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RNI No.:MAHENG/2010/39548

Vol. No.8

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Issue No. 2

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June - July 2017

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Mumbai

Sector Focus

Hydro Power Sector India Industry Insight

Rooftop Solar PV India

Market Review

O&M

Wind Power Industry Review

BTG Equipment Industry India

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EDITOR’S NOTE it will be an uphill battle to get Hydro Power back into the swing of things

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aving some of the creditable accomplishments under his belt like - tackling of coal supply related issues in thermal power plants, launch of UDAY for cash starved state discoms and the use of low-cost LED to focus on reducing power consumption - Piyush Goyal as the power minister has now stepped forward for the hydel power sector. In this regard, the Power Ministry has finalized the hydropower policy which aims to provide Rs 16,709 crore support to revive 40 stalled hydel power projects which can add 11,639 megawatt (MW) capacity. Further, the government is contemplating declaring all hydro power projects (irrespective of size) as renewable energy which would ensure coverage under Renewable Purchase Obligation and qualify for dispatch priority. Besides, the government is also considering providing cheaper credit to hydro power projects above 25 MW with a view to make tariff competitive and engaging with Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (CERC) to work out modalities to reduce tariff by changing/rationalising other tariff parameters like depreciation, O&M etc. Hydropower is ideally suited to support the variability and intermittency of solar and wind generation, through provision of peaking support and ancillary services. Accelerated hydropower development will play a critical role in supporting the Government of India’s renewable energy capacity target of 175 GW by 2022. However, while the monitory aspect of hydel power has been tackled in the policy, there are operational hurdles that need to be addressed to make the sector vibrant once again. Recently, big corporate names have walked out of hydel power projects in the state of Himachal Pradesh as there was no infrastructural help given by the state government for construction of these projects as well as evacuation of power. Certainly these issues cause delays and result in higher cost of power generation which makes the entire project unviable. Further, as per the policy, commissioning of hydel power will come at the cost of thermal power. The policy proposes to impose a coal cess which will help capitalise the Hydro Power Fund under the Power Ministry for providing funds to the projects under the policy. The policy also provides for Hydro Purchase Obligation (HPO) for hydro projects of over 25 MW capacity. This compulsory purchase of hydel power will, however, come at the cost of thermal power which has to bear the brunt. While thermal power plants are still running at low capacity utilisations, fortunately as these hydel power projects have a long construction period they will take between 5-7 years to complete. By then one hopes that the demand for power shoots up to accommodate the excess capacity, else thermal power will have to take the fall despite subsidising the commissioning. In addition, the sector faces opposition from local communities and environment groups, in and outside hydro potential states These groups have highlighted multiple issues around socio-cultural, political and environmental ill effects of the hydropower projects like deforestation, landslides, soil erosion, damage to apple orchards, farms and roads, cracks in houses, disappearing springs and rivers. Those opposing these projects argue that when mere visit of tourists and heavy influx of vehicles can damage the fragile ecology then there is no justification behind starting these projects. While local residents and green activists oppose these projects, the government plans to launch slew of projects across these state to harness the vast untapped hydro power potential. Certainly, the considered initiatives are likely to accelerate growth for the sector and reduce the impediments faced by hydropower developers and will help revive many of the hydro projects in the country, which are currently stranded – but - it will be an uphill battle to get hydro power back into the swing of things.....

Editor-In-Chief: Pankaj V Chauhan Editorial Team: P Khode, Rahul Vyas, Devendra Mittal Research Team: Santosh Kaushik, Deepti Mishra Vipul Singh, Priya Nair, Sonal Shah Marketing & Sales: Pankaj Chauhan – CEO pankaj@vision-media.co.in Navin SIngh – Head Marketing marketing@vision-media.co.in K. Pushpageetha – Regional Manager geetha@vision-media.co.in Naveen Bharadwaj – North Region delhi@vision-media.co.in Subscription & Circulation Team: Geetha, Sunil, Ajay, Vidya Creative Head: Prashant S. Kharat Graphic Designer: G. Sanjay Production Head: Shantanu Singh All right reserved while all efforts are made to ensure that the information published is correct, Power Insight holds no responsibility for any unlikely errors that might have occurred. The information on products & projects is being provided for the reference of the readers. However, readers are cautioned to make inquires & consult experts before taking any decision on purchase of equipment or investment. Power Insight holds no responsibility for any decision taken by readers on the basis of information provided herein. All disputes are subjected to Mumbai Jurisdiction only. Printed, Published, Edited and Owned by PANKAJ V CHAUHAN, Printed at MAGNA GRAPHICS (INDIA) LTD.,101, C & D GOVT. IND. ESTATE, KANDIVLI (WEST), MUMBAI 400 067 and Published from G-3A, JUNGLEE PEER DURGAH, K.A.GAFFARKHAN ROAD, WORLI, MUMBAI 400 018.

Editor: PANKAJ V CHAUHAN RNI. NO. : MAHENG/2010/39548

Pankaj V Chauhan Editor - in - Chief Email : pankaj@vision-media.co.in

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What’s Inside

Contents Sector Focus

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Hydro Policy

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Interventions for Revival of the Hydro Power Sector

Hydro Power Sector India Overview & Outlook

Expert Opinion by:

M M Madan CEO (Hydro & Renewables) Jindal Power Limited

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Small Hydro Power SHP needs to be made profitable and a long-term investment opportunity, while ensuring quality and reliability of the power. To make SHP projects cost effective and reliable, standards, guidelines and manuals are required covering entire range of the related activities.....

26 Solar

Rooftop Financing

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India needs to unlock financing woes prevailing in Rooftop sector Expert Opinion by:

Industry Insight

Sishir Garemella - Founder and CEO Sunvest Energy Pvt. Ltd.

Rooftop Sector Sector - India Industry Interaction

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Net Metering Theoretically, net-metering is the silver bullet designed to help India achieve greater energy security however, unlike utility scale solar, there are several challenges, and utilities across the globe are grappling with these issues - so is India ...

Regular

34 Ashish Khanna ED & CEO - Tata Power Solar

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Ritesh Pothan Senior VP - Scorpius Trackers

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01 Editor’s Note : 04 Power Generation - Conventional 06 Power Generation - Renewables 10 Transmission & Distribution 48 Events Diary


What’s Inside

40 Market Review

Wind Power O&M Trends

The fate of WEF is determined by Operation & Maintenance (O&M) system adopted - as there can be failures, sub-standard generation, reduced life and unstable returns. In order to increase the performance of WEG & maximize the return on investment, one needs to invest in huge amount of resources to ensure effective O&M practice......

44 Industry Review

BTG Equipment Industry Communication Features

46 Danfoss India launches it’s first ever Service on Wheels initiative in India.

46 JSW appoints Prashant Jain as Jt. MD and CEO 46 Schneider Electric India appoints Meenu Singhal as Head of Industry...

47 Wartsila India appoints Neeraj Sharma as President & MD 47 Tata Power Solar ranked #1 EPC players for the 4th year ... 47 CMI Ltd bags order of over Rs. 30 crore ... Next Issue Editorial Attraction

v Sector Focus

Solar PV Power Sector: Overview & Outlook

v Switchgear & Controlgears v Thermal Power : Operations and Maintenance v Renewable Grid Integration in India - An Insight v Wind Turbines : Lubrication & Filtration

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SECTOR UPDATES

Generation - Conventional India to retire 5.5 GW of coal-fired power plants in phased manner : CEA are more than 25 years old for retirement in a phased manner on the basis of their “inefficiency and uneconomic operation however, details on the timeframe over which they would be phased out has not been provided yet.

India, with a pledge to cut emissions and make better use of its coal reserves has identified 5.5 gigawatts (GW) of inefficient coal-fired power plants to be retired. The Central Electrical Authority (CEA) has identified coal-fired plants which

Coal-fired plants account for about 195 GW of India’s 330 GW of installed power capacity, as per data on the CEA’s website. India, which is also undergoing a programme to retrofit several coal-fired plants to reduce emissions, has retired about 4 GW of coal-fired power plants over the last two years.

Capital crunch challenge in Indian power sector Capital crunch in the energy sector is the biggest challenge before the country, said the Niti Aayog, in the draft national energy policy that was issued recently. “This (capital requirement) is aggravated by high interest rates as compared to developed economies. A near $150 billion capital investment is needed in energy sector on an annual basis until 2040. This has to be met without impacting availability of capital in other sectors,” it added. While 17 under-construction thermal power projects, aggregating to a capacity of 18,420 MW, are stalled due to financial issues, another 17 gas-based power projects, aggregating to a capacity of 11154.38 MW, are categorised as ‘stressed’, as per the government data till end-February.

PSU companies come in to rescue stranded power assets The number of stranded projects are on the rise in the country, there has been limited success in turning around stuck project so far. According to government data updated till March 2017, a total of 17 underconstruction thermal power projects aggregating to a capacity of 18,420 MW were reported as stalled.

NLC India Ltd are being drafted in to salvage stranded assets in the country’s power sector. Thermal major NTPC Ltd has also been sounded out to offer assistance to banks in operating stressed power-generating assets taken over by lenders during the course of the bankruptcy proceedings.

Alongside these, 17 stressed gasbased power projects aggregating 11,154.38 MW and 20 stressed hydroelectric projects totaling 6,329 MW were reported to be stuck due to financial issues, cumulative investments worth about Rs 1.9 lakh crore (based on conservative estimates of Rs 5 crore per MW for thermal projects and Rs 7 crore per MW for hydro) hang in the balance.

Chennai-based NLC (formerly Neyveli Lignite Corporation) has identified the first phase of Damodar Valley Corporation’s Ragunathpur Thermal Power Station’s 1,320 megawatts (MW) project, designated a stressed asset, for acquisition. NLC has also shortlisted other stressed assets — GMR Group’s 1,370 MW coal-fired project in Chhattisgarh and Ind-Barath Power Infra’s 700 MW plant in Odisha — for possible acquisition to augment its power generation capacity.

State-owned power utilities such as

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Amid mounting numbers of projects stuck on account of funding issues, state-owned lenders Power Finance Corporation Limited and Rural Electrification Corporation Limited have also been asked by the Centre to explore the possibility for creation of a Stressed Assets Equity Fund and a Stressed Assets Lending Fund to rescue some of these projects, for which work is underway. The financial woes of power project developers have been accentuated by the worsening of the macroeconomic environment, considering that during the first three quarters of the current financial year, the operating requirement of coal and lignite thermal power plants — the mainstay of India’s electricity grid — dipped under the 60-per cent mark, a 10-year low.


SECTOR UPDATES India speeds up hydropower projects in Jammu and Kashmir In a bid to utilise the provisions of the Indus Waters Treaty to the full, India is planning speedy construction of eight hydroelectric projects with a total installed capacity of 6,352 MW at a projected cost of Rs 56,700 crore in Jammu and Kashmir. Most of the new projects are in detailed project report (DPR) stage. That is the stage after the initial studies but before any major construction.

There is no doubt that the speed with which these projects are being studied now is unprecedented. According to media reports, the Centre has already issued grants to cover the entire financing to J&K for completing three projects with a total capacity of 2,164 MW (Pakal Dul, Kwar and Kiru) by 2022-23 and has assured it will fund the rest of the projects within the next decade.

Indo-Japanese civil nuclear deal comes into force

The landmark Indo-Japanese civil nuclear deal signed in November 2016 came into force from 20th July 2017, that would enable Japan to export nuclear power plant technology as well as provide finance for nuclear power plants in India. As per media reports, Japan would also assist India in nuclear waste management and could undertake joint manufacture of nuclear power plant components under the Make in India initiative. Last November India and Japan signed a landmark civil nuclear cooperation deal -- upgrading MoU at the 2015 Annual summit. Subsequently, the Japanese government got approval from the Diet for the nuclear deal with India. The two countries had reached a broad agreement for cooperation in civil nuclear energy sector during Abe’s visit to India in December 2015.

NHPC is losing Rs. 2.5 crore a day in TLDP III and IV in Darjeeling Hydro power producer NHPC Ltd. is incurring a loss of over Rs 2.5 crore a day due to closer in its two major projects in West Bengal’s Darjeeling district. These plants have been put to silence as a part of ongoing separate Gorkhaland statehood movement. TLDP (Teesta Low Dam Project)-III and TLDP-IV had to be closed down following agitation of huge mob on 12th and 13th July. Agitating mob have put few

other smaller power plants also under closer. Usually hydropower plants give 12% of output to the host state free of cost and sell out the rest. But, during inception of TLDP projects ,the then power starved Bengal preferred purchasing entire output at a preferential rate. That increased Bengal’s dependency on these two projects. Thus target by activists to put state Government under pressure.

