Issuu on Google+

Management Guru: Journal of Management Research Quarterly Magazine, November-January 2012, Volume 1 Issue 2 RNI TC No.

:

MAHENG13205

ISSN No.

:

2319-2429

Date of Publication

:

1st November 2012

Owner, Publisher & Printer

:

Sharayu Chandrashekhar Ashtikar

Editor

:

Sharayu Chandrashekhar Ashtikar

Address

:

B/7- 50, Vijay Park, Kasar Vadavali, Ghodbunder Road, Thane (W) 400615. Mobile: 9967357415, Tel. (022) 25970898 Email: ashtikarcd@gmail.com

Place of Printing

:

Perfect Prints, 22 Jyoti Industrial Estate, Nooribaba Darga Road, Near Makhmali Talao, Thane (W) - 400 601 Tel. (022) 25341291

Auditors

:

Sanjay Tupe CA, Sanjay Snehal Associates, Chartered Accountants

Advisory Committee and Peer Evaluation Committee : Dr. P.C. Shejwalkar Professor Emeritus of Commerce and Management Sciences University of Pune

Dr. D.B. Deore Nominee-President of India for Ranchi-Jharkhand Central Universities

Dr. S. Ravishankar Formarly Sr. Faculty, IBRA College of Technology, OMAN

Dr. C.D. Ashtikar Ex. Director, Dr.Tasgaonkar School of Management, Karjat (Mumbai)

Dr. Varadraj Bapat Professor, IIT Mumbai Business School, IIT campus, Powai, Mumbai

Dr.Jacob Cherian, Asst.Professor,COBA, Abu Dhabi University.

Dr. Umesh R.Dangarwala Associate Professor, Dept. of Commerce & Businiss Management, M.S. University Baroda (Guj) India

Dr.Hindurao S. Waydande IIT Mumbai

Annual Subscription

:

Institutions Rs. 1200/- Individual Rs. 1000/-

Life Membership

:

Institutions Rs. 25000/- Individual Rs. 10,000/-

Financial Year

:

1st April to 31st March

Address for Communication B-7/501, Vijay Park, Kasar Vadavali, Ghodbunder Road, Thane (W) 400615 Mobile: 9967357415, Tel. (022) 25970898, Email: ashtikarcd@gmail.com All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or copied in any form by any means without prior written permission. The views expressed in this publication are purely personal judgements of the authors and do not reflect the views of the owner, editor. Management Guru: Journal of Management Research

1

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012


CONTENTS 1)

Spiritual Quotient Dr. C.D. Ashtikar .....................................................................................................................................3

2)

Management Development And Training: The Indian Experience Dr. R.K. Mishra ........................................................................................................................................6

3)

Behavior Based Safety (BBS) Management in India (An Insight into Organizational Cases of Unsafe and Safe behaviours) Dr. H. L. Kaila and Dr. S.Ravishankar ................................................................................................ 14

4)

Pharmaceutical Industry In India: Challenges And Opportunities G.. B. Natekar and Dr. Nitin Mahurkar ............................................................................................... 21

5)

Food Security- A Multidimensional Problem For India Dr.Dipak B.Bhamare and Dr.Priyanka Dipak Bhamare ................................................................... 27

6)

“Strengths Of India In Economic Recession” Dr. Anil Nagtilak ................................................................................................................................... 35

7)

An Analytical Study on Awareness level among Women about Contraceptive Products with special reference to selected Rural Areas of Baroda District. Dr. Umesh R. Dangarwala, Ms. Krupa J. Rao, Ms. Nisha V. Patel .................................................. 41

8)

RETURNS ON IPO’S– A STUDY OF BANKING SECTOR IPO’S Dr. P.K. Bandgar and Prof. Atul Rawal ............................................................................................... 50

9)

College Management And Administration A Perception Dr. Ajay M. Bhamare ............................................................................................................................. 56

10)

Foreign Direct Investment in Multi-Brand Retailing and its Management : A Case study of Bihar Dr. Indrajit Prasad Roy ......................................................................................................................... 60

11)

Midlife Misery: Managing Stress and Happiness After 40s....................................................................... Dr.S.Ravishankar..........................................................................................................................65

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012

2

Management Guru: Journal of Management Research


From the Desk of the Managing Director Indian Ethos In Management Spiritual Quotient-A myth or realityDr. C.D. Ashtikar Ex. Director, Yadavrao Tasgaonkar Institute of Management Studies and Research, Ex. Dean Research, (IBSAR) Institute of Business Studies and Research-Navi Mumbai Email- ashtikarcd@gmail.com, Mobile: 9967357415 Many people do not have faith in spirituality, for them spirituality is a myth and the day-to-day mundane life is a reality. For them spirituality does not play any role in life. However, when wise and genius people think deeper they could reach to the root of the life. In addition, they discover that spirituality is the root of a successful life. In fact, Life emerging out of spirituality is a reality and life without spirituality is a myth. When one encounters the question ‘what is the purpose of human life?’ He finds the answers to this question only in spirituality-nowhere else. If we go through the management literature of the recent times, we find enough evidence to prove this fact. We come across three types of quotients- intelligent quotient, emotional quotient and spiritual quotient. Larry Greider says “For many decades, the world has put great stock in the intelligence quotient (IQ). Psychologists came up with ways of testing IQ-one’s intellectual or rational intelligence-to predict success in life. The higher the number, the belief went, the greater the intelligence and therefore, the higher the success one could expect. But sheer intellect is only part of the true measure of our intelligence.’1

Thus, after several years of diligent experimentation, research and testing the management scientists have concluded that among the three the SQ or spiritual quotient is the most powerful and the most effective tool to judge the best personality. Finally, they have zeroed in on S.Q. and declared SQ i.e. spiritual quotient as the most important indicator of a successful life of a human being. The understanding of the supremacy of the Spiritual Quotient: Now it has been accepted all over, beyond doubt that SQ is of paramount significance in the success of human being-in all walks of life- be it a family life, or social life or political life or corporate life. Higher the SQ of a person happier the life of that person to that degree. No indicator and no barometer whatsoever, were available to the management scientists, ever before to measure the degree of happiness. However, as soon as they found SQ they found both the things at a time. SQ is not only a wonderful indicator of an ultimate personality, but it is also a true barometer of quantifying the extent of happiness which is otherwise considered as a vague and often a hazy term.

‘Emotions can be described as feeling good or bad.’ Good feeling being advantageous to human being whereas bad feeling being detrimental to them.” 2 ‘Emotional intelligence is another important aspect. In the 1990s, psychologist Daniel Goleman popularized the concept in his best-selling book Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than IQ. He used findings from neuroscience and psychology to show the importance of an emotional quotient (EQ) to success in life.’3

Happiness was hitherto a confusing term, reason being, it was a mixture of several things. Because it got mixed, it became confusing. In SQ the meaning of the term happiness has become crystal clear and pure. A pure thing is a real thing and it is always powerful, effective, precious and valuable thing. Take for example the gold. Pure gold endures and remains intact when it undergoes all the tests. It does not burn even if one puts it in the fire. On the contrary, it would glitter more and more. Its value will increases due to its purity.

‘It wasn’t long before other authors were recognizing another new dimension to human intelligence-a spiritual quotient (SQ). This is the intelligence involved in questions about the meaning of life and ultimate values’.

Thus real happiness emerges out of SQ. Everybody wants to be happy but no one knows what the real happiness is. SQ unfolds the mysteries of happiness and leads us to a treasure house of real happiness, which is bliss.

Management Guru: Journal of Management Research

3

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012


IQ, EQ, SQ are neither separate nor one:

Interrelationship of IQ,EQ,and SQ

Some authors have used the terms such as ‘Emotional Intelligence’ in place of ‘Emotional Quotient’. In my opinion, it would be more appropriate to use the terms such as ‘Intellectual Intelligence’, ‘Emotional Intelligence’, and ‘Spiritual Intelligence’ in place of IQ, EQ, & SQ. However, for the purpose of this article and for the sake of maintaining simplicity let us assume that ‘Intellectual Intelligence’, ‘Emotional Intelligence’, and Spiritual Intelligence’ are synonymous to IQ, EQ, & SQ. Although the term ‘quotient’ is used to quantify the concept, the term ‘intelligence’ has wider meaning than the term quotient. However, for the sake of clarity, understanding, and quantification the term quotient seems to be more appropriate.

IQ is related to intellect. EQ is linked to mind and SQ is connected to spirit or soul in the human body. Spirit or soul is the powerhouse of all the energy. The energy flows throughout the body through intellect and mind. In other words, body mind and intellect cannot work by themselves, on their own power. They are dependent on spirit for the power and energy. They borrow power from the spirit. They get the uninterrupted supply of power from the spirit as we get solar power form the Sun. Thus, mind, intellect and body are dependent on spirit but the Spirit or Atman is not dependent on them. He is independent. That is why He is described as ‘Swayam Prakash’ self-effulgent. Thus the supremacy of spirit over body, mind, and intellect is proved beyond any doubt, It is as bright as the day light. Even the agnostic would not have any hesitation to accept this fact. It is his intellect, which will accept this fact with the help of the power, which the intellect has borrowed from the spirit residing in his heart. That power does not belong to him, his intellect, his mind, or his body. It is beyond all the limits. It is unlimited and beyond one’s perception, knowledge and Intelligence.

IQ, for that matter, has a close relationship with intellect. Intellect carries out the functions of understanding, grasping knowledge, analyzing it, storing it out in the memory and retrieving the same when needed. It also takes decisions, makes determination, and creates more knowledge. EQ has a close relation with mind. It is a mixture of all kinds of feelings. All the emotions are the functions of human mind. The human mind is a reservoir of all types of emotions-negative and positive alike. Positive emotions are very important in human life and in corporate life as well. Negative emotions are harmful in both the situations. Love, sympathy, apathy, kindness, affection, care, concern, friendship, cooperation, self help through mutual help, purity, peace, courage, enthusiasm, sense of achievement, contentment, sense of belongingness etc. are the positive emotions,. Anger, malaise, pain, depression, hatred, enmity, confusion, indecisiveness, fear desire, lust, greed attachment, craving for worldly possessions and pleasures, distress, craze, insanity, guilt etc. are negative emotions.

Spiritual Quotient enhances IQ and EQ The moment our intellect enjoins the spirit or soul it gets connected with soul, spirit or God and the process of purification starts. Intellect becomes pure. Purity is the strength of the intellect. Pure intellect automatically becomes finely honed intellect. It is not only capable of taking right decisions but it is also capable of taking such revolutionary and innovative decisions that ultimately turn into amazing results. The intellect itself becomes creativity and also the powerful source of generating knowledge par excellence. “Ritambhara tasya pragnya”(Patanjali’s Yoga Sutra). His intellect is encumbered with the enlightened wisdom. Many enlightened souls are the living examples of this type of intellect-ShriRama, ShriKrishna, Adi Shankaracharya, Buddha, Yeshoo Christa, Shri Dnyaneshwara, SwamiVivekananda and several incarnations, saints, sages, and devotees.

SQ consists of divine love, faith in God, faith in humanity, faith in religion, faith in scriptures, faith in godly persons, saints and spiritual guru, faith in the spiritual path shown by them and the strong determination to follow the spiritual path. In this sense the three-IQ, EQ, and SQ may be considered as different. However, they are supplementary and complimentary to each other and ultimately they become one. IQ & EQ merge in SQ or finally decompose themselves in spirituality.

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012

Spiritual quotient also enhances EQ: There are different types of emotions. They are divided into two categories- negative emotions and positive emotions. Our scriptures have scientifically analyzed these emotions. Desire, lust, anger, greed,

4

Management Guru: Journal of Management Research


to increased productivity, efficiency, effectiveness, and profitability of the organization where he/she works. “I have found this to be true in organizations as well as in individual lives. In an organization, physical dimension is expressed in economic terms. The mental or psychological dimension deals with the recognition, development, and use of talent. The social/emotional dimension has to do with human relations, with how people are treated. And the spiritual dimension deals with finding meaning through purpose or contribution and through organizational integrity.”7 Consequentially, he becomes a valuable asset for his organization or more appropriately a valuable human resource in the true sense of the term. Thus we can conclude that the life based on spiritual foundation is the reality and the life based on mundane fundation is a myth. Because spiritul bliss remains unchanged and it is everlasting, while the mundane life and its happines is changing every minute, it is perishable.

temptation or enchantment, insolence or arrogance and jealousy are the negative emotions. In contrast, love, kindness, sympathy, empathy, cooperation, team spirit, forgiveness, loyalty, sense of belongingness, generosity, etc. are positive emotions. ‘Emotions can be described as feeling- good or bad. Good feeling being gainful to human being while bad feeling being detrimental to them.’5 When a person follows spiritual practices under the supervision of an eminent and noble Sadguru, his mind comes into contact with the spiritual intellect which is flooded with knowledge, love, and bliss hence his mind effortlessly gets rid of the negative emotions. Then positive emotions automatically start emerging out of his mind. Therefore, there is a tradition to pray Shri Ganesha first before we start any activity, followed by the prayer Goddess Saraswati and Sadguru . Shri Ganesha gives us ‘Sumati’ pure intellect which is further manifested in the form of words speech language and literature by the grace of Goddess Saraswati and full of realisation and knowledge by the grace of Sadguru. The positive energy emanating through the powerful words inspires our decisions and actions.

References

Stephen R. Covey says: “I find renewal in daily prayerful meditation on the scriptures because they represent my value system. As I read and meditate, I feel renewed, strengthened, centered and recommitted to serve. Immersion in great literature or great music can provide a similar renewal of the spirit for some.” 6 But there is no alternative for self realisation. Thus, meditations on scriptures and the sacred aphorisms of saints and sages is the best form of meditation. Therefore, our scriptures say ‘Atman’ should be listened to and meditated upon what we have listened about It and to have uninterrupted passion to experience It. The positive emotions then start reflecting in the form of actions of a human being, whether one is at home or in the office or at any other place. The positive emotions and the actions increase the productivity, efficiency and effectiveness of a person, which leads

Management Guru: Journal of Management Research

5

1.

Larry Greider , Spiritual Quotient: The Type of Smarts We Don’t Learn in School info@verticalthought.org

2.

Ritu Sinha, ‘Emotions – Emerging dimension in decision-making process’ HRM Review, September, 2008.

3.

Larry Greider , Spiritual Quotient: The Type of Smarts We Don’t Learn in School info@verticalthought.org

4.

Larry Greider , Spiritual Quotient: The Type of Smarts We Don’t Learn in School info@verticalthought.org

5.

Ritu Sinha, ‘Emotions – Emerging dimension in decision-making process’ HRM Review, September, 2008.

6.

Stephen R. Covey “The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People “Siman & Schuster Inc. p 292

7.

ibid p 292

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012


Management Development and Training: The Indian Experience Dr. R.K. Mishra*

The purpose of this paper is to provide the backdrop of the socioeconomic and political scenario of India, discuss the role of management development and training in the context of the economic challenges confronting the country and the opportunities arising thereof, critically analyse the status of management development and training at the levels of the government, public enterprise and private sector, and offer a few suggestions to radically transform the management development and training in India.

to the realisation of the fact that the educational and professional development alone can bring about a socioeconomic transformation capable enough to place the country in the category of developed nations. There is a commonly held view that this approach can take India out of the vicious circle of poverty and underdevelopment and make it progressively strong technologically due to a continuous availability of scientific and industrial personnel. _____________________________________________

Socio-economic and Political Scenario in India

*Senior Professor & Director, Institute of Public Enterprise, Hyderabad-7

India was at the time of independence, a socially, economically and politically underdeveloped nation. This state of affairs was the consequence of the exploitative regime of its colonial masters. 200 years of foreign rule sapped away the entrepreneurial initiative. The incidence of poverty was very high. The industrial base was very small and unemployment was a characteristic feature of the economy. The Indian economy was in isolation from the rest of the world. The masses did not have access to formal education and professional training. There were a handful of universities, engineering colleges, medical colleges and institutions imparting education at the graduate and post graduate levels. The country was divided into British India and several princely states. The country became independent in 1947 and chose to function under the Constitution adopted in 1950 which laid emphasis on all round human development.

Management Development & Training- The Indian & Global Context It is common knowledge that management development and training are two sides of the same coin viz., Human Resource Development (HRD). However, some experts draw a fine line of distinction between the two1. They assert that training is a short term facet of HRD concerned with the development of present skills of a job and also the future skills that would help in its efficient execution. Management development on the contrary is a long term and continuing phenomenon equipping a person with skills and concepts that could prepare him to take up new responsibilities and challenges2. Exhibit-1 shows the approaches that could be adopted for management development and training for the different layers of management.

During the recent years, the stress on human development has been tremendously enhanced owing

Approaches

Exhibit-1 Global Visits Seminar & for Sensiti Conferences sation Area of Importance

Attachment to Round eminent Table Institutions/ Experts Top Management

Self Study

Refresher Courses

Senior Management

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012

Under Study Method

Formal Training

On-the-Job Training

Junior Management

6

Management Guru: Journal of Management Research


turnover. They have integrated their management development and training activities with the primary, secondary and higher education. Motorola, a US based company spends about US $1 Billion on management development and training. The company proposes to hike this outlay. On an average each employee spends about 160 hours per year on training. The company has set up a university and has adopted 32 districts in the USA to upgrade the standards of education. In Japan, informal management development and training is more widespread as compared to the formal, on the job and off the job training and management development as existing in India. An average Japanese employee spends about a 100 hours in training per year. Technologically, an average Japanese employee is conversant with the use of CD-ROM, e-mail and company internet, although to a lesser extent than the average US employee. It is claimed that India is emerging as an IT superpower. However, an average Indian employee is wide off the mark as compared to US and Japanese employee. The global competition, initiation of economic reforms and the country’s ambition to join ranks with the developed countries require that its existing approach to management development and training undergo a fundamental change as explained in Exhibit-II.

Indian economy is no longer a traditional economy. Not only its structure is undergoing a decisive change but it is also inculcating the features of the new economy that are prevalent in highly developed countries such as the United States of America and Japan. Until recently India treated its human capital as inert stock on the same lines as accountants treat the fixed capital. But influenced by the Japanese, the US, more recently the Chinese and the ASEAN miracle in the early 1990s, the political view of the human capital underwent a paradigm shift. The government reconstituted its Cabinet and the administrative set up and carved out a new ministry of HRD with a full fledged senior minister of the Cabinet heading it and the administrative support extended by a permanent secretary. The central idea behind the creation of the ministry was to provide to the government an integrated view of the human resources available in the country and plan and implement suitable schemes and systems to upgrade/ increase the supply of human resources commensurate to their requirements for the development of the country to meet the present and the future challenges. A study of the key ratios relating to the management development and training forming a major part of the HRD, shows that the training & management development expenditure per employee was US $960 in Europe, US $531 in Canada, US $386 in Japan and US $650 in USA. The training and management development expenditure as percentage of payroll was 3 percent in Europe, 1.5 percent in Canada, 1 percent in Japan and 1.8 percent in the USA. The employee to trainer ratio was 257:1 in Asia and Pacific, 504:1 in Canada, 1706:1 in Japan and 400:1 in USA. The percentage of employees receiving training was 75.5 in Europe, 68.9 in Canada, 44.9 in Japan and 75 percent in the USA. The payments made to outside experts / training institutions as percentage of total expenditure was 45.4 percent in Europe, 27 in Canada, 31 in Japan and 27 percent in USA. The Indian proportions are miniscule and do not deserve any mention. This can be seen in the context of the expenditure on HRD as a percentage of GDP. USA and France spend about 20 percent of their GDP on HRD. A small country such as Belgium spends about 40 percent on HRD. India pledged to spend a mere 6 percent of GDP on HRD in 1986. Currently it spends about 3 percent of its GDP on HRD. All these countries spent about 1- percent of the money on training and management development as a percentage of their Management Guru: Journal of Management Research

Exhibit-II Management development and Training in India From Conservative Specific Functional Hierarchical Periodic Risk Aversion Formal Traditional Unsystematic General Closed Skill Based & Narrow Static Ad hoc Structured Inorganic Directed

7

To Liberal Generic Cross-Functional Participative Continuous Risk Taking Informal Modern & Topical Systematic Goal Oriented Open Concept Based & Comprehensive Dynamic Planned Customised Organic Environment Driven

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012


central government officials are provided slots for management development and training under schemes such as the Colombo Plan which entitled them to receive education in management and undergo advanced training in general and functional management. They are also entitled for fellowship awards allocated by foreign countries. The provincial governments have set up state academies which train the officials drawn from the different services mostly selected by the State Public Service Commissions. These state academies are funded by the state governments but receive a generous support form the central government. The local governments do not provide management development training opportunities to their employees as their own funding is very trivial tantamount to less than one percent.

India is opening up. The challenges of opening up provide a wide range of opportunities subject to the acquisition of relevant skills, competencies and concepts. The management development and training in the pre-reforms era of 1947-1991, required a limited innovation and thinking dealing with the needs of internal progression within the organisations and the methods and techniques that could increase the production and productivity of workers and supervisors on the shop floor or offices. The present day concept of management development and training envelopes an all round development covering the needs of the individual, team, organisation and society. Status of Management Development & Training The Indian economy is composed of three important organs: government, public sector and private sector. In this section, an attempt has been made to analyse the status of management development and training as related to these three organs.

The training and management development budget is miniscule and the areas covered are negligible. The training needs are not kept into consideration. The behavioural training is the most important requirement receiving scant attention. The training in technology is another important need of the time. Some states of the Indian Union have caught up with the idea and have taken up programmes in e-governance. Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra are making rapid strides. The central government in line with the move of these states has also initiated imparting training programmes in e-governance to the employees in select departments. The Subordinate Staff Selection Services Commission of the central government conducts a large number of programmes for employees in the cadre of the section officers.

Government There are three levels of Indian Administration: central, provincial and local. These three levels employ about 20 million personnel. At the central level, there are 4 classes of employees viz., A, B, C & D group employees. Group C & D employees provide support services to officers of Group A & B services which are 29 in number of which the first 12 fall within the scope of the Group A and are considered to be the top most central services. For Group A employees, recruitment is done by the Union Public Service Commission and the foundation training is imparted by the

The salaries and wages as a percentage of the gross domestic product for the country as a whole as related to the central and state governments is about 12 percent. The money spent on training and management development is a meager 0.1 percent. The number of hours devoted to training and management development is less than 1 per year. Vast sections of the government employees specially in the Group C and D constituting about 90 percent do not get any opportunity for management development. Their training is limited only to induction training.

Lal Bahadur Shastry Academy of Administration, Sardar Vallabhai Patel Academy for Police Administration, etc. The Department of Training and Personnel deals with the continuous training of the officers of the Indian Administrative Service which number around 6000. 83 institutions of higher learning and research have been identified to provide advanced training in policy, general management, functional management and technology areas. The advanced training varies from one to three weeks and is optional in nature. The government provides for the entire expenditure. There are some courses which are vertical in nature which admit participants of all the seniorities whereas other courses are demarcated for officers having a certain minimum experience of service. The

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012

Management Development & Training in Public Enterprises There are about 1400 public enterprises at the central, state and local levels organised principally in the form of government companies, statutory corporations, departmental enterprises, commissions,

8

Management Guru: Journal of Management Research


(Personnel), Senior Manager (Personnel), Executive (Personnel), Personnel Officer, etc. In many a case, General Manager (Training) is appointed as in-charge of the function. In other words, training and management development is a high level function in public enterprises. The state level public enterprises also accord high importance to this function though in many such enterprises it is not placed at the level of General Manager due to a consideration of size.

authorities, boards, mixed corporations and port trusts. These employ about 6 million personnel. The investments in these enterprises is about US $120 billion. The salaries and wages in these enterprises constitute 12 percent of their turnover which may be as much as US $120 billion. The expenses on training and management development are about 0.5 percent of the turnover. Features Training and management development is an important activity in public enterprises which is discernable from the following features: 1.

2.

There is a definite direction existing in relation to management development and training in public enterprises. The Department of Public Enterprises, Govt. of India and the nodal agencies on state level public enterprises have their respective policies incorporating guidelines on themes to be covered, types and number of programmes to be conducted, duration of the programmes and the resource persons to be deployed. The policy covers even items such as the remuneration for the resource persons and the evaluation of the training programmes.

3.

Separate budget provisions are earmarked for this function although they are very miniscule as related to turnover and expenses incurred on wages and salaries.

4.

In terms of hardware, separate space is allocated for the functionaries dealing with management development and training, equipment provided and support structure created in terms of assistance, transport facilities etc. It may however be noted that the quality of budget support and assistance differs widely from enterprise to enterprise.

