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24H WORKSHOP

BEYOND THE CITY BEIJING ISTANBUL TURIN DELFT PENNSYLVANIA


CONTENTS


1 Introduction p004 1.1 about the workshop 1.2 theme explanation ‘Beyond the City’ 1.3 Participating Universities Introduction 2 Topic and site introduction 2.1 Beijing Cuandixia 2.2 Istanbul Bosphorus 2.3 Turin Milano/ Turin 2.4 Delft Randstad 2.5 Pennsylvania Pennsylvania State 2.2 Lecturers per City

p016

3 Student projects 3.1 Beijing Escape 3.2 Istanbul Expand 3.3 Turin Connect 3.4 Delft Relate 3.5 Pennsylvania Intercede

p 050

4 The Network p 162 4.1 The Network 4.2 New Media 4.3 The People 5 The Crew p 198

5.1 Credits


INTRODUCTION 1 ABOUT THE WORKSHOP 1.1 THEME EXPLAINED 1.2 FIVE UNIVERSITIES INTRODUCTION 1.3


ABOUT THE WORKSHOP

WHAT? The 24h Workshop is an independent international workshop, organized -mainly- by students. It takes place simultaneously in five urban regions (Beijing, Istanbul, Turin, Delft, Pennsylvania) across three continents (Asia, Europe, North America), for a continuous 24 hours on NOV 10/11th this year. The 24h symbolizes how nowadays architects and their studios work around the clock, around the world. It is an unprecedented event that has the intention to become an annual workshop format. WHY? Our minds and working methods become Globalized as information, travel and networks connects us everywhere. But our architectural interventions still require local specificities (site, client, users) and thus a local understanding. Our goal is to create an environment for academic exchange to discuss contemporary global trends, in relation to local implementations in various parts of the world. Secondly, this goal and development in architecture discourse can be supported by the technologies that enabled contemporary globalization. As seen in history, it shows that new media has great potential for the development of architectural discourse as all significant architectural evolutions are supported by a new media invention (the manuscript - Vitruvius/ book printing press - Renaissance/ the periodicals - De Stijl/ Bauhaus). The significant aspects of contemporary ‘new media’ are two fold. First of all, its important in the creation and processing, with the possibility for a real-time, engaged, international debate, addressing complex global issues with localized teams. Secondly it generates new ways of spreading and discussing the final output. All in all, we can interactively share data, debate and conclusions real-time. It can create a global knowledge network, linked to localized, physical implementations. And thus generate unprecedented opportunities for the advancement of the discipline of architecture.


PENN STATE, DELFT, TURIN, ISTANBUL, BEIJING

HOW? Connect, create, share. Reiterate. We CONNECT various groups of students and experts in regions across the globe by using open-source, new-media, hard- and software (webcams, broadband internet, google hangout, skype, youtube, etc). During the 24h we CREATE design strategies for local problems in the framework of our global theme. In this process, a group of 12 students is guided by a promising generation of local experts. To get inspired, stay in touch, get involved, inspire us; we SHARE the content, expertise and connections amongst each other. Both during, before and after the workshop. We thus create knowledge and references for the understanding of global issues and establish a network of engaged individuals. Last but not least, the 24h Workshop evolves as we REITERATE; by making it a yearly event with a fresh team of local participants. WHO? This initiative is co-founded by Martijn de Geus and Arturo Pavani but, it’s no two-menshow; the 24h Workshop is an integral network initiative, hosted by a variety of institutions world wide, and support by their local representatives, organizers, tutors and lecturers. The first edition includes: Tsinghua University - Beijing, Istanbul Polytechnic University, Politecnico di Torino - Italy, Delft University of Technology, Penn State University, USA.

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BEYOND THE CITY

THEME Beyond the City 1. The Urban Globe Over the past decades the focus of architectural discourse has become ‘the City’ A very logical step, as our world is heading for urban domination with architecture as the discipline that shapes the environments we inhabit. For the first time in human history, more then 50% of humans across the globe live in cities. A first observation is regarding the role we as humans play in the forces that shape our habitat. Traditionally, species (including our ancestors) had to always adept to the environment in which they evolved. Specialization lead to the establishment of a diverse range of species, specifically suited for their respective habitat. (see Darwin’s ‘On the Origin of Species’). More recently we can witness a new kind of phenomena. For the first time, since we can trace back the evolution of species, there is a species that is able to drastically shape the environment it inhabits. Unwanted sometimes, uncontrollable perhaps. We have entered the Anthropocene, the age of man, in which we humans (ie. “anthropos”, have become the name givers to a new geological era, as we now define the global ecosystem we inhabit. The Urban Globe defines our very own ecology. In this sense we can state that we can have an unprecedented impact with the actions we take; good or bad. And that, for the sake of the species, we should take responsibility in the way we influence our environment. This is where we as architects can play a vital role. Designing our future habitat.


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2. The After City But, as we move towards the Urban Globe, what exists beyond The City? In order to create a lasting ecology we should consider a balance between the Urban Globe and the Natural Environment through a careful consideration of the man-made interventions that link the two. Currently we only hear about the urban, about the success of the city as a self contained entity; but what happens in the non-urban? The ex-urban? The post-urban? What is out there, beyond the borders of our city focus? What (be)comes after the city? How doe we define the edge? What happens on the fringes of the city? 3. The Global Local Each of the participating regions has particular problems that relate to the question ‘what is Beyond the City?’. These specific issues are related to the local conditions, such as the state of urbanization, cultural identity, environmental aspects, etc. Together they form a wide variety, expressed in strategical keywords, that address the relation between urban and non-urban. The themes per region are: - Beijing ESCAPE site: Cuandixia - Istanbul EXPAND site: new bridge accross Bosphorus - Turin CONNECT site: Milan-Turin Metro region - Delft RELATE site: Randstad/ Westland - Pennsylvania INTERSECT site: the state of Pennsylvania

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BEYOND THE CITY

We observe and address that: • New media has great potential for the development of architectural discourse. It allows for real-time exchange and interaction. We can interactively share data, debate and conclusions real-time. It can create a global knowledge network, linked to localized, physical implementations. • The Global Urban Cycle is a continuous process in which various stages of the process can be observed around the globe. Not all these processes happen simultaneously, but the cyclic nature of, for example, urbanization, allows us to observe the same cycle in different stages. (see figure 1) • There is a rising generation of socially committed youths empowering change locally. The upcoming generation is characterized by the combination of tools that allow engagement (new media) and the awareness of the meaningful local contribution each person can make in the global cycle. (sympathize for international human rights, or in countries going through revolution, Occupy Wall street, etc.).


PENN STATE, DELFT, TURIN, ISTANBUL, BEIJING

1. Media and Architecture The Influence of innovations in media have strongly related to the way the architectural debate is generated and communicated. Precedents include the arrival of the printing press in the 15th century that triggered the Renaissance, or the industrialization in the early 20th century that enabled the rise of ‘little magazines’ and related avant-garde movements. These changes in media were always paired with changes in society and formed a catalyst for architectural debate. In our world today we can observe similar changes, grouped in four main parameters that address social, cultural, political and environmental systems1 and also witness the rise of new media. The significant aspects of contemporary ‘new media’ are two-fold. It is first of all important in the creation and processing, with the possibility for a real-time, engaged, international debate, addressing complex global issues with localized teams. Secondly it generates new ways of spreading and discussing the final output. 2. Urban cycles The process of urbanization can be observed as a cyclic progression, in which the rate of urbanization follows waves of quick growth, after which the environment stabilizes, falls again, and so forth. Overall it concerns the transition from dispersed human settlements toward highly condensed urban centres and the relationship between man and its (natural) surroundings. Thus, in this 24hWorkshop we propose to look at the outward effects of urbanization; what is the effect of the ‘new urban’ on the (non-urban) areas it surrounds? And how is this relationship for various stages of urban development, in cities that are urbanized in different times? How is the edge defined? 3. Community engagement Through the use of social media the debate becomes more engaging. Networks of people combined with clouds of data allow for interaction, but the real power lies in sharing. If that what is shared by you is liked by others, it creates a common link; a “sense of connection”. In order to create this link it is important to have something to share (content), to share it (new media/ networks) and to be picked upon by people that will share it more. This creates a ‘viral’ event, in which a certain message or event spreads to a certain community like a virus, ‘infecting’ everybody by its potential: to empower a community. 11


FINAL OUTPUT


PENN STATE, DELFT, TURIN, ISTANBUL, BEIJING

For the final output of this 24h workshop, we asked every team to imagine and represent a strong, conceptual future scenario for their respective sites. This vision should include a systematic data based strategy and its spatial effects. It should deal with the target/people, the phases/time, the functions/use and the places/space. Per university the students were divided into 3 groups at the day of the workshop. Groups focuses can be based on: economy-resources; society-lifestyle; landscape-reuse; or related to scale: interregional scale; district scale; building scale. Each group has to face similar overarching issues concerning the focus theme, ie. the role of infrastructures; the rural-urban hierarchy; the balance between built and natural environment; the global-local relation; the meaning of ‘beyond the city’. The 24h schedule is tight and intense, but you have enough time to design and show your mates from all around the world a strong and provocative scenario of future settings BEYOND THE CITY.

