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Alternate public realms in Mumbai

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Declaration

The thesis titled - ‘Alternate public realms in Mumbai’ - has been carried out by the undersigned as part of the Bachelors Program in the Department of Architecture, School ofPlanning and Architecture, New Delhi – 110002, India under the supervision of Prof. Neerja Tiku and Prof. Sandip Kumar. The undersigned hereby declares that this is his/her original work and has not been plagiarized in part or full from any source. Furthermore this work has not been submitted for any degree in this or any other University.

_________________________ Vishal Jayan V Year, B. Arch, A/2029/2008 School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi Alternate public realms in Mumbai

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Certificate

This thesis was carried out during the months of January – May 2013, the tenth semester in the Department of Architecture of School of Planning and Architecture, Delhi. Thereafter, based on the declaration by the candidate, the thesis was placed in front of the External Jury held on 1st and 2nd May 2013. For this work the candidate was awarded the following marks:

1. Internal Evaluation during the Semester: ________ out of 300 marks. 2. External Jury Evaluation: 3rd and 4th May 2012: ________ out of 350 marks. On successful completion of the Bachelor of Architecture Course by the Candidate the undersigned hereby accepts the Thesis Report on behalf of the Department, so that it may be placed in the Architecture Library.

_________________________ (Prof. Neerja Tiku) Thesis Studio Director 2014, Department of Architecture, School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi - 110002 Alternate public realms in Mumbai

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Acknowledgements

I would like to express gratitude to my thesis guides Prof. Neerja Tiku and Prof. Sandip Kumar for guiding me throughout the research and the design process with great patience and understanding. Without the mountains of interesting projects they have referred me to, I would not have been able to find the inspiration to complete this project. I would also like to thank Prof. Manoj Mathur for her questions, scoldings and unwavering support of out of the box ideas. I would also like to thank Aditi, Protyasha, Navaneethakrishnan, Vasanth, Kota, Shashank, Potato, Anshu and Harsha for picking their brains/inputs/support/mutual motivation. I am extremely grateful to Prithvi Arvind, Shweta. Ayush, Maddu, Shravan, Prateek, Atul, Deva, Goutham, Nihal, Shravan, Ashish for helping me finish my work on time fo rmy Jury. Lastly i would like to thank my parents for their continuous support.

Alternate public realms in Mumbai

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Synopsis

Bombay with its 1.4 crore residents (as of 2011) is the 5th most populous city in the world, and with only 603 km2 of land area, is one of the most heavily densified settlements. Of the 603 km2 urban area, less than 2.5% (14km2) are publicly accessible opens. Although Bombay boasts of iconic spaces such as the Marine drive, Gateway of India, Juhu Beach and Oval Maidan and a culture that supports round-the-clock activity, there is a tangible shortage of breathing spaces for the populace to relax, congregate and celebrate. Public transit, and the local train network, in specific, represent among the most democratic spaces available to the populace. Running along the length of the city, the three major lines (Harbour, Central and Western) form the lifeline of the city, with Andheri seeing a footfall of 6 lakh every day. Put together, the lines run for nearly 200kms. This untapped volume of space provides the city with the opportunity to generate spaces of conviviality and encounter, and meaningful public resources to enrich the lives of its citizens.

Synopsis

Alternate public realms in Mumbai

Intent The proposal aims to demonstrate the possibility and feasibility of generating recreational opens in the stretch of the Western Railway line, above the Andheri station, chosen as it is an important stop on the Western and currently under renovation as well as anticipates a metro station. The Andheri station with its precinct is redesigned to create an efficient transit situation linking the locals to the upcoming Metro station and creating a smoother traffic flow around the site. The proposal identifies opportunities towards a greater democracy of space in its attempt to enable universal access and invite informal but necessary commerce into its realm. >Pedestrian traffic needs to be organized >dense commercial built near the station >lack of public spaces around the station >verticality not completely explored as most building were built around the 70s

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सार-संक्षेप

( 2011) में अपनी 1.4 करोड़ निवासियों के साथ बंबई दुनिया में 5 वीं सबसे अधिक आबादी वाला शहर है , और भूमि क्षेत्र के केवल 603 km2 के साथ , सबसे भारी densified बस्तियों में से एक है . 603 km2 शहरी क्षेत्र के कम से कम 2.5% ( 14km2 ) खोलता सार्वजनिक रूप से सुलभ हैं . बंबई ऐसे मरीन ड्राइव , भारत , जुहू बीच और ओवल मैदान के गेटवे और चौबीसों घंटे गतिविधि का समर्थन करता है कि एक संस्कृति के रूप में प्रतिष्ठित रिक्त स्थान का दावा करती है, आराम करने के लिए जनता के लिए रिक्त स्थान सांस लेने का एक ठोस कमी नहीं है , एकत्र और जश्न मनाने . सार्वजनिक परिवहन, और स्थानीय रेल नेटवर्क , विशेष रूप से, जनता के लिए उपलब्ध सबसे लोकतांत्रिक रिक्त स्थान के बीच का प्रतिनिधित्व करते हैं . शहर की लंबाई के साथ चल रहा है, तीन प्रमुख लाइनों ( हार्बर , मध्य और पश्चिमी ) अंधेरी हर दिन 6 लाख रुपये की चाल देख के साथ , शहर की जीवन रेखा के रूप में. एक साथ रखा, लाइनों लगभग 200kms के लिए चला रहे हैं. अंतरिक्ष के इस अप्रयुक्त मात्रा अपने नागरिकों के जीवन को समृद्ध करने के लिए प्रफुल्लता और मुठभेड़ के रिक्त स्थान , और सार्थक सार्वजनिक संसाधनों का सृजन करने के लिए अवसर के साथ शहर प्रदान करता है .