5.

A Training Needs Survey is carried out once in 56 years on the basis of which a training calendar is formulated. The operating departments and the management services department/ corporate strategy department are approached for obtaining appropriate inputs. Small changes are carried out in the training calendar depending on the feedback of the participants. The major gaps in different areas for the three levels of management are given in the Exhibit 窶的II:

In the management structure, at the board level, invariably the function is represented by Director(Personnel) who in turn is supported by Executive Director (Personnel) / General Manager (Personnel), Deputy General Manager (Personnel), Assistant General Manager

Exhibit 窶的II Managerial Levels

6.

Gap Areas

Top/Senior

Middle

Junior

Knowledge

Technology

Procedural Knowledge

Implementing Knowledge

Skills

Conceptualisation Planning

Analytical/Adaptive

Executive Skills

Attitude

Towards Environment

Logical

Towards Work and Organisation

Performance

Target Setting

Application and Skills

Appraisal & Recognition

Policy

International Scenario & Public Policy

Sensitisation

Nil

Training programmes for workers, supervisors and junior executives are organised inhouse. For the middle level personnel the programmes are arranged in house with a mix of internal and

Management Guru: Journal of Management Research

external faculty. For senior and top level personnel, slots are provided for training in external institutions and abroad.

9

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012


7.

Induction Training/ Foundation Training is a rule rather than exception. The period of the training varies from 6 months to 2 years at this level.

8.

About 40 large central public enterprises such as Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd., Steel Authority of India Ltd. , National Thermal Power Corporation, Coal India Ltd., Electronics Corporation of India Ltd., Mishra Dhatu Nigam Ltd,., Bharat Dynamics Ltd.., Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd., HMT Ltd., have set up their own in house training institutes. These provide training to senior managers in general management, middle/ junior managers in functional areas of management and specialised courses to senior and top managers in total quality management, quality circles, memorandum of understanding and corporate planning. These in house institutes run Junior Management Induction Programmes.

9.

At the State level, such inhouse training institutes are maintained by the state electricity boards and the state road transport corporations. The state financial corporations and the state industrial development corporations also take up the management development training activities on systematic basis, though they do not have their own inhouse training institutions.

of officers numbering 850 in senior/middle management cadres. It was noted that there was an urgent need to develop technical and managerial skills and bring about attitudinal changes in the work behaviour of the executives. The linkage of the training with the operations process of the bank was not complete. The deputation of trainees to a programme was not always on grounds of actual needs. Much subjectivity operated in the field. The managers at operations level felt that deputing personnel for training interface with the operations work. Moreover, the skills imparted and the change brought in the behaviour of the trainees fade out quickly and regression sets in once they face the operational realities and mounting skeptics from their colleagues. With the integration of information technology and banking operations the inhouse training institutes of Banks have to now prepare a new menu. In fact, the experience emanating even from a country like the USA reveals that the bank personnel would like to redefine their operations and needs in the perspective of information technology. They feel that the run of the mill training programmes are a mere waste of their time. What they need today is an intensive understanding of information technology which can keep them relevant for society.

10. The public sector banks form the lifeline of the financial system in the country. There are in all about 90 banks excluding the cooperative banks. Most of these banks have their inhouse training departments. The large banks such as the State Bank of India, Punjab National Bank, Central Bank of India, Bank of Baroda, Andhra Bank have their own inhouse training institutes3. In a study conducted by Mishra and Ravishankar4 about the Human Resource Development in State Bank of India, the largest commercial bank and one of the 500 Fortune Companies with a sample

Evaluation of Hyderabad based Inhouse Training Institutes Recognising the importance of management development and training, 40 public enterprises set up inhouse training institutes of which 10 are located in Hyderabad. The evaluation of these institutes in terms of faculty, infrastructure, library, research and consultancy, financial muscle and composite score is given in the Exhibit IV:

Exhibit: IV Name

Faculty Infrastructure Library Research/ Financial Consultancy Sources

Total Score

Overall Rating*

Electronics Corprn of 1 India Ltd.

4

2

1

3

11

Somewhat Acceptable

Mishra Dhatu Nigam Ltd.

2

2

1

2

8

Somewhat Low

1

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012

10

Management Guru: Journal of Management Research


Indian Drugs & 1 Pharmaceuticals Ltd.

1

1

1

1

5

Very Low

Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd.

3

5

3

2

3

16

Acceptable

Bharat Dynamics Ltd. 1

3

2

1

3

10

Somewhat Low

Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd.

3

3

3

2

3

14

Acceptable

Hindustan Machine Tools Ltd.

2

2

2

1

3

10

Somewhat Low

Hindustan Cables Ltd. 1

2

1

1

2

7

Somewhat Low

Indian Airlies

5

2

1

3

13

Somewhat Acceptable

2

* Scale (Based on Total Score): 0= Poor, 3.5= Very Low, 7= Somewhat Low, 10.5= Somewhat Acceptable, 14= Acceptable, 17.5= Good and 21=Very Good. general management. The management hierarchy is given due consideration. It does not provide any financial help, faculty support, infrastructure assistance to the training institutes. It organises a meeting on an annual basis of the training heads and sensitises them about the requirements. On the basis of decisions arrived at in the meeting, a training calendar is formulated. The DPE issues a forwarding letter for each training programme which has to be dispatched by the respective institutes. In 1983, the DPE initiated an advanced management programme for general mangers / assistant general managers/executive directors who could take over superior positions within the enterprise or shift horizontally. The advanced management programme (AMP)5 exposes the top level executives to emerging trends in management of enterprises as well as to the state of the art management techniques in India and abroad. The DPE has conducted 34 AMPs between 1983 and 1999 with the premier management institutes such as the Administrative Staff College of India, IIM Ahmedabad, IIM Calcutta and IIM Bangalore. Recently they have approached the Institute of Public Enterprise, who provided the initial inputs on AMP when it was being conceived in early 1980s. The DPE nominates a few public enterprise executives at the senior / middle levels to MBA Programme run by the University of Hull (The United Kingdom). In addition, executives have been recommended for training by DPE to Germany, Singapore, Japan and the USA. The DPE’s administrative approach and indifference to training and management development has not done any good to

The reasons for nominations to the courses sponsored by the inhouse training institutes point out that they do not conduct need based raining. Of the 500 executives who were trained by these institutes, it was revealed that 8 percent were sponsored as per the training needs identified in annual assessment, 15 percent were nominated due to changes in job content, 12 percent were nominated due to initiative of the trainees who intended to upgrade their capabilities, 25 percent were sponsored to fulfill training quotas, 15 percent were nominated to pacify their wishes of being sent for external training and the remaining 25 percent did not know as to why they attended the training. Regarding the actual benefits from the training, 29 percent felt that there was nothing worth mentioning about it and a even a larger percentage felt that it was a retreat from the company work. only 15 percent participants felt that the training helped them in sensitisation to changing roles and the remaining 21 percent felt that the training gave them new knowledge, skills and attitudes. The applicability / usefulness of the programmes were rated at 2.8 on a scale of 1 to 5. Department of Public Enterprises The Department of Public Enterprises (DPE) is the nodal agency for central public enterprises. One of its divisions deals exclusively with management development and training. It does get directly involved in these activities but operated through a network of about 75 institutions for the conduct of programmes ranging from one-day to one-year. It arranges programmes on topical themes, functional areas and Management Guru: Journal of Management Research

11

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012


as it is in the process of setting up an e-business academy with a proposed investment of US $ 0.1 Billion.

this very important instrument. A number of training programmes sponsored by the institute get cancelled / postponed. A large part of the remaining ones are unable to muster even a respectable number of participants.

The All India Council of Technical Education, Government of India has seen to the setting up of 700 management institutes in the private sector with an intake of 30,000 students per annum for MBA courses. A survey on the quality of education and infrastructure of these institutes point to a number of gaps. The private sector has not taken much interest in developing these institutes which is reinforced by the fact that some of the business houses have used these institutes as milch cow.

Management Development & Training in Private Enterprises Bitten by the globalisation bug, the public sector is on wane and a new private-public sector mix is emerging in which the public sector is required to play a supportive role. The private sector is on the growth path. It has a formidable challenge to reorganise its human resources to rise to the occasion. Family business will no more help private sector enterprise grow. Moreover, private sector has to move from old economy to new economy where owners and employees will be subordinated by the enterprise. The private sector having taken a leaf out of the change book, is now going for employee stock ownership scheme, employee stock options, greater representation to the employees on the board and professionalisation. Nevertheless, it has to be admitted squarely that the status of management development and training in private enterprise is no better than the public enterprise. Some big business houses such as Tatas (they run the Tata Management Centre), Birlas ( they run the Birla Management Centre), Reliance (they run the Reliance Management Academy) and Kirloskars (they run Harihar Institute of Management) have their own academies catering to the needs of top and senior level personnel. Some business houses have set up management institutes/ universities to integrate the requirement of management development and training with the undergraduate education. These include Tatas who have a major say in the running of Xavier’s Institute of Labour Relations and Institute of Management Technology and Birlas (Birla Institute of Science and Technology). Recently some big business houses in India with the support of the government of Andhra Pradesh and in collaboration with Kellogg Institute of Management have set up an International Business School at Hyderabad which will impart education in management for MBA Degree and Doctoral Degree. Though there is a technology boom in India and the TMT (Technology- Media-Telecom) business is on the rise, it has not led to any increased commitment to the management development and training. Even Infosys, Wipro, Himachal Futuristic Communications, Bharati Telecom, Zee Tele, etc. have no academies of their own. Satyam Computers Ltd., a leading info-tech enterprise, plans to provide a bold relief in this regard

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012

The private sector cannot make any meaningful beginning on the management development and training front unless it changes its philosophy of scouting for human resources afresh for meeting a challenge rather than developing the existing personnel. Future Directions The country has to change both its perception and approach to management development and training as explained hereunder: 1. The percentage of expenditure of GDP on education needs to be stepped up significantly say at least to 10 percent. Some innovative methods and techniques may have to be evolved for financing the enhanced outlay. More importantly, the development strategists have to reformulate their preferences assigning a higher weightage to software than hardware. Inline with the USA, Germany and France, the primary, secondary and higher education have to be integrated with the needs of management development and training. The Singapore experience needs a special mention here. It has set up a Skills Development Fund (SDF). Employers are required to contribute 1 percent of the gross salary and wage bill to the fund. The company’s get the value of their contributions back upto 80 percent if they apply to SDF for grants for enhancement of skills and management development. They may also buy out of these grants more than training equipment, establish training facilities, spend money on overseas training or expand the existing facilities of training. The employers wanting to have access to the SDF submit the total training plan. The experience shows that the grants awarded are twice the amount initially requested. The fund has contributed towards modernising the

12

Management Guru: Journal of Management Research


training establishments, infusing new skills and upgrade the conceptual abilities of executives aged 40 years and above. The fund has also been accessed for general development and to ensure the continuity in competence of a cluster of industries which are globally competitive.

Conclusion Management development and training will play a significant role in the socio-economic and political emancipation of India especially in the changed context of globalisation. Bitten by the globalisation bug, the government, public sector and private sector are redefining their vision of management development and training. Although the management development and training function has not made significant headway so far, the country is now well set to undergo a paradigm shift in this direction.

2. The public enterprises need to step up their outlay on management development and training. The number of hours devoted should be gradually increased from the present 10 to 100. The expenditure needs to be doubled from 0.5 percent of the turnover to 1 percent. The inhouse training institutes have to tone up their work. The training contents must accommodate the inputs dealing with globalisation, technology management, international business, quality management, cost leadership, enhancement of market share, improving interpersonal skills, team building6, counseling, knowledge management, creativity and performance appraisal to mention a few. The training needs survey in each enterprise should provide for multiskilling and the possibility of development of the executives in diverse areas. The management development and training must cut across all the levels7 including the top management i.e., public enterprise boards.

References:

3. The private sector in order to gain tremendously to be globally competitive through a leading edge must exploit the potent tool of management development and training. Instead of looking for new people to fulfill the requirements of the changes in a job, they should impart new skills well in advance to their existing employees. The miniscule expenditure and time spent on management development and training by the private sector will not go a long way in its professionalisation.

1.

Mumford Alan, “Management Development: Strategies for Action”, Jaico, Mumbai, 1995, p.7.

2.

Singh N.K. , “Human Resource Development in Indian Public Sector”, Standing Conference of Public Enterprises, New Delhi, 1987, p. 10.

3.

Khandelwal, Anil K (ed.) “ Human Resources Development in Banks”, Oxford & IBH, New Delhi, 1995, pp:377-466.

4.

Mishra R.K. & Ravishankar S. “Organisational Development in Public Enterprises: Perspectives for 1990s”, Vision Books, New Delhi, 1989, pp: 125-130.

5.

Govt. of India ( Department of Public Enterprises, Ministry of Heavy Industries & Public Enterprises,), “PE Survey: 1998-99”, Vol.1, 2000, New Delhi, pp. 132135.

6.

Ravishankar, S. 'Training & Management Development for Higher Productivity ' in Pai Satish, Mishra R.K .and Ravishankar S (ed) “Re-Engineering Organisational Productivity, Challenges Ahead”, Himalaya, Mumbai, 2000.

7.

Lynton Rolf P and Pareek Udai, “Training for Development”, Vistar, New Delhi.,1990, p.8.



“Go on! Do not look back if you think you have done something that is not right. Now, Do you believe you could be what you are to-day, had you not made those mistakes before? Bless your mistakes, then. They have been angels unawares. Blessed be torture! Blessed be happiness! Do not care what be your lot. Hold on to the ideal. March on!” Swami Vivekananda (CW Vol - 5 Page - 253 )



“Destroy the prison-house of name and form and rush out of it with the strength of lion… Death is a particular transition, like any one of physical transition from one stage to another, such as childhood, youth etc.” - Swami Vivekananda

Management Guru: Journal of Management Research

13

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012

P


Behavior Based Safety (BBS) Management in India (An Insight into Organizational Cases of Unsafe and Safe behaviours) By: Dr. H. L. Kaila*and Dr. S.Ravishankar**

Abstract : This paper is a part of an on-going national level action research survey of behavior based safety (BBS) in India which included 1750 executives and 713 workers in 57 multi-national organizations based on an in-depth group interviews and a structured questionnaire using open-ended questions. This paper includes a number of original case studies and field observations selected during BBS training interventions in a period of twelve years across Indian organizations (such as petroleum, steel, cement, power, chemical etc.) which shall be highly useful in application of the concept and process of BBS for human resource / safety professionals and everyone who is concerned about correcting unsafe behaviors for reduction of accidents and promoting safe behaviors for developing injury-free culture in their organizations. The data reported in this paper is extracted from a larger research study carried out in different parts of India. Key words: Organizations, BBS, unsafe and safe behavior, safety professionals, observation, training, hazard identification, risk assessment , Indian case studies. * Dr.H.L.Kaila, Professor & Head, (Retd.), Psychology Dept., SNDT University, Mumbai. ** Dr.S.Ravishankar is a Senior Management Educator & HR Specialist. (Formerly, he was Sr. Faculty, Ibra College of Technology, Sultanate of Oman; Al Kharj University, Saudi Arabia, and Abu Dhabi University).

assessments and determination of controls ; for hazard identification and risk assessment that shall take into account human behaviour, capabilities and other human factors, and to make persons working under its control aware of: the OH&S consequences, actual or potential, of their work activities, their behaviour, and the OH&S benefits of improved personal performance.

Introduction BBS is a bottom-up approach as all other organizational safety systems are top-driven. BBS emphasizes that employees need to take an ownership of their safe as well as unsafe behaviors. If they behave unsafe, they are not punished, instead they are repeatedly told to correct; and when they behave safe, they are encouraged. Both unsafe and unsafe behaviors are counted and displayed. The secret of BBS success in organizations is that the safety control is in hands of each employee, they feel empowered and responsible. BBS also discusses the unsafe conditions that influence unsafe behaviors.

The OHSAS 18001 standard is an occupational health and safety (OH&S) standard which is used to establish occupational health and safety management system (OHSMS). There have been a number of significant changes to the standard since the first edition was published in 1999. The changes reflect the widespread use and experience of the standard in more than 80 countries, and by approximately 16000 certified organizations.

Three clauses of OHSAS 18001:2007 (4.4.3.2 Participation and consultation, 4.3.1 Planning Hazard identification, risk assessment and determining controls, and 4.4.2 Competence, training and awareness) emphasize behavioral aspects of safety : that the organization shall establish, implement and maintain a procedure(s) for the participation of workers by their appropriate involvement in hazard identification, risk

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012

BBS process has included the OHSAS 18001:2007 compliances on human factors in its training applications. Behavior Based Safety would help organizations implement OHSAS 18001:2007 clauses as above. BBS approach enables the participation and involvement of

14

Management Guru: Journal of Management Research


workers in hazard identification, risk assessments and determination of controls; and BBS also makes workers aware of their unsafe as well as safe behaviours. BBS would help maintain an account of human behaviour in terms of percentages of unsafe and safe behaviours of workers month-on-month basis.

an in-depth group interviews and structured questionnaire using open-ended questions in order to review behavior based safety in multi-national organizations. The data reported in the organizational cases depicted in this paper is extracted from this larger research study carried out in different parts of India.

To reduce accidents, the managements have taken safety interventions such as risk assessment, suggestion scheme, training, safety committee, auditing, motivational programmes (quiz, award, incentives), SOPs, plant inspection, work permit system etc. Most of these safety management systems have aimed at controlling unsafe conditions, whereas 80-95% of accidents are triggered by unsafe acts or behaviors.

The training exposure to all the survey participants was provided for a day which included the following components of BBS: Training Components 10 am – 1.00 pm 

Concepts of Behavioral Safety·



Processes of Behavioral Safety·



Implementation of Behavior Safety 2.00 pm – 5 pm

Fatalities

Injuries Near Misses



Practicum on Behavioral Safety·



Action Plan /Roadmap to launch BBS·



BBS Quiz

The trained observers used the following checklist of critical behaviours to collect their observations with the help of BOFP.

Unsafe Behaviors

00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000

Observer _______________ Date___________

Figure 1: BBS triangle

Department / Job __________ Time___________

Researches indicate that the 90% or more of the accidents are due to unsafe human behaviors; 50% of the unsafe behaviors are noticeable at any plant at any given point of time; 25-30% of safety awareness is lacking among employees which gets reflected in their unsafe behaviors. The analysis of the present study reveals that on an average, every employee has been doing 3 or 4 unsafe behaviours in the past 1-2 years which indicate that thousands of unsafe behaviors are existing at the Indian workplaces.

Behaviour Categories

Unsafe behaviors are at the core of any near misses, injury, fatalities as shown in Figure- 1. If we control unsafe behaviors, we may not even have near misses. The findings of this study help us to address behaviour based safety management in organizations.

Following SOP

At Risk Comments

Using PPE Housekeeping Using tools and equipment Body positioning / protecting Material handling Communication

Visual focusing (attentiveness) Using mobile while working

The managers and workers were also asked to narrate their safety related problems, issues, field observations and experiences during almost 200 BBS training workshops across 57 Indian multi-national organizations (including petroleum, steel, cement,

Methodology This paper is drawn from an action research survey of 1750 executives and 713 workers based on Management Guru: Journal of Management Research

Safe

15

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012


chemical, power, automobile etc.) during a period of twelve years between 1997 and 2009. A narrative approach was attempted in this survey in order to enrich the safety research. Only a few selected case studies across industrial sectors are shared here that brings significant information to the existing research in the field of behaviour based safety.

FINDINGS 1. Analysis of Unsafe and Safe behaviours The employees from five multi-national organizations (table 1) were asked to report their safe as well as unsafe behaviours which they engage in on day-to-day basis at home, workplace and on the way to and from residence and office. An analysis shows an average of 52.6% unsafe behaviours and an average of 47.4% safe behaviours.

Table 1: Unsafe and Safe behaviours employees themselves engage in on daily basis Organization

Number of employees

Number & % of unsafe behaviours

Number & % of safe behaviours

Total Number of behaviours

1

30

311 48%

330 52%

643

2

28

230 49%

239 51%

469

3

23

158 54%

135 46%

291

4

31

219 47%

243 53%

462

5

25

226 65%

124 35%

350

Total

137

Average 52.6%

Average 47.4%

This analysis reflects that while every employee has engaged in safe behaviours, they have simultaneously engaged in an unsafe behaviours more than 50% of the times at home, workplace and on the road while going from residence to their office and back. Therefore, they need someone else to look after their safety which is emphasized by the principle of BBS that people need to take care of safety for each other, i.e. peer-to-peer safety.

The employees from various organizations were further asked to report unsafe behaviours of their coworkers as perceived during the last one year. Table 2 reveals that almost every worker has practiced on an average 3.5 unsafe behaviors at their workplace on daily basis which may convert into an accident, near miss or it can be fatal depending upon the activity workers engage in.

Table 2: Unsafe behaviours of co-workers Organization

Number of employees

Number of unsafe behaviours perceived

Average-unsafe behaviours

1

21

106

5

2

21

61

3

3

17

104

6

4

16

81

5

5

19

83

4.5

6

26

105

4

7

27

81

3

8

19

68

4

9

34

113

3.3

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012

16

Management Guru: Journal of Management Research


10

30

97

3.2

11

30

79

2.6

12

30

59

2.0

13

26

70

2.7

14

24

66

2.8

15

22

38

1.7 Grand Average 3.5

the number of unsafe /safe behaviours and unsafe conditions.

2. Case study of a chemical company The trained BBS observers conducted behaviour observation feedback process (BOFP) and observed Table 3: Safe / unsafe behaviors and conditions No. of BBS observers

No. of Safe Beh 1st Shift

No. of Safe Beh 2nd Shift

No. of Unsafe No. of Unsafe Beh 1st Shift Beh 2nd Shift

29

107

103

59

33

41

31

30

141

155

49

27

47

23

33

217

235

47

29

03

01

36

243

274

37

14

01

01

Table 3 reveals that as a result of BBS being practiced in an organization, the observers reported that the number of safe behaviours is increasing every day / shift, and the number of unsafe behaviours is decreasing every day / shift, and the number of unsafe conditions is also decreasing every day / shift. 3. A case study of a pharmaceutical organization in Gujarat 186 employees including workers and executives were trained on BBS. The main observations that came out of the discussions in 6 days of training are as follows: 1.

2.

Observers noticed 3.5 unsafe behaviors on an average per worker being practiced at their workplace on daily basis.

An observer may observe 3-4 observees at a time while filling the checklist for 9 critical behaviors.

4.

Observees educate each other if an observer gives feedback effectively.

5.

Normally 10 minutes are adequate for making observations and feedback.

Management Guru: Journal of Management Research

6.

While giving feedback to contract workers, it is important to give feedback simultaneously to their supervisor about the at-risk behaviours observed.

7.

Observers can observe anybody (same cadre or above) and give feedback for correction.

8.

Though 20% of observers are selected per department in an organization, 70% of them must also observe contract workers as 70% of accidents happen to them.

9.

Unsafe conditions are the result of unsafe behaviours. Address unsafe behaviours on the spot.

10. People learn by four ways, by observing, thinking, feeling and doing. Observers must use all these four ways to make feedback effective.

An observer first observes and thereafter provides feedback to an observee.

3.

No. of Unsafe No. of Unsafe Conditions1st Shift Conditions 2nd Shift

11. In this organization, a lady officer from quality department is the only BBS observer in India. 12. Before launch of BBS in the organization, the duties of BBS team/ coordinators were discussed and concluded as below:

17

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012


·

Distribute – distribute checklist to observers daily in the morning.

·

Collect – collect filled-in checklist from observers in the evening.

·

Analyze – analyze data weekly to understand % of safe/unsafe behaviors.

·

Display – display graph of safe/unsafe behaviors.

·

Conduct – conduct weekly meeting with all observers.

·

Make – make a weekly round in the plant together with all observers.

·

Follow-Up – monthly review meeting of all observers.

·

Report – BBS team would report monthly progress to HSE Head.

·

for a long time and safety has not been enforced or sustained, it’s an unsafe social behaviour. ·

A manager said, “Though we are aware of the magnitude of unsafe behaviours in our organization we did not know how to control them”.· The BBS observers minimize the risk and increase alertness on part of observees.

·

A manager said,”BBS is the life-line and passport of safety”.

·

The plan of action after having implemented BBS basically comprises of three things: estimating scope of re-training for observers, assessing role of BBS steering committee, and determining progress of BBS month-on-month basis.

