra;J tpepNahfpf;Fk; Kftufq;fs; ,d;W fhzg;gLfpd;wd. ,tw;Ws; ~kf;dk;| (MAGNUM) vd;w epWtdk; Kjyplk; tfpf;fpd;wJ. vOj;ijf; FiwthfTk; glq;fisf; $LjyhfTk; nfhz;l ~iyg;| (LIFE) vd;w mnkupf;fr; rQ;rpif 1936y; Muk;gpf;fg;gl;lJ. ,uz;lhk; cyfg; Nghu;> Nfhupaj; jPgfw;gg; Nghu;> tpaw;ehk; Nghu; gw;wpa KO msTg; Gifg;glq;fs; ,jpy; gpuRupf;fg;gl; Ls;sd. rpy tUlq;fSf;F Kd; iyg; ,ilepWj;jg; gl;Ls;sJ. mjd; rNfhjur; rQ;rpif ~iuk;| (TIME) njhlu;eJ ; gpuRukhfpd;wJ. fsg;glg;gpbg;G vd;gJ kpfTk; Mgj;jhd njhopy>; capupog;G jtpu;f;f Kbahj epfo;r;rpahf elf;fpd;wJ. ,Jtiu fsj;jpy; gypahd glg;gpbg;ghsu; vz;zpf;if gy E}Wfisj;jhz;Lfpd;wd. tpgj;jpy; ,wg;Nghu; xU GwkpUf;f tQ;rpdk; nfhz;l gilfspd; #l;by; ,we;Njhu; vz;zpf;if fzprkhdsT cz;L. nrd;w tUlk; (2003) ele;j <uhf; Nghupy; my; - [rPuh vd;w muG njhiyf;fhl;rp epWtdj;jpd; ,U glg;gpbg;ghsu;fs; mnkupff ; g; gilfshy; Rl;Lf; nfhy;yg;gl;ldu;. ,];Nuypag; gilfs; ghy];jd P u; fspd; n[dpk; mfjp Kfhk;kPJ ,uhZtj; jhf;Fjy; elj;jpaNghJ xU Mq;fpNyag; glg;gpbg;ghsu; A+jg; gil apduhy; Fwp itj;Jr; Rlg;gl;lhu;. ,d;iwa cyfpd; kpfr; rpwe;j fsg; glg;gpbg; ghsuhf kjpg;gplg;gLk; N[k;]; er;w;Nt> (JAMES NACHTWAY) taJ 55> fle;j ,U jrhg;jq;fshf fsg; glg;gpbg;gpy; gy ,d;dy;fSf;F kj;jpapy; <LgL fpwhu;. 1994,y; %d;W khj ,ilntspapy; xU kpy;yp aDf;Fk; $Ljyhd Ul;rp ,dj;jtu; Fl;L ,dj;jtu;fshy; nfhy;yg;gl;l NghJ er;wN ; t mq;F glg;gpbg;gpy; nraw; gl;lhu;. kr;nrw; vd;W miof;fg;gLk; fhl;Lf; fj;jp tPrr ; py; ,Ue;J gyKiw kapupioapy; capu;jg;gpdhu;. nrr;nrd;

