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ELO QU ENCE

FEB 2012

international creators magazine

COVER PHOTOGRAPHER HAL STARRING PARK SEUNGYEA SEUNG JOON CHOI DONGHYUN SON BY BORRE

10,000 KRW SANGBONG LIE MOTOELASTICO DONGMEE LEE THE STRIKERS

VAKKI SHODA YUKIHIRO DIMITO ROBERT BRADFORD

KIRIN TOSHIFUMI TANIUCHI

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EDITOR’S NOTE ăœŒâŚ?ä„´ă?˜â?ˆGă˘Źä‰¤â‡¨ăŠˆâ‰„Gä† âŤ ăœ„ă˘¨ä‰¤GâŹ˜áś¤ăŤ¸ă˘šâ?źâ?˜ ăœŒâŚ?ä„´ă?˜GâŹ˜áś¤ăŤ¸ăĄ´G㤸㉏ᡸGä† âŤ ăœ„ă˘¨ä‰¤ă?˜ă?´G䚜‌GâŹ€â˜˜ă›¨á´´â?ˆG㣕㍴㢚â?źâ?˜UGăœŒâŚ?ä„´ă?˜GâŹ˜áś¤ăŤ¸ăĄ´G áź´âŚ?⡀Gä† âŤ ăœ„ă˘¨ä‰¤ă?˜ă?´G䚜‌Gä‚ŒäŠ„ă˝”âŞ°GăĽ?ăŁ…äšŒá¸”SGḊâ”?GăŁ…ă›šă˘ŒGὤä&#x;€âŞ°GăĽ?á¸ŠäšŒăœ Gáş„âŞŒă˘ŒG㣙㢨Gâ•Œâ?ˆG ᜡ㥸GâŻ?ä–?âŚ?Gäš?â?źâ?˜UGăœŒâŚ?ä„´ă?˜G䓏㏅⺴â?ˆGäš?ấSGⓚ㢰SGä?Źă¨°SGă?˜ă œâ’¨SGⴏấSGăœľáşĄGăť?ă?”ă˘ŒGâ?˜áşĄă¤ľG ăœ„â™ˆä‰¤âŚ?Gáş ă‰Ľâ•Œă›¨G㢟㥰⎤SG⤤⒌SG⎨ă&#x;‰SG䑀⍠SGăšˆă?˜äŠ€âިâ?¨SGâľˆâŞ¨ă‰´âŚ?⇌SG⓸䃸SGâľ?䂉Gâ˜ĽăŤ´ăœ„Gäœ¸ăŤ´G ăœ„â™ˆä‰¤âŞ°G▄㛨SGâ?˜áşĄă¤ľGä† âŤ ăœ„ă˘¨ä?¤â˝€Gä™°ä™€ă˘ŒGăœ¨ăĽ‰á¸°Gá´´â?™ă‰ĽăĄ¸Gă‹€áľ?䚌ḔG㢟ă?Šâ?źâ?˜UGâ?„äš?G⤤⒌SG âľ?䂉SGâľˆâŞ¨ă‰´âŚ?â‡Œăœ„Gă?˜ä™°ă?˜âŞ°G▄ḔGấăĽ?㤾㢏Gä‚ŒäŠ„ă˝”Gáş„âŞŒăœ„Gâľ‰ăľœâŞ°Gᴴ䚌ḔG㢟ă?Šâ?źâ?˜UGG

ăœŒâŚ?ä„´ă?˜ă˘ŒGⓚ㣄ă?´Găž?áş â?ˆGä† âŤ ăœ„ă˘¨ä?¤â˝€G䙰䙀㢚â?źâ?˜ ăœŒâŚ?ä„´ă?˜â?ˆGấ⇨㞏Gă?ŒâŹ‚㥴Gä† âŤ ăœ„ă˘¨ä?¤â˝€G䙰䙀㥸Găž?áş âŚ?Gᴴ㍴ḔG㢟ă?Šâ?źâ?˜UGă˘¨â˜˜ăĄ´GăœŒâŚ?ä„´ă?˜ă˘ŒG 㨰ă&#x;ˆGⓚ㣄㽊㢨㣄Gă™źäŠ€â‡Œă˘šâ?źâ?˜UGăœŒâŚ?ä„´ă?˜ă˘ŒGⓚ㣄â?ˆGă?˜ăĽ?âŚ?G㾹㌤㤾GâąŹäžˆâŞ°GâŹ€â˜˜ă›¨Gá´´â?ˆG㙸ä?¤ă?˜ä?ŹSG â™ˆăŁ„ă˘¨âˆźSG䊀䆠⊴âŚ?㍴GăœˆăŤ´â?źă›¨â˜˜ă˘šâ?źâ?˜UG㄄⏀G㙸â?źâ˘°Gä† âŤ ăœ„ă˘¨ä?¤â˝€G㣅㛚㥸GâƒźâƒŹâ?ˆGă?ŒâŹ‚㥴G ăŤ´âŹ‘ăˆ‘â˜˜á¸°Gă˘¨â˜˜ă˘ŒG㣅㛚㥸Gă‡ âŁ…äšŒâ?ˆGâąŹäžˆă˘Źâ˜˜Gâ?„äš?GăœŒâŚ?ä„´ă?˜ă˘ŒG㨰ă&#x;ˆGⓚ㣄㽊㢚â?źâ?˜UGă˘¨â˜˜ăĄ´GâŻœâ–„G áź´âŚ?⡀Gä€˜âł˜â?źä?¤ăœ„Gâ?™ă??䚌⎤SG➔⪏G㋠⓸âŚ?GâąŹäžˆă?´Gä?ŹâĽ€â˜?⪰Gáş„âŞŒäšŒá¸”G㢟â?ˆG㇟âŚ?ă&#x;¨Gă˘ŹâŞŒă˘šâ?źâ?˜UG