BBS if implemented is excellent for organization, if not, then also it is good, training in BBS provides a different mind-set towards safety of people, a HR manager. “BBS would spread like a mobile”, a trained BBS worker said.

Launch – ceremonial launch of BBS.

4. Features of other Case studies on BBS A case study of a Power Company where 20 Technicians and the 13 Engineers in southern part of India were trained on BBS. They observed that:·

A Case of an Agro-chemical manufacturing Company in the northern part of India: 23 senior and middle management employees brought out following issues and observations:



Unsafe behaviors are possessed by each Individual and also their co-workers which is the root cause of any near miss, injury or accident.·

·



Due to BBS training, the safe behaviours have gone up and unsafe behaviours have reduced.·

Fear factor is not necessary for creating safety culture. Because fear or punishment will not give sustainable result in changing unsafe to safe behaviours.

·

There are two kinds of employees as far as safety consciousness is concerned. One kind of employees who has internal locus of control for safety, meaning they are internally conscious. The other kind of employees who are externally conscious, meaning they require external stimulus to alert them regularly.

·

Surprisingly, BBS starts giving results quickly. More the observers, more the observations, more the safe behaviours. The BBS outcomes are the reduced unsafe behaviours, safe working conditions, safe culture etc.



Almost 1% risk-reduction is contributed by each BBS trained observer, which indicate that more the observers, more the number of observations, and more the percentage of risk-reduction in the organization.·



BBS induces self-introspection and alertness among workers.

A case study of a Cement Company: three days interactions with 108 engineers on BBS in the western part of India expressed the following issues:· On an average, three unsafe behaviours per worker were identified which means a total workforce of 710 shop-floor employees possess 2030 unsafe behaviours which is a serious concern of safety for an organization. ·

Conclusion The organizational case studies across industrial sectors in different geographical locations in India reveal that the unsafe behaviours do exist across multi-national organizations and employees engage in unsafe behaviours on daily basis.

When unsafe behaviours exist in an organization

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012

18

Management Guru: Journal of Management Research


According to an experienced worker from Sanofi-Aventis, “If we include behaviour in safety, (unsafe) incidences would be less”. “90% of the 49 accidents (minor or major), which have occurred in the year 2009, have root cause in behaviour and hence, we are launching BBS at our workplace” – HR Manager.

Though OHSAS 18001:2007 has included three clauses that emphasize behavioral aspects of safety, the organizations have yet not followed it exactly as the OHSAS 18001:2007 does not provide any guidelines on how to implement these clauses. However, the multi-national organizations have progressively begun to think over the human / behavioral aspects of safety at workplaces more as compared to yester years.

BBS has shown positive results in terms of reducing unsafe behaviors, promoting safe behaviors and creating safety culture in Indian organizations. BBS has provided better accident prevention practices than before. BBS exposure to employees has been an enriching and refreshing experience on understanding the fact that in order to prevent near misses at workplaces, we need to tackle first unsafe / at-risk behaviors through BBS approach. With the inclusion of behavior aspects in the OHSAS 18001:2007 as safety compliances, the multi-national organizations have taken BBS seriously in its training applications.

The managements have started believing that unsafe behaviors need to be controlled in order to ensure total safety at workplaces. Engineering controls alone do not provide adequate safe workplace unless behavioral safety is practiced. It is also observed that the BBS training facilitates increase in number of safe behaviours, helps decline in the number of unsafe behaviours and also assists in reducing the number of unsafe conditions in the organization. A follow-up study on BBS at Bayer’s Crop Science indicates that 80-90% improvement was achieved in use of PPE as well as housekeeping within six months of launching BBS.

The findings of this research shall be assisting in application of behavior based safety (BBS) for safety professionals and managers for reduction of accidents and promoting safe behaviors for developing safe environment in the organizations.

BBS is all about involving people across departments in an organization as a bottom-up approach.

Thus, it is obvious that the goal of behavior-based safety is to change the behaviour of the employees from “unsafe” behaviours to “safe” behaviors. It is often termed as ABC model ‘to change the behavior of employees human behavior’. Many of today’s behavioural safety efforts are based on this approach that says all behaviours are a result of antecedents and consequences. This approach, which was promoted by B.F. Skinner, implies that antecedents serve as triggers to observable behaviours; and the consequences either enforce or discourage repetition of the behaviors.

In order to implement BBS at workplace and create a safety culture, the following steps are suggested: 1.

An awareness programme on BBS for management staff at all levels.

2.

An awareness training of employees across the plant;

3.

Selection of observers (20%) from BBS trained employees; and forming steering committee of 810 people from amongst BBS trained employees;

4.

In-plant practical training of BBS observers and steering committee members on how to set up the observation process, how to develop the measure and how to conduct accuracy and consistency checks, steering committee functioning’, etc.

5.

BBS observers and steering committee members are to be fully prepared to implement BBS at workplace.

Management Guru: Journal of Management Research

The behavior-based process, fundamentally, consists of ‘identification of observable safe behaviors upstream in the process’; and then, one needs to identify the antecedents (activators) that encourage such safe behaviours and encourage them. It is also essential to identify those antecedents that discourage safe behaviours and remove them. Behavioural specialists say that the reinforcement factors that are positive, immediate and certain (rewarding) will ensure that the employees work safely. Negative factors, on the contrary, which are immediate and certain (punishment) discourage unsafe behaviors. The goal of management

19

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012


has to be to set up a control system or mechanism for controlling the antecedents and consequences, so that employees are enabled to increase their safe behaviours.

Krause, T. R. (1995). Employee Driven Systems for Safe Behaviour, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.

References

LIU Feng YE Yi-cheng HUANG Yong(School of Resources and Environmental Engineering,Wuhan University of Science and Technology Wuhan 430081);Discussion on Safety Management System for Metallic Mine[J];Industrial Safety and Environmental Protection;2007-09

Krause, T.R. (1990). The Behavioral-Based Safety Process, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York. 125-152.

Algera, J. (1990). Feedback Systems in Organizations, International Review of Industrial and Organisational Psychology, 5, John Wiley and Sons, London. Clarke S. Perceptions of organizational safety: implications for the development of safety culture. J Organ Behav1999;20:185–98.

LIU Tang-wen1 QIN Ji1 LEI Fang1 ZHOU Wei-min2 (1.Sinosteel Wuhan Safety and Environmental Protection Research Institute Wuhan 430081);Analysis on Fire and Explosion in Blast Furnace Whorl Stream Cleaner Gas Leakage[J];Industrial Safety and Environmental Protection;2008-01

Guldenmund FW. The nature of safety culture: a review of theory and research. Safety Sci. 2000;34:215–57. Kaila HL. (2006). Behaviour based safety in organizations. Indian J Occup. Environ Med;10:102-106.http:// www.ijoem.com/article.asp?issn=0973-2284; year = 2006; volume=10; issue=3; spage=102; epage=106; aulast=Kaila

Marsh, T. et al. (1998). The Role of Management Commitment in Determining the Success of a Behavioral Intervention, Journal of the Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, 2 (4).

Kaila HL. (2006a). Behaviour Based Safety in Organizations, Industrial Safety Chronicle, Vol 37, Oct-Dec, 83-89.

Mosteller, W.G. (1989). Usability Analysis of Messages from a Security System, in Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 33rd Annual Meeting, 399-403.

Kaila HL. (2007). Behaviour Based Safety in Organizations. Business Manager, Vol 10, No. 4, Oct., 7-11.

Nieva VF, Sorra J. Safety culture assessment: a tool for improving patient safety in healthcare organizations. Safe Health Care2003; 12 (Supplement II) : ii 17–23.

Kaila HL. (2008). Behaviour Based Safety in Organizations. Indian Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 45, April, 35-44. Kaila HL. (2008a). Behaviour Based Safety in Organizations. The Urban World, April-June, Vol. I, No. 5, P. 40-48.

Pettinger Chuck B. (2001). People-Based Safety: The Optimal Approach to Behavior-Based Safety. Safety Performance Solutions, Inc.

Kaila HL. (2008b). http://www.authorstream.com/ Presentation/kailahl-66592-behaviour-based-safetyorganizations-dr-kaila-unsafe-safe-behavior-observationfeedback-steering-committee-english-presentation-hl-neweducation-ppt-powerpoint/

Qun, YU.Assoc. Prof.(Law Department, South China Normal University) DAI Fan(Law School, Jinan University);On the Formation and Management of Agency Institution for Production Safety[J];China Safety Science Journal;20

Kaila HL. (2008c). Behaviour based safety in organizations. New Delhi, IK International Publishing House Pvt Ltd.

Reason, J. (1990). Human Error, Cambridge University Press, London.

Kaila HL. (2010), Industrial Safety and Human Behaviour. AITBS Publishers, New Delhi.

Reynolds, Stephen H.(1997). The Importance of Learning the ABCs of Behaviour Safety, Professional Safety.23-25.

 “Feel like Christ and you will be a Christ; feel like Buddha and you will be a Buddha. It is feeling that is the life, the strength, the vitality, without which no amount of intellectual activity can reach God.” - Swami Vivekananda. (CW Vol - 2 Page - 307 ) 

“My boy, when death is inevitable, is it not better to die like heroes than as stocks and stones?... It is better to wear out than to rust out - specially for the sake of doing the least good to others.” - Swami Vivekananda. (CW Vol - 7 Page - 176 )



“We are what our thoughts have made us; so take care about what you think. Words are secondary. Thoughts live; they travel far”. - Swami Vivekananda. (CW Vol - 7 Page - 14 )

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012

20

Management Guru: Journal of Management Research


Pharmaceutical Industry In India: Challenges And Opportunities *G.B. Natekar and **Dr. Nitin Mahurkar

Abstract : The Indian pharmaceutical industry today is in the front rank of India’s Science-based industries with wide ranging capabilities in the complex field of drug manufacture and technology. The industry is playing a key role in promoting and sustaining development in the vital field of medicines. In this paper, an attempt is made to study mergers and acquisitions taking place in the Indian pharmaceutical industry; emerging challenges faced by the industry; opportunities available for the industry and future growth prospective of Indian pharmaceutical industry. The Indian pharmaceutical industry, with its rich scientific talents and research capabilities, is well set to take on the international market. Indian pharmaceutical industry today is witnessing dynamic changes because it is on the threshold of becoming a major global market by 2020. *M.Pharm (PhD Research Scholar), Mapusa-Goa.Persuing his PhD from J.J.T University Vidhyanagari, Rajasthan **Professor & HOD Pharmacology, HKES College of Pharmacy, Gulbarga-585 105.

bulk drugs discouraged the foreign participants who later abandoned Indian market making way for the domestic industry. Forty years of protection has enabled this industry to grow significantly and to develop efficiently its research and manufacturing capabilities. The leading companies avail the opportunity to move up in the value added chain. India is leading other developing countries in process R&D capabilities and the range of technologically complex medicines manufactured domestically.

Overview of Pharmaceutical Industry Over the past few years, the Indian pharmaceutical industry has under gone a massive makeover. They covered the journey from being followers to become strategic partners of multinational enterprises particularly in their drug discovery research and development efforts. The Indian pharmaceutical industry ranked third in the world in terms of production volume and 14th largest in terms of value. India’s pharmaceutical industry has evolved from almost being nonexistent to a world leader in the production of high quality generic drugs.

The Indian Pharmaceutical Industry currently tops the chart amongst India’s science-based industries with wide ranging capabilities in the complex field of drug manufacture and technology. The Indian Pharmaceutical Industry ranks very high amongst all third world countries, in terms of technology, quality and the vast range of medicines that are manufactured. Many Indian companies maintain highest standards in Purity, Stability and International Safety, Health and Environmental protection in production and supply of bulk drugs. This speaks of the high quality standards maintained by large number of Indian pharma companies. Indian pharmaceutical industry growth has been fuelled by exports and its products are exported to large number of countries with a sizeable share in the advanced regulated markets of the US and Western Europe.

At the time of independence in 1947, foreign companies held approximately, 99 percent of all pharmaceutical products under patent in India and domestic Indian drug prices were among the highest in the world. To encourage domestic production of pharmaceutical products, the government of India established five state-owned pharmaceutical companies. At the same time, several policy initiatives supported the development of indigenous pharmaceutical industry. The policy and regulatory measures include- abolition of product patents on food, chemicals, and drugs in 1970.The new Patent Act allowed only patents for production processes fostering the development of a competitive pharmaceutical industry, making inexpensive drugs accessible to Indian masses. The imposition of price controls on certain formulations and

Management Guru: Journal of Management Research

21

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012


law failed to work in “national interest”. Thus came in to being the Patents Act, 1970 – which limited patents only to process in case of pharmaceuticals and agricultural chemicals. Further, the term of patents was also reduced to 7 years. Apart from this, the Foreign Exchange Regulation Act, 1973 and the National Drug Policy, 1978 provided essential impetus to the growth of the Indian generic industry. Thus, post 1970 reversed foreign domination of the pharmaceutical industry in India. Large-scale bulk drug production was possible and this led to the change in industry landscape. A decade later, in late 1980 and early 1990, the Indian generic industry steadily increased the exports and came to be recognised as an important player in global generic industry. Substantial price controls initiated in 1979 through the Drug Price Control Orders, based on National Drug Policy, 1978 were pioneering efforts in the direction of ensuring equitable access to health. This led to entry of large number of firms thus contributing to the fundamentals of the present top generic companies in India.

Brief History of the Pharmaceutical Industry in India Indigenous medicines were in use even prior to the British rule in India. Western medicine- scientifically termed as allopathic- came to known only during the British Era. The pioneering efforts of some few indigenous people led to the steady establishment of the modern pharmaceutical industry, even though the then British Government did setup some medical schools for education in modern pharmaceutical research. The Bengal Chemical and Pharmaceutical Works (BCPW) established in 1892 is example in this regard. Subsequent efforts by others have also been duly recorded. Drug production meeting around 13% of Indian requirement was produced by several other indigenous firms during and after the Second World War. By 1930’s efforts were also made in the direction of producing synthetic bulk drugs. Indigenous sector dominated the pharmaceutical industry in India until 1950. However, post 1950 MNC’s gained the ground with new medicines being introduced in the Indian markets. A strong product patent system then prevailing under the British Patents and Designs Act, 1911 (prevailing in India even after independence) led to increasing influence of MNCs in the Indian pharmaceutical markets. The Government seemed not to be initially concerned to create national champions during that period. A faulty system of industrial licensing worsened the problem, as it leaned in favour of easy entry for MNCs prior to 1970s- even at the peril of indigenous industry. This was also because MNCs carried certain special type of processing of formulations, which was not carried out by Indian companies during that period. India was one of the unique countries that provided for special and national treatment to MNCs.

Mergers and Acquisitions Pharmaceutical Industry

Indian

The rise of the competition, the financial liberalization allowing capital flows and the rapid technological changes are the basis of the globalization process extensively favoring the influence, presence and participation of foreign owned firms in national economies. This also triggers a lot of corporate restructuring activities of domestic firms. The process has caused a significant reshuffling and redeployment of firm’s assets and thereby reshaping of many industrial sectors. The present form of industrial ownership is witnessing strong mergers and acquisitions (M&A) activities around the globe. The phenomenon has tended to facilitate a reconfiguration of firm’s organizational structure and its core competencies.

During late 1960s and in 1970s, there was a conscious attempt to give preference to national industry. This was in consequence to foreign monopoly dominating in the Indian health care sector. The socialist policy advocated by the government of the day and comprehensive review of legislations and policies having a potential to hold back domestic participation paved the way for growth of the domestic generic industry in India. After a thorough review of the Patents and Deigns Act, 1911, the Ayyangar report examining the legislation concluded that foreign patent holders dominated the industry through large number of filing and grants. It viewed that the then prevailing patents

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012

in

Most of the M&A deals are motivated, by the desire to obtain financial synergies, to gain market power, to obtain access to distribution channel or to gain entry into new geographical locality, thereby admitting that technological reasons do not motivate all M&A. However, in the current globalised scenario, there are certain high-tech industries where innovation is a key to competitive edge. Such firms will consider the impact of M&A on technological performance even when the deal is not innovation driven; and choose the most appropriate innovation and financial strategy. Technological Know-how is becoming a key to success

22

Management Guru: Journal of Management Research


countries worldwide; the US being the largest customer. At the same time, around $80 billion worth of drugs are moving towards generic way by end of this year. R&D pipeline has been growing weak for the past several years of these large pharmaceutical firms. Moreover, many large economies are curbing their health care expenses. Indian pharmaceutical market is changing under the light of the Cost effective manufacturing being implemented by developed economies; growing importance of emerging markets and changing significance of India’s domestic market

in present market and factors such as firm size, history and equity become less and less critical requirement. The shift in industrial policy in 1991 paved the way for first wave of M&A in India. Policy reforms facilitating M&A begins with the removal of restrictive provisions of Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices (MRTP) Act followed by reforms in Foreign Exchange Regulation Act (FERA) in 1993 and Foreign Exchange Management Act (FEMA) in 2000. However, at the same time in order to abolish forces, which reduce competition, the Competition Policy Act 2002 decided to establish a Competition Commission of India (CCI). This commission aimed at checking the anti competitive activities such as formation of cartels, collusive bidding, and consolidation via M&A, which could cause market dominance abuses. The economic reforms in India have significantly reduced firm level rigidities. Corporate restructuring in recent years is a response to the opportunity provided by policy in order to meet the emerging competitive challenges. The firms, in the process, are reportedly trying to retain competitiveness and increase their value. The rapid growth of Indian economy has encouraged domestic enterprises to undertake more aggressive investment activities, which have resulted in a tremendous growth of M&A in the last decade. Domestic firms have taken steps to consolidate their position to face increasing competitive pressures and multinational enterprises (MNEs) from India have taken this opportunity to increase their presence and control in foreign markets.

However, Indian firms face some challenges such as non-tariff barriers, decreasing profits in the generic market, competitive threats from big pharmaceutical MNEs, fierce competition from Chinese and Eastern European manufacturers. Indian firms are aiming to move up the value chain by developing capabilities to produce super generic and branded generic drugs. Indian companies have realized that to compete with the global pharmaceutical companies, even domestically; will involve new strategies and more innovation. But India, with advantages of having a large domestic market and having the highest number of US FDA approved plants outside the US which offer a low cost manufacturing base is trying to capture the opportunity through strategic alliances and M&A. Identifying domestic and foreign demand, most Indian pharmaceutical companies aimed at expanding their manufacturing capacities mostly by means of M&A. At the same time, Indian companies with the aim to gain competitive advantage have been increasing their R&D expenditure and focusing on building a product pipeline. M&A activities by Indian Pharmaceutical industries are being concluded with the objective of complimenting the strengths of two entities to get market access, new technologies as well as new products. Drive to enhance the size and thereby attaining higher economies of scale could be considered as key motivations for M&A in pharmaceutical sector.

An important feature of M&A activity in India is its sectoral composition. It is interesting to note that firms in the service sector were the pioneers to undertake M&A as a means of expansion globally as well as domestically, later they were joined by Indian manufacturing firms. On international level, the success of service sector had a strong positive spillover effect on pharmaceutical sector. Indian drugs firms led the next round of M&A wave to strengthen their position in the regulated overseas markets like the US, Germany and the UK. Domestically also pharmaceutical sector became a major player in M&A activity.

In Indian pharmaceutical industry 264 M&A deals have been undertaken in the given time of 2001-2010. Out of the total deals, number of mergers are 99 (37.5percent) and number the of acquisitions are 165 (62.5 percent).The share of pharmaceutical industry is also the highest among all the other industries participating in M&A in manufacturing sector during this period.

The successful adoption of M&A by software and pharmaceutical firms had all-round effects on Indian firms from other sectors like chemicals, automotive, steel, etc. Liberalization facilitated Indian firms to market generic drugs to the US and other Western European countries. Indian drug manufacturers currently export their products to more than 65

Management Guru: Journal of Management Research

23

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012


Indian Pharmaceutical Industry: Opportunities

Indian Pharmaceutical Industry: Emerging Challenges

The Indian pharmaceutical industry has lot of strengths and hence ample of opportunities. Few important strengths are mentioned below.

Underdeveloped new molecule discovery program The main weakness of the industry is an underdeveloped new molecule discovery program. Even after the increased investment, market leaders such as Ranbaxy and Dr.Reddy’s Laboratories spent only 5-10 per cent of their revenues on R&D, lagging behind Western pharmaceuticals like Pfizer, whose research budgets are greater than the combined revenues of the entire Indian pharmaceutical industry. This disparity is too great to be explained by cost diffentials, and it comes when advances in genomics have made research equipment more expensive than ever. The drug discovery process is further hindered by a dearth of qualified molecular biologists. Due to the disconnect between curriculum and industry, pharmas in India also lack the academic collaboration that is crucial to drug development in the West.

Competent workforce: India has a pool of personnel with high managerial and technical competence. It has an educated work force and English is commonly used. Professional services are easily available. Cost-effective chemical synthesis Its track record of development, particularly in the area of improved cost-beneficial chemical synthesis for various drug molecules is excellent. It provides wide variety of bulk drugs and exports sophisticated bulk drugs. Legal & Financial Framework India has a 63-year-old democracy and hence has a solid legal framework and strong financial markets. There is already an established international industry and business community.

Generic competition Generic substitution is a policy for healthcare cost containment. National reimbursement and insurance bodies are providing physicians and pharmacists with incentives for prescribing cheaper generic drugs. There is an increased pressure on revenues for pharmaceutical companies, which have to concentrate on lifecycle management. The pharmaceutical industry will experience a significant reduction in the revenues associated with their blockbuster products as generic competition captures market share. As a result, given that R&D productivity is low and the cost of developing new drugs at an all time high, the pharmaceutical industry faces considerable hurdles with respect to maintaining revenue and earnings growth in the future.

Information & Technology It has a good network of world-class educational institutions and established strengths in Information Technology. Globalisation The country is committed to a free market economy and globalization. Above all, it has a 70 million middle class market, which is continuously growing. Consolidation For the first time in many years, the international pharmaceutical industry is finding great opportunities in India. The process of consolidation, which has become a generalized phenomenon in the world pharmaceutical industry, has started taking place in India.

Restricted items There are a lot of items that are restricted under the EXIM policy from free trading. These restrictions are weaknesses for the industry and hence pose to be a threat for its development.

Indian Pharmaceutical Industry: Future Perspective

Infrastructure Infrastructure has always been mentioned as a barrier to growth of the Pharma industry in India. Poor energy and transport infrastructure has traditionally posed a problem for companies. With the government gradually increasing investment in infrastructure, the situation is improving.

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012

·

24

Future trend of Indian pharmaceutical industry seems to be in a positive tone. Consumer spending on healthcare services and products has increased in India due to the increasing affordability, shifting disease patterns and modest healthcare reforms. Healthcare budget of an average Indian household Management Guru: Journal of Management Research


is expected to grow from 7% in 2005 to 13% in 2025. ·

By 2015, India will probably open a US$ 8 billion market for multi national pharmaceutical companies selling expensive drugs as predicted by the FICCI-Ernst Young India study. The domestic India pharma market is likely to reach US$ 20 billion by 2015

·

A whopping amount of US$ 6.31 billion will be invested in the Indian pharmaceutical industry as per the estimates of the Ministry of Commerce, Government of India

·

Patented drugs are predicted to capture up to a 10% share of the total Indian pharmaceutical industry by 2015 with a market size of US$2 billion.

·

The branded generics market will continue to dominate the Indian pharmaceutical industry. Sixty-one drugs worth US $ 80 billion will go off patent at the US Patent and Trademark Office between 2011 and 2013

·

By 2015, the specialty and super-specialty therapies will account for 45% of the pharma market. The growing lifestyle disorders, particularly metabolic disorders like diabetes and obesity as well as coronary heart disease and hypertension, cardiovascular, drugs will gain a considerable significance.

·

Although there will be a shift towards specialty therapies. Yet mass therapies will remain important in the Indian pharmaceutical industry.

The Indian pharmaceutical industry has grown reasonably during the past decade and has the potential to transform itself over the next decade too. The domestic pharma market of India will play a crucial role in fighting the growing diseases. However, the full potential of Indian pharmaceutical can only be achieved through sustained, progressive and collaborative efforts by the government and the pharmaceutical industry as a whole. Pharma Vision 2020 ·

Responsibilities and Resources would make an important beginning in the transition of efficient and effective use of pharmaceutical in building a prosperous and healthy India. In doing so, following issues have been identified for realizing the Pharma Vision 2020.

Management Guru: Journal of Management Research

·

The Indian pharmaceutical industry shall ensure that essential drugs at affordable prices are available to the vast population of this subcontinent and also continue providing employment for millions.

