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DESIGN PROJECT: TECHNO-AESTHETIC DETAILING Documentation 6 WEEKS Viraj Joshi UG - Sem 5 MIT-Institute of Design

“Nothing can cure the soul but the senses, just as nothing can cure the senses but the soul.� -Oscar Wilde


Acknowledgements Every project of such kind is never done by only the people who are working on the project, it needs co-operation and help from many people. Behind the success of this project too, there are many people, whom I must sincerely thank. we seize this opportunity to thank them. We would like to thank the faculty heads, Prof. Sanjay Jain and Prof. Sharmishtha Banerjee for all their support through this, and

the other courses, as my learning through the year has helped me thoroughly in this course, and for their most needed inspiration and motivation. Also, we would like to thank our classmates for increasing the competitive spirit, and helping us throughout the project. Without your support, this project would have been impossible.


Index 1. Brief - 04 2. Selected Topic - 06 3. Getting in the Mood - 07 4. Data Collection - 10 5. Data Analysis - 17 6. Criteria for Conceptualisation - 19 7. Ideation - 20 8. Conceptualisation - 21 9. What comes next? - 28


1. Brief “To detail out the technology and the aesthetics in a product to visually engage a user and give him an experience.� a. Active Engagement: All products that exist have a certain role that they play in our lives. They are seen, heard, felt, smelled and tasted. Thus they engage our senses to provide an experience, active or passive. It is important for a product to actively engage the senses. Most products today have a passive interaction with the user. Active engagement is when human to product and product to human interaction is a pleasant experience, or an experience that evokes a certain thought or feeling.

When we talk of techno-aesthetic detailing, the first thing that comes to my mind is detailing out a product for manufacturing - i.e. it’s ribs and bosses, if it is an injection mouldable product, or similar structural details. Attention to form, finish, fitment is also necessary. Knowing the technology behind the project is also equally important here. It is important to weigh alternate technologies, their feasibility, cost, portability etc. Along with this, it is necessary in this project to engage a user and provide him with an experience where the product interacts with the user and engages his senses actively.

Techno-Aesthetic Detailing Form

Function and Technology

Form Surface Finish Colour

Structural Detailing Manufacturing Detailing Materials Technological Detailing


Engaging the Senses Providing an Experience Active Interaction with user

b. What is an Engaging Product? The communication from product to human should be very strong in an engaging product. The product lets out a feedback to one of the senses of the human. The human is stimulated by it and is intrigued, i.e., a thought is evoked in his mind about the product. The human then wants to do his bit in interacting with the product. This is how engaging products should work.

Interaction with Product Passive

Active Pleasant Experience Evoking a Certain Feeling

c. Alloted Sense: The sense that was alloted to my group was visual sense. Sense of vision is by far the most used sense and humans judge and draw conclusion of things as they are seen. The product to be designed shouldn’t only be good looking, but also visually engaging. It should provide a visual treat to the user No sense ever works alone. The experience from any stimulus in the surrounding is from multiple senses working at the same time. In the world of a lot of visual information, it is important to design a product will not overlook at all. Also, they’ll not just look and say, ‘Hey, that looks nice!’, but a product that makes them stop and interacts with them, answers them subjectively, and leaves them off with a certain feeling evoked in 05

2. Selected Topic A coffee maker is the selected topic. Coffee itself is something that engages all the senses. It has an inviting and a warmth inducing aroma. The taste and texture of coffee is refreshing. On having hot coffee, one feels a gush of warmth through oneself. It can be compared to drinking liquified sunlight. When coffee enters one’s system, there’s a subtle fire that lights up inside one’s body. Visually, coffee has glistening light brown colour that looks subtle, organic and attracts a person.

Problem Statement: To design and detail a coffee maker which makes coffee making a visually pleasing experience.


3. Getting in the Mood Feelings related to coffee

When is coffee had?

Coffee Sensorial Engagement

Moods Coffee Colour Pallette

Mind maps are used to set up the mood of a certain product around which the design has to be done. Since this project is on coffee, we start with a random checklist of coffee and things around it. a. Coffee Colour Pallette: Colour is an important attribute of any product. It plays an important role om ome’s perception of a product. Coffee has a cololur that is close to vrown which is associated whith subtlety and richness. It also symbolises warmth, wisdom and is still useful. A coffee colour pallette is colours which are brownish, yet not too bright.

b. Feelings about Coffee: Coffee is something that evokes a number of feelings. It’s warmth stands for love and friendship. It can also stand for hanging out and togetherness. There is a sense of wisdom associated with coffee drinkers. It is also a symbol of wealth. Many conversations start over coffee. Most importantly, coffee is energising and rejuvenating and adds to the zeal for working. Hence it is had by people of all ages. It is used to stay up in the nights to work.


c. When is coffee had? Coffee has no season or time of the day that is specific to it’s consumption. All days and all times of days are suitable, even though it is preferred in colder seasons because of it’s warmth. Since it symbolises rejuvenation, coffee can be had late nights to help get lost energy back - both mental and physical.

d. Sensorial Engagement: Coffee engages all five senses, and provides the entire coffee experience. There is always an interconnection between the senses. The following is the order of engagement of senses in the coffee drinking experience:


Coffee is first seen. On seeing, a person always wants to go and drink the coffee. Looking at coffee gives the subtle, warm and rich feel.