आशय प्रस्ताव मनोरंजक यह पश्चिमी और वर्तमान में नवीकरण के रूप में अच्छी तरह के अंतर्गत एक मेट्रो स्टेशन की आशंका पर एक महत्वपूर्ण पड़ाव है के रूप में चुना अंधेरी स्टेशन के ऊपर पश्चिमी रेलवे लाइन के खिंचाव , में खुलती पैदा करने की संभावना है और व्यवहार्यता का प्रदर्शन करना है. अपनी सीमा के साथ अंधेरी स्टेशन आगामी मेट्रो स्टेशन के लिए स्थानीय लोगों को जोड़ने और स्थल के चारों ओर एक चिकनी यातायात प्रवाह पैदा करने के लिए एक कुशल पारगमन की स्थिति पैदा करने के लिए बदल दिया है . प्रस्ताव सार्वभौमिक पहुँच सक्षम है और इसके दायरे में अनौपचारिक लेकिन आवश्यक वाणिज्य आमंत्रित करने के लिए अपने प्रयास में अंतरिक्ष का एक बड़ा लोकतंत्र की दिशा में अवसरों को पहचानता है . > पैदल यात्री यातायात संगठित होने की जरूरत स्टेशन के निकट बनाया > घने वाणिज्यिक > स्टेशन के आसपास सार्वजनिक स्थलों की कमी सबसे इमारत के रूप में थे > शीर्षता पूरी तरह से नहीं पता लगाया 70 के दशक के आसपास का निर्माण Alternate public realms in Mumbai

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Contents

Declaration 2

Program 46

Certificate 3

Requirements 46

Acknowledgements

Understanding the Site

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Synopsis 5 Proposition 17 Introduction    17 Need Identification    18 Hypothesis    19 Proposal    19

Research Public Spaces   21

Case Studies The High Line    Superkilen Park   

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Stadelhofen Railway Station   

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Conclusions from case studies

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Area Program 44 Functional Diagram Alternate public realms in Mumbai

48 Land Use map of Andheri Ward     50 Residential areas in Andheri ward    51 Open Spaces in Andheri ward    52 Educational and medical areas in Andheri ward    53 Commercial areas in Andheri ward    54 Neighbourhood    55 Land use map of Andheri station precinct    56 Volumetric map of Andheri station precinct    57 Vehicular netwoks around Andheri station precinct    58 Pedestrian netwoks around Andheri station precinct    59 Railway netwoks around Andheri station precinct    60 Public transport around Andheri station precinct    61 Figure ground around Andheri station precinct    62 Reverse figure ground around Andheri station precinct    63 Site pictures    64 Inference:    71

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Inferences SWOT     73 Open space planning    74 Pedestrian network planning    74 Hawking    74

Conceptualisation

75 Open space planning    76 Humanizing the Scale     76 Kinaesthetic    77 Courtyards    77

Design Evolution Design Development 1     Design Development 2    Design Development 3   

79 80 81

Final Design 82 Plan at Lvl +00    Plan at Lvl +3000    Plan at Lvl +6000    Plan at Lvl +9000    Plan at Lvl -3000    Model Pictures   

83 84 85 86 87 89

Bibliography    91

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List of Figures

Fig 1: (https://www.flickr.com/photos/sanjayausta/4196620308/)

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Fig 27:( http://www.galinsky.com/buildings/stadelhofen/)

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Fig 28: ( http://www.galinsky.com/buildings/stadelhofen/)

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Fig 29: ( http://www.galinsky.com/buildings/stadelhofen/)

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Fig 30: ( http://www.galinsky.com/buildings/stadelhofen/)

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Fig 3: Oval maidan 9

Fig 31: ( http://www.galinsky.com/buildings/stadelhofen/)

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Fig 5: juhu Beach 9

Fig 32: ( http://www.galinsky.com/buildings/stadelhofen/)

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Fig 6: Open space per Person In leading cities

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Fig 33: ( http://www.galinsky.com/buildings/stadelhofen/)

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Fig 6: Accessible Open space In mumbai

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Fig 34: ( http://www.galinsky.com/buildings/stadelhofen/)

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Fig 7: Inaccessible Open space In mumbai

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Fig 34: ( http://www.galinsky.com/buildings/stadelhofen/)

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Fig 8: St. Peter’s Square

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Fig 34: ( http://www.galinsky.com/buildings/stadelhofen/)

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Fig 9: Times Square 13

Fig 35: Girgaum Chowpatty

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Fig 10: (http://www.archdaily.com/tag/high-line/ )

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Fig 36: Ganesh Chatturti

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Fig 11: (http://www.archdaily.com/tag/high-line/ )

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Fig 37: Mumbai’s Cabs

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Fig 12: (http://www.archdaily.com/tag/high-line/ )

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Fig 38: Mumbai’s Local Trains

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Fig 14: (http://www.archdaily.com/tag/high-line/ )

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Fig 39: Vada Pav 41

Fig 15:(http://www.archdaily.com/tag/high-line/ )

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Fig 42: Bollywood Fans 41

Fig 16: (http://www.archdaily.com/tag/high-line/ )