·

India shall implement all the rules and regulations, which guide, monitor and control the activities of the providers of the healthcare system in the country and shall examine the way to bring them up to international standards. The government should implement the recommendations of Mashelkar committee and constitute the Central Drug Authority at the earliest.

·

The basic course of education should be designed to ensure that the newly qualified pharmacist has the necessary knowledge and skills to commence practicing competently in a variety of settings including community and hospital pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. Continuing professional development must then be a lifelong commitment for every practicing pharmacist. Concept of National school of pharmacy should be established to develop and introduce model curriculum.

·

Pharmacists should become knowledgeable to participate in medication management and outcome monitoring. Pharmacy profession should orient concept of pharmacy practice at community and hospital pharmacies through appropriate training and compensation.

·

The pharmacy profession will make the clinical trial industry in India to grow to over a billion dollars in the next five years.

·

India will emerge as a major global player in the field of pharmaceuticals exports and as a provider of quality medicines at low costs. It shall also emerge as a major player in the generic drugs market in USA and Europe.

·

India shall attain new heights in herbal drugs research in shaping Indian Systems of Medicine into a popular system of medicine of the future for holistic health care and ensuring health care for all - especially for the welfare of the poor.

Conclusion The Indian Pharmaceutical sector is highly fragmented with more than 20,000 registered units. It has expanded drastically in the last two decades. The

25

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012


will play an important role in determining the future of many Indian pharmaceutical companies in the post product-patent regime after 2005. Indian companies, in an effort to consolidate their position, will have to increasingly look at merger and acquisition options of either companies or products. This would help them to offset loss of new product options, improve their R&D efforts and improve distribution to penetrate markets

leading 250 pharmaceutical companies control 70% of the market with market leader holding nearly 7% of the market share. It is an extremely fragmented market with severe price competition and government price control. The pharmaceutical industry in India meets around 70% of the country’s demand for bulk drugs, drug intermediates, pharmaceutical formulations, chemicals, tablets, capsules, orals and injectibles. There are about 250 large units and about 8000 Small Scale Units, which form the core of the pharmaceutical industry in India (including five Central Public Sector Units). These units produce the complete range of pharmaceutical formulations, i.e., medicines ready for consumption by patients and about 350 bulk drugs, i.e., chemicals having therapeutic value and used for production of pharmaceutical formulations.

Research and development has always taken the back seat amongst Indian pharmaceutical companies. In order to stay competitive in the future, Indian companies will have to refocus and invest heavily in R&D. The Indian pharmaceutical industry also needs to take advantage of the recent advances in biotechnology and information technology. The future of the industry will be determined by how well it markets its products to several regions and distributes risks, its forward and backward integration capabilities, its R&D, its consolidation through mergers and acquisitions, comarketing and licensing agreements

Following the de-licensing of the pharmaceutical industry, industrial licensing for most of the drugs and pharmaceutical products has been done away with. Manufacturers are free to produce any drug duly approved by the Drug Control Authority. Technologically strong and totally self-reliant, the pharmaceutical industry in India has low costs of production, low R&D costs, innovative scientific manpower, strength of national laboratories and an increasing balance of trade. The Pharmaceutical Industry, with its rich scientific talents and research capabilities, supported by Intellectual Property Protection regime is well set to take on the international market.

References

Indian companies need to attain the right productmix for sustained future growth. Core competencies

1.

Report on India’s Pharmaceuticals Industry by Corporate Catalyst India.

2.

A Brief Report of Pharmaceutical Industry in India March 2012.

3.

Global Pharma looks at India: Prospect for growth.

4.

Indian Pharmaceutical Industry- Future Trends.

5.

Overview of Pharmaceutical Industry by “India in Business” division of the Ministry. of External Affairs



“Man thinks foolishly that he can make himself happy, and after years of struggle finds out at last that true happiness consists in killing selfishness and that no one can make him happy except himself.” - Swami Vivekananda. (CW Vol - 1 Page - 84)



“You are all born to do it. Have faith in yourselves, great convictions are the mothers of great deeds. Onward for ever! Sympathy for the poor, the downtrodden, even unto death this is our motto.” - Swami Vivekananda (CW Vol - 5 Page - 30)



“The Education which does not help the common mass of people, to equip themselves for the struggle for life, which does not bring out strength of character, a spirit of philanthropy, and the courage of a lion - is it worth the name?” - Swami Vivekananda (CW Vol - 7 Page - 147)

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012

26

Management Guru: Journal of Management Research


FOOD SECURITY- A Multidimensional Problem for INDIA * Dr. Dipak B. Bhamare, Principal- NBNCOC, Sinhgad Campus, Lonavala **Dr. Priyanka Dipak Bhamare, NBNCOC, Sinhgad Campus, Lonavala

1. Introduction

1.

To understand the meaning of food security.

The problem of food security has not only single dimension but it has local, social, political and environmental dimensions also accross the globe and India is not an exception to this. All these elements are intertwined which makes the problem serious for the whole world. It is estimated that world population will reach 8 billion marks in the year 2025 and is excepted to double in by 2050 which require more and more food grains for survival. Though India is the 2nd largest producers of food grains it is also facing the problem seriously due to various dimension of this problem. However, as a result of green revolution and use of modern agro services the total production of food grains increased from 59.20 million tons in 1952-53 to 218.20 million tones in the year 2009-10 and yield increased from 580 kilograms /hector to 1798 kilograms /hectare the intervening period. Yet 300 millions people go without two square meals a day, despite the good economic performance. 200 millions people are food–insecure in India.

2.

To discuss the present scenario of the problem.

3.

To find out the current status of food security problem

4.

To take reviews of food production and availability of food grains.

5.

To detect the dimension of food security problem in India.

6.

To suggest measures to overcome the aforementioned problem.

3. Methodology The persent research is conceptual in nature. In order to define the main problem the researchers have used the secondary data specifically. To understand the nature and background of the problem the researchers referred various books, journals, articles, news papers, seminar/conference abstract and reports of various committees. In addition to this the researchers have collected material by browsing various websites and the view expressed by experts on blogs.

India is home to the largest number of hungry people in the world. In the ranking of Global Index 2008 India is ranked 66 out of 88 countries. While according to IFPRT 2009 reports on huger; India ranked 65 out of 84 countries, which is below Asian countries. Against the backdrop here an attempt is made to discuss the dimension of food security problem in India with following objectives.

4. Discussion 4.1 Meaning of Food –Security World food summit of 1996 defined food security in the following words “ Food security at the individual, household, national, regional and global level is achieved when all people at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life”. commonly the concept of food security is defined as meets people's dietary needs as well as food perform.

2. Objectives of the study In view of the introductory remarks , forgoing discussion and reports, the overall objective of the study is to understand the various dimensions of food security problems in India . The more specific objectives of the study have been set out as under.

Management Guru: Journal of Management Research

27

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012


7.

1. It could be said that food–security happens when all people at all times have enough food that-1. 1. Food Is Affordable , Safe And Healthy 2. Food Is Culturally Acceptable. 3. Food Meets Specific Dietary Needs. 4. Food Is Obtained In Dignified Manner. 5. Food Is Produced In Ways That Are Environmentally Sound And Socially acceptable.

4.3 Current status of food security in India Even in India the production of agriculture products is not the sole cause of food insecurity. India has become a fairly rich, endowed agricultural nation in Asia as a result of green revolution and its own potential. This fact will be clear from the following points.

4.2 Food security problem: present scenario The issue of food security in a developing country like India gives rise to twin problems of uncertain food production and unequal distribution. This makes serious impact on rural and urban population who live below poverty line. Food security is not only social or economic problem but also a problem of non- humanity approach in India. According to the statistical data published by Food Corporation of India and govt. of India, food grains availability is 230.229and 218 millions tones in the year 2008.2009 and 2010 respectively which is not enough for the population of more than1.3 million people. Though Govt. of India launched various programmes for removing poverty, hunger and malnutrition, 60% India’s population is still facing the problem of food insecurity, with this background it is necessary to the present scenario of this problem. 1.

2.

3.

While the general inflation declined, the inflation for food article doubled from 5% to 11% till the end of Jan 09 and presently on 20th Dec, 2009 as reported by finance minister of India it has reached 20% .

India is a home to more than 230 million undernourished people. More than 27% of undernourished population globally live in India (FAO-2008) 43% of children below 5 in the country are underweight. This figure is the highest in the world and is much higher than global proportion of 25% (UNICEF-2008). The proportion of stunted children less than 5 years of age is 48%. Which is again highest in the world? (Ministry health of India-2007).

1.

India is the 3rd largest producer of Agricultural commodity in the world producing 601 million tons per annum next to China and USA producing 856 million tons respectively.

2.

India is currently world’s 2nd largest country in respect of population and manpower with 1.15 million people with having land area of 2.97 million squ. meters.

3.

India is 2nd largest area of arable land in the world i.e. 184 million hectares which is more than China and it comprises one tenth of world's arable land.

4.

India has 56 million hector of irrigated land which is one fifth of world's irrigated land.

5.

India has the 2nd highest livestock population in the world, accounting for the worlds 50% of the buffaloes, 17 % of goats and 43% of sheep’s.

6.

India has achieved number one position regarding milk production which covers15 % of world milk production.

7.

India is also the world's largest producer of pluses and produces 15 millions tones of pluses.

8.

India is 2nd largest country in tea production and consumption.

9.

India is ranked 2nd in the world after Brazil in respect of fruit production. India's fruit production is around 32 millions tones which is 8% of world's fruit production.

4.

Every third adult (aged 15-49 years) in the country is reported to be thin (Min. health of India-2007).

5.

70% of children under 5year age are suffering from anemia. More than 80% don’t get Vitamin supplements (Ministry of health of India2007).

10. India is 2nd largest country in production of wheat, rice, sugarcane and vegetables.

More than 1.5 million children in India are at risk of becoming malnourished because of rising global food prices.(INICEG May-2008).

11. India is leading producer of oilseeds after China and USA, contributing 7% to 8% of world's oil seed production.

6.

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012

28

Management Guru: Journal of Management Research


12. India is world's 5 th largest eggs producer and 18 th largest producer of boilers.

4.4 Review of food production Exploding population, illiteracy and poverty are hurdles in our efforts to improve the food production in India. With the rise in population and erosion of resources the pressure on the unit area of land to produce-more- food grains has been mounting, irrespective of the necessary efforts taken by the Government. This fact became clear from the food production review displayed in the following table. Table no.1.

13. India is world's number eight country in the production of meat. In view of the above discussion it is clear that India is a leading food supplier to the world and producing enough food to feed its population but still facing the problem of food security irrespective of increase in production area and yield rate due to various reasons.

Table no.1 Area, Production, Yield and Irrigation Coverage under Food grains in India Year

Area

Production

Yield

% Coverage

(million Hectares)

(Million Tones)

(Kg/Hectare)

under Irrigation

1952-53

102.09

59.20

580

18.1

1962-63

117.84

80.15

680

19.8

1972-73

119.28

97.03

813

25.4

1982-83

125.10

129.52

1035

30.8

1992-93

123.15

179.48

1457

37.4

2002-03

113.86

174.77

1535

42.8

2003-04

123.45

213.19

1727

42.2

2004-05

120.00

198.36

1652

44.2

2005-06

121.60

208.60

1715

45.5

2006-07

123.71

217.28

1756

46.3

2007-08

124.07

230.78

1860

46.8

2008-09

122.83

234.47

1909

NA

2009-10

121.37

218.20

1798

NA

NA: Not Available Sources: (a) Ministry of Agriculture, Gol 2008 and 2010 & (b) Economic Survey, Gol 2009-10 area under food grains had assured irrigation in 195253, the irrigation coverage increased to 46.8 percent by 2007-08. Table no. 1 also indicates that since 200304, the area under food grains has remained more or less stagnant with a relatively stagnated yield rate.

It is evident from the above table that during 195253, 102.09 million hectares area was covered under food grains. The total food grains production achieved in1952-53 was 59.2 million tones with a per heater yield of 580 kilograms/hectare. Between1952-53 and 200910only 19.28 million hectare were added to the existing area under food cultivation. However, due to the impact of green revolution and the use of modern agro services, the total production increased from 59.20 million tons in 1952-53 to 218.20 million tons in 2009-10 and yield increased from 580 kilograms/hectare to 1798 kilograms /hectare in the intervening period. While 18.1 percent

Management Guru: Journal of Management Research

4.5 Population and Availability of food grains The problem of food security became serious dayby- day because of various reasons out of them increase in population is more significant. If we take the overview of growth of population rate and per capita availability of food grains this fact becames clear from the table no 2.

29

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012


Table no.2 Population and per capita per day net availability of food grains. Year

Population

Per Capita net availability per day (in grams)

(In Millions)

Cereals

Pulses

Total

1952-53

369.2

325.4

59.1

384.5

1962-63

452.2

398.9

62.2

460.9

1972-73

563.9

419.1

47.0

466.1

1982-83

703.8

415.6

39.2

454.8

1992-93

867.8

434.5

34.3

468.8

2002-03

1050.6

458.7

35.4

494.1

2003-04

1068.2

408.5

29.1

437.6

2004-05

1085.6

426.9

35.8

462.7

2005-06

1102.8

390.9

31.5

422.4

2006-07

1119.8

412.8

32.5

445.3

2007-08

1136.5

407.4

35.5

442.8

2008-09

1153.1

374.6

41.8

436.0

Sources: Economic Survey, Vol 2008-09 & 2009-10 This problem is multifaceted, hence, to take a review of all reasons behind this is very difficult. Here, we can spotlight the only challenge which at present India is facing intensely.

It becomes evident, from the above table that per capita availability of food grains was estimated to be 384.5 grams in 1952-53. The net per capita availability witnessed as upword trend till 72-73. Thereafter the trend did not show specific pattern. One can see a fluctuation in the per capita availability of food grains till 72-72 till 2008-09. During the year 2008-09, the per capita food grain availability was 436 grams which was 30.1 grams less than that of in 72-72. The per capita availability of cearles also goes down from 458.7 grams per day during 2002-03 to 374.6 gram during 2008-09.

1. Growth of population: The Indian population has already cross 1.1 billion mark and by the year 2010 it will touch 1.16 billion. Between 1990-2007 Indian population increased by 1.9% while food production only by 1.2%. Not only has this, the growth of Agriculture come down from 4.9% in 2007-08 to 1.6% in 2008-09. Under this situation to provide foodsecurity for such large population becomes a great challenge.

However, per capita per day availability of pluses increased from 35.4 gram to 41.8 gram during 2008-09. The per capita per day availability of pluses has reduced drastically by 29.5 gram from 59.1 gram during 1952-53 to 41.8 grams during 2008-09. In short the pattern of availability of food grains in the above table indicates that the six decades of economic planning has not been successful in ensuring sustainable food grain availability, despite its productivity. Therefore, it is necessary to find out the various reasons for food insecurity in India.

2. Increasing Rate of Urbanization: The share of Urban to total world population increased from 29% in 1950 to 50% in 2008 and the lion's share of this increase is attributed to developing countries. According to 2001 data 28% of total population in Urban area, at present it is assumed that this population will reach near about 35%. No doubt in rural area life is difficult due to lack of employment opportunities hence, people from rural areas move to urban areas. We know that towns and cities are often developed on farme land and forest land. As urban area grows, lands that once grew food disappeared under building constructions. Due to Urbanization Net Sown area has been declining, in this process prime Agriculture land may shift to Non-Agri. use and this

4.6 Causes for Food Security India is the fast developing country and powerful nation as such it cannot afford to have such a vast number of food insecure and the people malnourished. At present the problem of food security is all time high.

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012

30

Management Guru: Journal of Management Research


undergoing degradation. In India this situation is also same and degradation of land leads to increase in food prices which becomes hazard for food security.( This problem is serious in North-Eastern part, Himachal Pradesh and Sikkim area of the country).

becomes challenge for food security. 3. Climate Change: Climate change also showing its effects on food security. India ranks among top 5 countries in the world affected by natural disasters, flood and draught which reduces its agriculture productions adversely. Due to change in climate the percentage of total agriculture land was reduced and land may not be suitable to grow the present crop in future. Just on 16th and 18 th Dec, 2009, due to unseasonal monsoon near about 100hr crop are washout in Khandesh region. ? The small climate changes are more sensitive as they damage the whole eco-system and food chain e.g.1 O c change in temperature increases 0.18 tp 0.38 sea levels. This decreases availability of land for food production. 1.5 to 2.5 o c increase in temperature damages 10 to 20 % plants. Globally, climate conditions are creating their adverse effects on food production.

7. Over-Exploitation of Ground Water: Due to changing pattern of rainfall, tendency of over exploitation of ground water increases throughout the globe. Basically, Indian Agriculture is monsoon based, due to climate change percentage of rainfall decreases and total days of monsoon season becaming less and less and it will make adverse effect on the total food production of India.. 8. Policy of Bio.-fuel: food and fuel constitutes the major problems that the India is facing at this movement. While food is the basic human need for the survival, while fuel play significant role for economic development hence both are important. India started Bio-fuel production and its draft policy propose to start with a wending proportion of 5% by 2012, and 10 % by 2017 and over 10% after 2017.This must stop because bio-fuel strategy essentially means taking land away from food needed by the poor and to produce fuels for those whose stomachs are filled. Policy of Bio-fuel production ultimately takes land out of food production which makes adverse effect on food production along its prices, so the issue of bio-fuel production is also a growing challenge for food security.

4. Decrease in Food Production: India is the 2nd largest producer of food grains in the world, which feeds 17% of world population on only 3% of the world arable land. No doubt, over the various five year plans we have been working towards increasing Agriculture Production and try to provide food for person, still our productivity is less as compared to worlds agri. productivity. In the year 2007-08 our food grain production reached to 230.8 million tones due to serious measures and good monsoon. But due to changing Global warming /environment it is predicated that there is a shortage of food production nearby 10% which becomes a challenge against food security.

9. Changing Life Style: Thrust of progress leads industrialization urbanization and use of techno facility change the lifestyle of common man which increases the demand of energy in various forms i.e. electricity ,petrol, diesel, atomic ,which make adverse effects on ozone lire all this make adverse effects on environment and ultimately on food production.

5. Increasing Rate of Food Prices: Due to various reasons food prices throught the globe have doubled. In the year April 2007 and April 2008 alone they have increased by 85%. This price mainly increased for wheat, rice, pulses, eatable oil, vegetables etc. This hike in food prices makes serious effects on common man’s life. On the other side FAQ and IFPRI express their opinion that food prices will be high for at least next 10 years. While in India today where 60% people are unable to spend Rs.20/- daily, how they can manage 20% hike in food prices is really a chronic challenge for food security problem in India.

10. Review of food Mgt. Policy: India has set a 3 objectives of its food mgt. policy:

6. Degradation of Land: Land degradation refers to temporary or permanent decline in the productive capacity of land. According to FAO data published in July 2008, land degradation is increasing seriously in most of the forest and 10% of grass land

Management Guru: Journal of Management Research

a.

Procurement of food grains from farmers at remuneration prices.

b.

Distribution of food grains to consumers particularly the poor section.

c.

Maintain buffer stock of food grains to ensure food security

All these objectives have not fulfilled due to mismanagement and rigid policy of government. So it is the need of time to change this attitude to solve the

31

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012


problem of food security.

suggested:

11. Transport facilities: Though India is developing country; roads are not adequate for proper transport of agricultural crop, on top of this transport vehicles and other modes , especially those suited for horticultural perishable are in short supply. Transportations losses are mainly due to unsuitable containers, overloading of mixed fruit and vegetables, lack of feeder reads loading to highway or collection centers, virtual absence of refrigerated and insulted trucks etc. Due to this 20 to 25 % horticulture or agriculture produce goes wastage and create short supply in market and become one reason for food insecurity problem.

1.

Facilitate the setting up of local level Community Food banks. In such food banks food commodities should be loaned as per the need & should be realized after the surplus harvest.

2.

Setting up of food buffers at Gram Panchayat, So that supply to the needy could be ensured at right time.

3.

The public distribution system should be strengthened. The basket of PDS should be enlarged to accommodate more items so it can fulfill all the nutritional requirements of the public.

4.

Conserve every drop of water where it falls.

5.

Strictly regulate ground water extraction and get a rational water use policy giving preference to farming. The use of remote sensing GIS and GPS for making use of surface and ground water must be followed.

6.

Develop zone wise strategies to make up losses in Agri. Production.

7.

Remedial & adaptive steps may be taken immediately to enable Indian agricultural to change with changing environment

8.

Indigenous traditional, knowledge must be tapped, compiled and must be combined with solutions so it will helpful for climate change adoption.

9.

For achieving food security it requires correcting previous failures in Agri – policy by investing more recourses into research & setting up a fair global trading system to attract investment and create investment climate for private sector.

12. Heavy use of Pesticides: Increasing demand of food and fiber in the world has lead to greater use of pesticide for production of agriculture crops. It is observed that due to heavy use of pesticides production of agriculture crop increases more than 30% but due to this heavy use of pesticides the fertility of soil will be reduced in future so it will became a hazard for food production. 5. Remedies to achieve food security As we know India is basically an agriculture economy. The changing temperature & rainfall pattern and increasing carbon dioxide level is making adverse effect on its agriculture production on one side and due to financial crises it is compelled to cut out the investment in agriculture sector since the last decade. This situation makes the problem of food security more severe. Added to this, latest report of IPPC discloses that the temperature of globe will increased by 1.84 Celsius degree which also makes adverse effect on the productivity of agriculture and India may lose its production between 10 to 40% at the end of this century.

10. Private and public partnership may be started in order to boost investment in agricultural sector for establishing and promoting more and more agro based industries.

The Swaminath’s report on food security in rural India launched on 20 Feb. 2009, presents a real picture of rural India regarding food insecurity in different states. This report says that the number of undernourished people is rising, reversing gain made in the 1990, slowing growth in food production, rising unemployment and declining purchasing power of the poor in India are combining to weaken the rural economy. In short all these facts & reports suggest that the problem of food security may became more difficult if we do not take proper measures. In order to solve the problem of food security or to face the challenges of food security following remedies may

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012

11. The scheme of National Rural employment guarantee should spread out because this scheme will improve immediate food security and assist in long term food security through creation of assets. 12. Nutritional security scheme of govt. should not focus only on rural and tribal area but also the slum area of cities & towns.

32

Management Guru: Journal of Management Research


13. To stop the fair shop owners tendency of selling food grains in black / open market govt. should fill up the gap between MSP ( Minimum Support price ) & CIP (Central Issue price).

distribution system. For this reason it is necessary to use proper system for food preservation which will be helpful to solve the problem of food insecurity up to certain level.

14. The concept of Self help group should be promoted in rural & backward area because it not only creates work to the group but also increases their purchasing power by increasing their level of income.

22. The food processing industry is among the few that serves as vital link between agricultural and industrial segment which will improve the value of agricultural commerlization of agro products, ensure remunerative prices for farmers and make proper use of agro products and thus the problem for food insecurity will be reduced to certain extent.

15. Birdging the yield gap between the potential and the present level of food productivity through acceleration of seed production, integrated pest management, promotion of new production technologies like hybrids rice, timely planting of wheat and promotion of new improved variety of pluses, farmers training, supply of input ensuring their timely availability starting up awareness programmes for crop rotation & crop diversification through Gramsabha/ Grampanchayat at local level.

23. Bio-technology and genetical crops can be one of the solution for solving the said problem, as the use of Bio-technology and genetical crops in agriculture will not only boost the production but at the same time reduces environmental degradations also; thus it helps to solve the food insecurity problem. Conclusion The changing Temperature & uncertain Rain Falls, Increase in the percentage of Carbon Dioxide, Population, Urbanization, Food prices, Decrease in food production, Degradation of land, Over exploitation of water, Production of Bio-Fuel and changing life style etc. are important challenges which, make serious effect on Indian Food –Security problems. In the event of short supply of food grains, the prices of food articles are bound to remain at high level during next few years; hence along with the government, non- government agencies and common man must think about this situation not as a problem but as an opportunity to solve this problem. Food is not less than national security. It needs to be given top priority in the national planning. We cannot depend on Imports for maintaining food security. Every Indian must think that food security is a need of time for maintaining Social harmony, National integrity and overall development of economy. Food security is as important as national security.