ăœŒâŚ?ä„´ă?˜ă˘ŒGâľ¤ä” ăˇŒâ?ˆGấăĽ?㤾㢚â?źâ?˜ ăœŒâŚ?ä„´ă?˜ă˘ŒG⾤䔠â?ˆGă‰?ăĽ„ăœ„ă‰?Gä‘„âŹ˜äšŒâ?ˆGá˝¤ăŚ¨ă˘ŒGâľ?ă?‘㥸G⠤㛨Gâ‰Œă›¨Gä† âŤ ăœ„ă˘¨ä‰¤â˜˜ă˘ŒG㥔â”?㢨Gᴴ㣙G äž?âľ?äš?Gă‰?ă&#x;ŹGă??â‡¨ă˘ŒGáľ˜â¤ âŤ SG䆨⤹SGâ?´ă™źá¸Šá´¸SGăž¨ä“ŒGâ˜Ľă˘ŒGäš&#x;Gă?˜ä”łăĄ¸G㊅ă? ăĄ°âŚ?Gă˘¨â¨œă›¨ăŤ´á¸”G㢟ă?Šâ?źâ?˜UG ăœŒâŚ?ä„´ă?˜â?ˆG䚨㞏Gâľ¤ä” ăˇŒGäž‰â¸¨ăœ„â“¸G㤾៭㤾㢚â?źâ?˜UG㢨ⴏG⤤⒌SG䑀⍠SG⎨ă&#x;‰SG⓸䃸SGăšˆă?˜äŠ€âިâ?¨SG âľˆâŞ¨ă‰´âŚ?⇌SGâľ?䂉SG⓸䃸Gâ˜Ľă˘ŒGâ?´â“¸ă??ăœ„G⾤䔠⏑㥸Gáş ăť‰äšŒá¸”G㢟㥰⎤SGâľ¤ä” ăˇŒâ?ˆGá´ľG⓸ă??ă˘ŒGâ™ˆăŁ„ă˘ŹG ㉰䉤SGáľ˜â¤ âŤ SG䆨⤹SGâ­´ä?¤Gă? Gâ˜ĽGä† âŤ ă˘¨ăœ„ä‰¤â˜˜ă˘ŒG㥔â”?㉼㢨Gᴴ㣙G⋆㥴G䙀âŁ&#x;䔰㢚â?źâ?˜UG

ăœŒâŚ?ä„´ă?˜â?ˆG㇟âŚ?ă&#x;¨Gă??â?´ă˘ŒGă‹€ăŠ?G≘ä?Źă €ä‡­GâŹ˜áś¤ăŤ¸ă˘šâ?źâ?˜ ăœŒâŚ?ä„´ă?˜â?ˆGäˆ?â˝ˆâŤłGâŹ˜áś¤ăŤ¸á¸°SGă ­GâŹ˜áś¤ăŤ¸ăĄ¸Gâ”?ă??ăœ„Gă&#x;¨ăœľäšŒâ?ˆGᜡ㥸GâŻ?ä–?âŚ?G▄ḔG㢟ă?Šâ?źâ?˜UOYWXY≸G \ă ˆGăœŒâŚ?ä„´ă?˜Gäˆ?â˝ˆâŤłGâŹ˜áś¤ăŤ¸G㼉ă?‘G⌔㞥SGă ­GâŹ˜áś¤ăŤ¸Gäœ¸ăŁ Gâ”?ă??G⍠⎨㛰G㊅PGăœŒâŚ?ä„´ă?˜ă˘ŒGăœ„â™ˆä‰¤â˜˜ăĄ´G ㌚㢨GâŹ˜áś¤ăŤ¸á¸°SGâ™ˆăŤ´ä‰ŹGâŹ˜áś¤ăŤ¸ăĄ¸G㣄㥔⌥ᡀGă?˜á´´âŽ¤GË„ă „Gă‹€ă?˜Gâ­´ä?¤G㥔㪟˅⪰Gă?˜äš˝äšŒá¸”G㢟㥰⎤SGä‰´â˝ˆâ¤ SG ä?Źă ¸ä‰¤SGä“Œă˘¨ă?˜âşľSGâ˝ˆâŚ?៏Gâ˜ĽăĄ¸G㣄㥔㣄㣠âŚ?Gäž?ă&#x;?䚨Gä‚ŒäŠ„ă˝”Gâľ¤ä” ă˘ŒGäš?ᡸ⪰G⠤㛨G≌ḔG㢟ă?Šâ?źâ?˜UG ăœŒâŚ?ä„´ă?˜â?ˆGâ?˜áşĄă¤ľG䑀㠀G䊀䆠⊴âŚ?㍴G㥔㤴SGă‹€ăŠ?G≘ä?Źă €ä€˜SG䑀㠀Gâ˝ˆâŚ?áś¤â˜˜ăĄ¸Găž?áş âŚ?G▄ḔG㢟㥰⎤SG ă˘¨â˜˜ăĄ´GăœŒâŚ?ä„´ă?˜ă˘ŒGä‚ŒäŠ„ă˝”SG䘸âŚ?㼑ä?ŹâŞ°G㤸Gă‰Źáˇ¸ăœ„G㚀⍠â?ˆG㢰㥸G┉ḔG㢟ă?Šâ?źâ?˜UG