Nghupy; U\;ag; gilfs; ,tiu nfhy;Yk; Nehf;fpy; Rl;ldu; Mdhy; jg;gptpl;lhu;. ~cd;Dila glk; jpUg;jpahf ,y;yhtpl;lhy; eP fpl;lg; Nghftpy;iy vd;Wjhd; mu;j;jk;| vd;fpwhu; er;w;Nt. ,Jjhd; capuhgj;jpd; ,ufrpak;. ehKk; fsg;glg;gpbg;gpd;NghJ gy ngWkjpkpf;f Nghuhspfis ,oe;Js;Nshk;. ,Jtiu fsg;glg;gpbg;gpd; NghJ 45 NghuhspfSk; 04 ehl;Lg;gw;whsu;fSk; tPur;rhtile; Js;sdu;. rydg;glf; fsg;glg;gpbg;gpy; tPur;rhtile;j KjyhtJ khtPuu; nyg; gl;Nly; vd;gJ tuyhW. ,tu; 1986k; Mz;L rpq;fs ,uhZtk; tlkuhl;rpiar; Rw;wp tisj;jNghJ> cyq;F thD}u;jpapy; ,Ue;J Rlg;gl;L capu; ePjj ; hu;. ,tUila tPur;rhit mtu; gad;gLj;jpa rydg; glf;fUtp gjpT nra;Js;sJ. Xahjmiy 03 MidapwT kPl;Gr;rkupy; fsg;glg;gpbg;gpy; <Lgl;l aNrhtpd; tPur;rhT epfo;T ,d;DNkhu; fsg;glg;gpbg;gpy; <Lgl; l Nghuhspapdhy; gjpT nra; a g; g l; L s; s J. fsg;glq;fspd; njhFg;ghf ,Jtiu Ik;gjpw;Fk; Nkw;gl;l tptuzg; glq;fs; ntspaplg;gl;Ls;sd. ,d;W epfOk; jfty; Gul;rpd; mbf;Nfhlhf khw;wq;fs; epfo;fpd;wd. ,J b[pw;wy; mbg;gilapyhd

cyfpd; tpLjiy ,af;fq;fs; ahtw;wpYk; jkpoPo tpLjiyg; GypfNs kpff; $Ljyhfg; Gifg; glq;fis jkJ gd;Kfg;gLj;jg;gl;l NjitfSf;Fg; gad;gLj;Jgtu;fs;. tuyhw;W

MtzkhfTk;> gpurhur; rhjdkhfTk;> Clff; fUtpahfTk;> Gyk; ngau;e;Njhupd; tpopg;igj; J}z;Lk; ghykhfTk; Gifg;glq;fisg; Gypfs; gad;gLj;Jfpd;wdu;. fzdpAfk;. capupDk; Nkyhf kjpj;j glf;fUtpfis iftpl Ntz;batu;fshf ,Uf;fpNwhk;. b[pww ; y; fkuhtpd; tUifahy; glr;RUspd; Njit mw;Wg;Ngha;tpl;lJ. xU rpd;dQ;rpwpa ml;ilapy; E}Wtiuapyhd glq;fisg; gjpT nra;aKbAk;. gpbj;j glj;ij cldbahf fkuhj; jpiuapy; ghu;ff ; Kbfpd;wJ. cldbj;jpUj;jk; nra;Ak; trjpAk; fpilj;Js;sJ. Gypfspd; glg;gpupT fzdp Afj;jpw;Fs; Eioe;J tpl;lJ. fzdpAfj;jpd; kpfr; rpwe;j mD$yq;fspy; xd;whf glq;fisAk; nefw;wpTfisAk; xU nkkwp ml;ilapy; gjpT nra;J fsQ;rpag;gLj;Jk; trjp fpilj;Jtpl;lJ. 19k; E}w;whz;bd; gpw;gFjpapy; fz;zhbj; jl;Lf; fisf; iftpl;Lg; glr;RUs;fisg; gad;gLj;jpajhy; ngUk; Gifg;glg; Gul;rp ntbj;jJ. ,g;NghJ b[pw;wy; fkuhtpd; tUifahy; mijnahj;j Gul;rp njhlq;fptpll ; J. Kd;ngy;yhk; ehk; Gifg;glq;fis jghy; %yk; ntspehL fSf;F mDg;gp te;Njhk;. ,jpYs;s rpukj;ij ,jpy; <Lgl;Nlhu; mwpthu;fs;. ,d;W b[pw;wy; fkuhthy; glk; gpbj;J> yg;nuhg; fzdpapy; vbw; nra;J> ifj;njhiyNgrp %yk; glq;fis kpdd ; y; Ntfj;jpy>; nrd;wila Ntz;ba Kftupf;F mDg;GfpNwhk;. Gjpa njhopy;El;gj;ij cupa Kiwapy; gad;gLj;Jtjpy; Gypfs; epfuw;W tpsq;F fpd;wdu;.

09



V_P_115