16. For increase in food production it is necessary to avoid heavy use of pesticides treatment, use of right pesticide dose at right time and use of biological controls when it is required. This will be helpful for increase in food production without spoiling quality of soil. 17. To overcome the problem of changing environment, it is necessary to try different variety of plants which can survive in changing environment. Use of Gandhian philosophy i.e. proper use of natural resources will be helpful in controlling natural degradation. 18. One of the most important measures to tackle the problem of food security is to build and manage food reservoir which will take care of low cost but diet-rich food. 19. Adjustment to food consumption pattern maintains dietary quality and diversity.

References

20. An integrated cropping system i.e. multiple cropping, multilayer cropping, and mixed cropping must be followed instead of traditional farm system which will be helpful not only for increase in production but also increase the health of soil. 21. Many food products are perishable by nature hence require imparting better shelf life and protection from spoilage during their storage and

Management Guru: Journal of Management Research

33

1.

Seema Joshi (2010) Article of Food Security though family owned small farm -published in Global Food security concern, Reality and Remedies-ISBN No. 97881-8488-689-4

2.

Swaminathan,M(2007)Biotechnology in Agriculture, Macmillion India, New Dehli

3.

Dr. K.K.Tripathi and K.C.Mishra –Food security in India Policy issues and challenges. Article Published

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012


in Kurukshetra vol 59 No.5 March 2011 Page no 14

9.

Dr. Amrit patel- Food for all- The only way forward. Article Published in Kurukshetra vol 59 No.5 March 2011 Page no 28

United Nation Environment Program 2009- The Environmental Food Crisis. UNEP Report.

10.

World Food programme India 2009.

11.

Economic survey of India 2007-08, 2008-09 & 2009-10.

5.

Climate change and food security in India Article by Dr. N.Chattopadhyay.

12.

Kurukshetra volume 5Poverty and food security in India - By M.S. Bhatt 7 Sep. 2009.

6.

Joseph S & F.N. Tubiello- 2007 Global Food Security under Climate Change, PANS-104

13.

Hindustan Times 17th Nov, 2009 and Times of India 18th Dec, 2009.

7.

Bhutani R.C. –Fruits and Vegetables PreservationISBN no. 8176220809

14.

Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Health , India reports 2008-10

8.

Diwan P. and Sarkar A.N. 2009- Energy Security – Pentagon Press New Delhi

15.

Web site www.nfsm.gov.in, www.oneworld.net.

4.

www.agricoop.nic.in,



“All expansion is life, all contraction is death. All love is expansion, all selfishness is contraction. Love is therefore the only law of life.” Swami Vivekananda (VI.620)



“Love, truth and unselfishness are not merely moral figures of speech, but they form our highest ideal, because in them lies such a manifestation of power.” - Swami Vivekananda (I.32)



“Excess of power and knowledge without holiness makes a man devil.” - Swami Vivekananda



“Let men have light, let them be pure and spiritually strong and educated, then alone will misery cease in the world, not before…. The misery of man will still continue to exist until man’s character changes.” - Swami Vivekananda (I.53)



“Now you see what Karma-Yoga means; even at the point of death to help any one, without asking questions. Be cheated millions of times and never ask a question, and never think what you are doing.” - Swami Vivekananda (I.62)



This is the central idea of the Gita - to be calm and steadfast in all circumstances, with one’s body, mind, and soul centred at his hallowed feet!” - Swami Vivekananda



The only saint is that soul that never weakens, faces everything, and determines to die game.” - Swami Vivekananda. (I.479)



Have patience and be faithful to each other. Do not fight among yourselves. Be perfectly pure in money dealings…. So long as you have faith and honesty and devotion, everything will prosper.” - Swami Vivekananda (



“There is no better antidote to the poison of self-centredness than a healthy missionary zeal which consists in the urge to share to serve.” - Swami Vivekananda



Do not go the senses is the watchword of Vairagya. This is the watchword of all wellbeing. - Swami Vivekananda

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012

34

Management Guru: Journal of Management Research


“Strengths of India In Economic Recession” Dr. Anil Nagtilak Professor Sinhgad Institute Of Business Administration And Computor Application, Lonavala. Email - anilnagtilak@rediffmail.com Mobile No – 9850332155

Abstract : Recessions are the result of reduction in the demand for products in the Global market. Recession is a contraction phase of business cycle. Recession is a phase in which rupee depreciates, cash crunches occur, money market slows down, and inflation becomes evident. National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) is the official agency in charge of declaring that the economy is in a state of recession. Causes of Recession are discussed in this paper. Indian companies have major outsourcing deals from the US due to which India got affected by recession. US recession may be a boon for Indian offshore software companies. India was a great beneficiary of recession which minimized the impact of US recession on Indian industry. Factors like appreciation of rupee against dollar were a giant sign towards economic prosperity. Some corrective steps taken by India during recession were one of the strengths of India. Nuclear technology of India is also one of the major strengths of India. Results of recession are also discussed and in the end and some corrective steps have also been suggested.

less severe than a depression, and if a recession continues long enough it is often classified as a depression.

Introduction A recession is a decline in the country’s gross domestic product (GDP) growth for two or more consecutive quarters of a year. A recession is also preceded by several quarters of slowing down. Recessions are the result of reduction in the demand for products in the Global market. A drastic slowing of the economy is recession. A recession would be indicated by a slowing of a nation’s production, rising unemployment and falling interest rates, following a decline in the demand for money. In lay man's terms, recession is the time when there is economic decline, leading to a slowdown in trade and economic activity. It happens when consumers lose confidence in the growth of the economy and start to spend less, there is decrease in demand for goods and services. This leads to decrease in production. On the other hand, the profit margin of companies reduces due to rise in costs and they try cost cutting measures. The equity/stock markets react negatively to this. A lay off leads to rise in the unemployment rate and a decline in real income. National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) is the official agency in charge of declaring that the economy is in a state of recession. According to this agency recession is a significant decline in economic activity lasting more than a few months. Due to this reason the official designation of recession may not come until after we are in a recession for six months or more. It is a phase in which rupee depreciates, cash crunches occur, money market slows down and inflation becomes evident. Recession is generally considered

Management Guru: Journal of Management Research

Characteristics Of Recession 1.

Rising Unemployment: It takes time for unemployment to rise, but, even when the economy is recovering, it takes time for unemployment to fall. So, it is a delayed factor.

2.

Rising Government Borrowing: A recession is bad news for the government budget. A recession leads to lower tax revenues and higher government spending on unemployment benefits.

3.

Falling Share prices: Generally a recession leads to lower profitability and lower dividends. Hence, shares are less attractive. Falling share prices don’t always mean a recession, falling share prices can occur for many other reasons.

4.

Lower Inflation: A recession reduces demand and wage inflation. This should result in a lower inflation rate. A recession will definitely reduce demand pull inflation pressures and encourages price wars on the high street as firms seek to retain consumers.

5.

Falling Investment: Investment is much more volatile than economic growth.

Causes Of Recession There can be several reasons for recession. A few can be stated as follows:

35

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012






A recession normally takes place when consumers lose confidence in the growth of the economy and spend less.



This leads to a decreased demand for goods and services, which in turn leads to a decrease in production, lay-offs and rise in unemployment.



Investors spend less as they fear stocks values will fall and stock market fall on negative sentiment.



The rise in fuel prices and the already present inflation has reduced.



The problem of rising interest rates and lack of credit, it is safe to say that the consumers will now feel a pinch.



Rise in price of crude oil leads to an increase in the cost of energy, an essential pre-requisite when it comes to production and has thus eaten into the producers profits, thus forcing them to either cut the wages or reduce employment which again leads to increase in unemployment rate of the country.



Largely an unregulated environment, mortgage lending to subprime borrowers. Borrowers did not have adequate repaying capacity and also because of subprime borrowing had to pay two-to-three percentage points higher rate of interest.



not so good for those who have accumulated foreign exchange payment commitments.

An economy which grows over a period of time tends to slow down the growth as a part of the normal economic cycle.

3. Foreign Exchange Outflow: After the macro-economic reforms in 1991, the Indian economy has been increasingly integrated with the global economy. The financial institutions in India are exposed to the world financial market. Foreign institutional investment (FII) is largely open to India’s equity, debt markets and market for mutual funds. There is a serious concern about the likely impact on the economy because of the heavy foreign exchange outflows in the wake of sustained selling by Foreign Institutional Investors in the stock markets and withdrawal of funds by others. 4. Investment: Investments in mega projects, which were under implementation and in the pipeline, were bound to buy more time before injecting funds into infrastructure and other ventures. Investment in tourism, hospitality and health care had slowed down. Fresh investment flows into India was in doubt. 5. Real Estate: One of the casualties of the crisis was the real estate. The realty sector was witnessing a sudden slump in demand because of the global economic slowdown. The recession had forced real estate players to curtail their expansion plans. Many ongoing real estate projects were suffering due to lack of capital, both from buyers and bankers. The steel producers had decided to resort to production cuts following a decline in demand for the commodity. 6. Stock Market: The financial turmoil affected the stock markets even in India. The combination of a rapid sell off by financial institutions and the prospect of economic slowdown had pulled down the stocks and commodities market. The movement of Sensex showed a positive and significant relation with Foreign Institutional Investment flows into the market.

Lender institutions saw their balance sheets go into red as housing market collapsed.

Impact Of Recession On India 1. Information Technology: With the global financial system getting trapped in the quicksand, there was uncertainty across the Indian Software industry. The software companies had faced hard days.

7. Exports: The crisis sharply contracted the demand for exports adversely affecting the country’s growth prospects. The decline in export growth sharply affected some segments of the Indian Economy that were export oriented. The slowdown in world economy had affected garment industry. Rising unemployment and reduced spending by the Americans has forced some of the leading brands in the US to close down their outlets, which in turn has affected the apparel industry in India.

2. Exchange Rate: Exchange rate volatility in India has increased in the year 2008-09 compared to previous years. Massive selling by Foreign Institutional Investors and conversion of their holdings from rupees to dollars for repatriation has resulted in the rupee depreciating sharply against the dollar. This depreciation may be good for India’s exports that are adversely affected by the slowdown in global markets but it is

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012

8. Increase In Unemployment: The global financial crisis had increased unemployment. Layoffs

36

Management Guru: Journal of Management Research


output seemed to have ended, with a pick-up likely due to new infrastructure development. Investor confidence in India had certainly improved, as reflected in the rapid increase in net capital inflows in stock market.

and wage cuts were certain to take place in many companies where young employees were working in Business Process Outsourcing and Information Technology sectors. With job losses, the gap between the rich and poor has widened. There was downsizing in many other fields as companies cut costs.

4. Large Human Resource: Indian economy is bestowed with a large pool of skilled workers that work. This valuable strength of favorable demographics is inherited by the large industrial sector of the economy for its upliftment.

9. Banks: Some of the Indian banks had invested in derivatives which got exposed to investment bankers in U.S.A. Indian banks and financial institutions hadn’t experienced the kind of losses and write-downs that banks and financial institutions in the Western world had faced. Indian banks have very few branches abroad. Our Indian banks were slightly better protected from the financial meltdown, largely because of the greater role of the nationalized banks even today and other controls on domestic finance. Strict regulation and conservative policies adopted by Reserve Bank of India have ensured that banks in India are relatively insulated from the travails of their Western counterpart.

5. Growing Middle Class: Rapidly growing middle class section possesses a strong desire to consume. Hence, the Indian economy can easily maintain a preferential balance between its productivity and consumption even in recession. 6. Rich Natural Resource Base: The rich natural base that comprises of valuable resources like coal, iron ore, water, limestone, granite, etc. These energy resources promise a significant future potential for the Indian economy.

10. Poverty: The economic crisis had a significant bearing on the country’s poverty scenario. The increased job losses in the manual contract category in the manufacturing sector and continued layoffs in the export sector have forced many to live in penury.

7. Stable Democracy And Business Friendly India Government: Foreign direct investment cap has gone a sea change after the liberalization process. Economic policies of Indian government are friendly towards both domestic and MNCs. Along with availability of land at a cheaper rate is another factor behind the showering of FDI on India. In a nutshell, India has become a safe destination for better return on investment.

Strengths Of India In Economic Recession Some weaknesses of India became strengths of India during economic recession. Few strengths of India during recession are:

8. India’s Rapid Economic Growth: At present economy of India is now amongst the fastest growing economy in the world. Indian economy is rising upwards and economic growth is currently 8-9% i.e. second only to China.

1. Appreciation Of Rupee Against Dollar: The dollar in comparison to rupee has fallen from a rate of Rs 48 for 1$ to a rate which was expected by RBI to range from Rs 39.15-Rs 39.50. The appreciation of rupee has helped economy in many ways. The dollar has been the popular medium of foreign exchange for a long time. This development had a significant bearing on the Indian economy.

9. Fast-acting Central Bank: A fast-acting central bank, with room for rate cuts, has helped to loosen capital flows, while the government has stepped in with stimulus spending and tax cuts.

2. Well Established Domestic Market: The internal factors such as those of a strong internal demand, a richer population, an exploding middle class, increased employment along with the increasing basket of services which India had to offer has cushion the impact of the shockwaves which were spread, after the occurrence of recession in US economy.

10. High Savings: Projects are not being stifled by the credit crunch the way they are in other countries. India’s high savings rate were needed to be deployed somewhere. 11. Inexpensive Stocks: An investor who is after long term capital gains, recessions are great time to buy company stocks as they are often undervalued.

3. Fiscal And Monetary Policy: Fiscal and monetary policies have helped India in dodging the recession and sustaining the growth. India named as a sprinter, the downward trend in the country’s industrial

Management Guru: Journal of Management Research

12. Low Mortgage Rates: In the times of recession Reserve Bank reduces interest rate resulting

37

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012


in cheaper debt to companies and lower mortgage rates to families and individuals. This is done in an attempt to stop the country from falling into a recession. 13. Great Consumer And Travel Deals: As the recession worsens and people begin to purchase less and less, stores need to provide better deals and discounts to attract consumers and entice purchasing. Second hand bargains are even easier to find because there are less people looking to buy and more people looking to sell. 14. No Sub Prime Loans: In India still major banking operations are in the hands of Public Sector Banks who exercise cautious in distributing loans to needy people or companies. A glance at Indian banks’ balance sheets would show that their exposure to complex instruments like CDOs is almost nil. Hence, we hadn’t seen a repeat of sub-prime crisis in India. 15. Agricultural Dependence: Indian agriculture has not impacted by the global economy crises, except some export oriented crops. About 60-65% of India’s population and workforce depend on agriculture. Country’s agriculture sector saved India from huge impact of the global economic recession. Agriculture is an absolute necessary, producing the basic human needs food and clothing and exciting reason is Bio fuels. An investment in agriculture is considered as a conservation and tangible investment with consistent returns.



RBI needs to neutralize the outflow of FII money by unwinding the market stabilization securities that it had used to sterilize the inflows when they happened.



In the IT sector, there should be correction in salary offerings rather than job cutting.



Public should spend wisely and save more.



Taxes including excise duty and custom duty should be reduced to lighten the adverse effect of economic crunch on various industries.



In real estate the builders should drop prices, so as to bring buyers back into the market.



The government should try and improve liquidity, while CRR and SLR must be cut further.



Indian companies have to adopt a multi-pronged strategy, which includes diversification of the export markets, improving internal efficiencies to maintain cost competitiveness in a tight export market situation.

Opportunities In India Due To Recession 

Recession may be a boon for Indian offshore software companies.



The impact of recession is higher to small and medium sized (SMEs) enterprises whose bottom lines get squeezed due to lack of spending by consumers.



SMEs in the US are under severe pressure to increase profitability and business margins to survive. This will force them to outsource and even have M&A arrangements with Indian firms.



India is going to be a great beneficiary of this trend which will minimize the impact of the US recession on Indian industry.



It will be difficult to compensate for the loss of external demand arising out of export squeeze, without boosting domestic consumption.



There is an imperative need to boost the exports, keeping in view its growth impulses and employment potential. We need to imaginatively think where else can we sell our products and what would be the preferred consumption patterns of these newer markets.

Corrective Steps 

Tax cut is the first step any government takes during slump.



Government should hike its spending to create more jobs and boost the manufacturing sectors in the country.



Government should try to increase the export against the initial export.



The way out for builders is to reduce the unrealistic prices of property to bring back the buyers into the market.



The falling rupees against the dollar will bring a boost in the export industry.



The oil prices decline will also have a positive impact on the importers.



The government also takes steps to help the private sector come out of the crisis.

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012

38

Management Guru: Journal of Management Research




There is a world-wide feeling that pampering enhanced public outlays during the period of crisis is a key policy option. It has been commonly held that public outlays on infrastructure projects needs to be accorded top priority, keeping in view its multiplier effects on growth.



Employment generation is the key to minimize the impact of economic crisis on the social side. Specific measures to facilitate employment are called for in segments that are badly affected by the economic slowdown.



Focus should be on the financial system and enable it to fulfill adequately its functions in terms of the provision of credit to productive sectors. The domestic credit system must also fill the gap created by the drying up of external sources.



There is a need to bring about structural reforms to sustain the growth momentum. Country must invest in inducting environment friendly technology and promoting environmental friendly projects for sustainable development.



Purchasing power among the masses must be enhanced. The problem does not relate to increasing production, but increasing the purchasing power of the masses.

largely domestic demand driven. Financial stability in India has been achieved through perseverance of prudential policies which prevent institutions from excessive risk taking, and financial markets from becoming extremely volatile and turbulent. Despite all these, the global economic slowdown has hit the vital sectors of our economy, posing serious threats to economic growth and livelihood security. A series of fiscal and monetary measures have been taken by the government and the RBI to minimize the impact of the slowdown as also to restore the economic buoyancy. India has been consciously pursuing a high growth path in order to achieve the key objectives of rural regeneration, poverty alleviation, inclusiveness, or growth without jobs, will not ensure balanced and allround development of all sections of the society. The present impact of the slowdown on India’s growth rate is certainly not alarming. India still is one of the fastest growing economies in the world. The sheer size of Indian economy would help regain its lost ground. With the right mix of monetary and fiscal policies plus domestic reforms of the productive sectors, as an economy, India has the potential to emerge from this global recession stronger than before. References 1.

Claudio Borio, “The Financial Turmoil of 2007: A Preliminary Assessment and Some Policy Considerations”, BIS working paper 251, 2008

2.

Camilla Anderson, IMF Spells Out Need for Global Fiscal Stimulus,International Monetary Fund, IMF Survey Magazine: Interview,Washington, DC, December 29, 2008

3.

Charles Freedman, Michael Kumhof, Douglas Laxton, and Jaewoo Lee,The Case for Global Fiscal Stimulus, International Monetary Fund, IMF Staff Position Note SPN/09/03, March 6, 2009

4.

Edmund Conway, “WEF 2009: Global crisis ‘has destroyed 40pc of world wealth’,” January 29, 2009, Internet edition.

5.

Emerging Markets: Decoupling is not a myth, March 6, 2008, www.economist.com Global Economic Outlook 2008

6.

Luc Laeven and Fabian Valencia. “Systemic Banking Crises: A New Database,” International Monetary Fund Working Paper WP/08/224,October 2008

7.

Speech by Dr. D. Subbarao, Governor, Reserve Bank of India at the Bankers’ Club, Kolkata on December 10, 2008

Conclusion The impact of the subprime crisis along with a slowdown in mortgages has led to a significant lowering of growth estimates. For India, it could mean a further appreciation in the rupee against US dollar and a darkening of business outlook for sectors dependent on US companies. Strong growth in domestic consumption and significant spending on infrastructure are the two pillars of India’s growth story. No sector has a dominant influence on earnings growth and risks to our estimate are limited. Corporate India is also learning to master the art of efficient capital management, reduction in costs and delivery of valueadded services to sustain profit margins. Interest rates are expected to be stable primarily due to control over inflation and proactive measures undertaken by the RBI. RBI’s decisions to appropriate use of a range of instruments such as CRR, Repo/Reverse Repo rate, SLR MSSand LAF are in the right direction and taken in time. India has by-and-large been spared of global financial contagion due to the sub-prime turmoil for a variety of reasons. India’s growth process has been

Management Guru: Journal of Management Research

39

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012


8.

Speech delivered by Dr. D. Subbarao, Governor, Reserve Bank of India at the Financial Management Summit, 2009 organized by the Economic Times on May 22, 2009 in Mumbai

9.

The Financial Crisis: Impact on and Response by the European Union,Congressional Research Service Report for Congress, USA,March 9, 2009

10.

The Global Economic Crisis: Assessing Vulnerability with a Poverty Lens, The World Bank Policy Note, Newsletter n. 5, February 2009

11.

The Global Financial Turmoil and Challenges for the Indian Economy

12.

Speech by Dr. D. Subbarao, Governor, Reserve Bank of India at the Bankers’ Club, Kolkata on December 10, 2008

13.

Marjit,S and Pranab Kumar Das:Financial Sector Reform for Stimulating Investment and Economic Growth:The Indian Experience. Pg 131, Macroeconomic Management and Government Finances, Asian Development Bank, 2009.

14.

Marjit,S and S Kar(2009): “A Contemporary Perspective on the Informal Labour Market:Theory,Policy and the Indian Experience” in Economic and political Weekly,Vol XLIV,No 14,April 4,2009.

15.

Reserve Bank of India: Handbook of Statistics on Indian Economy, various issues.

16.

Reserve Bank of India (2009): Macro Economic and Monetary Developments in 2008-2009.

17.

Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy: Prowess (Firm Level Database)



Emotion is the Most Precious Gift which God has given to human Beings. But it becomes the most dangerous gift, if we do not know how to handle it.” - Swami Vivekananda



The goal of mankind is knowledge ... Now this knowledge is inherent in man. No knowledge comes from outside: it is all inside. What we say a man ‘knows’, should, in strict psychological language, be what he ‘discovers’ or ‘unveils’; what man ‘learns’ is really what he discovers by taking the cover off his own soul, which is a mine of infinite knowledge - Swami Vivekananda



Everything lies in the preparation. How long does it take to strike a light? Only a second; but how long it takes to make the candle!... We want to strike the light in a second, but we forget that the making of the candle is the chief thing.” (i.e. making of character is the chief thing). - Swami Vivekananda.



This Rishihood, this power of super sensuous perception of Vedas, is real religion. And as long as this does not develop in the life of an initiate, religion is a mere empty word to him, and it is to be understood that he has not yet taken the first step in religion.” - Swami Vivekananda.



“….this selling yourself to your own mind does not befit you, my soul. You are infinite, deathless, birthless. Because you are inifite spirit, it does not befit you to be slave…..Arise! Awake! Stand up and fight! Die if you must.” Swami Vivekananda



“If there have been sages and Rishis in the past, be sure that there will be many now...Whatever you believe, that you will be. If you believe yourselves to be sages, sages you will be tomorrow….” - Swami Vivekananda.

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012

40

Management Guru: Journal of Management Research


An Analytical Study on Awareness level among Women about Contraceptive Products with special reference to selected Rural Areas of Baroda District. Dr. Umesh R. Dangarwala*, Ms. Krupa J. Rao**, Ms. Nisha V. Patel***

Abstract : This paper in a preliminary stage makes an attempt to study the awareness level of Contraceptives, products among women in the selected rural areas of Baroda District. In Secondary stage the paper tries to examine the correlation among awareness, availability and the uses of contraceptive products depending upon their Age, Educational Qualification, Marital status, Social status, Family income, highest education in the family. In the Final stage paper covers the availability of various contraceptive products in their locality. Last but not least it also highlights the uses of contraceptive products by women in that particular area. The survey will be helpful in studying the achievement of the national socio-demographic goals too. An attempt has also been made to study the effectiveness of marketing channels vis-à-vis strategies about the contraceptive products in the selected rural areas of Baroda district. * Dr. Umesh R. Dangarwala, M.Com. (Busi. Admn.) M.Com. (Acct.), F.C.A., A.I.C.W.A., M.Phil., Ph.D., Associate Professor, Department of Commerce and Business Management, Faculty of Commerce, The M.S. University of Baroda, Baroda. (M) : 98240 19199, e-mail : udangarwala@indiatimes.com ** Ms. Krupa Rao, (M.Com., Bus. Mgnt.) Assistant Professor, Department of Commerce and Business Management, Faculty of Commerce, The M.S. University of Baroda, Baroda. (M) 82386 01409, kruparao3105@yahoo.com. *** Ms. Nisha Patel, (M.Com., Bus. Mgnt.) Assistant Professor, Department of Commerce and Business Management, Faculty of Commerce, The M.S. University of Baroda, Baroda. (M) 97146 32223, nisha_patel1405@yahoo.com.

