2.11 Employee benefits Share-based payment
Share Option Plans The Share Option Plans allow the Group employees and directors to acquire shares of the Company. The fair value of options granted is recognised as an employee expense with a corresponding increase in equity. The fair value is measured at grant date and spread over the period during which the employees and directors become unconditionally entitled to the options. At each reporting date, the Company revises its estimates of the number of options that are expected to become exercisable. It recognises the impact of the revision of original estimates in employee expense and in a corresponding adjustment to equity over the remaining vesting period. The proceeds received net of any directly attributable transactions costs are credited to share capital when the options are exercised.
Performance Share Plan and Restricted Stock Plan The Performance Share Plan and the Restricted Stock Plan are accounted as equity-settled share-based payments. Equity-settled share-based payments are measured at fair value at the date of grant. The share-based expense is amortised and recognised in the income statement on a straight line basis over the vesting period. At each reporting date, the Company revises its estimates of the number of shares that the participating employees and directors are expected to receive based on non-market vesting conditions. The difference is charged or credited to the income statement, with a corresponding adjustment to equity.
Defined contribution plans Contributions to defined contribution plans are recognised as an expense in the income statement when incurred.
Other short-term benefits Short-term employee benefit obligations are measured on an undiscounted basis and are expensed as the related service is provided. A provision is recognised for the amount expected to be paid under short-term cash bonus or Performance Cash Plan if the Group has a present legal or constructive obligation to pay this amount as a result of past service provided by the employee and the obligation can be estimated reliably.
2.12 Customer loyalty programmes For customer loyalty programmes, the fair value of the consideration received or receivable from a sales transaction which attracts customer loyalty credits or points is allocated between the customer loyalty points and the other component of the sale. The amount allocated to the customer loyalty points is estimated by reference to the fair value of the customer loyalty points for which they could be redeemed. The fair value of the customer loyalty points is estimated by taking into account the expected redemption rate and the timing of such expected redemptions. Such amount is deferred and recorded as unearned revenue until the customer loyalty points are redeemed. At this juncture, the cost of fulfilling the customer loyalty credits is also recognised.
2.13 Provisions Provisions are recognised in the balance sheet when the Group has a present legal or constructive obligation as a result of a past event, and it is probable that an outflow of economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation and a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of obligation. If the effect is material, provisions are determined by discounting the expected future cash flows at a pre-tax rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and, where appropriate, the risks specific to the liability.
2.14 Share capital Ordinary shares are classified as equity. Incremental costs directly attributable to the issuance of new equity shares are recognised as a deduction from equity, net of any tax effects. Where share capital recognised as equity is repurchased and held as treasury shares, the amount of the consideration paid, including directly attributable costs, net of any tax effects, is presented as a deduction from equity. Where such shares are subsequently reissued, sold or cancelled, the consideration received is recognised as a change in equity. No gain or loss is recognised in the income statement. StarHub Ltd Annual Report 2013