Final Review requirements per group: 1 statement/project description - max. 300 words (PDF); 1 conceptual image of your scenario - A1 (PDF); 1 video illustrating the idea and the process of your systematic strategy: sketches diagrams/schemes/icons/drawings- 3 min max.

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PARTICIPATING UNIVERSITIES

TSINGHUA UNIVERSITY BEIJING, CHINA Tsinghua University is one of the nine universities of the C9 League. It was established in 1911. The university section was founded in 1925 and the name “National Tsinghua University” was adopted in 1928. With a motto of Self-Discipline and Social Commitment, Tsinghua University describes itself as being dedicated to academic excellence, the well-being of Chinese society and to global development. Tsinghua is often ranked as one of the top two universities in mainland China in many national and international rankings

POLITECNICO DI TORINO TURIN, ITALY The Polytechnic University of Turin (English name) was established in 1859, Politecnico di Torino is Italy’s oldest Technical University. In 2011 it was ranked among the top 75 engineering universities in the world and 1st in Italy by the Academic Ranking of World Universities. Castello del Valentino (Castle of Valentino) is the seat of the Architecture Faculty of Politecnico di Torino. It is located in Valentino Park and was one of the Residences of the Royal House of Savoy. In 1997, it was included in the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.


PENN STATE, DELFT, TURIN, ISTANBUL, BEIJING

ISTANBUL TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY ISTANBUL, TURKEY Istanbul Technical University is an international technical university. It is the world’s third oldest technical university; dedicated to engineering sciences as well as social sciences recently, and is one of the most prominent educational institutions in Turkey. ITU is ranked 108th worldwide and 1st nationwide in the field of engineering/ technology by THES. ITU is a public (state) university. It has five campuses, which are located in the most important areas of Istanbul.

DELFT UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY DELFT, THE NETHERLANDS Delft University of Technology, also known as TU Delft, is the largest and oldest Dutch public technical university. With eight faculties and numerous research institutes it hosts over 19,000 students. It was established in 1842 by King William II of the Netherlands as a Royal Academy; later becoming an Institute of Technology in 1905, and a full university in 1986. TU Delft has a strong research profile with the main focus on engineering and applied sciences. Therefore TU Delft scores highly in any engineering school ranking.

PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY PENNSYLVANIA, UNITED STATES OF AMERICA The Pennsylvania State University (commonly referred to as Penn State or PSU) is a public, state-related research university with campuses and facilities in Pennsylvania. Founded in 1855, the university has a stated threefold mission of teaching, research, and public service. Its instructional mission includes undergraduate, graduate, professional and continuing education offered through resident instruction and online delivery. The 2010 Academic Ranking of World Universities ranks the university 43rd among universities. 15


THE TOPICS 2 TOPICS/ SITES LECTURERS


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Beijing - Escape The rural village of Cuandixia on the Western outskirt of Beijing How can we envision a lasting future for Beijing, in which nature and city can benefit from each other? The small town of Cuandixia is one of the last places around Beijing where modern developments have not taken place yet. A small town in the middle of the lush green mountains; can we work with nature to create an alternative urbanity to escape the burdens of common city life?

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PENN STATE, DELFT, TURIN, ISTANBUL, BEIJING

Istanbul - Extend The Third Bridge Even though the construction of the 3rd bridge over the Bosphorus is a controversial subject for Istanbul, the construction has initiated nonetheless. The two piers of the third bridge will be situated in Garipce on the European and Poyrazkoy on the Asian side. Right now these are only rural areas at the northern borders of the Bosphorus where it unites with the Black Sea. However if/ when the 3rd bridge will be built these village-like areas ‘beyond the city’ will surely transform, as did the former spots in the case of the first and the second bridge. By brainstorming on realistic or utopian scenarios and exploring the possible outcomes of the third bridge, critical subjects like the city’s borders, the tension between urban and rural areas, the conditions of the northern forests and water reserves can be researched and discussed. 21


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Turin - Connect The left-over rural land in between two metropolitan areas is pierced by a high speed rail link Torino is part of a net and one of the main cores of it. In between the nodes we can see fields, industrial areas and residential areas. However the sprawl makes the traditionalurban-rural hierarchy unclear. We recognise an important axis, the one connecting Torino and Milano. Above all this axis is crucial for its future development since Torino and Milano will be more and more interconnected. Will they merge into a singlemegalopolis? Anyway, the MI-TO issue is now a trend. But nobody cares for the middle. What if we start from the ‘MIDDLE’?

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PENN STATE, DELFT, TURIN, ISTANBUL, BEIJING

Delft - Relate Linking urban with rural life in the Randstad The urban and the rural have different qualities and we feel that the two worlds are not properly integrated in our modern age. The city used to be depending on the agricultural production of the countryside, but nowadays the countryside is depending on the city for it’s preservation. How can we establish a new relation that benefits both?

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PENN STATE, DELFT, TURIN, ISTANBUL, BEIJING

Pennsylvania - Integrate A resource rich countryside feeding energy hungry cities The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania: The largely rural state of Pennsylvania has a history as an energy and resource provider for major US cities. How can we redefine an extractive and unidirectional relationship between rural an urban with one that is regenerative and symbiotic? How can non-urban locales provide resources and goods to cities without compromising their own future needs?

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LECTURES

For every participating city there were two lectures scheduled that were live broadcasted via webcam to all the other schools. These lectures introduced the local context in both their academic and professional context. The order of the lectures was: - CHE Fei director CU Office/ CU Space Beijing - Ipek AKPINAR prof. Istanbul Technical University Istanbul - Elif S. FETTAHOGLU Istanbul Bilgi University Istanbul - Federico De GIULI DEGA/ Cluster/ UEPC Turin - Matteo ROBIGLIO prof. Politecnico di Torino Turin - Nikki BRAND Dr. at Delft University of Technology Delft - Daan ZANDVELDT prof. Delft University of Technology Delft - Brian ORLAND prof. LA Penn State University USA - Tim MURTHA prof. LA Penn State University USA - WANG Shuo director META-Project Beijing


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Presentation 29


CHE Fei CU Office

Che Fei Architect at CU Office www.cu-office.com Che Fei is registered architect in Germany.He received architectural and design training as bachelor from Central Academy of Arts and Design in Beijing. He was studying Architecture in Kunstakademie D端sseldorf, Germany, and he received his master degree of architecture in Dessau architecture institute (Hochschule Anhalt), Germany, since 2004 he is the doctor candidate of Bauhaus Weimar University. He worked in ROB KRIER?CHRISTOPH KOHL Architectural design office in Berlin. In 2007, he with Zhang Xuefeng established his practice CU OFFICE in Beijing, considered as one of the innovative architects in China, realizing some notable civic, cultural, residential and interior projects. In 2008, he with Zhang Xuefeng established gallery CU SPACE in 798 art zone Beijing, considered as an international pool for artists and architects and designers. In 2010, Che Fei was nominated for young architect prize of China Architecture Media Award and his project Minle settlement reconstruction after the 5.12 earthquake was nominated for residential building prize of China Architecture Media Award. He is the Member of Urban Planning Expert Commission of China Foundation for Poverty Alleviation. He was also as a curator contributing for the Architecture Biennial Beijing 2004 and 2006. He has been also the curator of a series of 798 architectural forums. Since 2007, he has been teaching in BIFT design academy in Beijing guiding a series of urban study workshops. As a theory writer, he published his first book in China in 2009, which is an over-600-page Book: CONCUSSION, his writings have been published in various professional publications and journals.


