Next Generation Wireless Standards
Internet access right on their phones. But that is far from the limit of features; manufacturers entice customers to buy new phones with photo and even video A number of technologies currently exist to provide users with high-speed digital wireless connectivity; Bluetooth and 802.11 are examples. These two standards provide very high speed network connections over short distances, typically in the tens of meters.
By: Vishnu Kayande Abstract:Consumers demand more from their technology. Whether it be a television, Cellular phone, or refrigerator, the latest technology purchase must have new features. With the advent of the Internet, the mostwanted feature is better, faster access to information. Cellular subscribers pay extra on top of their basic bills for such features as instant messaging, stock quotes, and even In this paper we analysis the channel capacity of wireless communication systems and to define the Shanon capacity is limitation and this capacity can be improved by using the number of transmitter and receiver antennas and it exploit the advantages and also increased through output, broad range in multipath fading environment and is capable to provide highest data capacity and also established a reliable wireless systems over the multipath fading channel that is known as 4G. Mobile communications and wireless networks are developing at an astounding speed. The approaching 4G mobile communication systems are projected to solve
Meanwhile Cellular providers seek to increase speed on their long-range wireless networks. The goal is the same: long-range, high-speed wireless, which for the purposes of this report will be called 4G, for fourthgeneration wireless system. Such a system does not yet exist, nor will it exist in today’s market without standardization. Fourthgeneration capability. It is no longer a quantum leap to envision a time when access to all necessary information. The power of a personal computer — sits in the palm of one’s hand. To support such a powerful system, we need pervasive, high-speed wireless connectivity. wireless needs to be standardized throughout the United States due to its enticing advantages to both users and providers. still-remaining problems of 3G systems. The 4G systems will interoperate with 2G and 3G systems, as well as with digital broadcasting systems and IP-based one. The term 4G is used broadly to include several types of broadband wireless access communication systems, not only cellular telephone systems. One of the term used to describe 4G is MAGIC(Mobile multimedia, anytime anywhere, Global mobility support integrated wireless solution, and customized personal service)
“The Only way to predict the Future is to invent it”
Keyword:4G,Shannon Capacity, CDMA, TDMA, OFDM
Introduction:THE HUMAN BEING IS SET APART from all animals by an intelligent, reasoning mind. Another quality that humans seem to posses is an inherent drive to utilize that mind to achieve, to recognize challenges, and to attempt to conquer them. From the dawn of the history, man has been lured to explore this world and to expand the horizons of his habitation. To accomplish the communication in ancient days there were kabootar, further post office were created now telephone, mobiles, emails, internet, sms, Bluetooth, are used by human more effectively for the purpose of communication. In 21st century people are looking for 4G. 4G is the fourth generation wireless network communications technology Standard. This new generation of wireless is intended to complement and replace the 3G systems. The 4G infrastructures will consist of a set of various networks using IP (Internet protocol) as a common protocol. Application adaptability and being highly dynamic are the main features of 4G services. The 4G systems will interoperate with 2G and 3G systems, as well as with digital (broadband) broadcasting systems. In addition, 4G systems will be fully IP-based wireless Internet. Where we are? :A. First Generation (1G): 1. Analog voice systems 2. No standardization B. Second Generation(2G): Digital voice systems 1. Currently deployed systems 2. CDMA, GSM (Global System for Mobile communication), PDC 3.
4. (Japan) D-AMPS (Digital Advanced Mobile Phone System) 5. PCS Systems C. Second Generationâ€“ advanced (2.5G): Combining voice and data communications 1. Providing enhanced data rate 2. Two basic technologies: i. GSM-based (high baud rate) ii. GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) 3. Utilizes voice time slots to send packet traffic 4. An overlay over the existing voice system. D. Third Generation (3G): Digital voice and data communications . 1. Developing a more general mobile network. i. Handling Internet access, email, messaging, multimedia. ii. Access to any services (voice, video, data, etc.). iii. Requires high quality transmission. E. Forth Generation (4G): All-IP mobile networks: 1. Ubiquitous wireless communications. 2. Transparent to any services. 3. Integrating multi networks Comparison in 1G, 2G, 3G and 4G:The following table shows comparisons between some key parameters of 1G, 2G. 3G & 4G systems.