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Fig 40: Gola 41

Fig 17: S(http://www.archdaily.com/tag/high-line/)

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Fig 41: Fishing boat at Girgaum Chowpatty

Fig 18: (http://www.archdaily.com/tag/high-line/ )

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Fig 41: Dabbawalas 41

Fig 19: (http://www.archdaily.com/tag/high-line/ )

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Fig 43: Mumbai’s Dense Housings

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Fig 18: (http://www.archdaily.com/tag/high-line/ )

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Fig 44: Author

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Fig 20: (http://www.archdaily.com/tag/high-line/ )

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Fig 45: Author

Fig 2: (http://www.indiantravels.com/admin/uploads/Places/ 634903230497492807_681x454.jpg)

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Fig 3: (http://media.web.britannica.com/eb-media/26/84526004-815E768E.jpg)

Alternate public realms in Mumbai

Fig 26: I(http://big.dk/#projects-suk) 28

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Fig 21: (http://big.dk/#projects-suk) 24

Fig 46: Author 57

Fig 22: (http://big.dk/#projects-suk) 24

Fig 47: Author 57

Fig 23: (http://big.dk/#projects-suk) 24

Fig 48: Author 58

Fig 24: (http://big.dk/#projects-suk) 24

Fig 49: Author 58

Fig 25: (http://big.dk/#projects-suk) 26

Fig 50: Author

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Fig 51: Author

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Fig 52: Author

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Fig 53: Author

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Fig 54: Author

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Fig 55: Author 61 Fig 56: Author 61 Fig 57: Author 62 Fig 58: Author 62

Alternate public realms in Mumbai

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PART I Design Investigation

Introduction Need Identification Hypothesis Proposal

Introduction

CHAPTER 1 Alternate public realms in Mumbai

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Chapter 1 Proposition Introduction

Bombay with its 1.4 crore residents (as of 2011) is the 5th most populous city in the world, and with only 603 km2 of land area, is one of the most heavily densified settlements. Although Bombay boasts of iconic spaces such as the Marine drive, Gateway of India, Juhu Beach and Oval Maidan and a culture that supports round-the-clock activity, there is a tangible shortage of breathing spaces for the populace to relax, congregate and celebrate.

Fig 1: Shivaji park

Fig 3: Oval maidan

Fig 2: Marine drive Alternate public realms in Mumbai

Fig 3: Gateway of india

Fig 5: juhu Beach 12


Need Identification

Of the 603 km2 urban area, less than 2.5% (14km2) are publicly accessible opens, far lesser than Mumbai’s international sister cities (Sanjay Gandhi National Park, which falls within the city limits occupies 103km2 of land, most of which is not accessible to the citizenry; the eastern coastline and the western coastline, in part, are also rendered inaccessible by mangroves.) This leaves the beaches on the western coastline, maidans to the south, and a smattering of neighbourhood parks. Hence, the public spaces that respond to the urban magnitude are very often overcrowded

Fig 6: Open space per Person In leading cities

Fig 6: Accessible Open space In mumbai Alternate public realms in Mumbai

Fig 7: Inaccessible Open space In mumbai 13


Hypothesis Land in Mumbai is under extreme pressure as the city is physically bounded and expansion through reclamations is largely unviable. Public transit, and the local train network, in specific, represent among the most democratic spaces available to the populace. Running along the length of the city, the three major lines (Harbour, Central and Western) form the lifeline of the city, with Andheri seeing a footfall of 6 lakh every day. Put together, the lines run for nearly 200kms. This untapped volume of space provides the city with the opportunity to generate spaces of conviviality and encounter, and meaningful public resources to enrich the lives of its citizens.

Proposal

Alternate public realms in Mumbai

The proposal aims to demonstrate the possibility and feasibility of generating recreational opens in the stretch of the Western Railway line, above the Andheri station, chosen as it is an important stop on the Western and currently under renovation as well as anticipates a metro station. The Andheri station with its precinct is redesigned to create an efficient transit situation linking the locals to the upcoming Metro station and creating a smoother traffic flow around the site. The proposal identifies opportunities towards a greater democracy of space in its attempt to enable universal access and invite informal but necessary commerce into its realm. 14


Research: Public Spaces Case Study: Introduction High Line Park Superkilen Park Stadelhofen Railway Station Conclusion

Research

CHAPTER 2 Alternate public realms in Mumbai

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Chapter 2.1 Research Public Spaces

What is public space? Public spaces are spaces within the city where encounters between strangers are facilitated, community celebrations are held, social and economic exchanges take place, friends run into each other, and cultures mix. They come in many forms – open spaces of different kinds such as parks, markets, streets and squares; closed spaces such as malls, libraries, town halls, swimming pools, clubs and bars; and intermediate spaces such as clubs and associations confined to specific publics such as housing residents, sport enthusiasts and the like. Each public space has its own rhythms of use and regulation, frequently changing on a daily or seasonal basis: the square that is empty at night but full of people at lunch-time; the street that is largely confined to ambling and transit, but becomes the centre of public protest; the public library of usually hushed sounds that rings with the noise of school visits; the bar that regularly changes from being a place for huddled conversation to one of deafening noise and crushed bodies. There is no archetypal public space, only variegated space-times of aggregation. A truly public space is a democratic one, everybody can use it, without fee or obligation: places that allow ‘community’

Alternate public realms in Mumbai

to exist and flourish. Public space is ‘our open-air living room, our outdoor leisure