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CHE Fei, selection of slides from the lecture 31


Ipek AKPINAR

Istanbul Technical University Associate Professor http://www.itu.edu.tr/en/ Following her bachelor (1990) and Master of Science (1993) studies at Istanbul Technical University - Department of Architecture, she has received her doctoral degree from University of London, University College, Bartlett School of Graduate Studies (2003). Her thesis entitled “The Rebuilding of Istanbul after the Plan of Henri Prost: from secularisation to Turkish Modernisation” is going to be published from Bilgi University publications. Her international research project based on the personal archives of Henri Prost at Paris was exhibited and published (Akpinar, I.Y., “The Making of a Modern Pay-ı Taht in Istanbul: Menderes’ executions after Prost’s Plan”, from The Imperial Capital to the Republican Modern City: Henri Prost’s Planning of Istanbul (1936-1951), C. Bilsel, P.Pinon (eds.), Istanbul: Istanbul Research Institute, 2010, pp.167-199). Her recent research project on the transformation of a former Greek island Cunda (Moshinisi) and the restoration of Moonlight Monastery has been published in April 2012. She is now conducting a research project on the urban, social and cultural transformation of Emirgan, a small Bosphorus village in Istanbul. She is on the editorial board of The Journal of Architecture (Taylor Francis / Routledge). Since 2008 and a member on the advisory board of The UCL Urban Laboratory (2005, http://www.ucl.ac.uk/urbanlab). She is broadcasting a radio programme entitled Açık Mimarlık (open architecture) on contemporary urbanism and architecture at Açık Radyo (http://acikmimarlik. blogspot.com/, http://acikradyo.com.tr/ ). Currently, she is lecturing at the architectural and urban design studios as well as master and phd courses on the relations of architecture with the urban, political and cultural context based on the everyday life of social actors


PENN STATE, DELFT, TURIN, ISTANBUL, BEIJING

Ipek AKPINAR, selection of slides from the lecture 33


Elif S. FETTAHOGLU Istanbul Bilgi University

Research Assistant http://www.bilgi.edu.tr/tr/bilgi/uluslararasi-merkez/ Elif Simge Fettahoglu, was born in Istanbul on April 16, 1984. She has graduated as an architect from Yeditepe University in 2007 and completed Istanbul Bilgi University’s Architectural Design Masters Programme in Istanbul Bilgi University in 2009. She has participated in the 2009 Rotterdam Biennial ‘Refuge Urbanism’ with her thesis project Rumeli Feneri: Remaining on the Coast. She has worked for the Istanbul 1910-2010: Istanbul Exhibition as a curator assistant. Currently, she is working as a research assistant in Istanbul Bilgi University.

Lecture title: Istanbul as it was and as it will be


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Elif S. FETTAHOGLU, selection of slides from the lecture 35


Federico De GIULI DEGA/ Cluster/ UEPC

www.cluster.eu, www.de-ga.it, www.uepc.org, www.eauvive.it Operates in architectural design and manages projects for the contractors and developers DEGA (www.de-ga.it), where he is also partner. He is founder and publisher of Cluster magazine on city, design and innovation and coordinates the cultural activity of project Cluster, an independent association that sustains Cluster magazine, cultural events, concerts and the website (www.cluster.eu). He is vice president of the European Union of Developers and House Builders (www.uepc.org) and is president of the Eau Vive Association (www.eauvive.it) that among other things curates the publication “Rapporto su Torino�: an annual report of data and statistical analysis on the social economical structure of the city.


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Matteo ROBIGLIO Politecnico di Milano

Associate Professor, Architect www.tra.to.it Asossiate Professor in Architectural and Urban Design at DAD, Dipartimento di Architettura e Design, Politecnico di Torino. He teaches both in bachelor and master courses. He is member of the board for Ph.D courses in Architecture. Since 2004 he directs the master studio class UnitĂ  di Progetto SostenibilitĂ  e Innovazione dei Sistemi Edificio-Impianti. In 1992 he had been one of the founder of Avventura Urbana srl (www.avventuraurbana.it), first company in Italy specializing in public policies design and participation process. He has worked in the company for twenty years, developing and managing urban planning, spatial planning, strategic planning, housing projects for private and public clients in Turin, Milan, Florence, Rome e Naples. In 2011 he founded TRA_architettura condivisa (www.tra.to.it), together with Isabelle Toussaint. The engineering company is specialized in architectural design, urban and spatial planning, the management of complex processes based on the interaction between stakeholders, public administration and citizens.

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What is a city? Ambrogio Lorenzetti’s 1339 fresco in Siena’s Palazzo della Ragione shows what we still hold as a city. Built density, opposed to rural emptyness. Walls, defining a clear border. But also gates, allowing a continuous flux of people and goods from and to the city. Law - represented by the hung lawbreaker. It is the city as Max Weber meant it in his 1921 essay: a physical body, a legal constitution, a political entity, an economical actor. We are beyond some of the features - no more walls, no more physical unity at least since Gottman’s 1961 Megalopolis - but still, the city seems here to stay, due to his irresistible attraction as a multiplier of opportunities, and maybe to become even more important as a political body, due to the weakening of national states. New urban forms might well go beyond the compact city, towards hybrid settlements in which rural breaks into urban voids as urban farming - urban is already into rural as sprawl since the ‘60es - but should reinvent the city as a fair welfare system, a working democratic arena and a social equalizer through equal opportunities: this might be the most contemporary experience Europen cities can offer to a world just surpassing the historical threeshold of 50% urbanites.


PENN STATE, DELFT, TURIN, ISTANBUL, BEIJING

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Daan ZANDBELDT

Delft University of Technology ir. Daan Zandbelt - architect / urbanist Daan Zandbelt (1975) is architect and urban designer. Daan Zandbelt graduated on the spatial implications of an open immigration policy. His project sketches a vision on an internationally competitive Randstad in which top positions and low-wage labor both are bare necessities. An international comparison between successful metropolitan areas results in a number of crucial interventions in urbanism and architecture. One of these is elaborated into an architectonic design: a residential hotel for immigrants at the Maashaven in Rotterdam. A condensation point of housing and services, a city within a city. Within Zandbelt&vandenBerg, Daan was in charge of the next projects (selection): •TU Delft Campus Vision 2030 •Mid-size Utopia, research by design on a regional scale •Urban plan Coolhaven City Campus •Renovation Witte de With and Tent., Rotterdam •Stadland atelier, within Randstad 2040 •Villa in the dunes, Hoek van Holland •Concept vision Almere 2.0 •Business park strategy Drechtsteden •Urban concept KennisAs, Rotterdam •Exhibition ‘The New Dutch City’, 3rd IABR

Next to his work at Zandbelt&vandenBerg, Daan Zandbelt is lecturer at the Chair of Metropolitan and Regional Design at the Faculty of Architecture,TU Delft. He is responsible, among others, for coordinating the international postgraduate program ‘European Masters of Urbanism’.


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(c) Zandbeldt & van den Burg

Daan ZANDBELDT, selection of images from the lecture 41


Nikki BRAND

Delft University of Technology At the Delft University of Technology, Nikki Brand (1982) studies patterns of urbanization in the Randstad Holland (1200-2000). She studied human geography in Amsterdam, with a special focus on the relationship between heritage and spatial qualities. After graduation she worked on various subjects concerning the history of the landscape. Brand started her PhD research – which is part of the ‘Mapping the Randstad Holland (1200-2000) project’- in December 2007. She is currently employed as a post-doc at the Faculty of Architecture, of the Technological University of Delft. Being part of a research consortium of several Faculties, she performs a comparative study on water-management strategies and urbanization in an international perspective. Over the past four years she has been working on a thesis addressing the longterm formation of the so-called Randstad, with a focus on the distribution of competitive advantages to urban communities by sovereign government. She also participates in the Studio Coastal Quality and is editor of a small-scale magazine concerning the historical landscape. Initially she was educated as a human geographer at the University of Amsterdam.