India is a prime example of Thomas Malthus’ theory of population growth and its effect on the economy. India is a country plagued by poverty primarily caused by overpopulation. A majority of the poor population is unemployed, starving, and is being forced to beg on the streets to make ends meet. This is a race that the Indian government is losing. Rapid population growth complicates the task of providing and maintaining the infrastructure, education and health care needed by modern economies.

Introduction: Overpopulation is a growing problem throughout the world at this stage in time. Currently, the world population has crossed over the six billion mark and is on an exponential path upwards. Particularly in India, it stands at the second stage in terms of population which has been estimated to be first by the year 2025. In the context of India particularly in Rural area, there’s 70% of population. Here, we have been facing various adverse effects of overpopulation, mainly in country’s Economy and Environment.

Impact of overpopulation:

Robert Malthus states that population increase is detrimental to a nation’s economy due to a variety of problems caused by the growth. On the macroeconomic level, it is more believable to argue that population does undermine a nation’s economy because an increase in the number of people leads to an increase of the number of mouths to feed. Management Guru: Journal of Management Research

Economy: When countries are overpopulated, they hardly have enough food to support themselves, never mind the hope of having a surplus to sell. This can contribute to a low GDP per Capita which is effect overpopulation has on the economy. In an attempt to save the people from the starvation, the government will most likely have to rely on foreign debt.

41

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012


performed unsafely, which result in 70,000 deaths and 5 million disabilities per year globally. Abortions are unsafe when performed by persons without the proper skills or outside of a medically safe environment. An estimated 42 million abortions are performed

Environment: Every person on the planet takes up space, but space is needed for farmland, and forests. Forests are being torn down as more wood and land is needed to support our ever-growing population. The loss of these forests leads to extinction of plants and animals. These plants could contain cures for diseases.

Sterilization:

Health care: The amount of waste produced by increasing population will hamper the waste management program in several countries. Untreated waste and poor hygiene will result in the spread of diseases. A large population will make the spread of contagious diseases even more easier.

Surgical sterilization is available in the form of tubal ligation for women and vasectomy for men. Although sterilization is considered a permanent procedure due to the uncertainty of reversal possibility, it is possible to attempt a tubal reversal to reconnect the Fallopian tubes in females or a vasectomy reversal to reconnect the vasa deferentia in males. The rate of success depends on the type of sterilization that was originally performed and damage done to the tubes as well as the patient’s age.

Methods of Population Control: Population control may use one or more of the following practices although there are other methods as well: 

Contraception



Contragestion



Vasectomy



Essure



medical abortion



Sterilization



Behavioural methods

Vasectomy: A vasectomy is a minor surgical procedure for male sterilization and/or birth control. During the procedure, the vasa deferentia of a man are severed, and then tied/sealed in a manner which prevents sperm from entering into the seminal stream (ejaculate). Vasectomy should not be confused with castration, which is the surgical removal of the testicles. Essure: Essure is a permanent transcervical sterilization procedure for women.

The method(s) chosen can be strongly influenced by the religious and cultural beliefs of community members.

Behavioral methods: Behavioral methods involve regulating the timing or methods of intercourse to prevent the introduction of sperm into the female reproductive tract, either altogether or when an egg may be present.

Contraception: Contraception include barrier methods, such as condoms or diaphragm, injectable contraceptives, and hormonal contraception, also known as oral contraception. The most common methods of hormonal contraception include the combined oral contraceptive pill and the minipill.

Lactational: From ancient times women tried to extend breastfeeding in order to avoid a new pregnancy. The lactational amenorrhea method, or LAM, gives guidelines for determining the length of a woman’s period of breastfeeding infertility.

Contragestion: Contragestives include intrauterine devices placed inside the uterus and some forms of hormonal “emergency contraception”.

Fertility awareness: Symptoms-based methods of fertility awareness involve a woman’s observation and charting of her body’s fertility signs, to determine the fertile and infertile phases of her cycle. Charting may be done by hand or with the assistance of fertility monitors.

Abortion: Abortion is the termination of a pregnancy by the removal or expulsion of a fetus or embryo from the uterus, resulting in or caused by its death. Abortion has a low risk of maternal mortality except for abortions

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012

42

Management Guru: Journal of Management Research


It is generally assumed that having knowledge about contraception might encourage women to use contraceptives effectively. However, this assumption could depend on the type of information women have about contraception. Women should be adequately informed about contraceptive methods, how and when to use such methods, where to obtain contraceptives, as well as the side-effects associated with specific contraceptive methods and their management.

Other important measures for reducing the overpopulation problem: 1. Education: Education in family planning—particularly among women—has been linked statistically to reduced population growth. According to studies cited by The Independent in Great Britain, women who complete secondary education programs are likely to focus on the “quality” of their children rather than the “quantity,” which translates into having fewer children over the course of a lifetime.

Literature Review: 1) Misconceptions about contraceptives are closely linked with side-effects experienced by women when using certain contraceptive methods. Misconception about a contraceptive, such as Depo Provera, which causes amenorrhoea, may lead to the rejection of effective modern contraception (Maforah et al.1997:80).

2. Government Incentives: A simple and direct means to encourage people to have fewer children is through the use of government incentives: offering tax breaks or similar methods provided families stop growing after having two children. Governments can further encourage the trend by funding education projects and ways to inform the populace about the costs of raising more than a set number of children.

2) Amenorrhoea should be explained as a sideeffect of Depo Provera that could be considered normal, especially after the first year of use. Silberschmidt and Rasch (2001:1819) found that some girls who had tried oral contraceptives had stopped using them because of side-effects, such as irregular bleeding. It is imperative that clients seeking contraceptives be informed about contraceptive methods, their side-effects and how to manage such side-effects. Having such knowledge may reduce fears and misconceptions about contraceptives and may subsequently encourage clients to use contraceptives consistently.

Rationale of the study: The main purpose of carrying out the study is because of the women of rural areas have - Lack of openness - Lack of education - Lack of awareness regarding the birth-control products and sexually transmitted diseases which occurs due to unsafe intercourse.

3) Other religions lack sharply defined doctrines on fertility control, or show support for contraception. In Thailand, for instance, Buddhism encourages and respects the autonomy of women, and, therefore, it is believed that they are entitled to make their own decisions about the use of contraceptives (Popenoe et al. 1998:412).

Contraception: Overpopulation in India is a very serious problem, and the government has attempted to enact policies to control the population. While this overpopulation may be stated as the “most profound symbol” of powerless women, it may also be considered overemphasized. It is true that the high population is related to the poor status of women, but this is again overemphasized by the feminist point of view.

4) Popenoe et al. (1998:412) indicate that Islam, with a strong patriarchal history, considers the use of contraceptives as a sin, encourages couples to have large families and regards being a wife and mother as the woman’s primary role in life. The authors noted that traditional Muslim values may be changing, for Egypt and Pakistan, two Muslim countries with serious population problems, have embarked on successful national family planning.

The paper will examine the role of rural awareness in females regarding the contraceptive products and the relationships between awareness and usage of the products. It will also examine why even available contraceptive products are not been utilised.

Management Guru: Journal of Management Research

5) Research conducted in the RSA, found that some women resorted to abortion, even though they

43

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012


acknowledged their communities’ strict disapproval, on conventional religious grounds, of pregnancy terminations (Maforah, Woods & Jewkes, 1997:82). Women had failed to use contraceptives to prevent unwanted pregnancies on religious grounds, but had to terminate such pregnancies in order to comply with their religious doctrines. Such women are often in a dilemma of not knowing which actions will be right or wrong when making decisions about contraception.

products among the women of selected rural areas of Baroda district” Research Objective: 1)

To study the awareness among women about contraceptive products.

2)

To study the impact of awareness of usage

3)

To study the impact of availability and usage

6) Various studies have shown that the majority of women know about commonly used contraceptive methods, such as the Pill, injections, condoms, sterilisation and abstinence (Maja & Ehlers, 2004:44; Mbokane & Ehlers, 2006:44),

4)

To study the relationship between age of respondent and level of awareness.

5)

To study the relationship between education qualification and level of awareness

7) But that some of them, despite having knowledge about contraceptives, still had unintended pregnancies and terminated such pregnancies (Mbokane & Ehlers, 2006:45; Myburgh, Gmeiner & Van Wyk, 2001:39). This could suggest that women who terminated pregnancies might not have been adequately informed to prevent unplanned and unwanted pregnancies.

6)

To study the relationship between occupation of rural people and level of awareness.

7)

To study the influence of family Patten on level of awareness.

8)

To study the influence of family Patten on usage.

9)

To study the influence of awareness on usage

10) To study the relationship between usage and level of awareness.

8) Studies have shown that girls and boys are mainly informed about contraceptive issues by their mothers, the media and sisters. On the other hand, fathers had reportedly not shared any contraceptive information with their children (Maja & Ehlers, 2004:44; Mbokane & Ehlers, 2006:51).

11) To study the relationship between family pattern and level of awareness. 12) To study the influence of awareness on usage. 13) To study the influence of easy availability on usage

9) Teachers, health-care providers, churches, and other social groups could also play a continuous role in informing children about sexually related issues and ways of preventing risky behaviours. Reportedly, some young girls and boys had received contraceptive information from such sources (Ehlers & Maja, 2001:10; Seekoe, 2005:28).

Research Hypothesis: H1: There is no significant difference of awareness about the contraceptive products amongst the women in rural areas of Baroda district due to age variable. H2.There is no significant difference of awareness about the contraceptive products amongst the women in rural areas of Baroda district due to family pattern variable.

10) The studies reviewed by Casterline found that access toschooling did not affect fertility once parental education and other individual level variables were controlled. In contrast, research focused on child schooling’s effects on the proximate fertility determinants is more successful as the linkages are less complex and contradictory (Guilkey and Jane; Sathar et al.)

H3.There is no significant difference of awareness about the contraceptive products amongst the women in rural areas of Baroda district due to education level variable.

Research Methodology:

H4.There is no strong influence of income on the usage of contraceptive products amongst the women in rural areas of Baroda district.

Research Problem: “An analytical study of awareness, availability and usage of contraceptive

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012

44

Management Guru: Journal of Management Research


was undertaken by using independent t-test, One-way ANOVA and simple Statistical regression so as to examine the influence, relationship and significance of hypotheses.

H5.There is no strong association between awareness and usage of contraceptive products amongst the women in rural areas of Baroda district. H6. There is no strong influence of availability on the usage of contraceptive products amongst the women in rural areas of Baroda district. 

Sample Size: 200 sample (women).



Sampling Area: Rural areas of Baroda district.



Sampling Method: Selected stratified convenient sampling.



Research Method: Field survey.



Research Instrument: Questionnaire.

Result: Results related to the examining of the first hypothesis which was:There is no significant difference of awareness about the contraceptive products amongst the women in rural areas of Baroda district due to age variable. To test the above hypothesis, if there was any statistical difference at Alfa 0.05, we had to use One Way ANOVA-test to check the awareness about the contraceptive products amongst women in rural areas of Baroda district statistical average difference. The following table presents the finding we got.

Data analysis: For this purpose, this data was analysed by using software package for social sciences (SPSS). Analysis

Table No. (1) ANOVA-test to examine the level of awareness about the contraceptive products amongst the women in rural areas of Baroda district according to age variable. 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00Source 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00variance 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 0 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00Sum 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00of 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 Df 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00Mean 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00F 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 Sig. 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000Domain 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 Square 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00Squares

Awareness

Between Groups Within Groups Total

433.173 13597.287 14030.460

It is quite clear from the data in the previous table that there was no statistical differences at (0.05) of awareness about the contraceptive products amongst the women in rural areas of Baroda district, that was due to the age variable, as the value of significance was more than (Alpha = 0.05) where the significant value for the ultimate degree was (0.104). This led us to accept the null hypothesis.

3 196 199

144.391 69.374

2.081

.104

Results related to the examining of the second hypothesis which was:There is no significant difference of awareness about the contraceptive products amongst the women in rural areas of Baroda district due to family pattern variable. To test this hypothesis of the study, t-test was employed for the sample, to test the differences among the means of joint family and nuclear one and the results was as follows:

Table No.(2)T-test results of the independent variables to examine level of differences of awareness about the contraceptive products amongst the women in rural areas of Baroda district due to family pattern variable. 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 Domain Family Structure N Mean T-test df Sig.

Awareness

Joint Nuclear

Management Guru: Journal of Management Research

124 76

45

44.852 40.248

-.088

198

.820

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012


There is no significant difference of awareness about the contraceptive products amongst the women in rural areas of Baroda district due to education level variable.

It is clear from the previous data that there was no statistical differences at 0.05 in awareness about the contraceptive products amongst the women in rural areas of Baroda district due to family pattern (nuclear or joint), as the value of the domain reached .820 which is more than 0.05, This led to accept the null hypothesis. It means that women’s awareness from nuclear families and those from joint families in the sample Baroda district and the level of awareness of women were close to each other.

To examine the above hypothesis, if there was any statistical difference at Alfa 0.05, One Way ANOVA-test had been used to check the awareness about the contraceptive products amongst women in rural areas of Baroda district statistical average difference due to education level. The following table presents the finding we got.

Results related to the examining of the third hypothesis which was:-

Table No. (3) ANOVA-test to examine the level of awareness about the contraceptive products amongst the women in rural areas of Baroda district according to education level. 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 Domain 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Source 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0variance 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Sum 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0of 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Df 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Mean 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0F 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sig. 00000000000000000000 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Squares 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Square 000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000

Awareness

Between Groups Within Groups Total

1824.368 12206.091 14030.460

It is quite clear from the data in the previous table that there was a statistical differences at (0.05) of awareness about the contraceptive products amongst the women in rural areas of Baroda district, that was due to the age variable, as the value of significance

4 195 199

456.092 6.595

7.826

.000

was less than (Alpha = 0.05) where the significant value for the ultimate degree was (0.000). This led us to reject the null hypothesis and to explore the difference on the level; a test of least source deviation was done (LSD).

Table No.(4)LSD-test results to show the differences and its direction for the level for awareness about the contraceptive products amongst the women in rural areas of Baroda district according to education level. 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00th 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 Up to 10 th 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Education 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Up 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0to 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00th 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 Up 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00to 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00Others 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 to 5 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 00 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000Up 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 00012 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 Graduation Level 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 Mean 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 000 000Mean 00000000000000000000000000000000000000 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00Mean 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 44.788 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 Mean 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 38.833 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 041.231 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Mean 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 32.062 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 46.460 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000

Up to 5th

----------

3.455*

5.955*

12.726*

------------

Mean 44.788 Up to 10th

----------

----------

-----------

9.171*

-5.226*

Mean 41.231 Up to 12th

---------

----------

------------

---------------

-7.627*

Mean 38.833

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012

46

Management Guru: Journal of Management Research


Up to Graduation Mean 32.062 Others

-----------

-----------

--------------

--------------

-14.398*

----------

-----------

----------------

---------------

-------------

Mean 46.460 It is clear from the above table that the differences between answers of the respondents with regard to the level of awareness about the contraceptive products amongst the women according to education level has been among respondent from (others category) and respondent from up to 10, up to 12 and up to graduation and was in favor of the “others category” indicating that their awareness appreciation expressing is more compared to the rest. Where, differences also appeared from the table between answers of the respondents with regard to the level of awareness about the contraceptive products amongst the women according to education level among respondent from up to 5, up to 10 and up to graduation and was in favor of the “up to 5 and up to 10” indicating that their awareness appreciation in expressing is more compared to the rest. Furthermore, differences can be noticed from the table between answers with regard to the level of awareness

about the contraceptive products amongst the women according to education level among respondent from up to 5 and up to 10, up to 12 and was in favor of “up to 5” indicating that their awareness appreciation in expressing is more. Results related to the examining of the fourth hypothesis which was:There is no strong influence of income on the usage of contraceptive products amongst the women in rural areas of Baroda district. To examine the above hypothesis, if there was any statistical difference at Alfa 0.05, One Way ANOVA-test had been used to check the influence of income on the usage of contraceptive products amongst the women in rural areas of Baroda district statistical average difference. The following table presents the finding we got.

Table No. (5) ANOVA-test to examine the influence of income on the usage of contraceptive products amongst the women in rural areas of Baroda district. 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00Domain 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Source 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0variance 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Sum 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0of 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Df 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Mean 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0F 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Sig. 00000000000000000000 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Squares 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Square 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000

Usage

Between Groups Within Groups Total

325.512 1585.798 1911.311

It is quite clear from the data in the previous table that there was a statistical differences at (0.05) of usage of the contraceptive products amongst the women in rural areas of Baroda district, that was due to the income variable, as the value of significance was less

Management Guru: Journal of Management Research

3 196 199

108.504 8.091

13.411

.000

than (Alpha = 0.05) where the significant value for the ultimate degree was (0.000). This led us to reject the null hypothesis and to explore the difference on the level; a test of least source deviation was done (LSD).

47

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012


Table No.(6)LSD-test results to show the differences and its direction for the level of influence on the usage of contraceptive products amongst the women in rural areas of Baroda district according to Income variable. 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 000 000 000 000 000Income Level 0 to 5000 5000 to 10000 10000 to 20000 20000 to 30000 00 00 00 00 00 00 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Mean 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 24.087 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Mean 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 021.594 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Mean 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 20.357 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0Mean 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 022.285 0000000000000000000000000000000000000

0 to 5000

----------

2.493*

3.730*

--------------

Mean 24.087 5000 to 10000

----------

----------

-----------

--------------

---------

----------

------------

---------------

-----------

-----------

--------------

--------------

Mean 21.594 10000 to 20000 Mean 20.357 20000 to 30000 Mean 22.285 It is clear from the above table that the differences between answers of the respondents with regard to the usage level of the contraceptive products amongst the women according to income level has been among respondent’s income from (Zero to 5000) and respondent from “5000 to 10000”, “10000, 20000” and was in favor of the “Zero to 5000” indicating that income influence on usage appreciation expressing is more compared to the rest.

The analysis of simple regression tells us that correlation between awareness and usage of contraceptive products amongst the women in rural areas of Baroda district (R=60.8%), in addition, the results show that 37% of the variance in usage of contraceptive products frequency is explained by awareness. On the other hand, F value is (116.101) and this value is significant at p equal or less than 0.05. According to the previous result, the researchers reject the null hypotheses.

Results related to the examining of the fifth hypothesis which was:-

Results related to the examining of the sixth hypothesis which was:-

There is no strong association between awareness and usage of contraceptive products amongst the women in rural areas of Baroda district.

There is no strong influence of availability on the usage of contraceptive products amongst the women in rural areas of Baroda district.

To examine the above hypothesis, if there was any influence, simple regression-test had been used to check the relationship and influence of awareness on the usage of contraceptive products amongst the women in rural areas of Baroda district statistical average difference. The following table presents the finding we arrived to.

To examine the above hypothesis, if there was any influence, simple regression-test had been used to check the relationship and influence of availability on the usage of contraceptive products amongst the women in rural areas of Baroda district statistical average difference. The following table presents the finding we arrived to.

Through the results of simple regression shown on table ( ) we find the following results R Awareness 0.608

R2 0.370

F

Through the results of simple regression shown on table (8) we find the following results

Sig

116.101 0.000 availability

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012

48

R

R2

F

Sig

0.423

0.179

43.256

0.000

Management Guru: Journal of Management Research


The analysis of simple regression tells us that correlation between availability and usage of contraceptive products amongst the women in rural areas of Baroda district (R=42.3%), in addition, the results show that 17.9 % of the variance in usage of contraceptive products frequency is explained by availability. On the other hand, F value is (43.256) and this value is significant at p equal or less than 0.05. According to the previous result, the researchers reject the null hypotheses.

4.

Government of India. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Annual Report, 1995–96. New Delhi: Government of India Press, 1996.

5.

Government of India. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. National Population Policy. New Delhi: Government of India Press, 2000.

6.

WHO. The World Health Report 1997. Conquering Suffering, Enriching Humanity. Geneva: World Health Organisation, 1997.

7.

Rafkin, Susan B. Paradigm lost – toward a new understanding of community participation in health programmes. Link 1996; 14: 2.

8.

Government of India. Report of the Health Survey and Development Committee. Simla: Government of India Press, 1946.

9.

Government of India. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Annual Report, 2000–2001. New Delhi: Government of India Press, 2001.

10.

Government of India. Bulletin on Rural Health Statistics in India, December 1999. New Dehli: Rural Health Division, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, 2000.

11.

Health Issues in the Parliament. Rajya Starred Question No. 489, 27 August 2001. Health for Million, Voluntary Health Association of India, 2000; 27: 5–6.

12.

Duggal R. Health Care Budgets in a Changing Political Economy. Economic and Political Weekly May 1997: 17–24.

13.

Ghosh A. Health Care and Globalization – Case for Selective Approach. Economic and Political Weekly 24 February 1996.

14.

Balasubramaniam K. Structural Adjustment Programs and Privatization of Health. LINK (Newsletter of the Asian Community Health Action Network) 1996; 14: 2.

15.

Mukhopadhyay A. State of India’s Health, 1998. New Dehli: Voluntary Health Association of India, 1999.

16.

Census of India, ed. by P. Padmanabhan, Registrar General and Census Commissioner for India: Series 1, paper 1/1981, New Delhi.

17.

Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, (1975): Family Welfare Programme in India, Year Book 1974-75, New Delhi, Government of India.

CONCLUSION: Our strength i.e. population, is our weakness for development of the nation. The overpopulation adversely affects the economy as well as the environment of the nation. It is noteworthy that the method for population control is strongly influenced by the religious and the cultural beliefs of community members. The effective measures for reducing the overpopulation the problems are education and government incentives. Lack of: openness, education and awareness regarding birth-control products, are main causes for overpopulation. On the basis of analysis, the study concludes that the awareness, availability and usage of contraceptive products are highly dependent on the education, family income and the sources of knowledge. Hence, it is highly essential, in the interest of economic development of the nation to control the population by effective implementation of special drive for spreading the education of family planning products, particularly among women of villages, which will also be the effective strategy for marketing of contraceptives and related products among people of rural areas. References: 1.

2.

3.

Mukhopadhyay A, Srinivasan R, Bose A et al. Recommendations of Independent Commission on Health in India. New Dehli: Voluntary Health Association of India, 2001. Park K. Communicable diseases. In: Banot B (ed) Park’s Text Book of Preventive and Social Medicine, 16th edn. Jabalpur: Banarsidas Bhanot, 2000: 172–5. Deodhar NS. Health Situation in India: 2001, 1st edn. New Delhi: Voluntary Health Association of India, 2001.

Management Guru: Journal of Management Research

49

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012


Returns on Ipo’s– A Study of Banking Sector Ipo’s *Dr. P.K. Bandgar, **Prof. Atul Rawal,

market, issue debt, or conduct an IPO. So what prompts investors and the company to go with the IPO option? In addition to provide an immediate capital influx and mechanism through which existing owners can cash in on their investment, there are other advantages of going public. Since the expectation is that a liquid aftermarket will develop following the offering, firms conducting an IPO can expect to be in a position to raise additional capital relatively easily and on favourable terms following the initial offering. The increased liquidity also makes it possible for public companies to offer stockbased incentives and compensation, which can help them attract and retain top employees and improve employee productivity.

1. Introduction: An initial public offering is the sale of a company’s stock to the public for the first time. The primary impetus for an IPO is generally either to raise capital or to offer an exit strategy to some of the firms existing owners, but a number of other motivations and considerations also influence a firm’s decision to go public. This decision process illuminates a firm’s goals in issuing an IPO. Start-up companies rarely have the resources, history, or credibility to conduct an IPO. In fact, firms in the most incipient stage of development generally rely entirely on personal loans, savings, family, and friends for their initial financing. Even as a company begins to develop and show some signs of promise, it will rarely attempt a public offering; instead, it will look to angel investors or venture capital. Angel investors are wealthy individuals, often prior entrepreneurs, who will provide financing in exchange for equity in the company. Venture capital comes from firms rather than individuals, but the principle is the same: investors offer financing in return for a stake in the company. Both angel investors and venture capital firms frequently take an active role in the company, advising management on the most of issues it faces.

*Director, Oriental Institute of Management, Sector -12, Vashi, Navi Mumbai 400 703. **Asst. Prof. Garware Institute of Career Education & Development, University of Mumbai - 98. 2. Review Of Literature: Arwah Arjun Madan (2003), in his article ‘Investments in IPOs in the Indian Capital Market’, published in Bimaquest conclude that in the long run (five-year after listing), there is a drastic fall in the return on IPOs returns; returns are found to be negative from the second to the fifth year of listing.