Technology Design began implementation
Analog voice synchronous data to 9.6 Kbps
Digital Voice, Short Messages
Higher capacity broad band data up to 2 Mbps
14.4 Kbps TDMA
High capacity completely IP oriented multimedia data to 100 Mbps 100 Mbps
Data bandwidth 1 Kbps Multiplexing
Defination:4G is the short name for fourthgeneration wireless, the stage of mobile communications that will enable things like IP-based voice, data, gaming services and high quality streamed multimedia on portable devices with cable modem-like transmission speeds. 4G is the next evolution in wireless broadband connectivity, designed primarily for data transport versus voice networks pulling double-duty as data movers. Fourth Generation Technology. Technology used in 4G:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
WIMAX LTE UWB Smart antennas IPv6 VOIP OFDM
1. WIMAX:a) The terms "WiMAXâ€œ(Worldwide Inter operability for Microwave Access), "Mobile WiMAX", "802.16d" and "802.16e" are frequently used incorrectly.
Correct definitions are the following: 802.16-2004 is often called 802.16d, since that was the working party that developed the standard. It is also frequently referred to as â€œFixed WiMAX" since it has no support for mobility. b) 802.16e-2005 is an amendment to 802.16-2004 and is often referred to in shortened form as 802.16e. It introduced support for mobility, among other things and is therefore also known as "Mobile WiMAX".
2. LTE:a) LTE is a set of enhancements to the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS). With speeds up to 250 Mbps tested, LTE is a proprietary protocol being designed by carriers and equipment vendors such as AT&T, Verizon, Vodafone, T-Mobile and NTT DOCOMO. Regarding speed, LTE will be faster than current WiMAX networks, however 802.16m will close the speed gap. LTE Advantages: Fast, with peak data rates of 100 Mbps download and 50 Mbps upload. b) It makes CDMA and GSM debates moot. LTE will have lower latency, which makes realtime interaction on high band-width applications using mobiles possible.
Fig(b) Mobile IPv6 Fig(a) Lte 3. a)
Smart Antennas:Definition: A smart antenna system combines multiple antenna elements with a signal processing capability to optimize its radiation and/or reception pattern automatically in response to the signal environment. b) Beam radio signals directly at a user to follow the user as they move. Allow the same radio frequency to be used for other users without worry of interference. Seamless s handoff between towers/access points. One transmit antenna, two receive antennas. 4. Mobile IPv6: a) More addresses than current version of IP protocol (Version 4) each device can have own IP –Keep IP address even if you change access point. –Presently translate IP with each change because not enough IP addresses to go around. b) IP Core-everything can talk to each other if they speak the same “language”.
5. Mobile VOIP: a) “Voice Over Internet Protocol”. Allows only packets (IP) to be transferred, eliminating complexity of 2 protocols over the same circuit. b) All voice data will be wrapped up in a packet –lower latency data transmission (faster transmission) . c) Samples voice between 8,000 & 64,000 times per second and creates stream of bits which is then compressed and put into a packet. d) Increases battery life due to greater data compression .
Fig(c) Voip 6. OFDM: a) Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing. b) Allows for transfer of more data than other forms of multiplexing (time, frequency, code, etc).
c) Simplifies the design of the transmitter & receiver. d) Allows for use of almost the entire frequency band â€“No gaps to prevent interference needed. e) Currently used in WiMax(802.16) and Wi-Fi(802.11a/g).
Fig(D) Ofdm Higher Layer Issues in 4G:4G is going to be a packet-based network. Since it would carry voice as well as internet traffic it should be able to provide different level of QoS. Other network level issues include Mobility Management, Congestion control, and QoS Guarantees : A. Mobility Management 1. Mobility Management includes location registration, paging and handover. The MT should be able to access the services at any place possible. The global roaming can be achieved by with the help of multi-hop networks that can include the WLANs or the satellite coverage in remote areas. A seamless service (Ex : soft handover of the MT from one network to another or from one kind of service to other) is also important. The hand-over techniques should be designed so that they make efficient use of the network (routing) and make sure that hand offs are not done too often. 2. New techniques in location management might be implemented. Each MT need not do location registration everytime. They can instead do concatenated location registration, which reports to the network that they are concatenated to a common object. Ex- MTs in a train need to re-register only when they get off the
train and till the network knows that they are in the train. B. Congestion Control:Congestion control will be another critical issues in the high performance 4G networks. Two basic approaches can be taken towards the congestion control : 1. avoidance or prevention of the congestion. 2. Detection and recovery after congestion. The avoidance scheme will require the network to suitably implement the admission control (measurement based or precomputed model) and scheduling techniques. The detection and recovery would require flow control and feedback traffic management. A conservative approach might be proposed for the 4G systems because of the wide variety of QoS requirements.
C. Quality of Service (QoS) 4G systems are expected to provide real-time and internet-like services. The realtime services can be classified into five kinds: 1. Guaranteed : pre-computed delay bound is required for the service. Ex voice 2. Better: than-best effort : 3. Reductive : Service needs upper bound on end-to-end delay. 4. Controlled delay : service might allow dynamically variable delay. 5. Controlled load : Service needs resources (bandwidth and packet processing ). Guaranteed and Controlled Load services are proposed to appear in 4G.