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Nikki BRAND, selection of slides from the lecture 43


Brian ORLAND

Pennsylvania State University Professor of Landscape Architecture stuckeman.psu.edu/larch/brian-orland A registered architect since 1977, Brian Orland has worked in private practice in the United Kingdom, in East Africa and in Central America. Practicing in landscape architecture and planning since 1981, his work has included urban redevelopment in economicallydevastated East St. Louis, USA; and tourism development planning in the rich cultural contexts of Northern India. Current funded research includes studies of the effects of natural gas exploration and extraction in Northern Pennsylvania on human health, and, as part of a major research hub on energy efficient building, studies of the effects of high-performance building environments on well-being. In addition, Brian is involved in conducting research and service-learning in Tanzania on reconciling the needs for economic, health and social development in a growing human community alongside a national park of exceptional biodiversity conservation value.

Lecture title: “Boom! Energy Development in Pennsylvania�


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Brian ORLAND, selection of slides from the lecture 45


Tim MURTHA

Pennsylvania State University Associate professor of Landscape Architecture stuckeman.psu.edu/larch/timothy-michael-murtha-jr Timothy Murtha, PhD is an associate professor of Landscape Architecture at Penn State University. Murtha is an anthropologist who studies long-term environmental change as influenced by human decision making. His research, primarily funded by the National Science Foundation, has been carried out in a diversity of settings, covering dynamic environments and stretching over several hundred to several thousand years. He is a former fellow of Dumbarton Oaks (summer 2011) and was resident scholar at the Institute for the Arts and Humanities at Penn State (spring 2008). His current research focuses on land use, niche construction and the political ecology of the tropical lowlands of Central America, centered on the Ancient Maya city (and UNESCO world heritage site) of Tikal, Guatemala (www.psutikal.org). For the workshop, Murtha will discuss anthropological and deep time perspectives on cities, urbanism and landscape, particularly focused on issues of resource extraction and relying on case studies from the first urban centers of the preColumbian new world.

Lecture title: “Cities + Landscapes From a Deep Time Perspective�


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Tim MURTHA, images of presentation 47


WANG Shuo META Project

Wang Shuo Architect at META-Project www.meta-project.org Founding PartnerWang Shuo received his B. Arch. from Tsinghua University in Beijing and M. Arch. from Rice University. He has practiced extensively in New York, Rotterdam and Beijing in the field of architecture and urbanism research. Projects located from New York, Chicago, London, and UAE to major South East Asia cities, Shanghai and Beijing. He had worked for OMA on various large scale projects including RAK Gateway City – which won the 2009 Cityscape and International Business Award, BBC London headquarter strategic planning, and Interlace – a residential project in Singapore. As project architect for OMA’s Beijing office, he worked on the tallest tower complex in Bangkok –MahaNakhon. Wang Shuo left OMA in 2009 to focus on the practice of META-Project with partner Zhang Jing and Max Fu. The work of Wang Shuo is characterized by a research driven approach, and is intended to bridge design and research with interdisciplinary collaboration. One of his main interests of research has been the intensifying urban dynamics in contemporary metropolis in Asia and new forms of emergent urban spaces. He has developed a series of urban research projects and is actively extending the idea into multiple dimensions of contemporary medium, including writing, video, web­site, art installation and exhibition.


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WANG Shuo, selection of images from the lecture 49


THE PROJECTS BEIJING ISTANBUL TURIN DELFT PENNSYLVANIA


BEIJING

Escape


PENN STATE, DELFT, TURIN, ISTANBUL, BEIJING

Beijing is a modern metropolis with over 20 million inhabitants, located on an alluvial plain surrounded by lush mountains on the north and west sides. These conditions directed much of its urban mostly towards the south and east sides, leaving the mountains relatively untouched. The strict division between urban (city) and non-urban (rural) was further enforced by the historic Chinese understanding of defining strict conditions in- and outside of city walls; such as shown on the progression of imperial to urban and further to natural areas on the historic Qingming scroll, that we have compared to Beijing’s current city lay out. People inside the Chinese city fabric look for escapes into parks and gardens; but outside of the city this reverses; where we escape into little pieces of urban life in a setting of green. It is in this area that the city boasts various functions and destinations that provide an escape for city life. Cuandixia, our site, is such a village. So, what is the future for these kind of idyllic escapes now that China’s construction is booming; people have cars to get out of the city more often and mass tourism takes over any piece of undeveloped land? During our research we have identified two major characteristics upon which our scenarios our based. First of all an understanding of the location of Cuandixia inside a possible network/ loop of similar (though not as beautiful preserved) settlements, as well as the discovery of a large, hidden natural valley at the center of this loop. We provide three main scenarios applied to these two discoveries; we theme them ‘Norway’, ‘Dubai’ and ‘Eden’.

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Beijing Region, Built vs Unbuilt area 55


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Beijing Region, Built vs Unbuilt area - site marked 57


Beijing City, urban area


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Beijing Region, non-urban 59


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Beijing Region, progressin of urban to non-urban 61


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Changing Identity The strict division between urban (city) and non-urban (rural) was further enforced by the historic Chinese understanding of defining strict conditions in- and outside of city walls; such as shown on the progression of imperial to urban and further to natural areas on the historic Qingming scroll, that we have compared to Beijing’s current city lay out.

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Longxiangxia - Gorge 85,1km 1.45h

Bad

Longmenjian 115km 1.05h

Cuandixia Village

Jietai Temple Taijie Temple


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Jiaojiehe Village 78,1km 1.48h

daling - Great Wall

59,3km 1.05h

Commune by the great wall

Beijing Region, hidden escapes 65


Cuandixia, Beijing, PR. China


PENN STATE, DELFT, TURIN, ISTANBUL, BEIJING

Cuandixia People inside the Chinese city fabric look for escapes into parks and gardens; but outside of the city this reverses; where we escape into little pieces of urban life in a setting of green. It is in this area that the city boasts various functions and destinations that provide an escape for city life. Cuandixia, our site, is such a village. Cuandixia is known for its architecture and natural beauty. It is home to 500 well preserved courtyard homes dating to the Ming and Qing dynasties. Many of these homes have been converted into inns offering food and lodging to travelers. Stone paved lanes and steep staircases help define Chuandixia’s architectural identity. 67


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Cuandixia, road map 69


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Cuandixia, Topography and neighboring settlements 71


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Cuandixia history Cuandixia is a village dating from the Ming Dynasty located in Mentougou District in Beijing, China. It is a popular tourist attraction known for its well preserved courtyard homes. Cuandixia was founded during the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644) by members of the Han clan who moved from Shanxi Province. According to legend, a villager named Han Shoude, who bore a strong resemblance to Kangxi Emperor, became a monk in service to the same emperor and built many of the grand courtyards of Cuandixia with imperial funding. Towards the end of the Qing Dynasty Cuandixia prospered from trading in coal, fur, and grain.

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Cuandixia development time line 75


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Cuandixia Architectural Identity 77


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Neighbouring settlements 79


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Surrounding natural qualities 81


clustering

connecting

center

connecting/clusterin


ng

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emphasising

connecting/center

Concept diagrams, various site approaches 83


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Eden This scenario proposes to maintain the seclusion of the hidden valley as an almost ‘paradise-like’ landscape, only accessible for the elite, while the mass tourism continues to develop (and destroy) the surrounding settlement-loop.

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Eden This scenario proposes to maintain the seclusion of the hidden valley as an almost ‘paradise-like’ landscape, only accessible for the elite, while the mass tourism continues to develop (and destroy) the surrounding settlement-loop.

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Dubai As the prime example of a totally tourism driven destination; we could also transform the valley into a mass-tourism hub with big hotels and conference centers. In this way all the people will go here and the Cuandixia village preservation is secured for further generations.

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Dubai strategy, collage 91


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Norway A certain balance between tourism, landscape and historic preservation. It proposes to integrally develop the surrounding areas by means of adding complementary program to alleviate tourism pressure on the Cuandixia village, and opening up the natural area by means of hiking paths, shelters, etc.

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Existing situation, Cuandixia


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Norway strategy, collage 95


ISTANBUL

Expand


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Extend The Third Bridge Even though the construction of the 3rd bridge over the Bosphorus is a controversial subject for Istanbul, the construction has initiated nonetheless. The two piers of the third bridge will be situated in Garipce on the European and Poyrazkoy on the Asian side. Right now these are only rural areas at the northern borders of the Bosphorus where it unites with the Black Sea. However if/ when the 3rd bridge will be built these village-like areas ‘beyond the city’ will surely transform, as did the former spots in the case of the first and the second bridge. By brainstorming on realistic or utopian scenarios and exploring the possible outcomes of the third bridge, critical subjects like the city’s borders, the tension between urban and rural areas, the conditions of the northern forests and water reserves can be researched and discussed.