NHPC board to consider raising Rs. 5,000 crore through corporate bonds ject to shareholders’ approval through special resolution in the next annual general meeting of the company”, NHPC Ltd said in a BSE filing.

During the month of July 2017, hydro-power major NHPC Ltd board has planned to consider a proposal to raise Rs 5,000 crore through private placement of corporate bonds.

NHPC will also consider the proposal to raise Rs 494 crore through issuance of ‘W’ series corporate bonds on private placement basis, the company said in another filing.

At its meeting on Thursday, July 27, the NHPC board will consider “the proposal of raising corporate debentures/bonds aggregating to Rs 5,000 crore on private placement basis sub-

Over 90 per cent of large dams, do not have emergency disaster action plans: CAG The Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) of India’s performance report on flood control and management schemes of the Water Resources Ministry has revealed that only 349 of 4,862 of India’s large dams have emergency disaster action plans in place.

post monsoon inspection of dams while three states carried out partial inspections.

The country’s top auditor also revealed that out of 17 states or union territories selected for audit, only Himachal Pradesh and Tamil Nadu had carried out the pre and

The report also pointed that programmes for maintenance of dams were not prepared and adequate funds were not provided to carry out structural/repair works.

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On the safety of dams, the CAG said that Dam Safety Legislation initiated in 2010 had not been enacted till August 2016.

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SECTOR UPDATES Generation - Renewables Solar Energy Corp. of India tenders 750 mw solar park in Rajasthan Setting a new trend in the Solar Energy sector again, Solar Energy Corporation of India (SECI) has tendered a 750 MW of solar park in the state of Rajasthan, at a low benchmark price of Rs.3.93/kWh compared to the previous benchmark price of Rs.4.43/kWh. Solar capacity of 500 MW will be developed in Bhadla Phase-III Solar Park and 250 MW in Bhadla Phase-IV Solar Park under the National Solar Mission (NSM) Phase II, Batch IV. According to sources, under the Viability Gap

Funding program SECI has tendered 4,525 MW of solar PV out of which power purchase agreements (PPAs) have been signed for 2,528 MW to date. “The new tariff will be a relief for distribution companies (DISCOMs) in the state as they will have cheaper power available. The state has previously witnessed curtailment of solar and the new low tariff will give a boost to both the developers and DISCOMs,” Mercom’s India Solar Project Tracker said quoting a source at SECI.

Haryana waives off intra-state wheeling charges to promote renewable With a view to promote power generation from New and Renewable energy sources, Haryana government has decided to waive off intra-state “Wheeling Charges” on transmission of electricity generated from solar power plants in the state. Wheeling Charges refers to the process of transmission of electricity from one source to another through the transmission lines or grid. The state government, under Section 108 of Electricity Act 2003,

Indian renewable firms plan $2.5 billion in offshore dollar bond issues Four Indian renewable power producers are planning to raise up to USD 2.5 billion via dollar bonds offshore because of caution among domestic lenders. These players are - New York - listed Azure Power Global Ltd; Continuum Energy, a firm backed by U.S. bank Morgan Stanley; Greenko Group, backed by Singapore sovereign wealth fund GIC and Abu Dhabi Investment Authority (ADIA); and IL&FS Energy.

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In addition to the four solar and wind power firms, a fifth company that invests in renewable projects, Adani Group, has raised USD 250 million via a loan but has yet to publicly announce the borrowing, according to media reports. Since, domestic banks are reluctant to lend - due to existing bad loans to the power sector and also worried about the falling tariffs for solar power, foreign borrowing seems attractive to the producers. Foreign investors have been attracted to the sector by India’s commitment to expand renewable power capacity, with plans to invest close to USD 150 billion to meet its 2022 targets, according to analysts and bankers. www.vision-media.co.in

had already approved to request the Haryana Electricity Regulatory Commission (HERC) for waiving off these charges. This exemption would enable the solar energy sector to transmit power without any charge within the state.

Local solar manufacturers seek ‘Safeguard Duty’ Badly hit by a shrinking market and idle capacity, local manufacturers of solar cells and modules have decided to approach the government again seeking to impose a ‘safeguard duty’ on imported equipment. They had petitioned the Ministry of Trade and Commerce in early June seeking an anti-dumping duty on solar imports but have not received any response so far. They now plan to petition the Director General of Safeguards in the same ministry to impose a duty of 10 US cents (Rs.6.50) per watt on imported cells and modules. Total domestic module manufacturing capacity is 8,113 MW of which 5,286 MW are operational. But actual manufacturing in FY’17 was 1,0001,500 MW, due to lack of demand.


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SECTOR UPDATES India’s solar power capacity to reach 22 Gigawatt by March: Piyush Goyal India’s solar power generation capacity would nearly double to 22 GW by the end of current fiscal and more wind power auctions would be conducted in the coming months, Power Minister Piyush Goyal said after releasing a report on integration of renewables in the electricity grid. On wind power, he said: “The auction has already been conducted for 1 GW where tariff has come down to Rs 3.46 per unit (earlier this year). One

The Tamil Nadu government has proposed a series of new initiatives in various sectors.

tender for another 1 GW is also in process, which would be completed soon. The bidding activity would also continue in coming 3-4 months and it would get the same encouragement as in case of solar.”

Telangana set to generate 5,000 MW of solar power by 2019 Telangana is set to cross the 5000 MW solar power generation capacity by 2019 , more than the 1300 MW installed capacity at present. According to officials, this is possible because the state adopted a distributed development model which is supported by the Centre. Under this system, solar project developers are offered opportunity to develop units based on the demand-supply situation with minimal operational losses. The renewable energy capacity of the state will touch 3000 MW by this year end as projects which have been tendered and under execution, are expected to be commissioned as per schedule and

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Tamil Nadu to set up Rs 2350 crore PV solar power park

Goyal said: “It is time for the people of India to get ready and embrace the change with a New Mindset’ of a New Grid’ for a New India’, which is ready to integrate large amount of renewable energy.”

Among the announcements made in the energy sector, the chief minister K Palaniswami said, the government will set up an ‘Ultra Mega Solar Photovoltaic Power Park’ in Ramanathapuram district at an estimated cost of Rs 2350 crore. State-run TANGEDCO will establish the 500 MW power park on Engineering Procurement Construction (EPC) basis at Naripaiyur and adjoining villages in the district, he added.

Rooftop solar to become norm by 2040: Niti Aayog

are expected to come on stream before December 2017. The state government has signed PPA for 3800 MW of power from these units and all of them are expected to be operational by March-June 2018. “The per capita consumption in Telangana has gone up to 1,390 units per annum as against 1,100 units. Consumption in Telangana ranks high among States. The 24x7 power supply has started giving dividends in the forms of improved living standards and increased industrial production,” D Prabhakar Rao, Chairman and managing director of Telangana Transco and Genco said.

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Rooftop solar set-ups would become the norm in the country by 2040, according to government think-tank Niti Aayog’s draft National Energy Policy (NEP). However, the draft NEP has maintained that in an increased electricity share and in the immediate runup towards universal cover-

age of electricity, it may not be viable to tap rooftop solar for homes. According to the draft, the share of solar and wind is expected to be 14-18 per cent and 9-11 per cent in electricity, and 3-5 per cent and 2-3 per cent in the primary commercial energy mix respectively, by 2040.


SECTOR UPDATES Solar energy firms accuse NTPC/NVVN of delaying CoD issue The National Solar Energy Federation of India (NSEFI) has alleged that state-run power giant NTPC and its trading arm NVVN are delaying issue of commercial operation date (CoD) certificate to solar projects. The CoD is a pre-requisite for selling power at the rate prescribed in the power purchase agreement. The NSEFI has claimed that the power produced from these solar projects is being sold at concessional rates. “NTPC and its trading arm NVVN are delaying in providing CoD certificates to plants commissioned in March, 2017, even after three months of their commissioning, although contractually required to provide CoD from 30th day of commissioning,” NSEFI said in a letter to power secretary. The Ministry of New & Renewable

Energy in March 2015 under the National Solar Mission programme came up with a scheme for setting up of 3000 MW (Phase II, Batch II) of Solar power projects under state specific bundling scheme to be implemented through NTPC/NVVN. Around 1500 MW of solar power projects have been commissioned in the last three months out of entire 3000 MW awarded under the scheme. However, the NSEFI said that all these projects are facing significant delays in achieving commercial operation for reasons beyond their control. The NSEFI has told the Power Ministry that it has been over two years

since the mandate given to NTPC for implementation of 3000 MW scheme, still MNRE’s nodal agency NTPC has not been able to allocate it’s own thermal power for bundling to these projects. It also said that the NVVN has been citing the delay in approval for allocation of thermal power as a reason for delay in granting CoD approval for these projects. “Solar power developers are facing significant financial losses, as power is being forcefully billed at concessional rate instead of PPA rate.

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SECTOR UPDATES

Transmission & Distribution

UP projects power tariff for next three For the first time, UP is going to announce a multi-year power tariff. UP Power Corporation Limited (UPPCL) has submitted the Annual Revenue Requirement (ARR) to the UP Electricity Regulatory Commission (UPERC) for three consecutive financial years, beginning 2017-18. The multi-year power tariff structure, that determines electricity rates for more than one year has already been implemented by most of the states in the country but UP had yet to implement it, essentially for politi-

cal reasons. Incorporating the Centre’s ambitious ‘Power For All’ and UDAY (Ujwal DISCOM Assurance Yojana) Scheme, the UPPCL’s ARR document projects an increase in revenue requirement from the existing Rs 60,153 crore to over Rs 71,000 crore in 2017-18, over Rs 90,000 crore in 2018-19 and over Rs 1 lakh crore in 2019-20. The corporation would soon submit a formal tariff revision proposal. The UPPCL has noted that the rev-

enue gap may increase from the existing around Rs 8,000 crore to over Rs 20,000 crore by the end of this financial year. It would subsequently shoot to around Rs 27,000 crore by 2019 and then to over Rs 32,000 crore by 2020. Power experts said the gap threatens to get wider each year with the state government promising 24-hour power supply to sectors like agriculture which yield less or almost no revenue at a time when cost of power from various sources has been rising.

Power Plants without unique registration number can not sell to grid: CEA proposal

J-K records Rs 4,650 cr deficit in power tariff collection: CAG The Jammu and Kashmir government has recorded Rs 4,650 crore deficit in collection of power tariff during the year 2015-16, a report by the Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) has said. It said the target for tariff collection has not been achieved and the shortfall was Rs 1,503 crore during 2015-16. The steadily rising gap between the Power Development department’s revenue expenditure and revenue receipts is the most significant structural imbalance in the government’s budget and a drain on the resources, which could otherwise be deployed for developmental outlays, the report stated.

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Power generating plants of over 1-mw capacity will have to obtain unique registration numbers without which they will not be able to inject their electricity in the grid, according to a proposal by the Central Electricity Authority. A meeting was held by CEA with power generators and state distribution companies on July 11. The proposal includes assigning unique registeration number to all generating units. “A National Level Data Registry is to be maintained by CEA for all the generating units through which all the generating units will get an online generated Unique Registration Number,” minutes of the meeting available on CEA website said. “In order to ensure that every

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generating unit, of capacity 1 MW and above, has this registration number, they would have to quote this registration number while applying for connectivity to the grid, for grid connected generators. Without this unique registration number, application for grid connectivity would not be entertained and if grid connectivity has already been obtained, then in that case, the physical injection of power into the grid would not be allowed without this unique registration number,” the minutes said. Once the generating units will get registered with CEA through this unique registration number , Generation Capacity data and other details of Power Plants including Captive Power Plants of installed capacity of 1 MW and above would be available with CEA.


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SECTOR UPDATES ‘Uday’ gets discoms back in shape, boosts power supply Almost two years down the line, the participating states now have found relief for their debt pain by floating bonds worth Rs 2.32 lakh crore, or nearly 87% of the burden.

The Modi government’s prescription for ailing state power distribution companies is slowly putting them back in shape and reducing the duration of blackouts in the nearly two years since the treatment began.

At an overall level, the ACS-ARR gap has reduced from 59 paisa per unit in 2016-2017 to about 45 paisa per unit at present. Simultaneously, the average AT&C loss for all states that have signed up for UDAY has come down to 20% this fiscal. No wonder, the average annual loss of discoms have come down from Rs 51,340 crore in fiscal 2016 to Rs 40,295 crore in 2017. A recent government statement said the average duration of power cuts declined 61% to 7.45 hours a month in May this year from 19.38 hours in the year-ago period.