ăœŒâŚ?ä„´ă?˜â?ˆGă?”áľ?⊄G䘸âŚ?㼑ä?ŹGâŹ˜áś¤ăŤ¸ă˘šâ?źâ?˜ ăœŒâŚ?ä„´ă?˜â?ˆGὤ㌨GâŹ˜áś¤ăŤ¸Gä?‰äˆ?ă˘ŒG˄㢰âľ?ä›™Gä‚ŒäŠ„ă˝”Ë…GăĽ?㣅㢨G㙸â?€GË„ă›…âľ?ä›™Gä‚ŒäŠ„ă˝”Ë…âŞ°GăĽ?ăŁ…äšŒâ?ˆGă?”áľ?⊄G 䘸âŚ?㼑ä?ŹGâŹ˜áś¤ăŤ¸ă˘šâ?źâ?˜UGăœŒâŚ?ä„´ă?˜ă˘ŒG䘸âŚ?㼑ä?ŹGὤ㇠â?ˆG㤸ă??SGὤä&#x; SGă˘¨âˇ˜ä?Źâ˜ĽăĄ°âŚ?G䚜‌G㍸䚽Gâ•Œă›¨G ㏅â?źâ?˜UGäœ¸ăŁ GăœŒâŚ?ä„´ă?˜â?ˆGâ?˜ă›…äš?Gâş¸ăš°ă˘ŒGä† âŤ ăœ„ă˘¨ä?¤â˝€Gâ™ˆâ¤˝ä‰¤â˜˜á¸°G䚜‌Gcä” ăŁ™âŤźăľœä˜¸âŚ?㼑ä?Ź eSGcä?Źäžˆâ?´âľŒăĽ„eSGcwˆ™Â?šG䘸âŚ?㼑ä?ŹeSGcâľ?䂉G䘸âŚ?㼑ä?ŹeSGcă?”ăŤ¸â™ˆăŁ„ă˘¨âˆźG䘸âŚ?㼑ä?ŹeSGc⢰㢏Gâ˜?âŚ?㢽G 䘸âŚ?㼑ä?ŹeGâ˜ĽăĄ¸G㍸䚽SG䘸âŚ?âŻœăŠŒäšŒá¸”G㢟ă?Šâ?źâ?˜UGâ?„äš?Gä™€âŁŒä?¤G䄘ă?˜ä?Źäš”⤟SG⨜䘸GSGă??â‰˜ä†„â˝€Gâ˜ĽG ăœľä›™âĽ™G㢟â?ˆG㤸ă??G䘸âŚ?㼑ä?ŹGä?´ă˘¨GăœŒâŚ?ä„´ă?˜ă˘ŒGᾉ⼙äš?Găž?áş â˜˜ă˘šâ?źâ?˜UGGG

â´Źâ™ˆă›¨Gä‡Ťă˘ŒG⇨ă&#x;?G㊅G㢰⺴⪰Gâľ?㟀䚟â?˜UG㢨G㼉⓸⎨GăœŒâŚ?ä„´ă?˜á´´Gă›¨â›˜G㣕㍴㢏㍴Gâ?´ăť?G㢨䚨ᴴGâ•”G ᜡ㢨⢰Găˆ‘á´ľäš?â?˜UG⇌â?ˆG㤸ă&#x;¤ăžŒâ?˜UG㣕㍴⪰G⏀â˜?â?ˆG㇠⣀㢨â?˜UG‰“Â?Â•ÂŽă˘ŒGăľąá´¸G䓏㏅㣙㥸GăœĄă˘¸äšźá¸”SG Â”ÂˆÂ—Âšă˘ŒG䓏㏅㣙㥸Gáś¤ă¸˜â?˜UG៏⍠ḔG㍴៟㥴GlÂ“Â–Â˜ÂœÂŒÂ•ÂŠÂŒâŞ°GăŤ´äĄŒäšŒá¸”G㢟â?˜UG⇌â?ˆG㣕㍴GăĽ?㣅G㤸⹏ᴴG ă˘šăŁ™ăœ„ă‰?GăœŒâŚ?ä„´ă?˜á´´G⸨ḔSGâ?„↰⎤SGáˇąäœŒäšŒá¸”G㢟â?ˆGâŻœâ˜”Gáśˇăœ„G˄㍸㼉㉼˅㢨G㢟â?˜á¸”G䞉ă?”äš?â?˜UGâ´ŹâŁŒă˘ŒG 㣕㍴㇤㛚㥴G˄㍸㼉㉼˅㢨GↀḔGâ‡Œá´źGᜡ㢨â?˜UGâš€âąŹăœ„GăœŒâŚ?ä„´ă?˜ă˘ŒGâ´ŹâŁŒâ?ˆGâľ‘â?˜UGă&#x;¤âŤ ă?´G䚜‌G㍄὏G 㨴⽸ᴴGâ•Œă›¨G㢟â?˜âŽ¨G㛏ăĽ?☔Gă?´â˘°UGâ?´äžŒăœľă˘¨â?˜UG㾏ḔâŚ?GăœŒâŚ?ä„´ă?˜ă˘ŒGâ?˜ă˘€Gä?Źâ?ˆGâľ?ä‚‰ăœ„ă‰?GăĽ?㣅â•?â?˜UGX ă ˆGZW㢰SGăœŒâŚ?ä„´ă?˜G䓏㏅⺴G㤸㠄㥴Gâľ?䂉㥰âŚ?G⇔㙸ᴸâ?˜UG៏⍠ḔGáźŹá¸§ăœ„Gl“–˜œŒ•ŠŒG㢸ă??Gă?˜ä™°ă?˜âŞ°G ă‰˜ăžŒäšŒá¸”G⸨⪸ᴸGäˆ?áşĄă˘ŒGä† âŤ ăœ„ă˘¨ä‰¤â˜˜á¸°G䚜‌G㣕㍴Gäš?Gᝀ㥸G䋊㏏âŚ?G㣅㛚äš?â?˜UGâ?˜ă˘€â? ăœ„â?ˆGâľ?ä‚‰ă˘ŒG 䢙ⴏ㍸㍸äš?G㢨㚰ὤ⪰GăŁˆâĄ?Gᴴ㍴ḔG─㙸ă?˜áˇ”â?˜UG 䓏㏅㣙G㤸ă&#x;¤ăžŒG