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Catan: Istanbul This proposal is based upon a board game inspired from the original Settlers of Catan game. The original game is based on earning points by building roads, villages and cities through resources that are earned during the game. Beyond the city version is modified according to existing actors in the crazy urbanism of Istanbul. The main goal is to represent the real relationships between the city actors in ironic ways. While some actors are trying to avoid each other, some of them just demolish what others did and build their own in this particular spot. Mayor’s major goal is to build bridges. At the same time the citizen’s only aim is to build houses and survive. Another character is the chamber of architects. Ironically architects only try to demolish in a scenario which the rest of the character’s aim is to build. The resources are gained from the land which categorized into four as rural areas, urban areas, Bosphorus and forests. Work force gained from rural areas, money from urban, concrete from Bosphorus and trees from the forest. These are all used for building but for demolishing chamber of architects need another element which is public approval. They need to convince all three citizens against the mayor by bartering their resources.

examples of different catan gameplays


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actors prime minister: most powerful character mayor: do what prime minister says architect a: choose to do what they say architect b: most weak character resident: try to be safe

activities build bridges build roads convert regular roads into underground roads build houses demolish houses build gigantic islands change land to water or vice versa ...

a fast tryout of catan: ISTANBUL 99


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Extract from News Agency; web-panel group 2


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Among the three approaches that are defined to be worked on during the workshop, we have focused on the waterline issue in relation to the construction of the third bridge. We started a research following the stream of consciousness considering the current debates on the water resources and urbanization of Istanbul. We ended up with many different scenarios regarding the different aspects of water. These scenarios were clustered around the concept of ‘flow’; flow of water, air, fauna, vehicles, urbanization etc. While we were searching about the biodiversity in the Bosphorus we came across the word ‘anavaşya’ which means the migration of the fish from the Bosphorus to the Black Sea. This word inspired us to write a surreal scenario regarding the issues of urbanization, water resources, political authorities and capital holders, driving the urbanization of the city. Then we multiplied the narratives which are of the satirical nature. We have constructed a future assuming that the ongoing and expected project proposals were realized. We presented this scenario within the framework of a fake news agency in 2027. 103


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TURIN

Connect


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Torino is part of a network/reticolo and one of the main cores of it. The net connects cities, towns and villages. In between the nodes we can see fields, industrial areas and residential areas; the landscape and its historical, cultural and environmental values. However the sprawl makes the traditional urban-rural hierarchy unclear. From the train we see a 99% manmade environment. The system we see is highly complex, but there is no innovation. Furthermore Torino dreams of strengthening its role in the North of Italy, and then its connection towards Europe. We recognize a critical axis of this multipolar net: the one connecting Torino and Milano. Milano, a global city, the city where the 2015 Expo “Feeding the Planet” will take place. Torino, working-class city once, now lively European city. MI_TO Above all MI-TO axis is crucial for its future development since Torino and Milano will be more and more interconnected by infrastructures and media. The highway structure and the railway increasing speed are changing the timing and distance perception. Therefore the space in-between the main centers of Torino and Milano will rapidly change. In fact during the last 100 years many attempts to link the two poles failed. Now the MI-TO strategy mostly consists of infrastructures and events. Thanks to ‘great events’ policies and infrastructure projects, Milano and Torino further strengthened their role without creating any real affinity among them, indeed. Torino bets on its ‘image’ to overcome the postindustrial crisis, while Milano confirms its role in the Italian and European context. More than the axis itself we should focus on the space between Torino and Milano: the middle territories. Since the MI-TO strategy (maybe pilot project aiming to create the ‘global city region’ connecting the main cities in the north of Italy) is not actually efficient, it is time to investigate new visions. We need to watch the two poles from ‘the MIDDLE’. 109


ITALIA 150 UIA

2011 2008

WORLD CONGRESS OF ARCHITECTURE

2° PIANO STRATEGICO

6 800 sqkm main district 2,3 Torino district 2nd for export million 3rd economic 13 500 in Italy people hub in Italy farms

2006

WINTER OLYMPICS GAMES

2006

1° PIANO STRATEGICO

2000

907 bike thousand 14.000 people sharing subscribers

Torino

multiplex cinema

sprawl

13,4 sqm/inhab of green areas

330 urban 506.000 immigrants from and South Italy From vegetables Veneto 1951 to 1971 gardens

PRG

1995

1.200.000 INHAB.

1976

ITALIA ‘61

1961

NORD-SUD

1948

r

towns farmhighway factories Canale Cavour

theme parks retail centres

Po

events

STUDIO GREGOTTI

2,2 million people Torino

field NORTH-WES

metropolitan area 6.947 inhab/sqkm

1.100 sq km

15% of Ital added va

MI-TO

228.000 new residents between 2004 and 2008

730.000 ente

2,7 million emplo in the secondary

1923

TMG

1928

TO-TR HIGHWAY

1984

TECNOCITY

1982

MI-


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2015

EXPO

FEEDING THE PLANET

airports

real estate

railway poles

2008

PIANO D’AREA NORD MILANO

2005

PIANO STRATEGICO PER LA REGIONE URBANA MILANESE

conventions exhibitions

nodes

motorway junctions

settlements

1.345 thousand inhab 2003 181,76 sq km

Milano

paddy fields

34.949 income /year/inhab 11th most expensive city in the world

15,6 E/mq/month Rental rates 10,3% of Italian GDP 12.000 sqkm

o

2001

AGENDA 21

1°PIANO STRATEGICO NORD MILANO

1st economic hub

7 million Milano in Italy people metropolitan

ds ST

f m

10% of Italian exports area 7,6% of Italian employees

foreign GDP 367 billion $ 285.000 firms 200 corporations emploees: 72,49% facilities, 1939 inhab/sqkm 1971 27% Industrial 50% of Italian 0,51% Agriculture

biotechnologies

1.700.000 INHAB.

lian 17% of graduates in Italy alue 56.ooo

O

new enterprises between 200 and 2008 erprises 57 billion exports

oyees 20% of Italian exports y and tertiary

-TO

1986

1944 2004

FIAT + ALFA ROMEO

ASP

AR

2008

TAV

MI-TO: system, time line, data. 111


Torino is part of a network/reticolo and one of the main cores of it. The net connects cities, towns and villages. In between the nodes we can see fields, industrial areas and residential areas; the landscape and its historical, cultural and environmental values. However the sprawl makes the traditional urban-rural hierarchy unclear. From the train we see a 99% manmade environment. The system we see is highly complex, but there is no innovation. IN THE MIDDLE Despite that, the MI-TO issue is now a trend. But nobody cares for ‘the MIDDLE’. It could be forgotten by the connections and the interchange relations between the poles, or it could be part of the MI-TO system soon. What if we start from ‘the MIDDLE’? Beyond these two cities, beyond their peripheries and edges? On one hand, intermediate territories, especially the ones which are not embraced by high speed connections, risk progressive marginalization and environmental risk too. On the other hand global trends will soon effect them. If we want to go ‘beyond the city’ we should reject urban trends such as: soil consumption, fast, symbolic, irreversible and unfinished transformations, gentrification, real estate speculation. We should follow other global trends: invest in innovation, quality more than quantity, balanced development, bottom-up transformations, informal economy, young people creativity, re-use. Economic resources are poor in times of deep crisis; it is no longer time to invest in great events and ‘grandi opere’. It’s time to solve critical issues and develop values and specificities, pursuing small scale multidisciplinary approach. The space where we want these strategies to be effective is ‘the MIDDLE’, which features many potentials: spatial quality, resources, cultural and environmental heritage. We want to investigate, explore and visualize a localized definition of ‘what happens beyond the city’.


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BEYOND THE CITY Currently we only hear about the urban realm, about the city! But what happens in the non-urban? The ex-urban? The post-urban? What is out there, beyond the borders of our city focus? What (be)comes after the city? Dealing with the risk of marginalization of the middle territories we should wonder about the Mi-TO system and the hierarchy that will link the two poles. Bipolar? Multipolar? A single megalopoli? Linear city? What else? Will they cooperate, compete, interchange products, culture, people? Furthermore we should ask ourselves if this system will be physical. In other words, does it need new constructions? Should we continue to build? We should even go beyond it. We should wonder if Milano and Torino will merge into a single entity; what’s the strategy behind the MI-TO operation? Can we really assert that ‘the MIDDLE’ lays ‘BEYOND THE CITY’? Where can we place the urban limits?