Data presented during last week’s review of ‘Uday’, the revival plan for discoms, by the PM show major improvements in the key parameters on which health of discoms are judged. The government approved Uday on November 5, 2015, when all state discoms were gasping under a collective debt of Rs 3.95 lakh crore. Some 90% of this debt, or Rs 3.82 lakh crore, belonged to states that were ready to swallow the pills being proposed in Uday.

EESL issues large tender for 50 lakh smart meters State-run Energy Efficiency Services Ltd (EESL) has issued a large tender seeking supply of 50 lakh smart meters on behalf of Haryana and Uttar Pradesh.The tender sale will be next month. “A huge step towards controlling power theft and consumer convenience,” an official statement of the ministry of power said. Implementing smart meters is one of the operational performance parameters of the Centre’s Ujwal Discom Assurance Yojana (Uday) in which most states are lagging behind. The Uday portal showed that only 1 per cent of the overall target of 1.7 crore smart meters has been met so far.

EESL issues large tender for 50 lakh smart electricity meters RP Sanjiv Goenka flagship company CESC Ltd will invest Rs 1000 crore in the current fiscal in the power business.

13,872 villages electrified till June 30, says Piyush Goyal 13,872 un-electrified villages have been reported to be electrified up to June 30, 2017, minister of state for power Piyush Goyal said. The total number of un-electrified villages in the country stood at 18,452 as on April 1, 2015 and the government’s time-frame to electrify all the villages is May 1, 2018. Goyal also said that the Decentralized Distrib-

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uted Generation (DDG) scheme, under Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojana (DDUGJY), has been initiated by the government to provide access to electricity to un-electrified villages/habitations where grid connectivity is either not feasible or not cost effective including the villages located in backward, remote, inaccessible and forest areas.

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“We are investing Rs 1000 crore in the current fiscal in the power business out of which Rs 600 crore is meant for CESC Kolkata distribution network and rest will be in other power companies,” CESC chairman Sanjiv Goenka said on the sidelines of the company’s 39th AGM. The company has already stated that it will focus in power distribution instead in generation due to high regulatory interventions. Goenka stating their achievement of Rajasthan, Kota distribution franchisee since takeover said, transmission and distribu-

tion loss has reduced by six per cent and it will achieve a revenue of Rs 1300 crore representing some 16 per cent of group consolidated power distribution revenue. of 1.7 crore smart meters has been met so far. Goenka said the company was keen to invest in Uttar Pradesh given the transparency and commitment shown by Chief Minister Yogi Adityanath’s government. Speaking about renewables Goenka said they will not further invest in hydel due to long delays on various counts. He did not replied when asked whether CESC was looking at an exit from the 135MW hydel power project the company had taken over in 2012 in pre-construction stage.


5/30/2016

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Sector FOCUS

Hydro Power Sector - India Overview & Outlook

E

lectricity is one of the most essential requirements for the development of any nation and the notion stands very much applicable in the case of India which is endeavouring for a sustainable growth of the economy. ‘Clean Energy’ is the new buzzword of the 21st century across the globe; the nations are moving towards renewable energy sources like wind, solar, hydro, geo thermal and bio energy in order to save the environment.

Among all renewable energy sources, hydropower is one the best form of energy security for any country however, depending on how much resource is available. Hydro power besides being renewable has peaking benefits which no other source can offer. It offers clean & green energy, also in case of grid collapse - hydro power is best to revive it because hydropower station can be started instantaneously. Going forward, with storage option, a hydro projects can play a major role in control of floods and drought. India has moved up to the second spot from third posi

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tion in this year’s ‘Renewable energy country attractiveness index’ released by EY. Today, India is all set to become the 3rd largest market for solar power globally. Also, the country ranks 4th in wind power installation, however in hydro it stands at the 6th rank in installed capacity. Looking at the population growth and required industrial and infrastructure growth in the country, it becomes necessary for the Government to seriously look into the development of hydro power which is essential for the sustainable growth of the economy.

Sector Overview: Of the total identified Hydro Power potential of 1,50,000 MW in India, the country has been able to develop a total hydropower capacity of only 44,594.42 MW as on May, 2017. In addition, the country has installed capacity of 4,177 MW of small hydropower (capacity of less than 25 MW) and 4,786 MW from Pump Storage Project, so far. Only large dams are classified under hydropower, small dams, with capacities up to 25 mw,


Sector FOCUS All India Installed Capacity Comparison HYDRO Vs Renewable Energy Year

Hydro (MW)

Renewbale (MW)

April - 2012

38,990 MW

25,503 MW

April - 2014

40,531 MW

31,692 MW

April - 2016

42,783 MW

42,849 MW

Declining share of Hydro Power in India Total Energy Mix (%) 14%

2016-17

17%

1996-97 1984-84

34%

1973-73

Share % of Total

43% 53%

1962-63 0

come under the ambit of renewable energy. There are only 9 hydropower stations built with an installed capacity at a scale of 1,000 MW and more in India. The maximum capacity of a generating unit in India is 250 MW. India’s hydropower resources are mainly located in the Himalayan range of North Eastern & Northern India, which is 40 per cent and 35 per cent respectively. North Eastern state Arunachal Pradesh alone possess about 35 per cent of India’s hydropower potential and Northern states Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh and Jammu & Kashmir collectively possess 35 per cent of India’s hydropower potential. Basin wise, Brahmaputra river basin has hydropower potential of about 66,000 MW however, merely 4 per cent of it has been harnessed so far. Similarly, Indus basin is having about 34,000 MW potential and about 35 per cent of Indus basin potential has been tapped. On the other hand, Ganga basin has about 21,000 MW of which only 25 per cent has been developed till date. Earlier, the energy experts shared the ‘Nehruvian’

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view that large dams were “the temples of modern India”. However, the country has seen a steep fall in Hydropower’s share from over 45 per cent in the mid-1960’s to 26 per cent by 2005. Hydropower has made a muted recovery since then, even in the recent past years the hydropower capacity has increased only marginally — from 40,531.41 mw in March 2014 to 41,267.42 mw in March 2015, to 42,783.43 mw at the end of FY2016 when the total capacity of renewable energy projects expanded to 42,850 megawatts, overtaking hydropower in the total energy mix, out of the country’s total capacity of about 3 lakh mw on April 30 2016.

Key Issues & Challenges: Indian hydropower sector has many operational hurdles that need to be addressed to make the sector vibrant once again. Recently, big corporate names have walked out of hydel power projects in the state of Himachal Pradesh as there was no infrastructural help given by the state government for construction of these projects as well as evacuation of power. Such delays result in higher cost of power generation which makes the entire project unviable. Indian hydropower sector have been crippling with multiple challenges that have been mainly instrumental in discouraging and de-motivating the hydropower projects developers in the country. These include financial, environmental, social, regulatory and infrastructural

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Sector FOCUS

challenges. However, these issues can be tackled effectively through socio-political intervention and appropriate regulatory framework.

High Tariff Challenges : During the initial years, the tariffs from hydropower projects are higher as compared to other sources. This is mainly because of financing cost and construction of projects in remote areas with inadequate infrastructure and also due to lack of incentives like tax concessions. Further, since taxes constitute 15-25 per cent of proj-

Project to be developed in the State. This provision of free power to the State affects the financial viability of the project severely. Due to the very challenging and difficult logistics, cost of the project in any case is high and provision of high royalty in terms of free power, makes the project even more costlier and tariff becomes almost unsustainable.

Financing Challenges: Hydropower

projects are capital-intensive and financing them, by finding an optimum balance between bankability and affordability, is often a challenge. Although the operating cost of hydro projects are minimal and the project life longer than thermal, there are multiple other factors that make hydropower difficult to finance. Due to long gestation period of hydro projects, interest on loan mostly leads to increasing the overall project cost.

Lack of incentives, high financing cost and construction of projects in remote areas with inadequate infrastructure leads to high tariffs from hydropower projects in the initial years.... ect cost, they are major contributors to the project cost of Hydro Projects. In addition, as per the current regulations, State Government is to be provided 12 per cent free power as royalty from any Hydro Power

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Also, during operation period, higher interest on outstanding loan leads to higher yearly tariff.

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Non-availability of longer tenure loan necessitates higher provision for depreciation so as to generate resources required to meet repayment obligations. Long term funding for hydropower project development is essential and needs to be directed through a policy. There is an urgent need of creating a sub sectoral limit for lending to hydropower projects on priority basis by banks so as to revive hydropower sector in India.

Negative Public Perception: Construction and operation of hydropower dams can significantly affect natural river systems as well as fish and wildlife populations. Furthermore, hydropower projects involve submergence causing the displacement of project area people. The rehabilitation of project affected people is also a major issue which is more pronounced in the case of storage-based hydropower projects. These factors have resulted in negative public perception about hydropower projects resulting in sustained opposition to project construction in many cases often resulting in time and cost over-runs. State or central government should organize Public Awareness Programs emphasizing why Hydro Power is


Sector FOCUS

safe and sustainable for green development. NCSDP (National Committee on Seismic Design Parameters) should hold seminars in collaboration with State Governments in every State and downstream area/s where Hydro Projects are planned, so that people become aware of safety aspects which are taken care for the design of the Dam and how it safeguards the people of the downstream.

Delay in Environment Clearances :

Hydropower projects often require forest areas for their implementation and compensatory afforestation on non-forest lands. Progress of many projects has been affected on account of delay and non-clearance on environment and forest aspects. Though, environmental and social impacts are inevitable but they can be mitigated. Hydropower development in India has seen significant strides in understanding and addressing these impacts and the lessons learned from past engagements are now being incorporated in project selection and design.

Infrastructure Challenges : Lack

of proper infrastructure like roads, bridges, etc., particularly in North Eastern states results in longer con-

struction periods, thereby increasing the project cost and causes unnecessary delays. Related state agencies need to provide adequate infrastructure support which will help in completing the projects at faster pace.

Lack of Long Term PPA : Under the prevailing power scenario in India which is seeing major policy push to increase renewable capacity (mainly solar and wind), make the selling of hydropower difficult. Discom’s seem reluctant to enter into long term Power Purchase Agreements (PPAs). Experts believe that there should be separate Hydropower Purchase

Recent Developments: As reported by various media platforms, the government is looking at a policy push to resurrect the languishing hydro power sector. The power ministry is working on a comprehensive policy to revive the ailing hydro-power sector, which is drowning in spate of stalled and stressed projects. Officials said this would cover projects of the private sector and those of state-owned NHPC. The policy aims to provide Rs 16,709 crore support to revive 40 stalled hydel power projects which can add 11,639 (MW) capacity. Further,

To revive the ailing hydro-power sector, the new hydro power policy aims to provide Rs 16,709 crore support to revive 40 stalled hydel power projects which can add 11,639 (MW) capacity...... Obligation (HPO). As per media reports the government under the new policy is considering bringing all hydropower projects, regardless of the capacity under the renewable definition. www.vision-media.co.in

the government is also looking at financial incentives. In addition interest subvention would be supported with central funding for at least half the interest payment while (More of) Tax depreciation would help bring private sector interest. |

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Sector FOCUS capacity of 47,970 MW were identified for preparation of PFR and subsequent development of the projects. However, even after 14 years of launching, not a single project out of 162 projects of the Initiative has been commissioned.

The key change in the policy is that the incentives that were accorded to smaller hydro power plants of less than 25 MW will be available to bigger projects. Post clearance of the policy the distinction between large and small hydro plants would disappear. Presently, smaller hydro power plants are classified as renewable energy which entitles them to various incentives.

all hydro power projects. The policy also asks for the Power Ministry to engage with bankers and financial institutions for modifying lending terms and conditions for hydro power projects. Reviving stuck projects, which have already been delayed and have cost overruns, would result in generation of high-cost power. The policy proposes to impose a coal cess which will help capitalise the

The key change in the policy is that the incentives that were accorded to smaller hydro power plants of less than 25 MW will be available to bigger projects. Post policy clearance the distinction between large and small hydro plants would disappear.. .. The bigger plants, which are stuck, will now be entitled to these benefits. The policy also provides for Hydro Purchase Obligation (HPO) for hydro projects of over 25 MW capacity, under which discoms would be required to buy a proportion of power from these plants. The policy entails that the government provides interest subvention of 4 percent during construction for up to 7 years and for 3 years after the start of commercial operation to

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Hydro Power Fund under the Power Ministry for providing funds to the projects under the policy.