Eloquence â&#x20AC;&#x201C; The International Creators Magazine Eloquence is a magazine for creators and also about theme. As the only creatorsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; magazine in Korea, it provides a unique platform for creative people. With an international editorial team comprised of editors from Korea, Japan, Australia, Sweden, Germany, the US and UK, and RIÂżFHVLQ/RQGRQ%DQJNRNDQG%DUFHORQD(ORTXHQFHWUDFHVHIIHFW of international culture exchange, informs about new developments in creative scenes from all over the world and turns the creative passion of leading creators into inspriring stories. Eloquenceâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s readers are professional creators Eloquence connects the world of trendsetting creators with a wider audience of art lovers and countless ambitious aspirants interested in Art, Design, Events, Music, Film, New Media Art, and New Collaborative Projects. Ideas spread faster around the world than ever before, and Eloquence readers are part of a global community anticipating the changes that come with this development. Eloquence is available all over the world Eloquence is distributed on famous galleries, art spaces, clubs, and PXOWLVKRSVLQPDMRUFLWLHVRIWKHZRUOG,QFOXGLQJ/RQGRQ3DULV%HUOLQ 1HZ<RUN7RN\R$PVWHUGDP%DUFHORQDDQG%DQJNRN,QRUGHUWR VWDELOL]HWKHGLVWULEXWLRQQHWZRUNDQGUHDGHUVÂśFRPPXQLW\HYHU\PRQWK Eloquence will visit another city around the world. Eloquence is a social networking magazine in the digital era Eloquence is preparing digital format of the content produced for the print YHUVLRQ:LWKWKHRIÂżFLDOODXQFKRIWKH(ORTXHQFHWDEOHWPDJD]LQHLQ0D\ (ORTXHQFHZLOOLQWURGXFH.RUHDÂśVÂżUVWHGLWRULDOWHDPWRSURGXFH digital content for tablet magazines. :KLOHWKHZLGHXVHRI7ZLWWHU)DFHERRNDQGEORJVWRUHDFKPRUH UHDGHUVLVREOLJDWRU\(ORTXHQFHLVFRQQHFWHGWRDQLQWHUQDWLRQDOQHWZRUN RIVRFLDOQHWZRUNHUVDQGSRZHUEORJJHUV7KH\ZLOOKHOSWROHWWKHZKROH ZRUOGNQRZDERXW(ORTXHQFHÂśVFRQWHQWDQGRQJRLQJSURMHFWV Eloquence is a new project magazine Eloquence is a new project magazine that creates content that not only reports but also produces events and projects. Already introduced art and culture projects are in production or will be launched soon. Currently (ORTXHQFHLVSURPRWLQJ3RMDQJPDFKD3URMHFW!+RZKD'DH%DQ -RHP!3DULV3URMHFW!5LVLQJ'HVLJQHUVÂś)DVKLRQ6KRZV!%DJ )DLU!DQG/LQH'UDZLQJ!ZLWKYDULRXVFUHDWRUV

,TXRWHGVRPHSDUWIURPWKHPHGLDNLW7KLVVKRXOGJLYHV\RXDQLGHD DERXWZKDW(ORTXHQFHLVDERXW0\QDPHLV:RRFKL-HRQ,PDNH PDJD]LQHV,ZDVWKHIRXQGLQJHGLWRULQFKLHIRI%OLQJDQG,PRYHGRQ DVDQHGLWRULQFKLHIRI0DSV1RZ,DPGLUHFWLQJ(ORTXHQFH%HLQJDQ H[SHUWLQWKHSURGXFWLRQRIPDJD]LQHV,DPFRQÂżGHQWWKDWHYHU\WKLQJ \RXVHHIHHODQGH[SHULHQFHLQWKHPDJD]LQHLVÂľUHDOÂś,I\RXWKLQN\RX are ready to be part of us, join us in any time. We welcome you with open arms. For your information, the next issue of the Eloquence will be SURGXFHGLQ%DQJNRN7KHZKROHHGLWRULDOWHDPZLOOĂ&#x20AC;\RYHUWKHUH:H VHWXSDQLQWHULPRIÂżFHDQGSURGXFHWKHZKROHLVVXHGXULQJWHQGD\VLQ FROODERUDWLRQZLWKFUHDWRUVIURP7KDLODQG1H[WPRQWKZHZLOOUHWXUQZLWK DEDJIXOORILQWHUHVWLQJVWRULHVIURP%DQJNRN Editor-in-chief Woo-chi Jeon


contents

010 012 014 016 020 022 024 028 030 036 044 048 054 058 066 072 074 080 082 092 100 106 110 114 122 128 137

exhibition event music project event project architecture music art photography brand art media fashion photography music studio visit journalism drawing art art art film collection project information collection

DAVID LACHAPELLE IN SEOUL TIGER TRANSLATE ROSSY PP PADDING JACKET PROJECT Cut & Paste Seoul 2011 SILENT JEJU Motoelastico KIRIN LISTEN TO THE CITY PHOTOGRAPHER HAL DIMITO ROBERT BRADFORD Souvenirs from Earth by Borre Louis Park THE STRIKERS VAKKI DONGMI LEE Bukchon PARK SEUNG YEA DONGHYUN SON SEUNG JOON CHOI SHODA YUKIHIRO FUKUSHIMA POJANGMACHA PROJECT World Exhibitions LIE SANG BONG 10 YEARS