The aroma of coffee then kicks in. This is the time when you want to have the coffee at that instant. The Aroma is alluring, warm, and bitter-sweet.


Taste is the last factor in the coffee experience. It gives the bitter sweet rejuvenating taste, coupled with temperature and smell


The coffee cup is then held. That also spurs in freshness. On touching the coffee with the tongue, a mild feel of froth is followed by the hot coffee.


Visual Sense - Coffee is golden and brownish. This gives it a subtle, warm and rich look. One feels the warmth of the coffee inside them as they see it and they are attracted to drinking coffee.

It’s like a soft mild intro to what is really hot and rejuvenating.

Scent - The scent of coffee too, is extremely inviting. It gives a dark but sweet feeling.

Olfactory + Taste together give coffee the sense of bitter-sweetness. Tactile + Taste together give coffee the sense of warmth, and the sensation of soft froth and then sharp coffee, and also mild froth and then intense hot coffee. Visual + Tactile give coffee the sense of warmth and richness.

Tactile - When one touches coffee mug, there is warmth that rushes through him. This is the stage where one can’t wait to drink coffee. While drinking, the lips and the tongue touch the coffee’s froth first and then the drink.

Taste - The bitter sweet taste of coffee also brings a little pain + pleasure feeling.


4. Data Collection Types



Coffee Coffee Makers Machines Principles of Working




a. Types of Coffee:

Arabica Highest produced type of coffee. It is easier to blend other aromas with this. It has the least caffeine content of all the three types.

Robusta Second highest produced coffee. It’s flavour is stronger than Arabica and has a lot more caffeine content than Arabica.

b. c.History of Coffee: A goatherd named Kaldi from Ethiopia discovered that his goats were spirited so much upon eating certain seeds from a certain plant, that they wouldn’t sleep at night. Kaldi informed these effects to the head of the local monastery and the fame began to spread over

Kona Lowest produced and rarest form of coffee. Has the highest coffee content.

as a drink was brewed from the berries. Arabs were the ones who started commercially cultivating coffee and also trading. In the middle east, Arabs enjoyed coffee along with various forms of entertainment. 10

By the 17th century, coffee made it’s way to Europe. It was called the ‘Bitter Drink of Satan’, in Europe until Pope Clement VIII liked it and gave it his papal approval.

Coffee houses soon became places of social gathering. It was taken to America or the ‘New World’ and it gained popularity especially after shunning tea at boston tea party.

c. Contents of Coffee:


d. Technologies in Coffee Makers: There are many technologies developed through the years for coffee makers. Following are the famous, or ground breaking ones: Vacuum Brewing/ Siphon Coffee Maker: Input for this coffee maker

is heat energy. In this kind of a coffee brewer, ground coffee is kept in flast A, at the top. In the container at the bottom, there is water, which is heated externally. As the heating starts, water is vapourised and the steam takes up more space than water and starts exerting pressure on water. Thus, water is pushed upwards into 12

the flask.A through a central pillar, where it mixes with the ground coffee beans. Thus, espresso coffee is brewed, and over time, it settles down in container B, to be used to dispensed.

A Coffee Percolators: Coffee Percolators also require heating. There is water that is put in the container and when B water is heated, it is carried to the top chamber through the central pillar / capillary. Through the ‘Spreader Plate’ A, the water enters ground coffee and is then carried through filter B back to the main container. When the brew is ready, the entire The Moka Express: container is filled with coffee. Moka Express works on a There are electric variants similar principle to the siphon available as well. coffee maker, except that in this product, the top container ‘C’ is used as the coffee collector. We put in water to heat in container A, and container B has the ground coffee. On heating, the pressure of steam is high enough to push the coffee from container B to A. 13

Electric Drip Coffee Maker: In an elecric drip coffee maker, water is stored in “C” container, which goes to heater “A” below the carage. The water then goes to “B”, which is a container for coffee and is called filter basket. The water, now heated, flows through it and is now boiling coffee, which drips into the carafe. The heating plate A also servess as a quick warmer for the coffee after it is colected in the carafe.

The mixture then has to be plunged for 3-5 minutes. Thus, espresso is ready.

e. Working Principles: Through all the coffee makers, there are two things which are common: heating and froth making. Heating: Heating of anything is done through either of three media: conduction, convection and radiation.

French Press: In a French Press, one needs to put in slightly larger ground coffee. Steaming water is then put in from the top.