Fig 8: St. Peter’s Square

Fig 9: Times Square 16


centre’, important to the health and well-being of residents of all ages. In urban planning, public space has historically been described as “open space”, meaning the streets, parks and recreation areas, plazas and other publicly owned and managed outdoor spaces, as opposed to the private domain of housing and work. However, the recent evolutions of the forms of urban settlement and the growing number and variety of semi-public spaces managed by private-public or entirely private partnerships questions this notion that has been inherited from a legal perspective. Today, public space needs to be understood as different from the public domain of the state and its subdivisions, but rather as a space accessible to the public. In political philosophy, the concept of the public has drawn an important inspiration from the notions of the Greek agora and the Roman forum, taken as ideal models of public arenas where the public affairs of the city are discussed among an assembly of equal citizens. Forums of public discussion have re-emerged in the 18th century under the guise of the bourgeois salons, thus reenacting a public sphere, less situated in space than the agora, but able to question and challenge the actions of the monarchs and the state. Alternate public realms in Mumbai

However, this enlightened democracy doesn’t rest on the physical public spaces of the city. It is contained in private meeting rooms. The only foray into publicly accessible space has been through the cafes and, more recently, on the more visible but still placeless pages of the Internet. Can gathering places, from plazas to cafés, be considered public according to this definition? Sociology has paid more attention to the physical venues of the city and the daily interactions of the citizenry. More than the possibility for a debate or a discourse, public space is measured according to its accessibility, both physical and psychological. This notion enlarges significantly the scope of places considered public to any space accessible to individuals, provided access is not based on some membership. Thus, in addition to the classic spaces, such as streets and parks, a vast array of spaces of mobility, such as transportation facilities (train and subway stations, airports, highways, parking lots) or spaces of mass consumption (shopping malls for the most part) can be analysed according the criterion of accesibilty. Accessibility is what guarantees the free circulation of persons and goods. It is also what allows the emergence of collective representations wherefrom images of the city are produced. The challenge today for planners and researchers on public space, lies mostly in the difficult encounter of these two 17


main visions of public space: the public sphere and the publicly accessible space. The public sphere can be summed up by the concept of the conversation and debate whereas the public space is best a question of mobility. The public space lends more attention to the idea of individual liberties, notably under the form of a “right to the city�.

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Chapter 2.2 Case Studies

Structure: Projects from across the world were studied to derive an understanding of interventions made to activate public spaces within the city and to understand the railway station as a public setting. The following projects were studied: The High Line, New York Superkilen Park, Copenhagen Stadelhofen Railway Station, Zurich In each case, the backdrop to the project was studied and understood. The translation of the backdrop to the program for the project was also reviewed in conjunction with the specific site conditions. Inferences were then drawn from each case to further understand the outcomes of such interventions.

Alternate public realms in Mumbai

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The High Line

History:

Location: Manhattan, New York, USA Architect: James Corner Field Operations and Diller Scofidio + Renfro

The High Line is a 1.45-mile-long elevated rail structure. The High Line opened to trains in 1934, running from 34th Street to St. John’s Park Terminal, at Spring Street. It was designed to go through the centres of blocks, rather than over the avenue, to avoid the drawbacks of elevated trains. It connected directly to factories and warehouses, allowing trains to roll right inside buildings. Milk, meat, produce, and raw and manufactured goods could be transported and unloaded without disturbing traffic on the streets. The growth of interstate trucking in the 1950s led to a drop in rail traffic throughout the nation. In the 1960s, the southernmost section of the line was demolished. The last train on the remaining part of the line was operated by Conrail in 1980. In the 1990s, as the line lay unused and in disrepair, it was slated for demolition.

Objectives: The Highline had become known to a few urban explorers and local residents for the tough, drought-tolerant wild grasses, shrubs, and rugged trees such as sumac that had sprung up in the gravel along the abandoned railway. In 1999, the non-profit Friends of the High Line was formed by residents of the neighbourhood the High Line ran through. They advocated for the line’s preservation and reuse as public open space, an elevated park or greenway, similar to the Promenade Plantée in Paris. Broadened community support of public redevelopment for the High Line Alternate public realms in Mumbai

Fig 10: Chelsea market station

Fig 11: HIgh Line 20


for pedestrian use grew, and in 2004, the New York City government committed $50 million to establish the proposed park.

Site Conditions: The riveted steel elevated line was structurally sound. The challenge lay in creating an effective connect between the ground and the elevated public opens, and in the incorporation of the existing neighbouring buildings within the design. As the regeneration project was largely retrofit-based, the space on the elevated line would have to be optimally utilised.

Climate: The city enjoys a humid subtropical climate with average temperature ranging from 28 degs C to -1 deg C with snowfall during the winters. Owing to its geographical location and the grid iron layout, the city faces severe windchill.

Fig 12: Map of the High Line Alternate public realms in Mumbai

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Alternate public realms in Mumbai

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Alternate public realms in Mumbai

Fig 14: Detailed Map of the High Line 23


Program: The high line consists primarily of pedestrian paths which are banked by green belts. The green banks are cultivated so as to remain active and in bloom throughout the year. Additionally, the program includes restaurants, food stalls and kiosks on the highline. Rest rooms are placed near the entries/exits.

strategically placed with the many public art installations spread out across the length of the line. Financed by the city of New York, the first phase opened in June 2009 with the second phase opening in 2011.