Cover. Photographer Hal


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staff Editor in Chief Jeon WooChi / jeonwoochi0625@gmail.com Creative Director 8GR/HHXGROHH#JPDLOFRP Art Director Yom Snil / yomsnil@gmail.com Editor Anna Choi / aannaa.choi@gmail.com $QG\6W/RXLVDQG\#FRQFUHWHH[SHULHQFHRUJ IDA Grändås-Rhee / idaateloquence@gmail.com South East Asia Editor9LQFHQW6XQJYVEDQJNRN#JPDLOFRP London Editor6XN.\XQJ<XQ\XUXVL#JPDLOFRP Tokyo Editor Yuta Sugihara / yuta.sugihara@gmail.com Amsterdam Editor(XQ.\XQJ+ZDQJLNEHQHNK#KRWPDLOFRP Intern Editor *LVHRN&KRJLVHRNFKR#JPDLOFRP Suesasha Joung / suesasha.joung@gmail.com Copy Editor Ross Gardiner / rgardiner4@gmail.com Writer / Contributor 7DH+R.LPWHKR#KRWPDLOFRP +\R%RQJ&KRQJJJJ#QDYHUFRP Head Designer <RRQ-HRQJ/HHJJRQJ#QDYHUFRP Assistant Designer Mi Kyung Kwon / ggmmgg@naver.com Hae Ran Jeong / rinhol86@naver.com -L(XQ.ZRQNZRQMH#QDWHFRP Su Rim Nam / s2sr1003s2@naver.com Photographer Jun O Hwang / raphip@gmail.com Jaemin Son / haneul_jm@nate.com Max Eeow / max.zhihong@gmail.com Translator Esther Hwang / soyoonie87@gmail.com Web Designer <RQJ+RRQ.ZRQNZRQ\K#WHHQWLPHVRUJ Ji Young Kang / 357@hanmail.net Executive Producer -RRK\XQJ/HHVLU#KDQPDLOQHW Chairman 'HRJ6RR/HHSUHVLGHQW#WHHQWLPHVRUJ President -XQJ6LN/HHFRUH#WLPHVFRUHFRNU Managing Director -HH<HD/HHMHH\HDBOHH#WLPHVFRUHFRNU Chief Manager .HYLQ7DNVWDUELJJ\#JPDLOFRP -XOLD%DLNFXWHMXOLDEDLN#JPDLOFRP IT General Manager .DQJLO.LPNDQJBLO#WHHQWLPHVRUJ IT Management Team -XQJ+XQ.LPNMK#WHHQWLPHVRUJ Yo Han Kim / tolerance@teentimes.org Distribution 6XQJ6RRN&KRLFKRL#WHHQWLPHVRUJ

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ELO QU ENCE international creators magazine

TIMES CORE CO. ( &72:(57+)/<$1*3<81*'21**$ <(21*'(81*32*86(28/.25($ 3+21()$;


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contributors

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Udo Lee

Hea-won Kim

Ross Gardiner

7KHDUWLVWLFGLUHFWRURI3ODWRRQ8GR/HHMRLQHG Eloquence as a creative director. As soon as Udo came on board, he received high SUDLVHIRUSOD\LQJDNH\UROHLQFRQGXFWLQJ WKHÂżUVWSRSXSRIWKHÂľ3RMDQJPDFKD3URMHFWÂś successfully. In addition, his sharp analytic VNLOOVDQGFRPSHWHQFHKHOSHG(ORTXHQFH HYROYHRQHVWHSIXUWKHU:HDUHORRNLQJ IRUZDUGWRVHHLQJKLVLQĂ&#x20AC;XHQFHEHFRPHDQHZ guidance for creators.

Hea-won Kim is a photographer and designer. Originally from Seoul but educated in the Netherlands, she has lent her unique aesthetic sense to a number of projects here in Seoul, LQFOXGLQJ/RRVH8QLRQ/DXJKLQJ7UHH/DE and aweh.tv. For this issue, Hea-won was behind the lens of her trusty and ever-present 1LNRQWRFDSWXUHVRPHRIWKLVLVVXHÂśVFUHDWRUVÂś SRUWUDLWV:HÂśUHORRNLQJIRUZDUGWRIHDWXULQJKHU talents again and again in upcoming issues of Eloquence. www.ppochu.com

Ross Gardiner is the real hidden hero for (ORTXHQFH7KLV-XGH/DZORRNDOLNHIURP Scotland is the copy editor of Eloquence. Since our contents are sent from all over the world, Ross is entrusted with gluing together WKHEURNHQ(QJOLVKDQGFRYHULQJWKHFUDFNV ZLWK0LFURVRIW:RUGVSHOOFKHFN+HLVDOZD\V ZRUNLQJKDUGWRPHHWRXUWLJKWGHDGOLQH VFKHGXOHVDQGZHÂśGOLNHWRWKDQNKLPYHU\ much for that.