Conclusion India has the fifth largest hydropower reserves in the world, with untapped potential of over 100GW. Though, India had launched 50,000 MW ‘Hydropower Initiative’ back in 2003 to harness the hydropower potential in the country under which 162 projects totalling installed

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Hydropower capacity addition target (excluding small hydro) in India for XII Plan and XIII Plan period has been set for 10,897 MW and 12,000 MW respectively. However, with the present growth rate in hydro power sector it looks a distant dream. At present the projects clearances and execution is marred with many issues which can be resolved by policy makers and stake holders on a fast track basis. To give a boost to Hydro Development, certain benefits / incentives could be extended to the developers of Hydro Projects. India’s hydro-resources are largely available in some of the least-developed parts of the country and hydropower plants, if designed appropriately offer significant potential for regional development and poverty alleviation. Hydropower projects that forge equitable systems of benefitsharing and implement targeted local area development can help local communities improve the quality of their lives quite significantly. Hydropower is the only large power source which has got merits of delivering 24X7 generation reliability like fossil fuel based power plant as well as ensuring benefits of renewable power like no emission of greenhouse gases and no depletion of natural resources. Since, India’s supply energy mix is predominantly thermal and is rapidly adding renewable capacity, the country badly needs hydro capacity for smoother grid management. Promotion and development of hydropower is the need of the hour so as to meet the rising power demand in the country through clean source of power for the sustainable development. n


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Expert OPINION

Hydro Policy Interventions for Revival of the Hydro Power Sector

Column By: M. M. Madan, CEO (Hydro & Renewable) Jindal Power Limited.

Many developed countries signify hydro power in the following phrases: “Hydropower is renewable, non-emitting, flexible, reliable, and cost-competitive with other sources of electricity. The flexibility and energy storage associated with hydropower projects allow generation to be adjusted quickly, meaning it can reliably complement intermittent renewable sources such as wind and solar.” M. M. Madan, with 40 years of vast & rich experience in Hydropower sector has published and presented more than 238 technical papers in national and international forums besides award winning books on Hydropower and Tunneling. He is Chairman of Hydro Sub Group (ASSOCHAM), Member Hydro Core Group (CII National Committee on Power) and President (Arunachal Pradesh Power Companies Association). He is presently CEO (Hydro & Renewables) at Jindal Power Limited .

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O

n a lifecycle basis, hydropower emissions are on par with wind generation and lower than those of solar photovoltaic generation. Therefore, It is necessary to have a significant share of hydro in the grid as mammoth infusion of renewable energy (wind and solar) in future coupled with inherent nature of RE, makes it essential to take the measures for providing peak energy and also for the stabilized grid. Hydropower fits into the billet of ‘100% Make in India’ and has a significant role in the long term planning of energy security. In India the share of hydro power in respect to other sources of energy is continuously falling and depending on the size and location, it takes 5 to 10 years for any hydro project to develop, it is necessary that we take steps for revival of hydro power the earliest. The need for flexible generation and low cost power has been

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Expert OPINION recognized by all consumers, developers and stakeholders. Experts are of the view that Hydro Power is not treated at par with other renewables and additionally burdened. Hydro power despite being flexible and much needed due to various benefits which it brings, are not valued and Hydro cost is not seen as a life cycle cost. With 60 years of minimum life of a Hydro, a typical Solar and Wind with less than half the energy generation will require 3 times installation & Capex to be arranged. This long term low cost sustainable generation can only be revived and promoted through support and understanding by government as this being expensive in short term and there is lack of buyers. Experts are of the view that the Ministry of Power should immediately take following measures for making the sector viable and attractive so that developers come forward to develop the much needed hydro power. n Hydro projects regardless of nature (ie RoR or storage) & capacity should be treated as ‘Renewables’. n Transmission charges for Hydropower to be waived at par with Solar. n The GST rates as applicable to Wind / Solar equipment be made applicable to hydropower constituents. n As for hydro power the Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) is not being signed by various Discoms; GoI should mandate a separate Hydro purchase obligation under Tariff policy. Further a higher forbearance price of Rs. 2 /KWh may be specified for the same n Surcharge & Peak power incentive v Cross Subsidy charges for open access should be waived off and Inter –State banking and wheeling to be provided v Time of the day metering: Hydropower has the ability to provide expensive peak power. In absence of TOD metering, Discoms are unable to charge premium from their customers and are thus unwilling to pay premium for peak power. Time of the day tariff through smart metering is necessitated. While the process of implementation of smart metering should be initiated on a faster pace until then MoP may devise alternate mechanism for payment of peak power.

n Consider the benefits listed in the EFC proposal, including interest subvention, for New Projects. The timeline for the benefits to be linked to number of years from start of construction instead of Policy announcement date. n Long term lending at affordable interest rates

should be provided by Banks and FIs. v Banks to treat hydropower as priority lending projects. v Banks to earmark at least 40% of the total lending to power sector dedicated only for hydropower projects to provide long term (25 to 30 years) loan. n Deferment of free power: Consider back loading of free power to reduce the hydro tariff in initial years. This aspect has been covered in the latest Tariff policy. The deferment recommended is for first 12 years and shall be compensated equally over remaining concession period. This shall make the tariff more viable and competitive. n Hydropower provides various ancillary services like development of infrastructure in remote areas, Employment generation, water security, healthcare benefits, improved education facilities, tourism etc. However, the socioeconomic costs like Land cost, R&R, Forest diversion cost, Environmental costs, enabling infrastructure costs, CAT, LADA, LADF, etc. make the tariff less competitive. It is requested that these costs should be compensated through NCEF and should be provided upfront. This shall not only make the tariff competitive but also helps all stakeholders to develop hydropower in a faster way. n Single window clearance and all approvals online, time bound trackable at each level. This should be adopted religiously by various approving authorities starting at District level, state level, and central level. n Revision in project parameters after clearance of projects by CEA and accorded Environment Clearance by MoEF&CC, makes the projects unviable. Revisions necessitate DPR revision & re-appraisal by CEA. Once Basin study is completed, there should be no revisiting for next 25-30 years and any retroactive imposition of Basin Study. EC and EAC meet should be held on weekly basis. Minutes of meeting to be issued within 48-72 hrs. Hydro power and pumped Storage schemes are the backbone of balanced power supply for any country. All American and European countries are actively reconsidering the development of left out hydro power at fast pace. China has already developed more than 3,31,000 MW of Hydropower as installed capacity which is equivalent to the total installed power capacity of India. India has only developed only 44,500 MW and further development is almost stalled. Unless Govt of India and various State Governments come forward and take aggressively corrective measures a day will come when the total power system of India will collapse. n www.vision-media.co.in

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Sector FOCUS

Small Hydro Power “

SHP needs to be made profitable and a long-term investment opportunity, while ensuring quality and reliability of the power. To make SHP projects cost effective and reliable, standards, guidelines and manuals are required covering entire range of the related activities......

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s India aspires for 8-9 percent growth rate, its energy need is increasing correspondingly. The electricity demand in the country is expected to grow at 10 percent per annum. Thus it has been realized that there is a need to tap all possible sources of energy to meet this challenge and Small Hydropower (SHP) is considered as a reliable option for grid interactive as well as decentralized power generation. The estimated potential of a SHP project (upto 25 MW station capacity) in India is of about 20,000 MW, of which about 4341 MW has been exploited. A target of adding about 5000 MW by 2022 is kept by the Ministry of New & Renewable Energy (MNRE) by installing SHPs. The Indian SHP development programme received a new tempo after the liberalization of economy and invitation to private sector for investment in the power sector. Today, the SHP programme is essentially private investment driven.

Sector Overview: The responsibility of Small Hydro Development upto 25 MW station capacity rests with


Sector FOCUS The MNRE has taken a series of steps to promote development of SHP in a planned manner and improve reliability & quality of the projects. By giving various physical and financial incentives, investments have been attracted in commercial SHP projects apart from subsidizing state governments to set up small hydro projects. MNRE is giving special emphasis to promote use of efficient designs of water mills for mechanical as well as electricity generation and setting up of micro hydel projects for remote village electrification. The small hydro programme of MNRE has two distinct components. One, SHP projects in MW size capacity range, which are grid connected and normally developed by the state government or by a private developers. These projects are instrumental in increasing installed capacity of power generation in the state and eventually overall capacity addition in the country.

MNRE. The subject up to 3 MW was transferred from MoP in 1989 and again in 1999 the subject up to 25 MW was transferred from MoP to MNRE. The identified potential of SHP projects is 19,749 MW at 6474 numbers of potential sites, out of which 4324 MW has been harnessed at 1077 sites ( as on 31.01.2017). Out of this potential, about 50 percent lies in Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Jammu & Kashmir and Arunachal Pradesh. In the plain region Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka and Kerala have sizeable potential. The best part of SHP projects is that it normally does not encounter the problems associated with large hydel projects of deforestation and resettlement. Further, the projects have potential to meet power requirements of remote and isolated areas. These factors make small hydel as one of the most attractive renewable source of grid quality power generation.

Apart from this benefit, where the project is being developed there is a series of socio-economic activities in the project area which help in overall development of the area. Since the power project is a permanent asset in remote area, it also provides sustainable economic activity and employment opportunity. The other component of SHP programme is of decentralised power and energy generation through micro hydel and watermills. These applications have the potential of developing local entrepreneurs and meeting energy requirements of a village/ community. A small/micro hydel project and watermills have the potential to provide sustainable economic strength to a village community.

Decentralised SHP Projects: The rural energy scenario in India is characterised by inadequate, poor and unreliable supply of energy services. Realising the fact that mini hydropower projects can provide a solution for the energy problem in rural, remote and hilly areas where

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extension of grid system is comparatively uneconomical, promoting mini hydro projects is one of the objectives of the SHP programme in India. A number of mini/micro hydro projects have been set up in remote and isolated areas, mainly in Himalayan region. While these projects are developed by various state agencies responsible for renewable energy, the projects are normally maintained with local community participation. A number of tea garden owners have also set up such micro hydro projects to meet their captive requirement of power. The Watermills (WM) and Micro Hydel Projects (MHP) have the potential to meet the power requirements of remote and hilly areas in a decentralised manner. There is significant potential for development and upgradation of watermills and micro hydro projects (up to 100 kW) in the country. Watermills and micro hydro projects can result in to micro entrepreneurship development and meet energy requirements in remote hilly areas. It is proposed that the spread of micro hydro, watermill and individual projects would be enlarged. In remote hilly and forest fringed area, the fuel wood may be replaced with cheap electricity from mini/micro hydropower projects owned by individuals / community for which a large human resources otherwise is wasted and women are exposed to hazardous gases through smoke. The micro hydro/watermill activity would also be linked to economic activities. The scheme to support of micro hydel and watermills was revised in July, 2014. The subsidy was enhanced besides relaxing many terms and conditions that existed in the earlier SHP scheme of MNRE. After this, there has been considerable interest of state like Uttarakhand, J&K and Karnataka to take up this activity. Tea and coffee garden owners are also showing interest in directly implementing micro hydel and watermill projects.

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Sector FOCUS About 2460 upgraded watermills [mechanical and electrical output (up to 5 kW)] have been installed in Kerala, Karnataka, J&K, Tamil Nadu, Nagaland and Uttarakhand. This is basically a scheme which is directly benefiting locals in the difficult remote and hilly areas of the Himalayan & sub-Himalayan region of the country. Beside this, about 200 micro hydel projects also installed by the state nodal departments / agen-

In line with Government of India policy, so far 24 states have announced their policy for inviting private sector to set up SHP projects. At least 416 private sector SHP projects of about 2389 MW capacity have been setup till January 2017.

Issues and Challenges: The implementation of SHP projects is governed by state policies and the potential sites are allotted by the state governments to private developers.

Inadequate evacuation facilities and transmission links. The project monitoring system is inadequate. These reasons have resulted in the slow pace of addition of small hydro compared to other renewable energy sources . cies mainly in Arunachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand.

Private Sector Participation

The process of allotment of sites by the states and statutory clearances including land acquisition, forest clearance, irrigation clearance etc. takes long time. The implementation of project is also affected due to difficult terrain and limited working season. The other problem relates to inadequate evacuation facilities and transmission links. The project monitoring system is inadequate. These reasons have resulted in the slow pace of addition of small hydro compared to other renewable energy sources like solar or wind.

SHP projects are being set up both in public and private sector. The private sector was attracted by these projects due to their small adoptable capacity matching with their captive requirements or even as affordable investment opportunities.