Standards of next generation wireless:i. Faster and more reliable –100 Mb/s (802.11g wireless = 54Mb/s, 3G = 2Mb/s) ii. Lower cost than previous generation iii. Multi-standard wireless system – Bluetooth, Wired, Wireless (802.11x) iv. Ad Hoc Networking v. IPv6 Core vi. OFDM used instead of CDMA vii. Potentially IEEE standard 802.11
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF 4G:
High usability: anytime, anywhere, and with any technology. Support for multimedia services at low transmission cost. Higher bandwidth, tight network security.
Features of 4G Wireless Systems:The following are some possible features of the 4G systems: 1. Support interactive multimedia, voice, video, wireless internet and other broadband services. 2. High speed, high capacity and low cost per bit. 3. Global mobility, service portability, scalable mobile networks. 4. Seamless switching, variety of services based on Quality of Service (QoS) requirements 5. Better scheduling and call admission control techniques. 6. Ad hoc networks and multi-hop networks. 4G will create hybrid wireless networks using Ad Hoc networks. Form of mesh networking– Very reliable. 7. It is typically detected as noise. 8. It can use any part of the frequency spectrum, which means that it can use frequencies that are currently in use by other radio frequency devices . 9. It uses a frequency of 3.1 to 10.6 Hz. 10. It uses less power , since it transmits pulse instead of continuous signal. 11. Special antennas are needed to tune and aim the signal. Applications: 1. Virtual Navigation 2. Tele-Medicine 3. Crisis Management Applications
The equipment required to implement a next generation network is still very expensive. Carriers and providers have to plan carefully to make sure that expenses are kept realistic. Some new challenges in 4G 1.Multi-access interface, timing and recovery. 2. Higher frequency reuse leads to smaller cells that may cause intra-cell interference or higher noise figures due to reduced power levels. 3. The Digital to analog conversions at high data rates, multiuser detection and estimation (at base stations), smart antennas and complex error control techniques as well dynamic routing will need sophisticated signal processing. 4. Issues in the interface with the ad hoc networks should be sorted out. 4G systems are expected to interact with other networks like the Bluetooth, hiperlan, IEEE802.11b, etc. 5. Voice over multi-hop networks is likely to be an interesting problem because of the strict delay requirements of voice. 6. Security will be an important issue. 7. A new IP protocol might be needed because of the variable QoS services and the network should do “better than best “effort. 8. Networking protocols that adapt
dynamically to the changing channel conditions. 9. Seamless roaming and seamless transfer of services.
4) A modified IP will be the universal network layer protocol in the future.
Future:There are some good reasons for 4G development and a variety of current and evolving technologies to make 4G a reality. Both service providers and users want to reduce the cost of wireless systems and the cost of wireless services. Lesser the expensive of the system, the more people who will want to own it. 4G's flexibility will allow the integration of several different LAN and WAN technologies.
6) The entire network would be digital and packet switched.
Finally, the 4G wireless system would truly go into a "one size fits all" category, having a feature set that meets the needs of just about everyone.
5) Diverse array of applications like virtual navigation, tele-medicine, etc.
7) Low cost high speeds data will drive forward the fourth generation (4G) as short- range communication emerges.
It is probable that the radio access network will evolve from a centralized architecture to a distributed one. 4G is likely to enable the download of full length songs or music pieces which may change the market response dramatically. Innovations in network technology will provide an environment in which virtually anything is available, anywhere, at any time, via any connected device.
Conclusions:1) 4G is still in formative stages. They may become commercially available in 2011. 2) The work on 4G systems has begun in the industry as well the academia. Ex:Wireless World Research Forum (WWRF) has Ericcson, Alcatel, Nokia and Siemens AG. The National Science Foundation (NSF) has announced a program in 1999 that calls for proposals that would look at issues involved in 4G systems. In the USA, Motorola, Lucent, AT&T, Nortel and other major companies are also working on 4G systems.
3) Multimedia traffic will be dominant in the future. It is estimated that voice would contribute to only 20-30 % of total traffic in the future.
All totally the best way to help all users is to use 4G as the next wireless system and in totally it is safety and secure for public, this the need that demands the solution. Todayâ€™s wired society is going wireless and if it has problem, 4G is answer. References:    
http://www.owlnet.rice.edu/ http://www.umtsworld.com/ http://users.ece.gatech.edu/~jxie/4G/ http://voicendata.ciol.com/ Data Communication and networking- Behrouz A Forouzan