Hyeon-min Kim

Junk House

Hyun-min Kim is an energetic producer who is DFWLYHO\ZRUNLQJRQVRPHRI(ORTXHQFHÂśVPDMRU projects, including â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Ho-wha-dae-ban-jeomâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Pojangmacha Projectâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, and â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Paris Projectâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. Kim, who was a stage actor, is playing an important role in completing each project with KLVXQLTXHIULHQGOLQHVVDQGHODERUDWHVNLOOV He always pursues perfection in everything no PDWWHUKRZWHUULEOHVLWXDWLRQVDUH:HÂśGOLNHWR WKDQNKLPIRUKLVHQGOHVVVXSSRUWZLWKDUWLVWV and give him the much deserved praise for his KDUGZRUNRQPDQ\SURMHFWV

Junk House was invited on behalf Korean VWUHHWDUWLVWVIURPWKH7LJHU7UDQVODWHHYHQW held in Sydney last November. Despite her tight schedule during her short stay, she sent us the interesting stories about 7LJHU7UDQVODWHÂśVXUEDQFXOWXUHSURMHFWIRU Eloquence. She will also share her current ongoing project in the redevelopment area of %XNDK\XQGRQJZLWKYDULRXVVWUHHWDUWLVWV:H hope this unique artist with a strong personality ZLOOEHDEOHWRNHHSZRUNLQJZLWK(ORTXHQFH DQGZHÂśGOLNHWRWKDQNKHUIRUKHUFRQWULEXWLRQ www.junkhouse.net


11


exhibition

DAVID LACHAPELLE IN SEOUL :LWK QHDUO\  ZRUNV RQ GLVSOD\$PHULFDQ SKRWRJUDSKHU 'DYLG /D&KDSHOOHœV PLGFDUHHU UHWURVSHFWLYH DW 6HRXO$UWV &HQWHU RIIHUV D UDUH ORRN LQWR WKHSV\FKHDQGPRWLYDWLRQRIDQH[WUDRUGLQDU\WDOHQW)URPKLVEHJLQQLQJVDVDWHHQDJHSURGLJ\WRKLVEUHDNRXW\HDUVLQWKHVWKHH[KLELWLRQLVD YHULWDEOHIHDVWIRUWKHH\HV<HWWKHGHYHORSPHQWVLQKLVUHFHQWZRUN²E\IDUWKHEHVWLQWKHVKRZ²KLQWWKDWWKHEHVWPD\EH\HWWRFRPH

(GLWRU$QG\6W/RXLV

Museum&RXUWHV\6HRXO$UWV&HQWHU

Sometime the early the 14th century, the Italian poet Dante Alighieri laid out his vision of heaven, hell and purgatory in a metaphysical treatise on the soulâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s journey to God. Known to us today as The Divine Comedy, it KDVLQĂ&#x20AC;XHQFHGFRXQWOHVVWKLQNHUVZULWHUVDQGDUWLVWVDOORYHUWKHZRUOG not the least of which the contemporary American photographer David /D&KDSHOOH+LVFXUUHQWH[KLELWLRQÂł'DYLG/D&KDSHOOHLQ6HRXO´DWWKH6HRXO Arts Center, provides a revealing glimpse into the last quarter century of VWXQQLQJZRUNIURPWKLVSUROLÂżFSKRWRJUDSKHUZKLFKWDNHQDVDZKROHFRXOG read as a visual CliffsNotes for Danteâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s epic poem. While the exhibition GHYRWHVWKHPDMRULW\RILWVUHDOHVWDWHWR/D&KDSHOOHÂśVLFRQLFFRYHUDQG editorial photography for Rolling Stone and GQ and visionary spreads for Vogue and Vanity Fair²LPDJHVWKDWPDGHKLPDQHDUKRXVHKROGQDPHLQ SKRWRJUDSK\²ZKHUHWKLVH[KLELWLRQWUXO\H[FHOVLVLQLWVFRPPLWPHQWWRWKH SKRWRJUDSKHUÂśVUHFHQWZRUN After a successful career creating images that graced the pages of some of WKHZRUOGÂśVOHDGLQJJORVV\PDJD]LQHV/D&KDSHOOHWXUQHGKLVEDFNRQWKH LQGXVWU\WKDWPDGHKLPIDPRXVDQGORRNHGLQZDUGUHPRYLQJKLPVHOIIURP VRFLHW\ERWKÂżJXUDWLYHO\DQGOLWHUDOO\,QKHSDFNHGXSKLVSHUVRQDO belongings and retreated to a cabin in the rainforest, where he continues to live today. While such a drastic change in lifestyle and location might have signaled a similar transformation in artistic practice or aesthetic sensibility, /D&KDSHOOHKDVLQVWHDGXVHGLWDVDFDWDO\VWWRUHH[DPLQHWKHWKHPHVWKDW KDYHJXLGHGKLVZRUNIRUVRORQJQRZZLWKDUHQHZHG'DQWHDQSHUVSHFWLYH The Divine ComedyWDNHVLWVGLGDFWLFLPSHUDWLYHIURPWKH&DWKROLFÂł6HYHQ 'HDGO\6LQV´OXVWJOXWWRQ\JUHHGVORWKZUDWKHQY\DQGSULGH,QKLVHDUO\ ZRUN/D&KDSHOOHUHDFWLYDWHV'DQWHÂśVOHJDF\E\FRQIURQWLQJ