Government Initiatives: The MNRE is giving financial subsidy, both in public and private sector to set up SHP projects. In order to improve quality and reliability of projects, it has been made mandatory to get the project tested for its performance by an independent agency and achieving 80 per cent of the envisaged energy generation before the subsidy is released. In order to ensure project quality/ performance, the ministry has been insisting to adhere to IEC/International/AHEC standards and guidelines for equipment and civil works. The subsidy available from the Ministry is linked to use of equipment manufactured to IEC or other prescribed international standards. SHP needs to be made profitable and a long-term investment opportunity, while ensuring quality and reliability of the power. To make SHP projects cost effective and reliable, standards, guidelines and manuals are required covering entire range of the related activities. Hence, MNRE took the initiatives and assigned AHEC, IIT Roorkee to prepare standards, guidelines and manuals covering entire range of SHP activities. 27 nos. of Standards/ manuals/guidelines were completed by AHEC in 2013 and released on February 3, 2014.

Conclusion: India has set a target for renewable energy generation of 175 Gigawatt by 2022. Of the target capacity, 100 GW would be from solar power, 60 GW from wind, 10 GW from biomass and 5 GW from small hydro power, according to the ministry of new and renewable energy. Since, electricity generation from SHP is becoming increasingly competitive due to low tariff, etc. The challenge is to improve reliability, quality and reduce costs. The focus of the SHP programme is to lower the cost of equipment, increase its reliability and set up projects in areas which give the maximum advantage in terms of capacity utilisation. n

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Industry Insight

Solar- PV

Rooftop Sector Overview & Outlook Rooftop solar market in India is beginning to realize its potential. Yearly capacity addition is expected to scale up to over 2 GW by 2019 and over 3 GW by 2020 presenting attractive growth opportunities for all market participants.......

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I

n 2014, India’s Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced a goal to increase solar power capacity to 100 GW by 2022—five times higher than the previous target. Out of which 40 GW has been targeted to come through rooftop solar installations. Till date, considerable efforts have been put in place to develop the rooftop solar photovoltaic sector in India by the government, regulatory commissions and concerned agencies. Basic framework now exists in the country and implementation of rooftop solar power plants has started in true sense. Still currently the large utility scale solar plants dominate the Indian solar landscape, accounting for more than 90 per cent of the installed solar capacity. The evolution of solar rooftops in India has witnessed a significant transformation to reach a phase where all but one Indian state has issued net metering guidelines to promote solar rooftops. In terms of technology, the quality of components


Industry Insight nected solar rooftops in residential, social, institutional and government sectors in the country. However, the progress in implementation of rooftop solar is taking place at a much slower pace - as can be seen from the total installed rooftop solar capacity in India of 1.4 GW as of March 2017, which is about 3.5 per cent of the targeted 40 GW by 2022.

itself under the RESCO mode and then ownership being transferred to the site owner after a fixed number of years. Also, large players such as Tata Power and Hero Future Energies have established separate divisions that cater only to rooftops installation to gain an early entry

To propel the rooftop market, the Government has further instituted multiple enablers such as capital subsidy; accelerated depreciation; financing under priority sector and lower interest rates.

In order to propel the market, the Government has further instituted multiple enablers such as a 30% capital subsidy on the system cost for systems being implemented on residential rooftops, benefits of accelerated depreciation of 40%, encouraging financing of systems under the priority sector and lower interest rates.

has increased and there have been drastic reductions in costs. However, there is still a huge gap to fill in to take forward the development of the rooftop solar market and addressing the barriers faced by the stakeholders in the sector.

The good news is that over the past two years, the rooftop solar market in India has shown impressive growth which could be directly linked to the improvement in price competitiveness of rooftop solar power vs grid power. India added 678 MW of rooftop solar capacity in FY 2016-17, growing at 81 per cent Y-o-Y. Strong market fundamentals including falling costs and improving debt financing mean that the market will continue strong growth trajectory for many years to come.

Market Scenario:

Recently, the Standing Committee on Energy (2016-17) of the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy has said in its latest report tabled in Parliament recently - that the rooftop solar targets of 40 GW by 2022 is unrealistic and it is highly unlikely that this target will be achieved.

Currently, there are now around 1,000 rooftop installers in the country who have been certified as channel partners by the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy and have been classified under various categories based on their performance parameters.

Growth Scenario:

Further, there are now multiple innovative mechanisms of rooftop implementation such as projects being financed by the Developer

As per set targets, the 40 GW is to be achieved by 2022 from grid con-

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into the massive 30 billion USD market in the project development space alone. Though, the most promising method of implementation is currently the RESCO mode. However, as the risk of this mode is on the developer they are not willing to implement systems under this method with beneficiaries that do not have an impeccable rating or previous track record. Systems under such mechanisms are hence typically installed only on big corporate houses and not on smaller consumers. The market share of smaller consumers is what needs to be captured here, but the decentralised nature of installation of small systems at multiple locations does not result in significant returns for the developer and economies of scale. As per the latest edition of the India Solar Rooftop Map report released by renewable consultancy firm BRIDGE TO INDIA - Commercial and Industrial customers (C&I) remains the biggest market segment as economic viability is most pronounced for such customers. With 65 per cent of total installed capacity, C&I remains the biggest market segment. These consumers account for more than 50 per cent of India’s total power demand and make savings of up to 50 per cent through rooftop solar systems as their grid

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Industry Insight OPEX market is fairly consolidated where top five developers account for over 60 per cent market share. tariffs are typically between INR 7-10/ kWh. Public sector segment is also expected to show robust growth in the coming years because of a strong government push combined with 25-30 per cent capital subsidy. In contrast, the residential segment is expected to grow relatively slowly because of poor economic viability and lack of financing solutions. According to Bridge to India, the OPEX model has been gaining market share, and is expected to continue on the growth drive for the next few years on account of

but will be increasingly driven by tender-based public sector projects.

OPEX MODEL : Top 5 Players Market Share Percentage CleanMax Solar

24 %

Cleantech Solar

12%

Azure Power

11%

Amplus Solar

8%

5% Rattan India On the other hand, EPC for rooftop solar contin60% Consolidate market share of ues to be highly fragtop 5 players mented with over 1,000 registered installers and 35 largest players Yearly capacity addition is expected accounting for less than to scale up to over 2 GW by 2019 35 per cent market share. Only and over 3 GW by 2020 presenting three companies have more than 2 attractive growth opportunities for per cent market share – Tata Power all market participants. India is exSolar (6.4%), Sure Energy (2.5%) pected to build a total rooftop solar and Fourth Partner (2.2%). capacity of 13.2 GW by 2021 – as While in the inverter market, just per Bridge to India’s report.

Key Challenges

large public sector procurement programs. OPEX (or BOOT) business model, where a third-party investor owns and builds the system under a long-term PPA with the site occupant, saw new capacity addition of 162 MW in FY 2016-17, accounting for 24 per cent of total market (up from 12% in FY 2014-15 and 19% in FY 2015-16). This market is fairly consolidated where top five developers account for over 60 per cent market share – though, access to capital remains tight and on-the-ground execution is challenging. However, going forward the consultancy firm believes that this model will continue to grow

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two companies account for over 60 per cent market share – Delta Electronics (36%) and SMA (including Zever Solar, 25%). ABB, KACO and Fronius are other noteworthy suppliers with about 5-6% market share each. An increasing market share for ABB and entry of companies such as SolarEdge and Huawei may result in minor changes in the leader board in future. Overall, the consultancy firm believes that rooftop solar market in India is beginning to realize its potential. Annual market size greater than 1 GW in the current year will be an important milestone for the market. www.vision-media.co.in

These systems are end-user oriented and have more transactional and institutional layers as compared to large solar plants. The major obstacles include lack of economies of scale, weak local distribution infrastructure and poor social outlook. Major institutional reforms, social awareness programmes, technology up-gradation and innovative policy mechanisms need to be implemented to reach the ambitious targets in the next 5 years. Further, as per a survey conducted in November 2016, although there are net metering guidelines in place but because of lack of experience and maturity in the market, participants from 12 states and 6 UT’s mentioned that their distribution licensees are still at a stage of announcing the detailed procedures to grant connectivity to rooftop solar plants. Further, across the states, it may take 3-4 months from the date of application to receiving grant of connectivity even for a residential rooftop solar system.


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Industry Insight There are further shared approvals and clearances between multiple departments such as the regulatory commission, state nodal agencies, DISCOMs, urban local bodies, etc. which may cause delays. In terms of distribution, there are limits on the total amount of electricity that can be injected in the grid at one point owing to the transformer capacity at that location. Though this is not a significant barrier currently but may emerge in future when the number of installations goes up. From a consumer perspective, there are complexities involved in procedures of various departments, because of which they have to take out significant time from their day to day activities to get the project installed, avail CFA, apply for grid connection and follow up on bill settlement by the distribution licensee.

Another major challenge is the nonavailability of skilled and trained manpower. This couples with loosely drafted rooftop leasing agreement and sharing of roles and responsibilities between the developer and the rooftop owner.

Way Forward The need of the hour is to address issues and challenges hampering the growth of solar rooftops across the country as there are multi fold benefits associated with rooftop solar PV systems. For a developer if offers reduced land and interconnection costs, higher tariffs due to increasing commercial and industrial tariffs, and increased profitability. One of the biggest benefits is the reduction in peak demand during daytime for the Discoms that helps in cutting down the T&D losses as

the power is consumed at the point of generation. Further, commercial benefits in avoiding investments in transmission system are huge. According to PwC analysis, more than 10,000 MU of electricity will be saved as avoidance of T&D losses alone in year 2022 alone if 40 GW of rooftop PV target is achieved. Finally and most importantly, it reduces the dependence on grid power, diesel generators and is a long-term reliable power source for consumers. It has been almost 2 years since India’s ambitious solar scale up targets were put into place. The progress on implementation till now has been commendable. We can be confident that the sector has gained significant momentum and attention to reach a level from where it is very unlikely that its growth will slow down in the near future. n

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Shed No.12/A, Rudrax Complex-2, Phase-3 , G.I.D.C , Vatva, Ahmedabad (Gujarat) |

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Andhra Pradesh Branch : S. No.6, MVR Residency, Opposite Bus Stand, Tadepalligudem – 1, Andhra Pradesh. mobile : +91 - 9975068886 e-mail : darshan.m@relyonsolar.com Power Insight | June - July 2017 |

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Expert OPINION

Rooftop Financing India needs to unlock financing woes prevailing in Rooftop sector..

Column By: Sishir Garemella - Founder and CEO, Sunvest Energy Pvt. Ltd.

S

ince 2014, India has set aggressive targets for renewable energy and has been consistently pursuing to be a global leader in the sector. EY’s Renewable Energy Country Attractiveness Index of May 2017 ranks India at 2nd position. The recent developments at the Paris Climate Accord and India’s initiative at the International Solar Alliance have only increased her resolve and commitment towards clean energy.

Sishir Garemella is Founder and CEO, Sunvest Energy, a Mumbai based solar energy company focused on residential and small scale rooftop market in urban and semi-urban India providing a comprehensive solution that allows consumers to harness power from their roofs, cut down electricity bills and help the environment by investing in the Sun.

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By 2022, India plans to install 175 GW of renewable energy, of which 100 GW is solar. More specifically, 40 GW of the 100 GW is in the field of rooftop solar. The India Solar Rooftop Map 2017 from Bridge to India suggests that on 31 March 2017, about 1.4 GW of the 40 GW of rooftop solar has been installed. With the Government setting aggressive targets and international investors showing keen interest in the rooftop solar market, is domestic financing an impediment in the growth curve of rooftop solar?

Developer’s Perspective Thus far, the financing of rooftop solar plants in India has been by largely driven by tax investors. In the recent past, there has been a lot of talk about the 3rd party PPA (Power Purchase Agreement) market, but the model has inherent risks, which make it difficult to scale in India. Many PPAs do not have clear payment security mechanisms and there may be delays in contractual enforcement. In such a scenario, building a large asset base of solar PPAs of credit worth off-takers may mitigate concentration risk but the fundamental payment security risk still largely remains with the developer. It may be noted from the Bridge to India report that India’s rooftop solar capacity is still largely Capex in nature with over 80% projects owned and installed by the consumer. From a developer standpoint, reaching critical mass is key – Historically, we have seen in utility scale renewable energy projects that players have

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Expert OPINION been aggressive in bidding and built low yielding 100 MW portfolios only to realise that neither their yields are high enough to hold the assets nor are the portfolio sizes large enough to command a premium at the time of sale to a player who maybe pursuing ambitions of an IPO. In rooftop solar, many developers have looked at leverage as a way of growing their portfolio, but in reality, lenders are yet to see track record and stability of the sector to be fully confident to lend.

tries (SSI) and they have to often deal with power cuts and thereby resort to expensive Diesel Power. If our mission is to support “Make-in-India” campaign, boost the employment and productivity of our manufacturing clusters, we must introduce diesel offset mechanisms, solar plus storage solutions which are backed by creative financing.