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“La distanza fra Torino e Milano è inferiore a quella fra le due estremità di Los Angeles.” Giovanni Agnelli, 1923

INFRASTRUCTURES “La questione delle terre di mezzo cioè di quella parte di territorio che, attraversato dalla linea ad alta velocità, in realtà non ne è ancora riuscito a cogliere i benefici in termini di sviluppo, metaforicamente è rimasto a guardare i treni sfrecciare fra i due poli. Non potremo mai pensare ad una coesione fra i due territori se lo sviluppo sarà assicurato solo alle due polarizzazioni.” Giampiero Masera, 2012

nodes cluster region

BUILT / NATURAL

green technologies

typology

speculation

soil consumption

“Di fronte ad un simile quadro, infatti, è forte il rischio che i corridoi trans-padani manifestino quello che viene denominato come ‘effetto tunnel’, il semplice attraversamento del territorio senza intrattenere con esso alcuna relazione” M.B. Goldstein, 2012

countryside

dev

post industrial

product

LANDSCAPE

potentials

MIDDLE TERRITORIE

agriculture territories

spatial changing

environment

heritage

new functions

reuse

abandoned rurality

conn

poles

spatial quality

urban-rural culture

leisure

SOCIET

habits

RURAL / URBAN

magnetism

dualism

commuters

“Occorre superare le pregresse concezioni dualistiche che considerano città e campagna in termini dicotomici, stabilendo delle gerarchizzazioni tra la società urbana e quella rurale. E’ opportuno sia superare le retoriche dell’anti-urbanesimo e dell’urbanesimo, sia individuare una sorta di reciprocità funzionale: un'altra campagna non in contrapposizione con un'altra città” G. Borelli 2006


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axis

“Emerge dunque il profilo di una macro regione che a fronte di una crescente domanda di connessione materiale e immateriale alle diverse scale e di impegnativi investimenti finalizzati alla sua integrazione, sembra perdere terreno proprio in termini di accessibilità e di efficienza delle reti, dei servizi, e della mobilità e presenta elevate diseconomie di cogestione e forti rischi di collasso ambientale.” M.B. Goldstein, 2012

interchange

S

speed

energy

nect

POLICIES

velopment

image

consumption

great events

innovation partnership

tion

work

firm

business

ES

resources

TY

food

market

strategic planning

integration

global network economy

trade cooperation

GLOBAL / LOCAL

tourism marginality

lifestyle

“La prospettiva di una cooperazione multipolare basata sulla ricerca di relazioni utili tra torino e Milano richiede però capacità organizzative, politiche di sviIluppo, capacità di mobilitazione di risorse” Andrea Rolando 2001

company

ECONOMY

specificities

art

governance

global city region

competitiveness

“Sono dunque necessarie delle strategie collettive, iniziative e progetti, senza però un avvicinamento opportunistico fra le elite politiche settentrionali, intese solo a rafforzare la propria presa sul territorio convergendo attorno ai principali centri di potere e governo coincidenti con i grandi poli metropolitani e trascurando l’articolazione plurale del territorio macro regionale.” M.B. Goldstein, 2012

“Nel frattempo la metropoli si è evoluta dalla prima generazione dei pendolari alla seconda generazione dei consumatori e infine, alla meta-città dei corridoi urbani europei, mentre ancora si vagheggia nella immaginazione mediatica, ma non solo, di mulini bianchi e di amari del veterinario. Ma oggi occorre davvero liberarsi di queste sovrastrutture ideologiche per cercare di intervenire a ragion veduta sulla “città oltre” e riconsiderare il problema del rapporto fra città e campagna e delle aree urbanizzate rurali in una visione più ampia e strategica” G. Martinotti 2010

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TURIN TEAM FOCUS Team1_Economy_the MI-TO scale Your strategy should focus on economic aspects of the issue. There is need for you to deal with the wide, interregional scale. • What kind of economic interchange between ‘the MIDDLE’ and the two poles? • What will be the role of the infrastructures? • What about consumption-production of food, energy, …? • Design new ways of managing resources, work and innovation. Team2_Society_the ‘MIDDLE’ scale Your strategy should focus on ‘the MIDDLE’ of MI-TO axis and its future social changing. Consider the municipality scale. • What about slow and fast connections between ‘the MIDDLE’ and the two poles? • How the urban lifestyle of the two poles will affect the rural lifestyle in ‘the MIDDLE’? • How can the rural culture be integrated with the urban culture? • Which one should dominate? • Design new ways of living and leisure. Team3_Landscape_the neighborhood/building scale Your strategy should focus on the transforming built and natural environment. Choose and redesign some or one typology which characterizes the landscape in ‘the MIDDLE’ of MI-TO axis. • How will the urban development transform the space in ‘the MIDDLE’? • How to face the consequences of the urban supremacy (abandoned farms and factories)? • How the current landscape will be transformed? • Should we mix up the urban and the rural morphology? • Design new ways to re-use the fields, the settlements and the factories.

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ACHIEVEMENT SCHEDULE

FOCUS

economy

society

landscape

GROUP Chiara Bertetti

Simone Casa

Riccardo Manitta

Andrea Trombetta

Alessandra Eusebio

Luca Gamberini

Eliana L. Gherardi

Junior Perri

Jacopo Colatarci

Marco Conte

Sara Simone

Alberto Valz Gris

Beijing, Istanbul, Turin, Delft, Penn State

TO

MI

MI

WHAT IF?

h 20.oo

VISION

ACHIEVEMENTS SCHEDULE

TO

MI

SCALE

TO

h 19.oo

MAY BE!

h 21.00


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GROUPS OUTPUTS


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WELL-NET

GOUP ECONOMY: Chiara Bertetti, Simone Casa, Riccardo Manitta, Andrea Trombetta What if moving to the city was inevitable? Our generation is slowly abandoning the villages and the small towns in search of a better education, better job. The lack of services support to middle economies becomes crucial in these places that can barely be self sufficient but offer no attractive prospects. People who move rarely come back; nowadays the city is the place where we fit best. In this vision the territories between Turin and Milan would become soon an empty space where nature will become again the main character in opposition to the highly urbanized two mega-cities. But change is not always negative! The chance to work on an empty space could be an opportunity to create new types of development.

Economic Strategy 121


Our proposal is to overlap on this space a new layer of attractions, different and scarce inside an urban area, to improve local unsatisfying the existing abandoned farms and giving them new leisure services useful for urban population. Future Megacities will be physically separated from countryside but, thanks to new links between them, they will work as a reciprocal economical system. The global green area between the two cities will work as a recreational space where citizens, pushed to escape from noisy urban life, will find a wealthily and natural environment: the WELL_NET. Necessary will be a strategic plan of control to manage this new area, coordinating the small business and the image towards the outside.


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The closeness to an international airport such as Malpensa could attract people from all around the world that could support economically the network and avoid the lost of the small existing realities.

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UNIQUE LANDSCAPE EXPERIENCE

GROUP LANDSCAPE: Jacopo Colatarci, Marco Conte, Sara Simone, Alberto Valz Gris A water axis. The high speed connection of highway and railway perfectly links Milano and Torino. This kind of infrastructure totally ignores the territory which is “in-between”, abandoning it to a secondary role. Then, what if the water flow determines times and uses of a landscape? Maybe a water-based axis doesn’t have to connect two major cities but the middle territory within itself. This canal potentially links a sequence of segments and nodes, which extend their influence on the territory, relating its scattered parts in the name of land use opportunities.

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Tactics, Sections


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This is the vision of a glocal water axis: a unique landscape experience. Here we see the potential for different situations, always local-based, which build up a wider sequence. This gives sense to a territory. Furthermore, this operation happening in the nodes could attract that well-known urban sprawl microdensity, typical of our northern italian spatial configuration. This is the occasion to re-compact suburban low density in focal points and therefore release natural surface on our landscape. The relation within the canal axis and the adiacent areas can easily imagined through transverse sections: it is a magnet, attracting people, economy and uses which are actually based on those areas. Canale Cavour blue axis, come over and enjoy!