12

these tragic human tendencies head-on, using equal amounts irony and GU\ZLW$OWKRXJKKLVUHFHQWZRUNFRQWLQXHVDORQJDVLPLODUOLQHRI LQTXLU\LWGRHVVRLQDPXFKPRUHUDUHÂżHGPDQQHUDEDQGRQLQJWKH VXSHUÂżFLDOFRQWULYDQFHVRIKXPRUDQGVKRFNYDOXHDQGLQVWHDGUHO\LQJRQ more subtle, complex and mature means to carry the photos. Perhaps unsurprisingly given his self-imposed return to nature, some RI/D&KDSHOOHÂśVPRVWSRZHUIXOLPDJHVLQUHFHQW\HDUVUHĂ&#x20AC;HFWRQWKH HQYLURQPHQWDQGPDQNLQGÂśVUHODWLRQVKLSWRLWLQWKHSRVWPRGHUQZRUOG His 2007 Museum series, which depicts museum galleries halfsubmerged in stagnant water, offers a very personal meditation on the long-term effects of climate change and the imminent consequences of their impact on museums and similar institutions aimed at preserving our FXOWXUDOKHULWDJH7KLVSRLQWULQJVDOOWKHPRUHWUXHJLYHQ/D&KDSHOOHÂśV status as an artist, exploring his own impotence to change the fate of his artistic legacy. Gaia  WKHPRVWUHFHQWZRUNRQYLHZLQWKH exhibition, offers another environmental perspective. Instead of following LFRQRJUDSKLFDOFRQYHQWLRQVZKLFKW\SLFDOO\VKRZWKHHSRQ\PRXV*UHHN HDUWKJRGGHVVLQDSRVLWLRQRIPDWURQO\VSOHQGRU/D&KDSHOOHGHSLFWVKHU in a state of agitation, suffering and even agony, as if in the throes of a SDLQIXOFKLOGELUWK²DYLVXDOPDQLIHVWDWLRQRIKLVRZQFRQFHUQVUHJDUGLQJ the business sectorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s unscrupulous and unrepentant sapping of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s natural resources. 7KRXJKDIDUFU\IURPWKHFHOHEULW\SRUWUDLWVWKDWPDGHKLPIDPRXV /D&KDSHOOHÂśVUHFHQWZRUNLVDVKDUGKLWWLQJDVHYHU+LVLPDJHVDOZD\V an outlet for his own inner monologue on the world as he sees it, may KDYHWDNHQRQDGLIIHUHQWTXDOLW\EXWWKHPDQEHKLQGWKHPFHUWDLQO\KDV not. Heâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s simply grown up.

22 November 2011 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 26 February 2012 / Seoul Arts Center / Opening hours: Monday â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Sunday, 11:00-19:00 / Admission: 13,000 won www.dlcseoul.com


13


event

TIGER TRANSLATE

$VSHFLDOFXOWXUDOH[FKDQJHHYHQWIRUXQLTXHXUEDQDUWFUHDWRUVFDOOHG³7LJHU7UDQVODWH´ZDVKHOGLQ6\GQH\7KHIDPLOLDU.RUHDQDUWLVW-XQN+RXVH also participated in the meaningful event on behalf of Korean artists.

Editor. Anna Choi ,PDJHVFRXUWHV\7LJHU7UDQVODWH

7LJHU7UDQVODWHLVDFUHDWRUV¶SURMHFWVXSSRUWHGE\7LJHU%HHULQ 6LQJDSRUH7LJHU7UDQVODWHLQYLWHVXUEDQDUWFUHDWRUVIURP$VLDQFLWLHV and supports them in collaboration projects. It also provides new graphic artists with new opportunities through competitions. ,WLVZRUNLQJWRJHQHUDWHWKHQH[WµELJEDQJ¶LQFUHDWLYLW\WKURXJK exposure to different cultures and experiences. Fusing visionaries from the ends of the world, the event showcases the best of emerging Asian FUHDWLYLW\ZLWKZRUNWKDWFKDOOHQJHVWKHVWDWXVTXR$QGPRUHLPSRUWDQWO\ WKHZRUNHQWHUWDLQVHQJDJHVDQGLQVSLUHVPDQ\SHRSOH 7KHVKRZFDVHZDVKHOGRQ1RYHPEHULQ6\GQH\,WVDZRYHU of Sydneyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s cool set descend on an industrial estate in Alexandria to experience an ongoing program of entertainment by some of the best upand-coming creative and music talent from Asia and Australia. &XUDWHGDURXQG³*52:7+´WKHHYHQWIHDWXUHGDVHULHVRIXQLTXH FROODERUDWLYHLQWHUSUHWDWLRQVRIWKHWKHPH'-%DPEDODP+HLUWRD 0LOOLRQDLUHRQWKHGHFNVDQGDOLYHSHUIRUPDQFHE\7KH'DUN+RUVH 7KHJUDI¿WLFROODERUDWLRQNLFNHGRIILQWKHPRUQLQJRIWKHHYHQWDV -XQNKRXVH .RUHD ZRUNHGZLWK%HDVWPDQ1XPVNXOO&UHHS\DQG3KLEV $XVWUDOLD RQDPFDQYDV$ORRVHNQLWSODQFRQFHLYHGRYHUHPDLOLQWKH ZHHNVOHDGLQJXSWRWKHHYHQWJUHZDVHDFKGD\ZHQWRQDQGWKHDUWLVWV LPSURYLVHGDQGIHGRIIHDFKRWKHU¶VVW\OHV7KH¿QDOWRXFKHVZHUHDGGHG live as guests entered the venue at 7pm that evening. www.tigertranslate.com

14


15


music

ROSSY PP

5266<33ZKRLVZHOONQRZQIRUKHUZRQGHUIXOFRPSRVLWLRQVNLOOVDQGDWWUDFWLYHYRLFHKDVUHOHDVHGKHU¿UVWDOEXPWKDWPHUJHVDYDULHW\RIJHQUHV EDVHGRQKHUVHQVLWLYHSRSVSLULW+HUPXVLFLVDFRPELQDWLRQRISRSXODUVHQVLELOLW\DQGVROLGDUWLVWLFIHDWXUHV+HUH¶VZKDWWKHVXSHUURRNLHKDVWRVD\ about her music.