Various stretches of seating have been designed and

Fig 15: Landscaping on the High Line

Fig 16: Seating area on the High Line Alternate public realms in Mumbai

Fig 17: Seating area on the High Line 24


Fig 18: The High Line During Winter

Fig 18: The High Line

Fig 19: The High Line

Fig 20: The High Line

Inferences: The defunct, derelict railway line has been successfully activated and a thriving public place has been generated. The project adds recreational opens to a dense neighbourhood.

The high line is now a major tourist destination. This, however, has led to a gentrification of the precincts. As such a wide range of spaces have been created in trying to keep the high line inclusive.

The recycling of the railway into an urban park has spurred real estate development in the neighbourhoods along the line. Alternate public realms in Mumbai

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Superkilen Park Location: Copenhagen , Denmark Architect: BIG, Topotek1 and Superflex

Background: Copenhagen’s Nørrebro district is Denmark’s most multicultural urban district, a place that has occasionally seen sporadic street violence. Realdania Foundation and the Municipality of Copenhagen held a competition inviting design for an urban park stretching over an area over a kilometre long on a site which formerly housed rail yards. The winning entry by Bjarke Ingels Group, Topotek1’s landscape architects and Superflex’s visual artists was a city park that aimed to promote social integration by bringing in urban narratives and situations from all over the world. Using newspapers, radio, the Internet, and e-mail or site boxes, they asked the district’s inhabitants to suggest urban furnishings for the future Superkilen Park; each of Nørrebro’s 60 nationalities had to be represented in the park by at least one item.

Site Conditions: Nørrebro houses several immigrants (up to 30% of its population), many from the Middle East. The area has witnessed some violent riots in the recent past between the diverse ethnic groups situated in the area.

Program: The conceptual starting point is a division of Superkilen into three zones – the Red Square, the Black Market and the Green Park. The extensive program features bike lanes traversing the Alternate public realms in Mumbai

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park, with allocations for seasonal cultural activities, picnics, socializing and relaxing, along with playing fields for basketball and football. The Red Square A red carpet covers the entire square, the lines and edges creating a bold pattern. Entered from Nørrebrogade, the square serves as an extension to the nearby hall, where the local market is held, and is dotted with cultural artefacts – benches from Brazil, cast iron litter bins from the UK and a Thai boxing ring. The children’s playground annexe contains a slide from Chernobyl, a climbing frame from India and a set of swings from Iraq. The Black Market This serves as the setting for local interaction. There are benches and barbeque facilities, tables for playing backgammon and chess, and a Japanese octopus playground. Painted white lines run north to south across the ground but curve around the outside of the street furniture, follies including Belgian benches, Brazilian bar chairs, a Norwegian bike rack and a Moroccan fountain.

Fig 21: Ethnic Representation within the Superkilen Park Alternate public realms in Mumbai

The Green Park The soft green mounds appeal to children and families. The area also attracts picnickers and sunbathers or just those

napping on the grass. The sport facilities (new pitches for hockey and basketball) have been moved here, holding spaces for active and passive recreation in balance. “Rather than plastering the urban area with Danish designs we decided to gather the local intelligence and global experience to create a display of global urban best practice comprising the best that each of the 60 different cultures and countries have to offer when it comes to urban furniture,” – BIG project leader Nanna Gyldholm Møller

Fig 22: The Red Square

Fig 23: The Black Market

Fig 24: The Green Park 27


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Fig 25: Detailed plan of the Superkilen Park Alternate public realms in Mumbai

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Alternate public realms in Mumbai

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Fig 26: Individual Follies of the Superkilen Park Alternate public realms in Mumbai

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Inference: The architects have delivered a sense of belonging for the culturally diverse residents of the neighbourhood by providing relatable follies specific to each country the residents come from. The brightly coloured landscape could be disquieting for some, especially in the red zone, red being known to be a colour which induces unrest and violence; a soothing colour could be chosen, with similar saturation of hue to convey similar intentions of a space throbbing with activity.

Alternate public realms in Mumbai

Many of the imported structures have since been dismantled as it they were deemed unsafe. The bike tracks are cordoned off during the rains as the paint makes the tracks very slippery. Still, the project is an interesting take on urban design as it breaks the set norms. Here is a design which is fresh, different and funky.

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Stadelhofen Railway Station Location: Zurich, Switzerland Architect: Santiago Calatrava

Background: The original Stadelhofen station dates from 1894 and was built in the neoclassical style, linking the precinct district to the central Zurich Stadelhofen located on a hill parallel to the lake. In 1990 Santiago Calatrava won the competition for the redesign of the station to accommodate a third track. Fig 27: The Historic Station Building

Site Conditions: The extension of the station was not an easy project to undertake, since it was a curved section, with a pronounced slope. Calatrava proposed the excavation of part of the hill to accommodate various functions and then rebuilding of the topography with a new aesthetic. The original station building which was built in 1894 was to be preserved. A public square bounds one side of the station.

Climate:

Fig 28: Stadelhofen Station

Zurich enjoys a humid continental type of climate. The average temperature ranges from 24 degs C to -3 degs C. The city receives snowfall during the winters and summer rain.