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MI-ddle-TOwn

GROUP SOCIETY: Alessandra Eusebio, Luca Gamberini, Eliana Lopez Gherardi, Junior Perri 01 WHAT IF What if Milan and Turin didn’t exist and the towns in between were linked? 02 VISION Linking the difference! 03 MAY BE Thinking of Milan, Turin and the middle land as overlapped layers, we’ve swhitch off the actractivity of the cities in order to show the peculiarity of the middle land’s towns. We want to connect urban realities as a net, enhancing their own diversities/potentialities against of the sameness of the chief town. The endless race through trends that tipify chief cities have determinied their monotony. 04 BEYOND THE CITY Imagine that Turin and Milan don’t exist for a while. What would happen in the middle land? Now the existent urban realities depend evidently on the two main cities. If Turin and Milan, are temporarly switched off, these realities could have the opportunity to create their own identity in a new whole “city”.


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The magnetism of Turin and Milan towards the middle land has always concentrated activities and production, in a special way from the economic boom of the last Post‐War, creating around them satellite‐ cities that would never have had the possibilities to demonstrate their specific vocation. Vanishing Turin and Milan for a while the middle land may rediscover economic and cultural initiatives that will involved actively the population. The idea is to connect the differences. All these differences that do already exist in these middle land urban realities and are caused by local specifity of handicraft, agriculture and culture. These is a widespread heritage that we have to valorize. Without acctractive poles we create a deep net of materic infrastructural interconnections ‐ the viability – and virtual – web connections – through the half sleeping town could eventually emerge. The macro‐areas in which we sub‐divide the middle land are the new acctractive poles that are part of a single reality that become a system. The game is ended! Switch on the realities of Turin and Milan. The new poles of the middle land may start to compenetrate cooperating with the major cities without been a dormitory cities or a satellite industries. Cooperation wins the competition!

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DELFT Relate


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The Randstad: the city that doesn’t exist The Randstad can be defined by its landmarks and by its borders. The panorama of the Netherlands used to be characterised by church towers. Those were the main landmarks, one could see them from a distance. Nowadays this is partly still the case, but for another part this role is also claimed by, for example central business districts. The skyline of Rotterdam, for example, is not characterised anymore by church towers but by the tall office buildings and residential highrise buildings. The skyline of the Randstad has changed a lot in many places, like in Rotterdam, but the skyline of Utrecht, for example, is still dominated by the church tower of de Dom church. The borders of the cities in the Randstad were once very clearly defined by the city walls. The city consisted of a core with a church tower, which functioned as a landmark. The borders were very rigid, the city was within the walls, the rural lands started right outside the walls. Nowadays these borders are quite different. The cities took down their walls, but the rigid borders still exist. Mostly they are defined by the infrastructure, highways and traintracks form the new rigid borders. On the other hand smoother borders have been created; the green has been let into the city.Defining the Randstad by these two conditions leads to the conclusion that the Randstad is more the sum of different identities, connected by a very good infrastructure. These identities the different cities have complement eachother. The sum of all these identities makes the Randstad a very strong region.

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the church tower of de Dom church. The borders of the cities in the Randstad we The city consisted of a core with a church to ders were very rigid, the city was within the w walls. Nowadays these borders are quite diff rigid borders still exist. Mostly they are define tracks form the new rigid borders. On the oth the green has been let into the city. Defining the Randstad by these two conditio is more the sum of different identities, conne tities the different cities have complement ea the Randstad a very strong region.

ent border

Gradient border

Borders of the city


ere once very clearly defined by the city walls. ower, which functioned as a landmark. The borwalls, the rural lands started right outside the ferent. The cities took down their walls, but the ed by the infrastructure, highways and trainher hand smoother borders have been created;

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ons leads to the conclusion that the Randstad ected by a very good infrastructure. These idenachother. The sum of all these identities makes

Sharp border Finger model

Changing Identity The Randstad is an intellectual construct. Physically there is no such thing as a ring-city in the Netherlands. The question rises what the Randstad is? What are its borders? What is its identity? Opinions differ, everybody thinks differently about the Randstad. People from the Randstad live in for example Rotterdam, not in the Randstad. People from out of the Randstad do see it as one specific identity; the economic and cultural heart of the Netherlands.

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Gradient border

T

Th th its th Ra lan Th Ne on pa da ing ma th Th Th de wa rig tra th De is tit th

Gra


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Rembrandttoren, 135m

ABN-AM Amster

V

Prinsenhof Toren D/E World Trade Center, 110m Ministerie van justitie, 147m Ministerie van Binnenlandse Zaken en Koninkrijksrelaties, 147m New Babylon, 142m Castalia, 104 Hoftoren, 142m Nieuw Babylon Park Tower, 102 Strijkijzer, 132m

Toren Nieuwe Kerk, 109

Weenacenter, 104 Delftse poort, 151m Schieland-toren, 101 De Hoge Heren, 102 Maastoren, 165m Waterstadtoren, 109 Montevideo, 140m New Orleans, 158 m De Rokade, 113 m Weenatoren, 106 Millenniumtoren, 131m De Coopvaert, 105 Erasmus MC, 131m & 114m Blaak Office Tower, 107 The red apple, 127m


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WTC H Toren, 106 MRO World HQ, 105 Ito-toren, 100 rdam Symphony, 105

Verkeerstoren, 101

Modriaantoren, 123m

WTC Carlton Almere, 120m

Dom van Utrecht, 112 m Rabobank Bestuurcentrum, 105

Skylines connected 143


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City borders, hand drawings/ collage 145


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PENNSYLVANIA

Intercede


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INTERCEDE A resource rich countryside feeding energy hungry cities. The largely rural state of Pennsylvania has a history as an energy and resource provider for major US cities. How can we redefine an extractive and unidirectional relationship between rural an urban with one that is regenerative and symbiotic? How can non-urban locales provide resources and goods to cities without compromising their own future needs? Boom and Bust Pennsylvania has experienced a succession of boom and bust cycles that has left urban and rural communities unprepared for future growth and decline. From lumber to coal and the current natural gas boom, Pennsylvania has provided the fuel for the growth and expansion of the major cities in the eastern United States. Despite large influxes of cash to their economies, this exchange has failed to provide any lasting positive impact for the communities that provide these resources. Rural Pennsylvania has been either unable or unwilling to capitalize on a seemingly profitable trade. The recent natural gas boom is setting the stage for another bust. We recognize the need to intervene in this cycle; to use this boom to become a catalyst for a more stable and just future for the rural environment.

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Context map of Pennsylvania, city centers, abandoned coal mines (purple) and active shale gas wells (red) 151


Resource use over time, Pennsylvania


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In the 24H Workshop, we imagine a new direction for our state. Though our plan is fanciful, we believe that through envisioning an ideal future we can then look backwards and view the path taken to arrive at the destination. Policy can begin to shape this path, but the real potential lies in the decisions of individuals. Through outreach and education, we can assist landowners is making wise land-use decisions, and influencing an equitable future.

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Pipeline paths become corridors of settlement, Pennsyvania


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Intervention: Redefining Patterns of Settlement Development is concentrated along the infrastructure that accompanies natural gas extraction. We assume control over huge swaths of land that would ordinarily be hidden from public view and demand its transition into convivial, celebratory landscapes. Extractive enterprises are designed with temporality in mind, and are disassembled or repurposed for cultural services when they have been exhausted of their reserves. Profits are reinvested in local economies to build social and natural capital. Communities begin to flourish along pathways of energy flows, equitable trade networks are established, and systems become more resilient. The organization of the landscape allow for fluctuations, disturbances and drift. As people become empowered through a strong connection with their landscape, an ecological identity emerges. Political boundaries are dissolved and redrawn to conform to physical features, like watershed basins, resource distributions and geologic formations. Systems thinking is second nature. The landscape is viewed across both time and space. Over a long enough period of time, nothing is seen as permanent.

Abandoned coal mine repurposed as an amphitheater, Northern Pennsyvania 155


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Abandoned gravel quarry repurposed as a recreational lake, Pennsylvania 157


BEYOND THE CITY TOWARD A SYMBIOTIC NETWORK OF RESILIENCE BETWEEN CITY AND RESOURCE


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Extract from Final Poster 159


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THE NETWORK 4 EMPOWERING A NEW GENERATION 4.1 NEW MEDIA 4.2 PHOTO IMPRESSION 4.3


EMPOWERING

... a network

The 24hWorkshop is divided in 3 phases: 1. Connect Use open-source and free software to set up solid connections between different cities around the world through student associations and networks. 2. Create Produce quality research and design work around a specific global topic through localised expertise. Inspire through contact with different work styles, processes and approaches to the same theme. 3. Share Allow people to appreciate the results of the work and inspire future iterations. Spread the knowledge about the selected theme. Create a network of students, professionals and academics to last also after the experience, providing each participant with contacts all-over the world. ..Reiterate Our aim is to make it a yearly event.