Banker’s Perspective

At Sunvest, we believe the market dynamics have shifted to consumer solar. With hundreds of solar panel manufacturers, let alone other Balance of System component suppliers, the solar “project” is getting commoditized and we would like banks to start appreciating solar as a consumer asset. A loan to a typical residential solar asset is about the same size as that of a vehicle. While the vehicle loan market is well established with an active repossession and resale market, I foresee lending to consumer solar to move towards a similar direction. The use of technology allows us to monitor and control systems remotely. Also, given the strong push for digital identity, the consumers are far more accountable. In such a scenario, retail lending for solar holds immense potential. The banks could consider a separate retail lending business for residential solar. They could also introduce insurance products to mitigate risk. Currently the solar insurance market is not very active in India. Adding insurance could price risk and act as a catalyst for the sector.

Solar For Retail Lending

The World Bank has extended a $625m loan to the State Bank of India for rooftop solar. Of this line, over 100 MW has been announced albeit to a few large private developers. While from a banker’s standpoint, lesser number of borrowers with bigger ticket sizes may be ideal, we need more banks to lend to smaller ticket borrowers. At the outset, it could be on a full recourse basis and as comfort sets in, lenders could look at

The market dynamics have shifted to consumer and the solar “project” is getting commoditized and we would like banks to start appreciating solar as a consumer asset... partial / no recourse as they gain more confidence in the asset class. In my experience, many lenders are unaware of the technology and regulations around rooftop solar. I have given presentations to large Indian, International and Public-Sector Banks only to realise that it’s not the top cadre that should know about rooftop solar, but the loan officers, the credit team and the middle management that should be sensitized about the sector. Banks, by nature would like to mitigate risk and the first step is education. Banks must be well trained to appreciate the techno-commercial aspects of rooftop solar as a precursor to disbursement. The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) has done significant work in this space but more needs to be done. I would suggest a few other areas that can help with financing:

Creative Credit Scoring Start-up lending agencies are using financial technology for creative credit scoring mechanisms. Such a method could be used to lend to the 400 odd industrial clusters in India that have significant power challenges. Power costs are a big portion of the overall cost pie for Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) and Small-Scale Indus-

Subsidies Globally it has been noticed that subsidies are a great tool to kick start an industry, but as time progresses and industry matures, the subsidies typically create inconsistencies in the market. A tax incentive like Accelerated Depreciation is still in the control of the owner of the asset but capital subsidies are in control of regulatory bodies, and often times accessing them is not as seamless as accessing the tax incentives. We appreciate the Government’s keen interest in supporting the industry however I would like to suggest subsidies to be in different forms e.g. a) interest rates subsidies b) income tax subsidies (for residential and institutions) or c) property tax rebates as in the case of Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) Program as done in the US.

Conclusion In conclusion, the rooftop solar market in India is poised for significant growth in the near future, however accessing debt financing is still a challenge. Capacity building in the banking system, introducing data driven credit scoring techniques and insurance products, promoting retail lending and changing the view on capital subsidies may unlock the financing market and put India in a leadership position in rooftop solar. . n www.vision-media.co.in

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Industry Interaction

“Policy modifications are definitely required to uplift the segment....

Tata Power Solar, has been ranked #1 EPC rooftop solar player for the 4th year in a row by ‘BRIDGE TO INDIA’ in its recently published India Solar Rooftop report 2017. Of the total rooftop installed capacity of 1,396 MW as of 31 March 2017 - Tata Power Solar leads the EPC market of 678 MW with a market size of over double than the closest comAshish Khanna petitor. In an interaction with Power Insight, Executive Director & CEO, Tata Power Solar. Ltd. Ashish Khanna, ED & CEO, Tata Power Solar shared his views on Indian Solar PV Rooftop sector while looking into growth opportunities and challenges. Excerpts. .

What is your say on India achieving 40GW of rooftop solar installations by 2022 looking at the current growth scenario in the segment? Last two years have witnessed tremendous progress in India’s journey to fulfil the solar mission. A lot of work initiated over the last few years has started bringing momentum in 2017, with a promise of further growth. There was significant surge in rooftop installations in FY2017, with a result, an additional capacity of 678MW was added to the 718MW of installations that existed at the end of FY16. However, a lot of which can adversely affect the growth quality. The focus needs to shift from tariffs or low cost to conversations on quality, long term viability and sustainability. The solar panel come with 25 years of warranty and the discussion should be if contractual obligations, ownership,degradation factors and quality of the panels will stand the test of 25 years.

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In spite of policy support and incentives from the centre and state governments, the segment has witnessed a slower growth than expected. In your views, what is the need of the hour – Policy modifications or Proper implementation of policies – to boost the pace of growth in rooftop segment? Indian government has been instrumental in giving the much needed aggressive push to the sector in the initial phase. Now the need is to focus on building and strengthening the domestic solar ecosystem and technology front. Subsidy is not a sustainable model, though it always helps to drive traction to business in the initial period. The need is to invest in technology which is pertinent for rooftop solar rather than fixing the available products for this cause. Rooftop solar at retail level involves high capex and can turn out to be higher on total cost of ownership. Incase consumer is not fully conscious of the quality & O &M


Industry Interaction

costs during the life cycle. So policy modifications are definitely required to uplift the segment. What are some of the key challenges faced by the sector that are impeding the targeted segment growth? What course of action would you suggest to overcome these challenges? Rooftop solar can be a self-sustainable model and can be utilized for distributed generationfor areas without any connectivity. There are millions of people in India & abroad who are without any grid connectivity. Listing below some of the challenges n Limited focus on distributed generation: Prominence on large grid connected solar projects has helped in achieving our solar growth numbers. However, true impact of solar will be visible by driving distributed generation like solar rooftops. While policies like net metering have been employed across most states, their implementation and roll-out needs that the endcustomer is encouraged to adopt clean energy. n Boost to manufacturing:Make in India initiative should also in its ambit focus on building a strong and robust manufacturing sector. Not only can manufacturing help us in becoming self-reliant from an energy perspective, but it has the potential to generate employment, boost exports and thus bring forex and therefore contribute to the overall growth of the economy. n Building awareness: There is also merit in a concerted effort to build higher awareness among endusers as universal acceptance of solar is critical for it to transform into a more robust industry that is not dependant on subsidies and grants.

n Operations & Maintenance Needs: Once the rooftops will grow the requirement of O&M will also witness exponential; growth and hence an reliable O&M systems needs to be in place. n Win Win solution for Discomm: Considering that the interfaces with the distribution companies in rooftop is very important that a win-win solution for both the installer and discomm is evolved; else in a long run discomm will lose interest in facilitating rooftop growth and might perceive it as threat as its growth can be detrimental to their own business. What new and emerging business opportunities do you see in the rooftop solar segment in India and how do you see the segment evolving ahead? Rooftop solar has manifold opportunities from the business angle and also from the angle of consumption needs. Rooftop solar technology can be used in areas beyond power generation like clean water. We have been advocating for reserving roof tops for indigenous products so that the quality parameters can be adhered and guaranteed obligations can also be enforced. This will also help in encouraging domestic products as well as technology investment in the country. Solar has the highest employability factor amongst all other manufacturing industries in the power sector. Car ports like the largest in India installed by us at the Cochin airport. Charging stations for electric vehicles, solar powered RO Plantsand agriculture pumps are other such opportunities which have potential of growth as well as contributing towards our commitment towards clean & green powered India.. n

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Industry Interaction

“ Will and efforts needed for the market to reach 40 GW targets ...

In an interaction with Power Insight, Ritesh Pothan, Senior Vice President, Sorpius Trackers - one of leading solar tracking solutions company - shared his views on Indian Rooftop Solar sector’s growth scenario and challenges faced by the sector along with an insight on key trends. Excerpts. .

Ritesh Pothan Senior VP – Business Development Scorpius Trackers

What is your say on India achieving 40GW of rooftop solar installations by 2022 looking at the current growth scenario in the segment? This is an ambitious number given that a year earlier the target was 20GW by 2020 in total for both ground and roof. The current infrastructure and incentives is not build in such a way that it would benefit residential user to drive solar consumption. The solar growth in rooftops has been confined to Industrial and Commercial largely due to the RESCO players in the market. The sum total of rooftop RESCO has been much below 500MW for the last year. The distributed nature of the execution and supply makes this a both a difficult and lucrative space for small suppliers in the 1KWp - 50 KWp space creating many more employment opportunities than large scale plants would entail. The latest tender by SECI has seen a lot of enthusiasm in the RESCO and CAPEX space, but how much of that can be translated into real projects is a very large question mark given the poor success of past bids. The recent delisting of a very large section of MNRE partners is a case in point that proves the will and the effort needed has to increase exponentially for the market to reach 40 GW. Also per capita energy consumption

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in India is amongst the lowest in the world making this number further tougher to meet. The small residential segment (1-5 KWp) requires a substantially higher Feed In Tariff coupled coupled with quicker payout subsidies initially is needed across states for residents to understand the viability and ROI of installing solar on roofs, given that pricing and system costs are highest at these system sizes. With states providing 24 hour electricity Solar is now looked up more as a luxury than a necessity unlike 5 years ago. In spite of policy support and incentives from the centre and state governments, the segment has witnessed a slower growth than expected. In your views, what is the need of the hour – Policy modifications or Proper implementation of policies – to boost the pace of growth in rooftop segment? Policy modification tied with quicker and cleaner implementation of policies is the need of the hour, given that SECI in the past has provided subsidies for rooftops but system integrators have failed to develop the incentives into projects due to uncertainty in subsidy delivery. The uncertainty of the subsidy payout coupled with the greed of of the integrator has spelt doom for the residential sector with early adopters disappointed with shoddy im-


Industry Interaction

plementations and lackadaisical O&M. Cities and towns across India are delivering lower power from installations due to tremendous pollution issues.

These will result in a number of opportunities in the space which can be used to deliver more jobs and boost the local economy as well.

The narrowing of subsidies to smaller sizes was needed however quality standards and audit mechanisms to ensure efficient delivery is severely lacking. Focus needs to be on quality benchmarks with end to end management of systems making it a no brainer for residential, industrial and commercial use.

What new and emerging business opportunities do you see in the rooftop solar segment in India and how do you see the segment evolving ahead?

What are some of the key challenges faced by the sector that are impeding the targeted segment growth? What course of action would you suggest to overcome these challenges? The major challenges that we see in this segment are tremendous quality and over pricing for residential customers especially. Online marketplaces do alleviate the issue to an extent by providing tremendous information but not everyone is savvy enough to exploit the available resources. They are also not aware if the installed system pose a fire hazard or health hazard with unsafe technology and installation methods being used by uncertified installers with little to no real understanding of the hazards of a badly designed system Net metering issues are also an impediment to the fledgling residential sector who see a tremendous amount of effort in initializing their systems with the DISCOM.

n Quality focused System Integrators Rating’s: The integrators should be rated based on independent Thrid party audits conducted on behalf of MNRE to rank the generation and quality components based on certain criteria. And not just turnover based n Process based O&M services with SLAs: Given the difficult O&M management issues for rooftop, dedicated agencies have mushroomed that focus in specializing on rooftop O&M in a large way. This will continue to be the trend and a lucrative market is out there for the taking n Audit of Installed Systems by Third Party made mandatory by the DISCOM: DISCOMs should also independently audit the installed systems to give a further local quality rating as well as develop relationships with SI’s who would n Quality Product Listing: Independent Agencies and Labs should correlate actual performance data from various SI’s to deliver statistical data that can quantify the various failure and efficiencies various components in the market n Transparent Pricing: Standardized pricing driven by local agencies as well as government agencies n Quality Audits: MNRE should create a certification body that delivers a set of parameter in quality, safety and fire to ensure that each SI complies with these standards to ensure that no risk to life incidents take place The need for specialised O&M players, easy to install commoditised solutions, transparent pricing providers, single window net metering clearance, Quality Auditors, BIS Standards, System Optimization will increase as installations grow. n

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Industry Insight

Net Metering N

et-metering solar PV systems are among the most recently promoted schemes for wider adoption of solar power at domestic and commercial scales in the country. International examples show that effective net-metering implementation can increase rooftop solar adoption by as much as 50 per cent.

Theoretically, net-metering is the silver bullet designed to help India achieve greater energy security as it has the potential to drive extensive implementation of distributed generation through technologies such as solar. However, unlike utility scale

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solar, there are several challenges including energy accounting, interconnection arrangements including level of grid penetration and metering, and utilities across the globe are grappling with these issues.