Conduction - The transfer of heat between objects that are in physical contact is called conduction. Induction heating is a type of conduction. 14

In induction cooking, an induction coil in the cook-top heats the iron base of cookware. Copper-bottomed pans, aluminium pans and other non-ferrous pans are generally unsuitable. The heat induced in the base is transferred to the food via (metal surface) conduction. Benefits of induction cookers include efficiency, safety (the induction cook-top is not heated itself) and speed. Both permanently installed and portable Palmer's 1786 patented coffee urn induction cookers are available. with spirit lamp Convection - Heat transfer in a gas or liquid by the circulation of currents from one region to another is called convection. Radiation Emission and propagation and emission of energy in the form of rays or waves is called Radiation. Froth Making: Froth making is generally achieved by using plungers in milk. Stirrers or motor operated shafts can also be used. Blowing air into the milk also helps create froth. f. History of Coffee Makers: There have been many coffee makers through the history that work on different principles. Here’s a brief report of a few of them.

Count Rumford's insulated French Drip Pot. (1700s)

Madame Vasasieux's "Glass Balloon" design (1841) 15

Turmel's 1853 patent for a Balancing Siphon coffee brewer.

1938 Silex Coffee Maker (Frank E. Wolcott)

Sharp's 1988 patent drawing for an electric vacuum brewer Edson's 1866 "Improved Coffee-Pot"

Toshiba's 1989 - a microchip Freiderich Liesche's 1866 Balancing controlled vacuum brewer with built-in coffee mill Siphon Apparatus 16

5. Data Analysis

After data collection it has to be analysed in order to draw conclusions from it. These conclusions can be triggers of design concepts. Many-a-times, drawing conclusions needs going

back to the roots of what the problem is and what has to be done. Thus I start with the coffee making process. The plan is to intercept the process with possible technologies, and then research more about them to come up with good concepts. 17

Here, the coffee making process is a prerequisite, or a necessary ordeal. Thus, the product can have attributes sensitive to any of the elements of the process. I wish to aim at changing an attribute of the product with a stimulus from the process and provide a visual experience. The most important triggers from the process of making coffee are heating, solution and movement. Thus a physical attribute of the product can change with any of these activities as inputs. Thus, one approach would be to change the form or colour of the product through stimulii from the process.

Based on this, the following technologies/ideas can be used: Thermocromatic Inks. Change of form through fold-out solid forms. Opening of a hot air balloon as soon as heating starts. However these solutions are only adding onto the process. They can get boring after some time. Thus, it is necessary to just enhance the inherent process, instead of adding elements to the process. Thus, if the inherent processes of making coffee are shown to the user, the user will be engaged every time a cup is brewed for him.


6. Criteria for Conceptualisation Technological Details Heating: •Heating of both milk and water is required. •Heating of milk should be mild, whereas water must be boilt and converted to steam. •Same heating element must be used for both milk and water. •Use of induction cookers can be done, if ferrous materials are used. •Heating coil can also be used. •The input for this is electrical.

Mixing: •Mixing of Coffee and Milk is required. •Mixing of water and ground coffee must be nicely done. Structural Details: •Housing of heating elements. •Selection of material. Aesthetic Experience: •All inherent processes in coffee making can be enhanced. •Make first sight a good experience for user.


7. Ideation

Throwing of random ideas. What would the product look like if it were designed for Harry Potter? Gather inspiration from all that is around and come up with a huge bunch of wacky ideas.


8. Conceptualisation Since we need the same heating element for boiling water, and only heating milk, the idea is to use water as a conductor. Thus, the following experiment was

conducted to determine what material will be the best to conduct heat through the water bath to the milk. Steel is heated more than required, Aluminium is just right, and it is okay to use glass as well.



The concepts made have a certain driving idea. The following are the sets of ideas and driving forces behind design concepts.

Concept Set 1: 2 containers, for coffee and milk, mixed and stirred by motor, common heating element to both.


Concept Set 2: Product opens up with steam coming out. Grand initial feeling. Technology same as concept 1.

Concept Set 3: Product opens up sideways, instead of vertical opening.


Concept Set 2: Product opens up with steam coming out. Grand initial feeling. Technology same as concept 1.

Concept Set 3: Product opens up sideways, instead of vertical opening.

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Final Concept:


Explanation of Concept: •Chamber A is filled with water


•B is the heating element from which the water in A has to boil. •On heating, the water begins to oil, and is converted into steam. This steam condenses on top surface C.


•Since the surface C is inclined, the water drips down to container D which contains ground coffee. •Espresso is brewed in container D which has a mesh to it’s base.



•Espresso slowly drips from the mesh in E - The container that contains milk. •The milk in E is heated by conduction of heat through water and not directly.


•Thus, coffee is made. An additional product: a froth maker is used for simple frothing. It contains a simple 3V motor with a shaft to create froth.


What Comes Next? •Betterment in Form. •Experiments to test the angle at which condensation happens. •Working Model in Acrylic. •Mock Form Models •Detailing of all components, technical and structural



Techno-Aesthetic Detailing Documentation