The initial investors are naturally hesitant to provide all the funding upfront, and different private equity investors target companies at different stages of growth. Thus, successful companies will typically undergo multiple rounds of financing and will develop a base of investors that intend to eventually liquidate their stakes. When investors decide it is time to cash in on their investment, they have three choices: sell their equity to a larger or later-stage investment firm, sell the company to a larger company looking to make an acquisition, or sell their equity in an initial public offering of the company. Similarly, when an “IPO-ready” company requires additional financing, it has multiple options: pursue further equity financing from the private

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012

Anand Adhikari (2010), “New Listings – Pied Pipers of Primary Market” published in Business Today point out that companies with unique business models got listed in the year 2009-10 and made their investors rich. K. C. John Sasi Kumar (2010) in their article “Indian Primary Market – A Review”, published in International Journal of Contemporary Business Studies concluded that the performance of IPO’s has been cheering to the investors. Retail investors can go for the IPO market for safe and

50

Management Guru: Journal of Management Research


secured investment. Even though the recent economic development has slowed the process of IPO issue we could expect speedy recovery of both the economy and IPO activities.

4. Research Methodology A.

Method: The study is analytical and descriptive; hence survey method was followed.

Prithvi Haldea (2011) in his article “IPOs: More Misses Than Hits”, published in the Dalal Street Investment Journal pointed out that, IPOs in India have become an instrument of trading rather than investment and a majority of people are parking their money into such IPOs just to make a fast buck at the time of listing. So, in my view, they are not the investors who are investing money as per the valuations of the company by taking a long term horizon.

B.

Data Collection: The study was based on secondary data.

C.

Sampling: The samples were selected on random bases of 10 banks which issued their equities through initial public offering (IPO) during the period 2000 – 2010.

D.

Data Analysis: The hypotheses were tested with the help of statistical technique such as ANOVA Table. At the end, conclusions were given.

3. Objectives Of The Study 1.

To study the impact on pricing of IPOs in short run i.e. one month after IPO.

5. Performance And Analysis Of Banking Sector Ipos:

2.

To study the impact on pricing of IPOs in long run i.e. after one year

3.

To study the effect of size of IPOs on its pricing.

The Banking sector is the oldest and most important sector in the Indian economy. The profiles of selected Banking Sector IPOs are as follows:-

4.

To study the effect of IPOs issued at par and premium on pricing. Table No. 1 Profile of Banking Sector IPOs

Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Name of Bank Punjab National Bank Allahabad Bank Oriental Bank of Commerce Yes Bank Syndicate Bank ICICI Bank Andhra Bank Bank of Baroda South Indian Bank Ltd. Union Bank of India

Type of Bank Public Public Public Private Public Private Public Public Public Public

Issue Size Face Value Issue Premium (Rs. in Crores) (Rs.) Price (Rs.) (Rs.) 3120 10 390 380 820 10 82 72 1450 10 250 240 3150 10 45 35 250 10 50 40 5100 10 525 515 765 10 90 80 1633 10 230 220 149 10 66 56 495 10 110 100 at price of Rs. 525; at premium of Rs. 515 per share which is highest and Yes Bank Ltd issued IPO at price of Rs.45; they charged Rs. 35 as premium which is lowest. Thus, it can be concluded that big issue size IPOs get listed with higher premium and the small issue size IPOs get listed with smaller premium.

Table No.1 revealed that there were ten IPOs. The highest issue size IPO was from ICICI Bank of Rs. 5100 Crores and the lowest issue size IPO was from South Indian Bank Ltd. of Rs. 149 Crores. The face value of shares of all banking sector IPOs were same i.e. Rs. 10 per share. ICICI Bank’s issued IPO

Management Guru: Journal of Management Research

51

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012


(A) Performance On Listing Day: Table No. 2 Performance on Listing Day

Sr. No.

Name of Bank

Issue Price (Rs.)

Listing Price (Rs.)

Listing Return (Rs.)

Listing Return (%)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Punjab National Bank Allahabad Bank Oriental Bank of Commerce Yes Bank Syndicate Bank ICICI Bank Andhra Bank Bank of Baroda South Indian Bank Ltd. Union Bank of India Average

390 82 250 45 50 525 90 230 66 110 184

405 82 255 65 62 574 90 233 66 122 195

15 0 5 20 12 49 0 3 0 12 12

4 0 2 44 24 9 0 1 0 11 10

and Standard Charted PLC. The average listing day return was 10%. Thus, it can be concluded that IPOs with lower issue price and list price gave more returns on the listing day than the higher issue price and list price.

Table No.2 revealed that all IPOs have been listed on premium except Allahabad Bank, Andhra Bank and South Indian Bank which was listed at par. The highest return on listing day was 44 % of Yes Bank, while the lowest return on listing day was 1% of Bank of Baroda (B) Performance After One Month Of Listing

Table No. 3 Performance on After One Month of Listing

Sr. No .

Name of Bank

Listed Price (Rs.)

Price After One Month (Rs.)

Returns After One Month (Rs.)

Return After One Month (%)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Punjab National Bank Allahabad Bank Oriental Bank of Commerce Yes Bank Syndicate Bank ICICI Bank Andhra Bank Bank of Baroda South Indian Bank Ltd. Union Bank of India Average

405 82 255 65 62 574 90 233 66 122 195

351 85 268 69 74 580 86 225 5 122 187

-54 3 13 4 12 6 -4 -8 -61 0 -9

-13 4 5 6 19 1 -4 -3 -92 0 -8

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012

52

Management Guru: Journal of Management Research


Table No. 3 revealed that IPOs have variable returns after one month of their listing. Out of ten banks only five banks shows positive return on their listing. However, Syndicate Bank gives 19% return after one

month of listing which was the highest while ICICI bank gives only 1% returns after one month of listing which is the lowest return. The average return was negative 8% on the listing day.

(C) Returns Over Years After Listing: The average return on Banking Sector IPOs over the years is given below:Table No. 4 Returns Over The Years (%)

Sr. No.

Name of Bank

Year (%)

1 2 3 4

Punjab National Bank Allahabad Bank Oriental Bank of Commerce Yes Bank

1 18 -7 -5 19

5 6

Syndicate Bank ICICI Bank

7 50

7 8 9 10

Andhra Bank -3 Bank of Baroda 6 South Indian Bank Ltd. -89 Union Bank of India -27 Average -3

Table No. 4 revealed that there was a mixed trend of returns. Every IPO has shown positive as well as negative returns over a period of years. The all banks IPOs gave positive average return except Oriental Bank of Commerce, South Indian Bank Ltd., who gave negative average return. The highest average return

2 16 -3 -9 18 2 34 10 2 1 68 -80 21 33

3 25 2 -18 82

4 -2 -36 -36 96

5 6 149 200 109 150 32 27 342 390

-13 -22

29 41

69 92

-40 7 -92 -3 -7

11 55 145 253 -77 -68 118 170 29 120 146

93 14

Average

68 36 -2 185 37 46 5 96 -81 56 53

was 185 % of Yes Bank; while lowest average return was 5 % of Andhra Bank. The average return of banking sector IPO was 53 %. Thus, it can be concluded that private sector banks gave higher return than the public sector banks over the period of years.

(D) Relationship Between Issue Size And Return On Listing Day: The relationship between issue size and returns on Banking Sector IPOs is shown below: Table No. 5 Performance on Listing Day

Sr. No. 1 2 3 4

Name of Bank

Issue Size (Rs. In Crores) 3120 820 1450 3150

Punjab National Bank Allahabad Bank Oriental Bank of Commerce Yes Bank

Management Guru: Journal of Management Research

53

Listing Return (%) 4 0 2 44

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012


5 6 7 8 9 10

Syndicate Bank ICICI Bank Andhra Bank Bank of Baroda South Indian Bank Ltd. Union Bank of India

Average

Table No.5 revealed that the highest issue size was Rs. 5100 Crores of ICICI Bank and the lowest issue size was Rs. 149 Crores of South Indian Bank Ltd. The average issue size of banking sector IPO was Rs. 1693 Crores. The return on listing day of Yes Bank was 44 % which is highest and the return on listing day of Bank of Baroda was 1 % which was lowest. The

250 5100 765 1633 149 495 1693

24 9 0 1 0 11 10

Allahabad Bank, Andhra Bank and South Indian Bank were listed at par therefore the listing day return was zero. The average return on listing day of banking sector IPO was 10%. Thus, it can be concluded that small issue size IPOs gave better return on listing day than the big issue size IPOs.

(E) Relationship Between Premium Charged And Ipo Returns: The relationship between premium charged on IPOs and their return are given below: Table No. 6 Relationship Between Premium Charged And Returns

Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Name of Bank

Premium Charged (Rs.) Punjab National Bank 380 Allahabad Bank 72 Oriental Bank of Commerce 240 Yes Bank 35 Syndicate Bank 40 ICICI Bank 515 Andhra Bank 80 Bank of Baroda 220 South Indian Bank Ltd. 56 Union Bank of India 100 Average 174

Table No. 6 revealed that entire banking sector IPOs were issued at premium. The highest premium was Rs. 515 charged by ICICI Bank while the lowest premium charged was Rs. 35 by Yes Bank. The highest return on listing day was 44 % of Yes Bank, while the lowest return on listing day was 1% of Bank of Baroda. The average listing day return was 10%. IPOs have variable returns after one month of their listing. Out of

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012

Listing Day (%) 4 0 2 44 24 9 0 1 0 11 10

After One Month of Listing (%) -13 4 5 6 19 1 -4 -3 -92 0 -8

ten banks only five banks shows positive return on their listing. Syndicate Bank gives 19% return after one month of listing which was the highest return between sixteen banks. While ICICI bank gives only 1% returns after one month of listing which is the lowest return between six banks. The average return was negative 8% on the listing day.

54

Management Guru: Journal of Management Research


6. Conclusions

References

The 10 IPOs of banking sector of the economy were sampled from the prime data base directory 2001-2010. Following are the findings:

1.

Aggarwal Reena, Pat Conroy, (2000), Price Discovery in Initial Public Offerings and the Role of the Lead Underwriter, Journal of Finance, Vol. 55: Issue 6, PP. 2903-2922

1)

It was found that all the IPOs were listed at premium.

2.

Anand Adhikari (2010), “New Listings – Pied Pipers of Primary Market” Business Today, NOV. 14, 2010

2)

It was found that the average return on listing day was 10%.

3.

3)

It was found that the average return after one month of listing day was negative 8%.

Arwah Arjun Madan (2003), Investments in IPOs in the Indian Capital Market, Bimaquest, Bimaquest - Vol. III Issue 1, January 2003

4.

It was found that the average return over the years after listing was 53%.

Bhupal Sing, (2009), Changing Contours of Capital flows to India, Economic and Political Weekly, Issue No. 43, PP 24-30

5.

Helwege, J., Liang, N., (2004), Initial Public Offerings In Hot And Cold Markets. Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Vol. 39, PP. 541–569.

6.

Jagannadham Thunuguntla (2011), IPOs: More Misses Than Hits, Dalal Street Investment Journal, Vol. XXVI. No. 9, PP. 69

7.

K. C. John and Sasi Kumar, (2010), Indian Primary Market – A Review, International Journal of Contemporary Business Studies, Vol. 1, No. 1, PP 6.

8.

Prithvi Haldea, (2011), IPOs: More Misses Than Hits, Dalal Street Investment Journal, Vol. XXVI. No. 9, PP. 67.

9.

Rajiv Bhuva (2010), IPO Boom – Fever Pitch, Business Today, Vol.19, No.23, November 1-14, 2010, PP. 88.

10.

Sunil Damania (2011) “Primary Issues” Dalal Street Investment Journal, Vol. 26, Issue No. 9, Page No. 3.

4) 5)

It was found that the relationship between issue size and listing day return - the companies having small issue size gave better returns than the big issue size companies.

6)

It was found that the relationship between premium charged and listing day return - Banks charging higher premium gave low return on listing day.

7)

It was found that the relationship between premium charged and returns after one month of listing – companies charging high premium gave low return after one month of listing day.

8)

It was found that the IPOs with lower issue price and list price gave more returns on the listing day than the higher issue price and list price.

Management Guru: Journal of Management Research

55

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012


College Management And Administration A Perception Dr. Ajay M. Bhamare Principal Ramanand Arya D.A.V. College Bhandup (E)Mumbai – 42

There is often a terminological conflict between College Management and Administration. Some academicians suggest that there is no fundamental difference between College Management and Administration; however the difference between the two does exist and it exists only in terms of usage in different styles of academic purposes. Other academicians put forward that there is difference between these two terms because both of them represent different activities. Therefore, it is desirable to resolve the terminological conflict between College Management and Administration.

The general view is that college administration relates to academic policy formulation and management relates to the said policy execution and these two activities are not the same. For example, according to Dr. Shejwalkar, “administration is primarily hinged on Govt. and social instructions and is used to establish the objective or purpose which the college and its staff have to function; secondly, the college administration has to plan and to stabilize the broad lines or principles which will govern action in conformities of the govt. instructions. These broad lines are usually called policies of a given college.

At the initial level of development of schools and colleges, no distinction between College Management and Administration was made by the Govt. officials until the introduction of Kothari Commission Report and both the terms were used interchangeably. In 1972, the terminological conflict between the two was raised by Kothari like Oliver Sheldon1 when he emphasized administration as decision-making function and management as execution function. Even after that till late nineties there has been lot of controversies between these terms. These controversies have resulted into three different approaches :

College Management is the process and managerial expertise through which college execution of policy is planned and supervised”. 2 Similar view has been expressed by William Spriegel decipher for the purpose as “College Administration is that phase that concerns itself with the overall determination of collegial objectives and the policies necessary to be followed in achieving academic goals. College Management, on the other hand, is the Principal’s function which is primarily concerned with carrying out broad policies laid down by the Trust fitting to the University / Govt. Instructions. “3

i. Administration is above management

The basic approach of academicians like Kothari is that administration determines the basic framework of the College within which managerial functions are taken. Since these sets of functions are different, different types of persons with different qualities are required to be assisted in the College work under the supervision of the Principal. Truly speaking, the administrative process in college has been well developed as compared to management. It can be seen that the most of the early academicians considered the managerial process in the college comparatively at lower levels since they firmly believed that the primary responsibility of the Principal was to execute what was decided by higher-level management. Therefore, they could perceive the functions of management as limited

ii. Administration is a part of management iii. Administration and management are the same. Administration is Above Management :According to many orthodox expert academicians, administration is above management so far as different functions in the college are concerned. They perceive that both administration and management activities are different through both of them may be performed by the Principal alone in the college. This thinking is duly supported by the management thinker like Oliver Sheldon, William Spriegel, Milward, Lansberg, Ordway Tead, Florence, etc.

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012

56

Management Guru: Journal of Management Research


and manage its affairs. In law administrators are appointed to look after the estate of a deceased person. While handling the college affairs, the Principal has to execute the broad policies laid down by the government, though he may also participate in policy formulation. Similarly, the hostel warden of a college keeps intact the property and manages the hostel accommodations under the Principal’s supervision according to specific mandates of rules, regulations and law. It is assumed that management is normally used in a business sphere, while the administration is used in non-business fields. At the same time when management is used in business field it does not make a fundamental distinction between the two because of similarity of the process involved in these. In fact, even this distinction is disappearing. For example, many authors have written books under the title “Business Administration” which implies that these books would be used by persons acquiring knowledge to be utilized in handling business affairs. Similarly, many institutions offering management courses offer M.B.A. degrees for their management graduates while other offer M.B.M. degrees for similar type of students. Thus, in practice, the difference between the two is fast disappearing.

to lower levels. The only exception came from Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar and other contemporary experts on par with Henry Fayol who studies the entire management functions and never distinguished between Management and Administration. College Administration is a Part of Management :This approach holds the view that the college management is a comprehensive term and administration is its part. For example, Kothari like Brech has taken management “as the generic name for the total process of executive control in college”. He defines College management as “a social process entailing responsibility for the effective and economical academic planning and the regulation of the operation of the college, in the fulfillment of a given academic goals. On the other hand, one may define administration as “that part of management which is concerned with the installation and carrying out of the procedures by which it is laid down and communicated and the process of activities regulated and checked against plans”. 4 If this view is accepted, administration becomes a subordinate function to overall management function in any given college and as such administration which is concerned with day-to-day executive routine work becomes a part of management. Thus the previous analysis of distinction between College Management and Administration stands completely revised if this view is accepted.

The basic point of controversy between College Management and Administration lies in terms of coverage of activities. The controversy arises because people call various levels of management functions differently. For example, the contents of management functions in terms of policy formulation and execution can be presented as follows. Some call the formulation function as administration while others call it management. However, both are management functions.

College Management and Administration are same According to the third approach which is the most popular and practical one, College Management and Administration are same. Both involve the same functions, principles and objectives. For example, it may be said on line of Fayol, one of the most important early thinkers on management thought, “all colleges require planning, organization, command, coordination and control, and in order to function properly, all must observe the same general principles. We are no longer confronted with several administrative sciences but with one which can be applied equally well to college affairs”. Thus there is no difference between College Management and Administration. Whatever may be the difference between the two, it lies mostly in their use in different segments of the colleges.

ŽĂƌĚ ŽĨ ƚƌƵƐƚĞĞƐ ŚĂŝƌŵĂŶ ŽĨ >D D/E/^dZd/KE

WƌŝŶĐŝƉĂů

dĞĂĐŚŝŶŐ ^ƚĂĨĨ EŽŶ dĞĂĐŚŝŶŐ ^ƚĂĨĨ

Fig.1.3.Management functions at various levels of management.

The distinction between the two terms may be found in the bureaucratic structure of government or in regulation of some laws. The government often uses the word administrator, instead of manager, to handle

Management Guru: Journal of Management Research

DE'DEd

It may be suggested that two sets of people may not be required to perform two sets of management

57

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012


Generally this is also taken as effectiveness. This can be true only when outputs meet the objectives for which these are meant, for example, if we take two classes or Groups of the students of 100 enrolments size with specified inputs and without wastage, one can say both may equally be effectively handled by the college. In this case both the student classes are availing same quantum / quality of inputs and may be possibly conform to the objectives of equal success. However, the situation would be different if one class of students referred to above experienced 50% exam successes and other class experienced 85% success in same. It means that the second Group of students is more efficiently handled though both the students groups effectively provided with the similar inputs. Similar is the case with Principal’s effectiveness, since his productivity is unlikely to be measured so precisely.

functions. Every one performs all managerial functions; only relative importance of these functions varies. The content of policy formulation is higher at higher levels; it is lower at lower levels while execution is otherwise. Therefore, it becomes unimportant whether policy formulation function is known as administration or management. This is the reason why most of the contemporary authors try to avoid this age-old controversy. Effective College Management The basic objective of College management functions and techniques is to make one an effective Principal. The college requires an effective Principal, since the college bears the costs for employing him. However, the basic question is : Who is an effective Principal ? From this point of view, one must identify the various characteristics of an effective Principal so that attempts are made to correlate the various functions of management for achieving effectiveness.

Effective Principal An effective Principal is one who is positive in his personality, that is what type of person he is, his managerial cum administrative procedure, and results of his managerial practice, although all these are interdependent.

Truly speaking, the concept and criteria of effectiveness are quite debatable points in college management since, Effectiveness is not onedimensional concept that can be measured and predicted from a set of clear-cut criteria. However, the Principal and his incumbent effectiveness of the college can be defined mostly in terms of academic goal-achieving behaviour. For example, the success of the College Principal lies largely in accomplishing the major academic goals like the passing rate of successful students in first Grade or fitting of job placement of the college alumnae through coordinated efforts; in part at least, these efforts depend upon the kind of influence the Faculty or Principal have upon those whose work behaviour reciprocates or lay a hand on… The Principal’s own behaviour contributes to the achievement of college goals by this influence on the perceptions, attitudes, and motives of other teachers and non teachers in the College and on their subsequent behaviour. 5

1) The Principals :The basic question in this context is : What types of Principals are most likely to become effective managers, and what types fail ? There are various such studies to suggest the possible personal qualities of a successful Principal (manager). Jorgensen has described the following characteristics of a successful manager and the same are fitting to a Successful Principal : 6 DŽƐƚWŽƐŝƚŝǀĞ ;ĞƐĐƌŝƉƚŝǀĞͿƚƌĂŝƚƐĨŽƌ ^ƵĐĐĞƐƐĨƵůWƌŝŶĐŝƉĂů ĞĐŝƐŝǀĞ ŐŐƌĞƐƐŝǀĞ ^ĞůĨͲƐƚĂƌƚŝŶŐ WƌŽĚƵĐƚŝǀŝƚLJ tĞůůͲŝŶĨŽƌŵĞĚ ĞƚĞƌŵŝŶĞĚ ŶĞƌŐĞƚŝĐ ƌĞĂƚŝǀĞ /ŶƚĞůůŝŐĞŶƚ ZĞƐƉŽŶƐŝďůĞ ŶƚĞƌƉƌŝƐŝŶŐ ůĞĂƌͲƚŚŝŶŬŝŶŐ

Effectiveness and Efficiency Often confusion is created between two terms : effectiveness of the Principal or College and his/its efficiency, though both these terms have fairly clear meanings. The term efficiency is used in engineering way and it refers to the relationship between input and output. Thus, an academic efficiency of a college denotes how much inputs have been used to produce certain number of successful students in higher grades.

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012

>ĞĂƐƚWŽƐŝƚŝǀĞ ;ĞƐĐƌŝƉƚŝǀĞͿƚƌĂŝƚƐĨŽƌ ^ƵĐĐĞƐƐĨƵůWƌŝŶĐŝƉĂů ŽƌĚŝĂů ŽŶĨŽƌŵŝŶŐ EĞĂƚ ZĞƐĞƌǀĞĚ ŐƌĞĞĂďůĞ ŽŶƐĞƌǀĂƚŝǀĞ ŽŵƉĂƐƐŝŽŶĂƚĞ DĂŶŶĞƌůLJ ŚĞĞƌĨƵů &ŽƌŵĂů ŽƵƌƚĞŽƵƐ DŽĚĞƐƚ

The above descriptions suggest that the various qualities contribute to the effectiveness directly and

58

Management Guru: Journal of Management Research


l)

hence are important. However, least descriptive qualities are also necessary because these may contribute indirectly to the effectiveness.

They win gracefully.

m) They express hostility tactfully. 3) The Results :-

2) The Process :-

a) They manage work instead of people.

Effective managers and effective managing will lead inevitably to good things, that is the achievement of goals for which they are working in the organizations. Thus what will be the outcome depends upon the type of organizations they are working for. There may be some conflict about the organizational goals and their measurement criteria, but here it is sufficient to say that managerial actions and behaviours must contribute to the realization of organizational goals.

b) They plan and organize effectively.

References

c) They set goal realistically.

1)

d) They derive decision by group consensus but accept responsibility for them.

Oliver Sheldon, The Philosophy of Management, London : Sir Issac Pitman, 1923.

2)

G.E.Milward, An Approach to Management, New York : John Wiley, 1960, p.34.

e) They delegate frequently and effectively.

3)

William R. Spriegel, Principles of Business College and Operation, 1957,p.548.

4)

E.F.L.Brech, Principles and Practice of Management, London : Longmans, 1972,pp.26-27.

5)

R.M.Gthon, Personnel Testing, New York : McGrawHill, 1965,p.466

6)

C.E.Jorgensen, “Report to Participants on Adjective of Word Sort” Quoted in Ibid, pp.7-8

7)

Ibid.,p.8.

College Principal’s effectiveness depends upon the managerial process involved in managing the affairs of the College. In this category, there is a long list, because it is not just possible to specify here the behaviour of Principal as related to his various functions. However, the following are some of the important behaviors of effective Principals as a Managers : 7

f)

They rely on others for help in solving problems.

g) They communicate effectively. h) They are stimulus to action. i)

They coordinate effectively.

j)

They co-operate with others.

k) They show consistency and dependable behaviour.

