fina n c ial s
Notes to the Financial Statements Year ended 31 December 2013
2.5 Impairment (continued) Impairment losses recognised in respect of CGU are allocated first to reduce the carrying amount of any goodwill allocated to the CGU (group of units) and then, to reduce the carrying amount of other assets in the CGU (group of units) on a pro rata basis.
Calculation of recoverable amount The recoverable amount of an asset or its CGU is the greater of its value in use and its fair value less costs to sell. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset or CGU. For an asset that does not generate cash inflows largely independent of those from other assets, the recoverable amount is determined for the cash-generating unit to which the asset belongs. For the purpose of goodwill impairment testing, CGUs to which goodwill has been allocated are aggregated so that the level at which impairment testing is performed reflects the lowest level within the Group at which goodwill is monitored for internal reporting purposes.
Reversals of impairment An impairment loss recognised in prior periods for an asset other than goodwill is reversed if there has been a change in the estimates used to determine the recoverable amount. An impairment loss is reversed only to the extent that the assetâ€™s carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined, net of depreciation or amortisation, if no impairment loss had been recognised. All reversals of impairment are recognised in the income statement.
2.6 Inventories Inventories comprise goods held for resale and reserved telephone numbers. Inventories are valued at the lower of cost and net realisable value. The cost of goods held for resale is determined on the weighted average basis. Reserved telephone numbers are stated at cost and accounted for using the specific identification basis. Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less the estimated costs necessary to make the sale. Allowance for obsolescence is made for all deteriorated, damaged, obsolete and slow-moving inventories.
2.7 Trade and other receivables Trade and other receivables (including balances with related parties) are recognised initially at fair value and subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method, less allowance for doubtful receivables. Allowance for doubtful receivables is made based on historical write-off patterns and ageing of accounts receivables. Bad debts are written off when incurred.
2.8 Cash and cash equivalents For the purpose of presentation in the consolidated cash flow statement, cash and cash equivalents comprise cash balances and deposits with financial institutions and bank overdrafts which are repayable on demand and which form an integral part of the Groupâ€™s cash management.
2.9 Trade and other payables Trade and other payables (including balances with related parties) are initially recognised at fair value, and subsequently carried at amortised cost using the effective interest method.
2.10 Borrowings Borrowings are initially recognised at fair value of the proceeds received less directly attributable transaction costs. After initial recognition, borrowings are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method. Any difference between the proceeds (net of transactions costs) and the settlement or redemption of borrowings is recognised in income statement over the period of the borrowings.