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EMPOWERING

... a new generation

Exchange and interaction; debating content. To be inspired, stay in touch, get involved, inspire us‌ .what? The 24h workshop-task is central within the development of an academic architectural discourse and has both an internal and external function regarding the exchange and debate of content. .why? Essential to innovation is exchange between ideas. We believe in the power of collaboration for a stronger collective implementation. Coopetition (cooperation meets competition) and open-source innovation provide a stimulating and inspiring environment for debate, inspiration and innovation and brings out a much greater potential then would be achieved in individual processes. The workshop and the related network is also the place where initial concept-developments get early feedback. Ideas can be tested in a multi-cultural context throughout the design-process. .how? We provide a physical and virtual platform to interchange knowledge between various disciplines involved in the debate of contemporary design discourse. This connects the local with the global (GloCal); towards a Future Habitat together.


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In current times of change we notice that there is not enough holistic thinking and implementations of topics addressed in think tanks in separate disciplines. Our goal is to grow towards a multidisciplinary platform that connects, establishes and creates. Because we want: 1. to bring disciplines together Within various disciplines the ‘4 General Themes’ (People, Planet, Prosperity, Politics) are already in scope and under survey. But what is lacking is an integral approach, taking benefit of the expertise per sector, but linking this to a coherent vision, that will come together in a critical manifest and a disourse on how architecture can serve the progression of the Future Habitat. 2. to create social ‘draagvlak’; towards ‘implementation’. All this thinking within our platform will not have any effect if we not create an active link to the social cultural level of contemporary society. Therefore the 2rd important focus of our platform is to produce physical content that can be placed within current society reflecting the implementation of our future manifest. This will take effect across different disciplines that have the ability to directly effect the human life, such as –but not limited to- fashion, design, architecture. 3. to build a network There is a rising generation of socially committed youths empowering change locally that we want to empower by creating a global network. The upcoming generation is characterized by the combination of tools that allow engagement (new media) and the awareness of the meaningful local contribution each person can make in the global cycle. (sympathize for international human rights, or in countries going through revolution, Occupy Wall street, etc.).

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NEW MEDIA

... a new discourse

“In Victor Hugo’s The Hunchback of Notre-Dame, Claude Frollo looks from a printed book to the cathedral building and utters his famous phrase, ‘Ceci tuera cela’ (‘This will kill that’). Where once predictions ranged from the utopian to the apocalyptic, we now see an online world that sits alongside the physical world, and similarly fateful proclamations concerning the effect of online architectural publishing on print media have long since passed. In lieu of predictions of one supplanting the other, we see a reality in which distinctions between the two are increasingly blurred. The cacophony of viewpoints, ideas and juxtapositions may still exist, but from this are emerging increasingly hybrid voices and groups, and new forms of publishing conceived as media for conveying architectural and political ides, rather than as endpoints in themselves.”

- Bose, published in Domus, 09-2012


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Architecture as a discpline is intricately linked with the world around us. Architecture cannot exist alone. It evolves out of the context it lives in, it addresses the people that use it. It needs media to communicate its intents. Media connects context with archtiecture, archticture with society, society with ideology. The effects of media in the creation of architecture is especially relevant as it forms the tool amongst archtiects to discuss their ideas, to present their own projects, but also to spread them amongst a wider audience. Several important studies have been made into the relevance of precedent individual publications, in order to establish a base for developing contemporary archtiecture (such as on Vitruvius (by Serlio and Alberti in the 15th century and Tzonis+Lefaivre 1986) or on Renaissance developments and its dependence on book printing (Lefaivre on Alberti, Carpo on the Renaissance, etc). And, through the understanding of the evolution of these typologies and its relation to the creation of progressive archtiecturel discourse, we can understand the path that contemporary architecture can take. This will give us leads on how the current evolution in media can contribute to a new position of architecture. ‘ The Work of Architecture in the Age of its Digital Reproduction’

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NEW MEDIA

... a new discourse


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Slides from intro-lecture ‘Towards a Future Habitat’, by Martijn de Geus 171


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Interconnected Throughout the world the various teams could observe the working methods of others at work at the same time, on the same tasks for the continous 24 hours. This included brainstorming, dinners, relax time, lectures, interim presentations, discussions and the final reviews. Each university has a certain working methodology, which students often don’t realize when working within its dogmas. Therefore, the exposure not only to the outcome of various countries and regions, but also the way this output was constructed throughout the 24h provided a great learning oppurtinity and a way to reflect on ones own position.

Screenshots from 24h live broadcast 173


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Virtual learning, impression from Turin, everybody connected on the big screen 175


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Various lectures were given around the world 177


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TSINGHUA UNIVERSITY BEIJING, CHINA Tutors Jing Chen, Anthony Joyeux, Martijn de Geus Participants Yang Liang, He Chuchu, Virginia Cuchi, Harry Leuter, Marta Robles Lopez, Diana, Joseph Ng, Feng Shen, Yuhai Cheng, Sun Haode, Muge Wang, Yang Yang, Aala Mustafa Diab

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ISTANBUL TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY ISTANBUL, TURKEY Tutors Nazli Tumerdem , Zeynep Aydemir, Sebnem Soher, Onur Ceritoğlu, Orkun Beydağı, Turan Altıntaş Participants Oğul Öztunç, Doğa Gülhan, Güzin Öztok, Zümra Okursoy, Deniz Tümerdem, Bengi Güldoğan, Belkıs Işık, Ecem Ergin, Fikret Can Kuşadalı, Marco Magnani, Daniele Volante

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TURIN TURIN, ITALY Tutors Lucia Baima, Alberto Lessan, Alberto Brandinali, Guglielmo Stivala Participants Chiara Bertetti, Simone Casa, Jacopo Colatarci, Marco Conte, Alessandra Eusebio, Luca Gamberini, Eliana Paola L贸pez Gherardi, Riccardo Manitta, Junior Perri, Sara Simone, Andrea Trombetta, Alberto Valz Gris

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DELFT UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY DELFT, THE NETHERLANDS Leo van den Burg, Daan Zandbelt, Nikki Brand Participants Matthijs van Oostrum, Kevin van der Linden, Marten Reijnen, Wietse Elswijk, Lex te Loo, Anne van Stijn, Talya ten Brink

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THE PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY PENNSYLVANIA, UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Tutor Sean Burkholder Participants Kyle Altenbach, Jimmy Brosius, Mitchell Cashatt, Nathan Gandrud, Preston Linck, Matthew Moffitt, Fletcher Phillips, Caitlin Smith

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Building density, Jo’burg city, South Africa


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Building density, Jo’burg city, South Africa 197


THE CREW 5


CREDITS


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24hWorkshop Contact 24hworkshop@gmail.com Martijn de Geus Content Director visionincluded.com Arturo Pavani General Organization upperlab.wordpdress.com

Local Teams Beijing sa.fworum.tsinghua@gmail.com Martijn de Geus, Arturo Pavani, Joseph Ng, Wang Hanni, Xue Peng, Yan Yu, Lian Xiaogang Delft matthijsvanoostrum@gmail.com Matthijs van Oostrum, Kevin van der Linden, Melanie van Laak, Stella Groenewoud, Lex te Loo Istanbul a.zeynepaydemir@gmail.com Zeynep Aydemir, Nazli Tumerdem, Sebnem Soher, Onur Ceritoglu, Orkun Beydag覺, Turan Altintas Pennsylvania jimmy.brosius@gmail.com Tim Murtha, Jim Brosius, Mitchell Cashatt Kyle Altenbach, Nathan Gandrud, Preston Linck, Matthew Moffitt, Fletcher Phillips, Caitlin Smith Turin info@plinto.net Beatrice Meloni, Matteo Mairino, Veronica Brugaletta, Gian Maria Mazzei, Alberto Minero

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World Around Architects The Work Clock

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Beyond The City - 24hWorkshop Results