Net Metering Concept: The concept of net metering involves recording the net energy between export of generated energy and import of energy from distribution licensee for a given period of time. This involves the usage of a bi-directional meter which has the facility to record both import and export values. At the end of the billing period, if

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more energy is exported to the grid than imported, then the distribution licensee pays the consumer at a predetermined price. On the other hand, if more energy is imported from the grid than exported, then the consumer pays the distribution licensee at a predetermined price. These prices usually vary from state to state. Net metering not only incentivises the end-users to adopt a distributed renewable generation technology but also help the end users/consumers reduce their energy bills. On the other hand, it is also supposed to help stabilise the national, regional and state grids, provide financial relief to the distribution companies (DISCOMs)


Industry Insight through consumer default risk mitigation and reduction of AT&C losses, and help cut down the per-capita energy footprint. Looking at the inherent benefits of Net Metering system, the year 2013 saw many states stepping forward in conceptualizing and implementing net metering policies in their states. However, as on date despite of almost all states announcing net–andgross-metering policies for rooftop solar - - grid interconnection regulations and processes still remains challenging in most parts of India.

Policy Implementation Issues Experts divide rooftops into four broad categories — residences, commercial, educational institutions and industries (factories). Of these, solar is still not very attractive to the ‘residence’ segment even with subsidies. Commercial establishment have very little roof space to spare, as they need the space for other activities, such as air-conditioner outdoor units, or cafeteria. However, solar plants

direction of flow of current and treats the electricity supplied as consumed. On the other hand, Maharashtra, Kerala and Rajasthan allow net metering only up to 1 MW – if you have a larger rooftop plant, sorry, consume the power yourself or let it go waste. Madhya Pradesh allows even less. This becomes critical under ‘opex model’ where the solar plant is owned by a third party - a power company - who invests in the plant and sells power, thus selling every unit of electricity generated matters a lot for the power company. According to a survey conducted by “Bridge to India”, a renewable analysis firm reveals that the overall implementation of net metering policy remains patchy across the country which necessitates an urgent overhaul policy framework to make it more consumers friendly and more suitable for evolving technologies and business models. To judge implementation status of net-metering in key states, Bridge to India conducted a survey of 15 industry professionals and asked them to rate states on parameters such as

The year 2013 saw many states stepping forward in conceptualizing and implementing net metering policies in their states. However, despite of almost all states announcing net–and-grossmetering policies for rooftop solar - - grid interconnection regulations and processes still remains challenging in most parts of India.... could easily come up on educational and industrial roofs, provided net metering rules are friendly. There are regulation flaws in the policies across states. Tamil Nadu, for instance, does not allow net metering for industries. This means, if a factory with a large roof puts up a solar plant, it has to consume all the power the solar generates, or waste it. On the other hand the worst part is that if the electricity is put back to the grid - the meter does not recognise the

– average time taken for connection, process transparency and clarity, DISCOM support and competence, meter availability and support for different business models. In the survey - Delhi, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Rajasthan emerged as the top states followed by Gujarat, Haryana, Punjab, Chhattisgarh and Kerala. However, most installers rated their experiences in Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha www.vision-media.co.in

and West Bengal as poor. On the other hand, average time taken for connection is high as 90100 days in states such as Haryana and Uttar Pradesh. The results also indicated that even within the same states, installers have varying experiences presumably because of different policy interpretation by local implementation authorities.

Way Forward: In India, the concept of net metering was introduced as an important incentive for consumer investment in distributed renewable energy generation and also to motivate consumers to utilise more renewable energy. Contrary to expectations, implementation is not improving with more experience or years of policy in operation. Rather it is the usefulness of policy design which seems to be influencing on-the-ground implementation. Renewable consultancy firm Bridge to India feels these are too restrictive and need an urgent overhaul to relax constraints on system size, type of connections, consumer categories and business models. Moreover, learning from industry experience and best practices adopted by other countries or even some progressive states should be used to help improve the policy framework. Fundamental drivers for rooftop solar are becoming more compelling by the day. Though, the government has shown a very strong desire to drive growth in this sector by offering a generous mix of capital subsidies, tax incentives and cheaper debt financing schemes for the sector. The government is also substantially ramping up demand in the public sector. All these efforts will fail to produce the desired results unless net-metering policy framework is urgently reformed, otherwise the rooftop movement in the country and its bold target expectations will go for a toss.n

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Market Review

Wind Power O&M Trends

The fate of WEF is determined by Operation & Maintenance (O&M) system adopted - as there can be failures, sub-standard generation, reduced life and unstable returns. In order to increase the performance of WEG & maximize the return on investment, one needs to invest in huge amount of resources to ensure effective O&M practice. Photo Picture for Reference Only

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Market Review

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ind power technology is one of the major growing areas in the Indian energy sector. The sector has been beneficiary of different incentives form the government so as to promote large investments in electricity production from renewable energy resources like wind power. Today, there is a general trend towards setting up of larger wind turbines at remote sites. However, the fate of WEF is determined by Operation & Maintenance (O&M) system adopted - as there can be failures, sub-standard generation, reduced life and unstable returns. In order to increase the performance of WEG & maximize the return on investment, one needs to invest in huge amount of resources to ensure effective O&M practice. Further, with the increasing use of windmills, the need for maintenance also increases. As wind turbines operate constantly, these are subjected to extreme physical force. All moving parts including the bearings also face the problem of wear. Maintenance can either be performed to prevent failures, preventive maintenance e.g. using scheduled intervals, or it can be performed correcting a failure event, corrective maintenance. The overall objective of having a well set O&M system in place is to increase the availability of wind power systems along with a cost effective life cycle that together will benefit in establishing and strengthening the competiveness of wind power on the energy market. Also, as turbines come out of warranty, any inherent financial risk rests with the owner, making good O&M planning even more critical.

per kWh produced over the lifetime of the turbine. If the turbine is fairly new, the share may only be 10-15 per cent, but this may increase to at least 20-35 per cent by the end of the turbine’s lifetime. As a result, O&M costs are attracting greater attention, as manufacturers attempt to lower these costs significantly by developing new turbine designs that require fewer regular service visits and less turbine downtime. These O&M costs are related to a limited number of cost components, including - Insurance; Regular maintenance; Repair; Spare parts, and Administration. As per one of the study, the total O&M costs can be distributed between the different O&M categories, depending on the type, size and age of the turbine. The study shows that approximately 35 per cent of total O&M costs covers insurance, 28 per cent regular servicing, 11 per cent administration, 12 per cent repairs and spare parts, and 14 per cent for other purposes. In general, the study revealed that expenses for insurance, regular servicing and administration were fairly stable over time, while the costs for repairs and spare parts fluctuated considerably. In most cases, other costs were of minor importance. Some of these cost components can be estimated relatively easily. For insurance and regular maintenance, it is possible to obtain standard contracts covering a considerable share

of the wind turbine’s total lifetime. Conversely, costs for repair and related spare parts are much more difficult to predict. And although all cost components tend to increase as the turbine gets older, costs for repair and spare parts are particularly influenced by turbine age; starting low and increasing over time. Due to the relative infancy of the wind energy industry, there are only a few turbines that have reached their life expectancy of 20 years. These turbines are much smaller than those currently available on the market. Thus, estimates of O&M costs are still highly unpredictable, especially around the end of a turbine’s lifetime; nevertheless a certain amount of experience can be drawn from existing, older turbines.

Key Trends and Developments As per inputs received from various workshop held to summarizes trends and developments for operation and maintenance of wind power turbines, three general trends have been identified related to: cost of O&M and LCC analysis, size of wind turbines and wind farms, and access to data for the wind turbines. Cost of O&M and LCC analysis : There is a need to reduce the total cost of electricity production including O&M. This is especially true for larger offshore wind farms, which results

O&M Costs of Wind Generated Power O&M costs constitute a sizeable share of the total annual costs of a wind turbine. For a new turbine, O&M costs may easily make up 20-25 per cent of the total levelised cost

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Market Review nance. Today, these ISPs are sophisticated companies of significant size and maturity and some even cover multiple technologies (ie solar, gas etc). As for the first two years of its lifetime, a turbine is usually covered by the manufacturer’s warranty, these ISP’s enters into picture when turbines fall out of warranty or OEM contracts mature and usually undertake the services of operation and maintenance on annual contract (AMC), Operation & Maintenance Contract (OMC) and Comprehensive Operation & Maintenance (COMC) for the WTG machines installed at various sites.

in higher demands on O&M, e.g. related to accessibility. One approach for estimating these costs and also for comparing different alternative investments and configurations is the Life cycle cost analysis (LCC). LCC models are increasingly used for the wind power systems. The LCC give support in maintenance management focusing on the asset value rather than the investment costs. This might be needed in order to motivate increased cost of maintenance to reduce the total LCC. Experts believe that it is beneficial using life cycle cost models for optimizing

spare parts and personnel. Larger farms are also typically involved with longer distances in remote area, which results in more challenges for transportation. Access to data: The access of data is crucial for the efficient operation and maintenance of wind turbines. A general trend is to use more condition-based maintenance (CBM) and opportunity-based O&M. SCADA and CBM data will play an important role in the development of improved O&M methods. During warranty turbine OEMs have a large amount of data available from their SCADA and CMS systems.

Industry experts believe that it is beneficial using life cycle cost models for optimizing maintenance strategies. ... maintenance strategies. Specifically results shiwed that condition monitoring of the drive train reduce the risk of high maintenance costs and results in increased economic benefit of over the lifetime. Size of wind turbines and farm related to O&M : The average size of offshore wind farms is increasing steadily. These trends towards larger turbines and larger wind farms result in special requirements on the maintenance management, e.g. requirements on logistics for handling

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These data can be used to dispatch service technicians. Out of warranty the operators have typically access to more restricted SCADA and CMS datasets, depending on their capability. In general, onshore O&M is very heavily dominated by breakdown repair (corrective), because operators are unable to view online data in a timely way and plan to mitigate deteriorating faults. During the last few years there has been a dramatic rise in the role of independent service providers (ISPs) in wind farm operations and mainte-

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Way Forward As wind turbines exhibit economies of scale in terms of declining investment costs per kW with increasing turbine capacity, similar economies of scale may exist for O&M costs. This means that a decrease in O&M costs will be related, to a certain extent, to turbine up-scaling. In addition, the newer and larger turbines are better aligned with dimensioning criteria than older models, implying reduced lifetime O&M requirements. However, this may also have the adverse effect that these newer turbines will not stand up as effectively to unexpected events. Operation and maintenance have a significant contribution to the life cycle cost of wind farms, in the range of 5-10% for onshore wind farms and 15- 30% for offshore wind farms. Therefore the reliability and maintenance aspects of wind turbines need to be analysed and optimized with respect to cost and availability over the lifetime of the system. Advanced methods for preventing failures, e.g. based on CMS using information of the equipment, are expected to increase. The technology development is becoming more mature and the O&M is expected to increase in importance for future wind projects. Especially for larger wind farms and offshore sites that are difficult to access and with high costs related to restoring failures. n


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Industry Review

BTG Industry India CEA does not foresee any immediate requirement for new coal power plants till 2027. If indeed things pan out as per the forecast, it can spell trouble for equipment suppliers in the capital goods sector, especially in the industry-boiler, turbine generator and related segments.

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he electrical equipment industry in India plays a key role in the Indian economy, providing direct employment to more than half a million persons and indirect employment to over a million. In the recent years, the electrical equipment sector has witnessed sluggish growth owing to the decline in domestic demand and increase in imported products. Boilers, turbines and generator (BTG), a part of heavy electrical equipment market, are primarily used for generating electricity in thermal power plants. Few years back, Bhel was the only domestic BTG manufacturer, but now there are five private companies which have joined hands with foreign companies, while more than two dozen companies are operating in the EPC segment. As country, shifts its portfolio from thermal to renewable in terms of capacity generation, the shift is also observed in terms of investment in the thermal and renewable space respectively.

