Types of Quadrilaterals Types of Quadrilaterals In this session we will study about the topic Types of Quadrilaterals. All four sided polygons are called the quadrilaterals. We say that any closed figure, which is formed by joining four line segments are all called quadrilaterals. A three sided figure is a triangle, a five sided figure is a pentagon, six sided figure is a hexagon, And so on. If all the sides of the quadrilaterals are equal, then we call it the regular quadrilateral. A square and a rhombus are both regular quadrilaterals. Now we look at the difference of the square and the Rhombus. Both the above mentioned figures are regular quadrilaterals, but the basic difference which we can state in one sentence between a square and the rhombus is that the rhombus is a tilted square. Thus we conclude that the square has all the four sides equal. On other hand we see that the opposite angles of the rhombus are equal, but all the angles are not of 90 degrees.
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In both the figures we have their diagonals bisecting at 90 degrees, but the diagonals of the rhombus are not equal, on another hand the diagonals of the square are equal and they are perpendicular bisector of each other. Now we talk about other quadrilateral, which is a parallelogram. In a parallelogram, we have opposite sides equal and parallel too. So we say that a square or a rectangle or a rhombus all the three quadrilaterals are parallelograms as they have opposite sides equal and parallel. But it is not necessary that all the parallelograms are not squares or rectangles. Another important quality of the parallelograms is that their pair of adjacent angles forms a supplementary pair, and the opposite angles of the parallelogram are equal. Now we come to another quadrilateral say trapezium. We say that the trapezium is a figure which has one pair of opposite sideâ€™s parallel but not necessary equal. So another pair of the trapezium is neither equal (necessary) nor parallel. If another pair of the lines of the trapezium is equal, then we call it an isosceles trapezium. Let us take another figure say kite; a kite has adjacent pair of the lines as equal, so it has a vertical line of symmetry. Now comes another quadrilateral, irregular quadrilateral. It means that all the sided of the given quadrilateral are of different measurement. If we Look at the line of symmetry of different types of quadrilaterals, we say that a Square has four lines of symmetry which are the lines formed by joining mid points of its opposite sides and the lines formed by joining the diagonals.
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On other hand a rectangle only has two lines of symmetry, which are the lines formed by joining the mid points of the opposite sides. We must remember that a parallelogram and irregular quadrilaterals have no line of symmetry. If we look at the line of symmetry of the kite, it has no horizontal line of symmetry, but has only one line of symmetry, which is vertical. An ordinary trapezium has no line of symmetry and an isosceles trapezium has a vertical line of symmetry.
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