Management Guru: Journal of Management Research

59

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012


Foreign Direct Investment in Multi-Brand Retailing and its Management: A Case study of Bihar Dr. Indrajit Prasad Roy Associate Professor& Head P.G. Department of Commerce Rajendra College, Chapra Jai Prakash University, Chapra (Bihar) Email: drindrajitprasadroy@yahoo.com

Abstract : Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in the retail sector has always been a contentious issue per se, courtesy the well documented proclivity of our policy makers to dither and delay decision making on key aspects stemming from political risks at large. Battling to dispel a “policy paralysis’’ perception, the Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh on 14th September 2012 in the meeting of the Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs unleashed big-ticket reforms allowing 51 Percent Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in multi-brand retail and 100 percent in single brand retail but with riders. It has been left to the State to implement the decision on allowing global chains such as Wal-Mart, Tesco, Metro and Carrefour to open outlets in their territories. FDI retail outlets are allowed only in cities where the population is more than 10 lakhs it means that the government wants to safeguard the interest of small local traders in cities less than 10 lakhs population. The study was carried out in Bihar state with the sample size of 1500 people consisting 500 each of them from public or consumers, farmers and retailers by adopting personal oral interview with the help of questionnaire made for the purpose. Impact of FDI in retail was tested in the rural and urban areas of Bihar including Patna the state capital. The findings reveal that FDI will create a lot of competition in the market and because of that goods price will be cheap. Farmers will be benefited due to better price. FDI will increase the economic activity so more jobs will be created and due to modern technology it will reduce wastage of agricultural produce. Modern retail chain has only four stages where as traditional retail have seven between farmers and consumers. Some retail stores are directly purchasing agricultural produce from the farmers in India and it is also expected in Bihar. Although in our field study some people opined that once the permission is given for 51 percent FDI in multi-brand retail trade wal-mart and other global retail giants will swamp the Indian retail market and within few years much of the unorganized retail traders will be forced to quit business and there by lose their livelihood but in our opinion it is hypothetical.

Introduction

2011 but had to put it on hold due to opposition from political parties including UPA ally Trinmool Congress. After a long-drawn process of consensus with the stakeholders, including various Chief Ministers, it has been decided to notify the decision.

Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in the retail sector has always been a contentious issue per se, courtesy the well documented proclivity of our policy makers to dither and delay decision making on key aspects stemming from political risks at large. Battling to dispel a “policy paralysis’’ perception, the Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh on 14th September 2012 in the meeting of the Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs unleashed big-ticket reforms allowing 51 Percent Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in multibrand retail and 100 percent in single brand retail but with riders. It has been left to the State to implement the decision on allowing global chains such as WalMart (USA), Tesco (UK), Metro (Germany) and Carrefour (France) to open outlets in their territories. The cabinet had taken this decision on November 24,

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012

The Chief Minister of Delhi, Assam, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttarakhand, Haryana, Manipur, Jammu and Kashmir and Union Territory of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli expressed support for the policy in writing but the governments of Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal, Orissa, Kerala, Karnataka, and Tripura expressed reservations about it. FDI retail outlets are allowed only in cities where the population is more than 10 lakhs it means that the government wants to safeguard the interest of small

60

Management Guru: Journal of Management Research


local traders in cities less than 10 lakhs population. Then why the exception in States and Union Territories where there is no city with more than 10 lakhs population. What about the interest of small traders in these bigger cities of States and Union Territories. Why the disparity within the country just because the small traders are situated in a state or Union Territories where no bigger cities of 10 lakhs situated. Is a FDI retail outlet a policy based on the size of city or is it that every state and Union Territories must have these FDI retailers?

Bust The Myth It is important to bust the myth that the entry of FDI will sound a death knell for the ‘self-organized’ or small-format retail trade. Currently, the share of modern retail is a mere five percent in the total retail trade sector. From all estimates, this is expected to, at best; quadruple over the next 20 years. That would still leave a healthy 80 percent of total retail trade the volume is expected to rise from current $500 billon to $900 billion to the self organized sector. Thus 20 years later, ‘mom & pop’ stores will still have a business turnover of more than $650 billion as compared to the current $450 billion. By no stretch of imagination is there going to be an annihilation of the self organized retail trade sector.

Foreign Direct Investment (Fdi) FDI can be defined as a cross border investment, where foreign assets are invested into the organizations of the domestic market excluding the investment in stock. It brings private funds from overseas into products or services. The domestic company in which foreign currency is invested usually being controlled by the investing foreign company E.g. An American company taking major stake in a company in India. Their ROI is based on the performance of the project.

The ghost of the East India Company has to be finally buried. It is simply inconceivable that modern Indian business will not be able to hold its own, either independently or as a joint venture partner, vis-à-vis the foreign investor. As many studies citing empirical evidence and survey-based results have shown, a modernized retail sector will offer significant benefits for farmers, small producers and, of course the consumers. But the most important contribution will be in the generation of a large number of ‘semi-skilled` or skilled jobs for India’s young population. These jobs are not being generated by the self-organized sector, whose labour practices are not of the highest standards. Estimates show that given the high labour intensity of modern large format retail, millions of youth will be trained and new jobs will be created. All those who oppose FDI in retail must pause to think and suggest alternatives in a situation that demands the creation of 10 million new jobs in our economy simply to absorb new entrants to the workforce.

Review Of Literature The cabinet decision on permitting FDI up to 51 percent in multi-brand retail is a long overdue step. Modernization of retail is a critical and necessary condition for sustaining high growth impulses in the economy. The entry of FDI in multi- brand retail in India with its modern inventory management practices, supply chain management, new Storage and Vending technologies and advanced organizational skills will go a long way in the modernization of this sector. With greater investment and new technologies, the sector can act as growth driver rather than a drag with its outdated practices and inability to take advantage of either economies of scale or the scope. As we have seen in the last few years, the mere entry of large format retail has not resulted in the desired level of modernization of the sector. Those who entered this space were largely from the real estate sector and did not have the necessary technological and management experience to put retail on a qualitatively different growth trajectory. It is to be hoped that FDI will make a difference. While it is true that retail trade does not require rocket science for its modernization, it is also equally evident that relying exclusively on indigenous efforts would require a significantly longer time.

Management Guru: Journal of Management Research

For The Farmer Farmers will benefit in more than one way. The investment in backend infrastructure by modern retailers would reduce wastage and allow greater shelf life for form products. This much needed investment will connect the farm-gate to retail stores, an investment and process that cannot be undertaken by small retailers. This will also minimize the layers of intermediaries as a result of which farmer get much lower prices than they could if they supplied directly to retail stores. Moreover, modern retailers will also provide farmers with new high yield varieties of seeds

61

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012


Table-1 Impact on Farmers of FDI in Multi-Brand Retail

and better technologies that will help bring down the cost and more yields. Therefore, the entry of FDI in multi-brand retail is likely to have a significant positive impact on the modernization of the agricultural sector.

/ƚĞŵƐ

In their attempt to position themselves better visà-vis established FMCG (Fast Moving Consumer Goods) brands, modern retailers encourage their own brands for which they depend upon small-scale suppliers. Thus, we can expect a strong impetus for the growth of MSMEs (Medium and Small Enterprises) that will be mobilized by large retailers to produce their own ‘house brand’ across the entire range of FMCG and other consumer products.

EĞŐĂƚŝǀĞ ŝŵƉĂĐƚ

EŽ ŝŵƉĂĐƚ

dŽƚĂů

&ĂƌŵĞƌƐ

ϯϱϬ

ϭϮϵ

Ϯϭ

ϱϬϬ

WĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ

ϳϬ͘Ϭ

Ϯϱ͘ϴ

ϰ͘Ϯ

ϭϬϬ

Source: Field Survey The Table 1 shows the impact on farmers of FDI in multi-brand retailing in the state of Bihar. 70 percent farmers accepted that it is beneficial to the farmers where as 25.8 percent opined that it is harmful to the farmers and only 4.2 percent accepted that there is not any impact on the farmers.

The fear that these retailers will inundate our economy with cheap imports is somewhat misplaced because it will be more profitable, and thus in their interest, to procure locally rather than pay high transport cost and custom duty in importing supplies. Let us hope that the states, which have now been given the option for attracting FDI in the retail sector, will adopt this measure quickly and in large numbers so as to usher in a new era of modern retail in the country.

Table-2 Impact on Employment of FDI in Multi-Brand Retail /ƚĞŵƐ

WŽƐŝƚŝǀĞ /ŵƉĂĐƚ

EĞŐĂƚŝǀĞ /ŵƉĂĐƚ

EŽ /ŵƉĂĐƚ

dŽƚĂů

WĞŽƉůĞ

ϯϭϬ

ϭϰϴ

ϰϮ

ϱϬϬ

WĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ

ϲϮ͘Ϭ

Ϯϵ͘ϲ

ϴ͘ϰ

ϭϬϬ

Source: Field Survey We found in the field study that out of 500 persons only 310 i.e. 62 percent accepted that it will help in employment generation in the state, 29.6 percent people where afraid due to negative impact that is increase in unemployment and 8.4 percent people realised that there will be no impact of FDI in multi-brand retail on employment.

Objectives Of The Study The main objective of this research paper is to analyse the impact of economic reforms through FDI in multi-brand retailing in the State of Bihar. The study has been undertaken mainly to highlight the ground realities, issues and challenges involved in the FDI multibrand retailing in Bihar. It would gives actual feedback of views held by public or consumers, farmers and small retailers. To achieve this objective Bihar state has been selected for study.

Table-3 Impact on Small Traders of FDI in Multi-Brand Retail /ƚĞŵƐ

Methodology The study is based on primary and secondary data. Study of primary data was made with a sample of 1500 respondents consisting 500 each of them from public or consumers, farmers and retailers. The required primary data has been collected from personal oral interview with the help of questionnaire.

WŽƐŝƚŝǀĞ /ŵƉĂĐƚ

EĞŐĂƚŝǀĞ /ŵƉĂĐƚ

EŽ /ŵƉĂĐƚ

dŽƚĂů

^ŵĂůů dƌĂĚĞƌƐ

Eŝů

ϰϳϴ

ϮϮ

ϱϬϬ

WĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ

Eŝů

ϵϱ͘ϲ

ϰ͘ϰ

ϭϬϬ

Source: Field Survey Our Field survey reveals that 95.6 percent small traders were afraid due to negative impact on their business. Small traders will not survive in the competition of big multi-brand stores. Only 4.4 percent small traders realised that there will not any impact of big traders on the small retail stores.

Impact Of Fdi In Multi-brand Retailing In The State Of Bihar

Once the permission is given for 51 percent FDI in multi-brand retail trade wal-mart and other global retail giants will swamp the Indian retail market and within a few years much of the unorganized retail traders will be forced to quit business and thereby lose their livelihood.

FDI in multi-brand retailing will help in the economic development of the state. FDI will bring fourth benefits in terms of advance employment, organized retail stores, availability of quality product at a better and cheaper price. It enables a country’s product or service to enter into the global market.

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012

WŽƐŝƚŝǀĞ ŝŵƉĂĐƚ

62

Management Guru: Journal of Management Research


Table-4 Impact on Consumers of FDI in Multi-Brand Retail

dŽƚĂůͲ

ŽŶƐƵŵĞƌƐ

ŚĞĂƉ ĂŶĚ YƵĂůŝƚĂƚŝǀĞ 'ŽŽĚƐ ZĞĂĐƚŝŽŶ

WĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ

ϯϴϴ

zĞƐ

ϳϳ͘ϲ

ϭϭϮ

ϮϮ͘ϰ

ϱϬϬ

Ͳ

ϭϬϬ͘Ϭ

Modern or Organized Retail Chain (There are 4 stages between farmers and consumers) &ĂƌŵĞƌƐͬWƌŽĚƵĐĞƌ

WƌŽĐĞƐƐďĞĨŽƌĞĐŽůůĞĐƚŝŽŶ͕ sĂůƵĞĂĚĚŝƚŝŽŶĐĞŶƚƌĞ͕ ĐĂƌƌŝĂŐĞĂŶĚĐŽůĚƐƚŽƌĂŐĞ

Source: Field Survey The table- 4 reveals that 77.6 percent consumers of multi-brand retail store admitted that they will get fresh, cheap and qualitative goods on big store, where as 22.4 percent denied this idea.

KƌŐĂŶŝnjĞĚͬ tŚŽůĞƐĂůĞ DĂƌŬĞƚ

^ƚŽƌĂŐĞŝƐƚƌŝďƵƚŝŽŶ ĞŶƚĞƌ;ŽůĚ^ƚŽƌĂŐĞͿ

Modern Retail Chain Vs. Traditional Retail Chain Modern retail or organised retail Chain has only four stages where as traditional retail or kirana stores have seven stages between farmers and consumers. It can be presented below:

KƌŐĂŶŝnjĞĚZĞƚĂŝů^ƚŽƌĞ

Traditional or Present Retail Chain (There are 7 stages between farmers and consumers)

ŽŶƐƵŵĞƌ

&ĂƌŵĞƌƐͬWƌŽĚƵĐĞƌ

ŝƌĞĐƚDĂƌŬĞƚ ƉŶŝDĂŶĚLJĞƚĐ͘

Source: FICCI

WƌŝŵĂƌLJ sŝůůĂŐĞDĂƌŬĞƚ

ƌŽŬĞƌ

Above structure shows the comparative stages between traditional and modern retail chain. Reliance Fresh, Bharti Wal-Mart, DSCL Hariyali Kishan Bazar and Bazar Aggrovate etc have developed a network between farmers and consumers. Jain Irrigation, Maccan India, Adani Agrifresh and Tata are directly purchasing agriculture produce from the farmer’s in India and it is also expected in Bihar.

WƌŽĐĞƐƐŽ ƌ

KƌŐĂŶŝnjĞĚDĂƌŬĞƚ

Conclusion And Suggestions tŚŽůĞƐĂůĞƌWƌŽĐĞƐƐŽƌdžƉŽƌƚĞƌ

On the basis of present study, the following suggestions can be given

ZĞƚĂŝůĞƌ

The farmers will benefit due to better price.

The middlemen’s role will be reduced substantially.

There will be warehouses set up in producing areas it will prevent agricultural produce from rotting.

Refrigerated trucks will bring the produce from the rural areas to consumption centers.

ŽŶƐƵŵĞƌ

Management Guru: Journal of Management Research

63

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012


Super market will have to maintain stock register and invoice and collect VAT increasing government revenue.

Profits made by supermarket are taxable unlike kirana shops that don’t maintain any record.

Employees of supermarkets cannot be hired and fired like the local baniya does and there will be fixed reasonable working hours too.

Huge organized employment will be generated.

I as a consumer can get a shopping experience on par with Dubai/ Singapore or Newark.

This will lead to spurt in construction activities and spur the Truck Industry Sales.

be set up with more employment opportunities. In other hand some people opined that wal-mart and other global retail giants will swamp the Indian retail market and within a few years much of the unorganized retail traders will be forced to quit business and thereby lose their livelihood but it is hypothetical in our opinion. References “FDI Policy in Multi-Brand Retail.”Ministry of Commerce, Government of India, Nov. 28, 2011. Indian Retail Industry: A Report- CARE Research, March,2011 Frontline Volume 28 No. 26, December 30, 2011, Pages 4-34. Anand Dikshit(August 12, 2011) “The Uneasy CompromiseIndian Retail” The Wal Street Journal. The Hindu, September 15, 2012 Page- 1&7. The Economic Times, Kolkata, September 15, 2012 Page-1.

In brief, FDI in multi-brand retail will help the farmers by eradicating the mediators, cheaper prices of commodities to consumers and new factories may

The Hindustan Times, Patna, September 17, 2012, Page-8. Hindustan Dainik, Patna, September 17, 2012, Page-19.

Publication Ceremony of “Management Guru Journal of Management Research” A grand function was organised by a noted publishing house “Sharayu Prakashan” of Thane city to release its new quarterly magazine titled “Management Guru: Journal of Management Research” and a special issue of “Shree Bhagwatkrupa” a Marathi magazine on Swami Vivekananda on the occasion of His 150th Birth Anniversary at Vivekananda Auditorium, Ramkrishna Math, Khar (W) Mumbai on Saturday 25th August, 2012. This function was jointly organized by Sharayu Prakashan, Ramkrishna Math and Dr. Nanjibhai Thakkar Thanawala.

Director of Sharayu Prakashan addressed the audienc, which was followed by a speech by Swami Sarvalokananda who later released Shri Bhagwatkrupa magazine-Special issue on Swami Vivekananda. Then Dr. D.B. Deore, Chief advisor Sharayu Prakashan, in his speech explicated the audience about New Magazine “Management Guru: Journal of Management Research”. It was followed by the speech of Mr. Dhanraj Vispute, Chairman, Adarsh Group of Institutions. Finally, Chief Guest Dr. Nanjibhai Thakkar Thanawala in his speech emphasized the need for such educational activities and appreciated the efforts made by all concerned and at the end of his speech, he released the magazine “”Management Guru: Journal of Management Research”.

The function started by lighting of lamps by the dignitaries- Revered Swami Sarvalokananda, Secretary, Ramkrishna Mission, Mumbai, Dr. C.D. Ashtikar, Managing Director, Sharayu Prakashan, Dr. Nanjibhai Thakkar Thanawala, Dr. D.B. Deore, Chief Advisor Sharayu Prakashan and Shri Dhanraj Vispute, Chairman, Adarsh Group of Institutes. It was followed by a Devotional song presented by Swami Kamalakanta in the praise of Swami Vivekananda. Then the Honourable Guests and Speakers were felicitated. After that Dr. C.D. Ashtikar, Managing

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012

The anchoring of the whole programme was done by Dr. Minal Paranjape which captivated the audience throughout the programme. Finally, Mr. Deepak Kamat-a devotee of Ramkrishna Math Mumbai, has proposed a vote of thanks in such a way that the audience got delighted. The programme was concluded by National Anthem.

64

Management Guru: Journal of Management Research


Midlife Misery : Managing Stress and Happiness After 40s. *Dr. S. Ravishankar HRD specialist,was formerly a Senior Faculty at Ibra College of Technology, Oman.

Many studies indicate that the middle age problems after 40s are almost universal worldwide, but not forever. Many feel like ‘life is passing or has passed by or may be even gone in the dust?’ This is not the case in isolation; in fact, research studies shows that large numbers of midlifers throughout the world share the same experience. There is no need to panic or fear of ageing. With endurance, years ahead can begin to look up again, if one can get over the feelings of declination and pass over a speed bump in the road of life (known as GASP) during the middle age.

or Loss of job); and nobody knows the exact reason for this happening. Such feelings are completely usual / normal in midlife and might even help individuals to survive this phase better. But there are exceptions as it has been reported that in some places middle-aged people are quite happy and reaching middle age in some regions of the world is considered something to be proud of. If one looks at the midlife age range of 40 to 50 years positively, it is the most productive period in life for men and women. The body is completely developed and stable; and the brain functioning also reaches its maximum capacity level. However, in view of lack of hormones like testosterone and androgen, for example, the capacity and functions of the brain start to regress in time. Problems like high blood pressure and diabetes caused by the genetics or environmental conditions also speed up this regression process in midlife.

Pattern of depression:

Balancing life style

At midlife, a consistent pattern of depression and happiness levels generally fluctuates in many individuals. Often, happiness follows a ‘U-shaped curve’ as it is at highest degree in the beginning and end of our lives and lowest in-between. The researches show that the peak of depression, for both men and women, is around 45 years of age and it varies in different countries due to the impact of various factors.

The middle age period is considered to be the most mature time for men and women .By keeping the brains young , one can even keep oneself away from meaningless thought formations and behaviours ; and control the organs that rule our bodies. To keep our brain young and to reduce the stress levels for happiness during midlife age (i.e. second half of life), one needs to follow certain guidelines like:

Depression

a)

Building a life one wants into the daily routine.

The root of this depression dip may be that “something happens deep inside humans” to bring us down rather than shattering events (such as divorce

b)

Regular physical exercises and meditation.

c)

Eating healthy nutritious food and living more on

Introduction It is universal truth that inevitable fact of life is birth, growth and death; and every age has a beauty of its own. It is not possible for people between the ages of 45 and 65 to have the energy or show performance of people who are in the age group 20s or 30s. In fact, the human body has a certain way of operating at every age level; and the brain is what controls every organ of the body as well as the mind, memory and thought process.

Management Guru: Journal of Management Research

65

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012


freshfruits and vegetables; andsalt and sugar intake to be minimised. d)

Decreasing the office workload and using time management techniques to be away from stress prone events. For example, one should enjoy the holidays and undertake vacation tours often.

e)

Reading a lot of books magazines, solving crossword puzzles, playing or listening to music or taking on similar hobbies which will always keep the mindTop of Form fit and healthy.

f)

Conclusion Thus, happiness can be ensured and stress can be reduced in the life after 40s by balancing the four core components of good living, i.e. maintaining phys-i-cal health, good professional network of contacts, mental /spiritual being and adequate financial balance too. Aging is manda-tory and a bio-log-i-cal process where our body cells will die one day completely as time goes by. The most impor-tant of all is to have a pos-i-tive and opti-mistic mind-set when enter-ing the age of 40s, 50s or 60s. Age is to be considered as just a num-ber attached to the bio-log-i-cal process of one’s body; and the men-tal state is a totally dif-fer-ent entity which can be pro-grammed so as to live as young and healthy as possible. Our minds could be happy as ever if only we know how, although our physical bodies will lose agility as we age. To live a long and stress free healthy lifestyle, it is also necessary to discontinue com-pletely or reduce the habits like smok-ing and drink-ing alcohol. One needs to get involved in vigorous physical exercises and not to be like a ‘couch potato’. Ways to live life without regrets can be cultivated by being thankful for ‘what one has now instead of thinking about what one doesn’t have’;enjoying the journey and not just the destination; and knowing that happiness is bigger than any bank account. Controlling the negative thoughts and using the energy wisely; and being bold to change things that should be changed and to accept that there are some things that cannot be changed are also essential for healthy living in the life after 40s.

Building a support network which can provide the support one needs to attain the goals. Bottom of Form At forty, one also often feels that our life has a finite length and changing the beliefs right now is not helpful for the next stage of one’s life journey.

Few initiatives to move forward with one’s second half of life for happiness may include:      

 

Having a strong confidence and faith in self and the almighty. Engaging in self-reflection. Celebrating the achievements of life. Ensuring adequate sleeping hours and exercises with good food habits. Having fun and enjoying the life process. Periodic medical check-up and consulting with the family doctor for ensuring maximum possible stable health. Laughing a lot each day as an exercise. Becoming emotionally strong.

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012

66

Management Guru: Journal of Management Research


Director / Principal / Faculty Member Dear Sir, It has been observed that, in India there is a dearth of journals devoted to research in management. Conversely, the number of University and college teachers who are interested in research is increasing rapidly. Furthermore, as per the U.G.C rules it has become essential for the professors to publish research papers in the research journals to maintain the good academic career record. Given the large number of teachers in the colleges and Universities and comparatively negligible number of Research Journals in India, the research scholars and the professors in the Universities and colleges find it very difficult to get their research papers published in these journals. Thus, there is a very big gap between the demand and supply of research journals. In order to provide a solution to this problem, at least to some extent, Sharayu Prakashan has published a Research Journal titled “Management Guru: Journal of Management Research”, in the field of Management. This title has already been approved by “Registrar of Newspapers of India” New Delhi and the ‘Title Code is MAHENG13205. In addition to this an ISSN number has also been assigned to our magazine. The number is ISSN 2319 -2429 Therefore, I request you to subscribe to this journal for your library and encourage the faculty to subscribe, read, and write research papers for this journal. The subscription form is appended to this letter. We are expecting a positive response; co-operation and help from your side for this noble cause of encouraging research work in the field of management which will benefit teachers, students, institutions and the business world as well. Thanking you, Yours truly,

Mrs. Sharayu C. Ashtikar Owner, Publisher & Editor Sharayu Prakashan

Management Guru: Journal of Management Research

Dr.C.D. Ashtikar Managing Director Sharayu Prakashan

67

Dr. D.B. Deore Chief Advisor Sharayu Prakashan

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012


SHARAYU PRAKASHAN B-7/501, Vijay Park, Kasar Vadavali, Ghod Bunder Road, Thane (W) 400615. Mobile - 9967357415. Email-ashtikarcd@gmail.com MANAGEMENT GURU: JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT RESEARCH (RNI TC N0. : MAHENG 13205) (ISSN NO. 2319-2429)

SUBSCRIPTION FORM Name : Mr./ Mrs./Dr. _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ Residential Address: _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ State_________________________ Pin Code no. ________________________ Name of the

_________________________________________________________________

Organization:

_________________________________________________________________

Office Address:

_________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ State____________________________ Pin Code No.______________________

Designation

_________________________________________________________________

Telephone No.

Office: _____________________ Mobile : ______________________________

Email Address:

____________________________________

Subscription

:

Annual 1000 (Individual) Annual 1200 (Institutions) (Please issue the draft in the name of “SHARAYU PRAKASHAN”)

Life Membership :

10,000 (Individuals) 25,000 (Institutions) 6666

SIGNATURE OF THE SUBSCRIBER

Vol.1 (2) November-January 2012

68

Management Guru: Journal of Management Research


Management guru nov 2012