Fig 29: Conceptual Sketch Alternate public realms in Mumbai

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Program: Calatrava intended to disrupt the urban fabric and the landscape of the nearby hill, and proposed an open platform respecting the slope of the terrain. The hill is retained by a concrete box beam with a convex sol-fit, supported by an anchored, piled wall at the rear and a series of triple-point, slanting, and tapering columns at the front. The structure consists of a Continuous 270-meter section, following the gentle curve of the tracks under the hill. Above the box beam, running its full length, is a promenade enhanced by a cable truss.

underpass) and the flow of pedestrians crossing above the tracks over three steel bridges, traversing both hillside and plain to access the existing road system. There is a low, leisurely flow of Baudelairian flaneurs, where pedestrians can stroll up and down the hill, along the promenade, over the pedestrian bridge, through the stairs and escalators to the shopping area and then out to the street.

Calatrava’s section drawings show multiple circulation systems, differentiating and articulating several modes of transport. The scheme is indeed a three-dimensional, well-packed, well-woven arrangement of tightly interlocked, superposed routes of different scales, qualities of movement and points of transition. The station accommodates different flow types: the fast regular flow of trains along the tracks cutting through the ground level; the hasty pedestrian flow entering and leaving the trains at the platforms, approaching and leaving the station, ascending and descending its three levels, mingling or walking through the shopping centre (which extends beneath the tracks to additionally serve as an Fig 30: Platform Area Alternate public realms in Mumbai

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Fig 31: Plan

Fig 32: Section Alternate public realms in Mumbai

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Fig 33: Underground Galleries

Fig 34: Entry

Fig 34: Underground Galleries

Fig 34: Entry to underpass

Inference: The station responds excellently to the site. The neighbouring hill is accounted for and the slope used to advantage. The underground galleries, also connected to the platforms, have small shops and stalls which activate the platforms beyond their primary functionality. The station spills out onto the street, creating an extremely Alternate public realms in Mumbai

strong visual connect, creating an inviting space with the added bonus that the station is naturally ventilated and well lit at all hours. The elevated walkway created on the hillside above the platform winningly segregates and organizes pedestrian traffic in and out of the station. 36


Conclusions from case studies

The programmatic functions provided in the three cases are very similar to the ones attempted in this thesis proposal. Stadelhofen railway station demonstrates how a railway station blends seamlessly into a neighbouring public square. The High Line and Superkilen parks provide visually engrossing park spaces for the neighbouring residents. They provide landscape elements to augment their program to yield an engaging space that survives the diminishing effect of repeated use.

Alternate public realms in Mumbai

The High Line Park corroborates the success of a public space that is removed from the ground. Multiple access points and an engaging program on the upper level makes up for the lack of ground con-tact. The vibrant landscape of Superkilen Park is examined as potential to provide an interesting kinaesthetic experience in the thesis proposal.

The park’s integration of existing movement routes into the designed redevelopment could determine its success.

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Scope Proposal Functional Diagram Program Requirements

Area Program

CHAPTER 3 Alternate public realms in Mumbai

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Chapter 3 Area Program

Since the proposal is a transit development, it is imperative that the program emerges from the site and not the other way around. This chapter elaborates on the functional derivation of the program and specifies the detailed areas for each function.

Scope:

Proposal:

The project deals with complexities of an urban nature. It would, therefore, be incomplete without the suggestion of some strategies at an urban scale.

In the larger context, the scheme aims to plug in to the existing surroundings of the station. A minimal and precise intervention is proposed to transform the existing station into a facility of public activities. The space above the station is redesigned as an alternate public realm which caters primarily to its immediate context, while adding functions missing at the city level. The precinct of the station is redesigned to better link it with the station and the new public realm.

However, the focus of the project is the development of the area directly above the station and the station precinct as an urban public space. Design detailing is limited to this urban development and the necessary landscaping.

The traffic is directed to minimise the vehicular chaos existing on the eastern and western peripheries of the station. The proposal seeks to link the east and the west side, otherwise rudely separated by the railway.

Eateries Alternate public realms in Mumbai

Shopping

Bazaars

Movies

Play

Offices 39


Functional Diagram Theatres

Shops Parks

Eateries Shops & Offices

Public Transport (Bus/Auto) Public spaces Tickets Pedestrian Routes

Pedestrian Routes

Tickets Platforms

West Side

East Side

Shops & Offices Public Transport (Bus/Auto)

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Program requirements

WEST PRECINCT PROPOSED AREA FAR TOTAL BUILT UP PERMISSABLE GROUND COVERAGE AREA ON GROUND ACHIEVED COMMERCIAL SHOPS COMMERCIAL OFFICES BUILT UP ACHIEVED GROUND COVERAGE ACHIEVED

11493SQM 15835SQM 27328SQM 7662SQM

EAST PRECINCT PROPOSED AREA FAR TOTAL BUILT UP PERMISSABLE GROUND COVERAGE AREA ON GROUND

16597SQM 1.33 22074SQM 33% 5477SQM

ACHIEVED COMMERCIAL SHOPS COMMERCIAL OFFICES

RAILWAY POLICE FORCE(RPF) OFFICE CHIEF ENGINEER'S OFFICE STATION MASTER'S OFFICE OUTSTATION BOOKING OFFICE PARCEL OFFICE POST OFFICE SIGNAL ROOMS BUILT UP ACHIEVED GROUND COVERAGE ACHIEVED