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With India, completely witnessing drying up of orders from private project developers, the thermal power generation looks to be a dicey proposition for OEMs in the country. In this regard, it was quite essential to spot the silver lining in the current dynamics of thermal power generation for the OEMs to sustain and develop their respective business model. India’s current installed capacity of around 315 GW has still a fair share of thermal power plants based on coal which accounts for sufficing the base load of the country. Although, India is cognitive of the global trend of gradually wishing away with polluting source of coal based electricity generation, but completely stripping of these capacities shall not be possible for one of the fastest growing economies of the world. Looking at the demand and planned infrastructure and industrial growth in India, coal will continue to be the prime source of capacity generation supporting the base load power requirements of the country. However the new


Industry Review visory on indigenous manufacturing of supercritical equipment could lift profitability of domestic boiler turbine generator manufacturers. Also the government is working on a plan to shut down 25-40 GW of old highly polluting thermal power plants and set up new coal based super-efficient power projects. The draft national electricity plan of the Central Electricity Authority (CEA) sounds like beginning of the end for thermal power capacity addition in India. Given the massive capacity addition plans in the renewable sector, CEA estimates there is no requirement for new coal plants in 2017-22. Based on demand projections, CEA estimates new coal-based capacity requirement of 44,085 megawatts (MW) in 2022-27. But with 50,025MW of coal power projects already in different stages of construction and likely to yield benefits in 2017-22, the agency does not foresee any immediate requirement for new coal power plants.

emission norms, for coal-based thermal power plants in India, introduced limits on oxides of nitrogen emissions. This move has made Indian emission norms one of the most stringent in the world. The new norms have called for mandatory installation of SCR systems in upcoming power plants, including those currently under construction and many existing power plants. Fortunately, to deal with the emission issues the government is working in line to make coal a cleaner fuel by replacing the old power plants with new ones, hence high efficiency on the generation front. Further, in order to encourage the domestic manufacturing, government mandates state-run generators to insist on phased domestic manufacturing plan from supercritical equipment suppliers. In addition, the (CEA) ad-

If indeed things pan out as per the forecast, it can spell trouble for equipment suppliers in the capital goods sector, especially in the industryboiler, turbine generator and related segments. Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd (Bhel) is estimated to have manufacturing capacity for power equipment of 20,000MW a year. Apart from this, several domestic firms have joint ventures (L&T-MHI, Alstom-Bharat Forge, Toshiba-JSW, Gammon-Ansaldo, Thermax-Babcock and Wilcox, BGR Hitachi) with indigenous manufacturing capacity for supercritical boilers at 16,200MW and supercritical turbine generators at 14,000MW, CEA says. With most firms already strapped for orders, a dearth of new coal power plants can have an adverse impact on equipment suppliers. However, some of the industry experts feel that with a substantial number of thermal plants getting old and recommended for retirement or modernization, refurbishment and efficiency improvement orders will come to the rescue

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of some of them. As per estimates around 30,000MW of thermal plants in the country are old and require refurbishment or modernization. The opportunity can generate an annual business of around Rs. 25,000 crore for five years. However, industry analysts are of view that firm like BHEL which has historical ties with state utilities, may be better placed for this business opportunity while other firms, with only manufacturing capability and limited access to technology, may be forced to look overseas for business. Coal based thermal power generation is quite essential for India, especially amidst the growing energy demand of the country. Undoubtedly with the impetus on greener source of generation, India as a country is poised to witness magnanimous changes in power capacity additions through RE sources. However, the fact that India needs massive power and through big capacities of individual power plants puts the thermal power generation through coal as a lead contributor for coming decade safely. Having said that arguably, by 2020 experts believes that thermal power is destined to roll back into generation mix of the country and in all possibilities fresh UMPPs which have hit a road block may witness announcements sooner than later. Hence, preparedness for OEMs shall be of pinnacle importance. Although, the need for a growing economy like India is to curb the carbon emissions coupled with increased efficiencies of the thermal generation. This will not be achieved unless there is a migration observed from sub-critical power generation to supercritical power generation technology facilitating better plant efficiency and lower emissions with higher capacity addition (as SuPC plant is in excess of 660 MW per unit). Hence, despite country’s Paris commitment to reduce carbon influx, India has to be dependent on coal till 2030 for meeting of its consistent base load. n |

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Communication Features Danfoss India launches it’s first- JSW ENERGY appoints Prashant ever ‘Service on Wheels’ initiative Jain as Jt. MD and CEO cities in India this year to provide Danfoss Drives service solutions at their doorstep. The first ‘Service on Wheels’ van was flagged off in Chennai today, from the Danfoss Oragadam Campus in association with its partner M/S Techno Products Pvt Ltd. Danfoss India, an industry leader focused on climate and energy efficient solutions, has launched it’s first-ever ‘Service on Wheels’ initiative, originating in Tamil Nadu. As part of this, the company will launch 10 Danfoss Mobile Service vans in association with its partners, to visit customers across 150+

Commenting on the announcement, Ravichandran Purushothaman, President, Danfoss Industries Pvt. Ltd. said, “The ‘Service on Wheels’ is our new initiative to showcase our commitment to our customer base in India, providing them with unparalleled servicing solutions at their doorstep, for our entire Drives range.”

JSW Energy has appointed Prashant Jain as its Joint Managing Director and Chief Executive Officer, effective 16th June, 2017. A result oriented professional with an experience of over twenty-five years with a strong passion for innovation, Mr. Jain will set the strategy for JSW Energy, responsible for developing and executing strategic and business planning activities and oversee all aspects of the Company’s business thereby ensuring that JSW Energy continues to be recognized as one

of the fastest growing players in the energy sector. Mr Jain will be based in Mumbai and report to the Chairman and Managing Director - Mr. Sajjan Jindal. Commenting on the appointment, Mr. Sajjan Jindal, Chairman, JSW Group, said: “I am pleased that Mr Prashant Jain has been appointed as theJoint Managing Director and Chief Executive Officer of JSW Energy. He brings with him vast experience across different functional areas which he can apply in this new role with fresh perspective and vision.”

Schneider Electric India appoints Meenu Singhal as Head of Industry business

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possibilities of building efficiencies across an entire system of an industrial operation. Schneider Electric is at the forefront of this technology wave with its cutting-edge solutions and Innovation at Every Level— which is being delivered through EcoStruxure™, an IoT-enabled, open and interoperable system architecture and platform for plants and machines.

chneider Electric, the global specialist in energy management and automation, announced the appointment of Meenu Singhal as the Vice President of its Industry business. In his new role, Meenu will be responsible for accelerating Schneider Electric’s growth of the business with a focus on automation of industries and will drive the push for Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) platform across businesses for building greater efficiencies. Meenu’s joining comes at an exciting time in industrial automation, with the IIoT offering unprecedented

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Speaking on the appointment, Anil Chaudhry, Managing Director and Country President, Schneider Electric India, said, “Meenu joins us at a time when businesses are looking at leveraging the Make in India campaign

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to develop India as a hub of global manufacturing-Meenu’s immense experience will facilitate and front end delivery from our businesses to this critical requirement in the market.” Sharing his views on joining the Industry business at Schneider Electric, Meenu said, “I am excited to take over as a leader of Industry and Automation at a time when businesses are looking at leveraging technology to automate and drive serious efficiencies in business. Schneider Electric is uniquely positioned as a global leader in automation industry and our focus as a team is to ensure business continuity and value creation through innovative offerings. I look forward to bringing in my experience on board at Schneider Electric to take the business forward.”


Communication Features Wärtsilä India appoints Neeraj Sharma as President & MD Wärtsilä India, a subsidiary of the technology company Wärtsilä Corporation, has appointed Mr. Neeraj Sharma as the new President & Managing Director. Mr. Sharma comes with over 30 years of experience in the Energy and Industrial sectors. Prior to this appointment, he was Executive Vice President, Asia Pacific and Member of the Executive Board for KONE Corporation, Finland. Earlier to this, he was Managing Director, KONE India and has also held management positions with organizations like GE and Alstom. Commenting on the appointment, Mr. Kari Hietanen, Chairman, Wärtsilä India Pvt Ltd said, “Neeraj has an outstanding career spanning over 30 years in the industry,

and has shown strong results in the demanding posts he has held in India and globally. We are confident that his experience, deep understanding of the market dynamics, analytical management style and ability to identify potential areas of expansion will further facilitate profitable growth for Wärtsilä in India. ” “I would like to thank Kari and the local management team for steering Wärtsilä India through challenging times during the last two years. Wärtsilä India has a competitive edge in the country, and I am convinced that we will have a big role to play in implementation of solutions for the Energy and Marine sectors in India in the coming years”, commented Neeraj on his appointment.

Tata Power Solar is the No.1 EPC rooftop player for 4 years in a row Tata Power Solar, India’s largest integrated solar player,has been ranked #1 EPC rooftop solar player in the recently published India Solar Rooftop report 2017 by BRIDGE TO INDIA. According to the report, the total installed capacity in the rooftop segment is 1,396 MW as of 31 March 2017 including commercial, residential & industrial sector. Tata Power Solar leads the EPC market of 678 MW with a market size of over double than the closest competitor. Commenting on the report findings, Vinay Rustagi, Managing Director, BRIDGE TO INDIA, said, “It is very encouraging to see rapid growth in the Indian rooftop solar market, which is benefitting from falling costs and growing customer awareness. We expect rooftop solar to grow from about 1.4 GW today to 13.2 GW by 2021.” Tata Power Solar installed

nearly 140 MW of solar rooftop projects and 605 MW of utility scale projects within the year. Some prominent projects commissioned were India’s first solar carport of 2.7MW at Cochin International Airport and India’s largest vertical solar farm at Dell International Services building. Ashish Khanna, ED and CEO, Tata Power Solar, speaking on the ranking said, “We are very happy to have retained this leadership position for fourth year and contributed to the solarisation of the country. This is a testimony to our capabilities and trust the consumers have on own brand. Backed by 27 years of experience we have been able to successfully deliver some prominent and diverse rooftop product offerings to cater to the ever evolving and challenging needs of our customers. ”

CMI Ltd. bags orders of over Rs. 30 crore from East Central Railways & BHEL for signalling cables and HT XPLE power cables

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MI Limited, has been awarded orders worth more than 30 crore from East Central Railways and BHEL(Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd), to provide Railway Signalling cables and HT XPLE cables, respectively. The order worth Rs 9.97crores from BHEL to supply HT XPLE cables will be delivered within the next 4 months, while the order for the Railway Signalling cables for Rs 20.68 crores will be staggered over a period of 8 months. These orders are also revenue accretive and together with several other orders (received

in May 2017), will add over 151 Cr to the topline for FY 17-18. Supply of Signalling cables and Quad Cables to Railways contributed 45% to the total revenues of CMI in 2016-17 while supply of power cables contributed over 12% to the total revenue. The contribution of the power segment to the revenues of CMI is expected to reach around 15% by 2019. Supply of Wires and Cables to Railways has seen a CAGR of 88% over FY 13-16 and it is expected to continue growing at 28-30% over the

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next few years(FY 16-19). “With continued focus of the Government on redefining both the infrastructure segment and Indian Railways, we believe that the industry will grow at a fast pace. We at CMI have the wherewithal to be the preferred choice to provide high quality wires and cables for their every need. Our continuous focus on unwavering quality and our zeal to improvise tilt the balance in our favour”, says Mr Amit Jain, MD, CMI Ltd . n

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Events Diary Up Coming Events Mark your diaries with important dates of up-coming industry events taking place in India over the coming months.... Date

Event / Exhibition / Conference

Venue

Organiser

21 -23, August 2017

8th World Renewable Energy Technology Congress

New Delhi

World Re-EnergyTech

1st September 2017

REIFF India 2017

Hotel Hiton, International Airport Mumbai

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14 -15, September Waste and Sanitech India 2017 2017

The Ashoka New Delhi

UBM India

20 -22, September Renewable Energy India Expo 2017 2017

India Expo Centre, Greater Noida, New Delhi

UBM India

5 - 7, October 2017

2nd Wire & Cable Fair

Pragati Maidan, New Delhi

Tulip 3P Media

9 -10, November 2017

India Nuclear Energy Expo

Nehru Centre, Worli, Mumbai

UBM India

5 -7, December 2017

INTERSOLAR INDIA 2017

Bombay Exhibition Centre, Mumbai

MMI India Pvt. Ltd

Power Insight August - September 2017 Issue

Editorial Attraction: n n n n n

Solar Power Sector - Success Story and Road Ahead Operation & Maintenance in Thermal Plant for Efficiency Switchgears and Control Gears Renewable Grid Integration in India - An Insight Wind Turbines - Lubrication and Filtration

We are pleased to invite authored articles from “Industry Captains and Thought Leaders�.

Contact Persons

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Navin Singh I Head PR & Marketing I +91 -7303355982 I marketing@vision-media.co.in K Geetha I Regional Manager PR & Marketing I +91 - 9321055982 I geetha@vision-media.co.in

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Power Insight June July 2017 E copy  
Power Insight June July 2017 E copy  

The issue presents an insight into - Indian Hydro Power Sector ; Rooftop Solar Power Sector India ; Wind Power - O&M Trends and BTG Equipmen...

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