Alternate public realms in Mumbai

22375SQM 1.33 29758SQM 33% 6712SQM

BUILT UP ACHIEVED GROUND COVERAGE ACHIEVED

27328SQM 7662SQM

EAST PRECINCT PROPOSED AREA FAR TOTAL BUILT UP PERMISSABLE GROUND COVERAGE AREA ON GROUND

16597SQM 1.33 22074SQM 33% 5477SQM

ACHIEVED COMMERCIAL SHOPS COMMERCIAL OFFICES

RAILWAY POLICE FORCE(RPF) OFFICE CHIEF ENGINEER'S OFFICE STATION MASTER'S OFFICE OUTSTATION BOOKING OFFICE PARCEL OFFICE POST OFFICE SIGNAL ROOMS BUILT UP ACHIEVED GROUND COVERAGE ACHIEVED

12042SQM 15835SQM 150SQM 10SQM 10SQM 400SQM 100SQM 30SQM 50SQM 17584SQM 6396SQM

12042SQM 15835SQM 150SQM 10SQM 10SQM 400SQM 100SQM 30SQM 50SQM 17584SQM 6396SQM 41


Understanding the Site

CHAPTER 4 Alternate public realms in Mumbai

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Religion

Chapter 4 Understanding the Site

Religion

Hindus

Muslims

Christians

Buddhists

Jains, Sikhs & parsis

838/1000

12,478,447 Fig 35: Girgaum Chowpatty

94.7%

Literacy

Sex Ratio

Population

Mumbai has a wet tropical climate, with seven dry months and the monsoon peaking in July-August. The cooler season from December to February is followed by the summer from March to June. The period from June to about the end of September constitutes the south-west monsoon season. Avg. AnnualTemp. range: 35c-28c Avg. Annual Rainfall:2200mm

Fig 36: Ganesh Chatturti

Fig 37: Mumbai’s Cabs Alternate public realms in Mumbai

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Fig 41: Fishing boat at Girgaum Chowpatty

Fig 38: Mumbai’s Local Trains

Fig 39: Vada Pav

Fig 42: Bollywood Fans Alternate public realms in Mumbai

Fig 40: Gola

Fig 41: Dabbawalas

Fig 43: Mumbai’s Dense Housings 44


Land Use map of Andheri Ward

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Residential areas in Andheri ward

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Open Spaces in Andheri ward

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Educational and medical areas in Andheri ward

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Commercial areas in Andheri ward

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Neighbourhood

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Site: Andheri Station Stops for Slow, Fast and Outstation trains No. of Platforms:9 Area: 53,270sqm

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Land use map of Andheri station precinct

Commercial Alternate public realms in Mumbai

Residential

Institutional

Mixed Use 51


Volumetric map of Andheri station precinct

G Alternate public realms in Mumbai

G+1

G+2

G+3

G+4

G+5

G+6 52


Vehicular netwoks around Andheri station precinct

One Way Vehicular Road Alternate public realms in Mumbai

Two Way Vehicular Road 53


Pedestrian netwoks around Andheri station precinct

Low Pedestrian Traffic Alternate public realms in Mumbai

High Pedestrian Traffic 54


Railway netwoks around Andheri station precinct

Tickets

Harbour Line Platforms

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Western Line Slow Train Platforms

Western Line Fast Train Platforms

Outstation Platform 55


Public transport around Andheri station precinct

Proposed Metro Station Alternate public realms in Mumbai

Auto waiting areas

Bus Stops

Bus Depot 56


Figure ground around Andheri station precinct

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Reverse figure ground around Andheri station precinct

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Site pictures

Fig 44: Andheri Station

Fig 45: East side entry

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Fig 46: Skywalk

Fig 47: View from Andheri flyover Alternate public realms in Mumbai

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Fig 48: Railway building East side

Fig 49: Skywalk Alternate public realms in Mumbai

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Fig 50: West side entry

Fig 51: Hawking outside the staition Alternate public realms in Mumbai

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Fig 52: Hawking outside the staition

Fig 53: Hawking outside the staition Alternate public realms in Mumbai

Fig 54: Hawking outside the staition 63


Fig 55: Old West Side entry

Fig 56: Old West Side entry Alternate public realms in Mumbai

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Fig 57: New West Side entry under construction

Fig 58: New West Side entry under construction Alternate public realms in Mumbai

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Inference:

As there is a metro station and bus depots within the immediate context of the railway station, as well as the international airport nearby, the site is a major transit hub. The railway station experiences a recorded footfall of about 6,00,000 persons on an average working day, 80% of whom arrive at the station via public transport – buses and autos. The station is currently not universally accessible. The vehicular traffic situation outside the station is chaotic. Hawking congests already narrow roads. Built masses around the site are principally from the mid 1950s-1970s. Most of them are expected to undergo redevelopment under real estate pressure, being G+2 and G+3 structures. Here, an opportunity to integrate the immediate neighbouring blocks with the proposal arises.

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Inferences

CHAPTER 5 Alternate public realms in Mumbai

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SWOT Strengths:

Opportunities

With a footfall of 600000 per day, the redevelopment’s exposure to its target audience is assured. The project’s positioning in a transit hub opens it up to a larger audience who may not otherwise be dependent on the station.

The precinct creates an opportunity for redensification of the neighbourhood, as most structures around the site are G+2 to G+3, and expected to redevelop under real estate pressure. The areas around the station are of an informal character, which presents the opportunity for integrating this aspect into the redevelopment, as the informal space is viewed as democratically accessible, where one need not prove membership of any kind to access the space.

The site is heavily pedestrianized. Most people accessing the station (About 80%) do so through public transport – buses and autorickshaws. Foot over-bridges across platforms play an important role in establishing an East-West connect in the city. Although not universally accessible at present, the populace is heavily dependent on them, even if not accessing the station.

Weakness Multiple modes of vehicular traffic and pedestrian traffic around the station are not segregated or designed for, resulting in chaos and long lines outside the station. Although present, skywalks(distinct from foot over-bridges) are not used to capacity as they lie outside the path of primary pedestrian circulation.

Alternate public realms in Mumbai

Threats The proposal is faces with the double ended threats of gentrification and encroachment : Gentrification of the program that results in exclusionary usage of redeveloped space, as well as encroachment of the public opens that would render the opens ineffective.

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Open space planning The proposal caters to the two distinct edge (E,W) conditions of the site – residential and commercial – and the contrasting demands that they place on the site. The residential edge is designed for the user seeking passive entertainment – playgrounds for children and spaces of relaxation, while the commercial edge is designed as a convivial space for those seeking active entertainment – cinemas, open theatres and the like.

Pedestrian network planning Existing routes are strengthened by directing circulation, and augmented by making these easier to access with wider access points and escalators, both for permitting universal access as well as allowing faster access to the average pedestrian.

Hawking In designing a public space in this context, a number of informal establishments and hawkers are anticipated. These hawkers are viewed as necessary, as they activate the space, and thus, designed for. Designing for this anticipated necessary informality checks encroachment over the public opens.

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PART II Design Translation

Conceptualisation

CHAPTER 6 Alternate public realms in Mumbai

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Open space planning

Humanizing the Scale

The site has two distinct edges with contrasting demands – residential on one and commercial on the other. The residential edge is provided with spaces for relaxation while the commercial edge is provided with active entertainments.

In designing a public space in this context, a number of informal establishments and hawkers are anticipated. These hawkers are viewed as necessary, as they activate the space, and thus, designed for. Designing for this anticipated necessary informality checks encroachment over the public opens.

residential

COMMERCIAL

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Alternate public realms in Mumbai

Kinaesthetic

Courtyards

Paving patterns are used to create a kinaesthetic experience aimed at fast moving traffic (metro and flyover) to draw attention to the generated space.

Commercial establishments work well when situated at street edges. This gives rise to the arrangement of built structures on site, outside the station limits. To maximise the edge available, a court is carved out of each block. Courts, however risk becoming inactive, and to prevent this, the primary pedestrian linkages are guided through the courts. The majority of those using the pedestrian pathways to the station during peak traffic hours should like to access the station directly and are unlikely to stop at the courts – and should not be inconvenienced, thus the courts are distanced from the pathways, while allowing for a visual connect.

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Design Evolution

CHAPTER 7 Alternate public realms in Mumbai

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Design Development 1 The intervention area for the precinct was defined. Existing structures were replaced with large built blocks arranged around courts.

Alternate public realms in Mumbai

These blocks were deemed too large for pedestrians to interact with as they moved through the space. The extents of commercial development also remained to be explored.

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Design Development 2 The site area was revised and trimmed. This in turn made the courts smaller. The next step was to segregate traffic in the precinct and reorder it.

Alternate public realms in Mumbai

At the end of this stage, the corners of the site remained underutilised.

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Design Development 3 The site area was contracted further, affecting built structures and courts proportionately. The connectors between courts were articulated. Building cores which were too close together were spaced PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

out. Elevation treatment was worked upon.

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

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Alternate public realms in Mumbai

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT


Final Design

CHAPTER 8 Alternate public realms in Mumbai

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Plan at Lvl +00

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Alternate public realms in Mumbai +3000

+3000

+3000

+0

[

ALTERNATE PUBLIC ANDHERI STATION VISHAL JAYAN REALMS IN MUMBAI 5TH YR SEC. B

] PLAN SCALE 1:500 LVL +3000

THESIS GUIDES: PROF. SANDIP KUMAR PROF. NEERJA TIKKU

+3000

+3000

Plan at Lvl +3000

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Plan at Lvl +6000

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Plan at Lvl +9000

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Alternate public realms in Mumbai

[

ALTERNATE PUBLIC ANDHERI STATION JAYAN REALMS IN MUMBAI VISHAL 5TH YR SEC. B

] BASEMENT PLAN LVL -3000 THESIS GUIDES: PROF. SANDIP KUMAR PROF. NEERJA TIKKU

Plan at Lvl -3000

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SCALE 1:200

SCALE 1:200

SCALE 1:200

SCALE 1:500

Alternate public realms in Mumbai

]

[

ALTERNATE PUBLIC REALMS IN MUMBAI

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Model Pictures

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Alternate public realms in Mumbai

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Bibliography

Alternate public realms in Mumbai

Open Spaces Mumbai Exhibhition http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mumbai http://www.mumbaimirror.com/mumbai/others/How- land-sharks-robbed-Mumbai-of-its-open-spaces/a rticleshow/24805482.cms http://www.thenatureofcities.com/2013/08/18/open-mum bai-re-envisioning-the-city-and-its-open-spaces/ Rajput karthikeya, Thesis 2008-09, New Delhi Railway Sta tion Redesign Heckshecker A,(1977) Open Spaces http://www.archdaily.com/tag/high-line/ http://big.dk/#projects-suk http://architecturalmoleskine.blogspot.in/2012/04/calatra va-stadelhofen-station-zurich.html http://www.galinsky.com/buildings/stadelhofen/ Tschumi Bernard, (2012) Red is not a Color

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Architectural Thesis - Alternate Public Realms in Mumbai