Editor.Yunhee Kang Photographer. Jun O Hwang

Q. Your name - ROSSY PP - is impressive. 5266<33LVDFRPSRXQGZRUGRIURV\DQGSXQN\SHUIXPH,ZDQWHGWR H[SUHVVWKHPHDQLQJRISXQN\SHUIXPHYLVXDOO\ Q. Your music genre is not punk. 3HRSOHDVNPHWKHTXHVWLRQDORW,WHOOSHRSOHWKDWP\PXVLFJHQUHLV SRSEHFDXVH,ZDQWWRPDNHPXVLFWKDWDQ\RQHFDQHQMR\EXW,ORYHWKH DWWLWXGHRISXQN,¿UVWVWDUWHGPDNLQJPXVLFLQP\FROOHJHURFNEDQGDQG I want to cover a variety of genres based on pop. Q. You are a singer-songwriter who has composed all the songs on your album. But you havenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t received any regular music education. Wasnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t it hard? I always dreamed of becoming a singer; it was a lot of fun and it even IHHOVOLNHP\GHVWLQ\WRPDNHVRQJV0RUHRYHUP\GUHDPLVWREHFRPH a â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;good composer,â&#x20AC;&#x2122; not a â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;good singer.â&#x20AC;&#x2122; I am more of a composer than a VLQJHU7KHUHIRUHPDNLQJVRQJVLVDYHU\PHDQLQJIXOJRDOWRPH Q. Please tell us more about your album which is comprised of a variety of genres. ,VHHNWRPDNHPXVLFWKDWPRVWSHRSOHOLNHWROLVWHQWR+RZHYHULW GRHVQ¶WPHDQWKDW,¶PSXUVXLQJVRPHWKLQJ³QRUPDO´,WU\WRSXWP\ XQLTXHPXVLFDOWDVWHLQWRP\VRQJV)RUH[DPSOH³$&DWLV7DONLQJWRD /DG\´LVDERXWµ:K\GRZHOLYH"¶,WPLJKWEHDKHDY\WRSLFEXWDFDWDVNV WKLVVHULRXVTXHVWLRQWRKHOSSHRSOHWKLQNDERXWWKHWRSLFLQDIXQZD\ ³)DOOLQJLQ/RYH´ZKLFKZDVXVHGDVWKHWKHPHVRQJIRU&KR.ZRQDQG *DLQLQWKH0%&SURJUDP³:H*RW0DUULHG´ZDVORYHGE\PDQ\SHRSOH ³$GXOW&KLOG´LVDERXWZDQGHULQJ\RXWKDQGPDQ\SHRSOHDUHDWWDFKHG to the lyrics. In fact, each song on this album is charming, and they get different reactions from the public.

16

Q. Youâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve been in a rock band and have a strong identity as a FRPSRVHU:K\GRQ¶W\RX¿QGPHPEHUVWRZRUNZLWK" )RUQRZ,¶PZRUNLQJVRORWRSXUVXHP\XQLTXHPXVLFVW\OHEXW,ZDQWWR ZRUNZLWKDEDQGODWHUGRZQWKHOLQH,WLVH[WUHPHO\KDUGWRPDNHJRRG PXVLFZLWKVRPHRQHHOVHEHFDXVHZHKDYHWR¿QHWXQHRXURSLQLRQVEXW LWLVDYHU\PHDQLQJIXOSURFHGXUH,¶GOLNHWRJLYHRWKHUSHRSOHP\VRQJV but itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s not yet the time. I will do it later when I become famous. Q. You majored in theology, and you are searching for the meaning of life in your songs. It seems like you are interested in religious themes. I have been interested in theology since I was little because Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m interested in the meaning of life. I do believe in the existence of an DEVROXWHEHLQJEXWQRWWKH³*RG´WKDWWKHPDMRULW\RI.RUHDQFKXUFKHV EHOLHYHLQ,¶GOLNHWRVWXG\WKHRORJ\PRUHLQGHSWKLQWKHIXWXUH,JXHVV P\LQWHUHVWLQWKHVHWKHPHVLVQDWXUDOO\UHÃ&#x20AC;HFWHGLQP\VRQJV+RZHYHU I have no intention to relate my music and theology. If I did so, my music would be distorted. Q. Please tell us about your future plans. &XUUHQWO\,¶PZRUNLQJEDVHGRQUDGLRSURJUDPV,XVXDOO\VLQJVRQJV from my album and cover songs. I feel excited because I get reactions immediately. Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m planning to hold my solo concert in January. Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m SUHSDULQJDORWEHFDXVHLWLVP\¿UVWVRORFRQFHUW,ZLOOIRFXVRQ high quality live music, and a variety of songs, as well as active communication with the audience. I will also focus on promoting my QDPHDQGVRQJVWRWKHSXEOLFVLQFH,¶PDURRNLH www.rossypp.com


17


project

PADDING JACKET PROJECT &RPPXQLFDWLRQDVWKHFRUHRIWKHGHVLJQ7KHFRQVXPHUDVDVWDUWLQJSRLQW'HVLJQEDVHGRQWKHQHHGVRIWKHHQYLURQPHQW$QGHYHU\WKLQJVWDUWHGE\ DSKRWRJUDSKHUWKDWVWRSSHGWDNLQJSKRWRVDQGVWDUWHGPDNLQJSHUIRUPDQFHV

Editor. IDA Grändüs-Rhee ,PDJHFXUWHV\3DGGLQJMDFNHWSURMHFW

7KHWKUHHÂś;ÂśVLQWKH58);;;SURMHFWDUHUHSUHVHQWLQJMXVWWKDW;6LQFH WKHSURMHFWZDVIRXQGHGLQE\+\XQJQDP.LPLWKDVEHHQIRFXVLQJ on running a bar/restaurant with a combined performance space at 1DPVDQ6HRXO(YHQWKRXJKWKHFRRNLQJDQGSHUIRUPDQFHVKDYHPDGH the project famous in Seoul, the project has just now reached the point IRUHQWHULQJWKRVH;V

ZKDWWRSXWLQWKHSRFNHWVRUZKDWWRGRZLWKWKHDWWDFKHGKRRG\ 7KHLQWHUYLHZVKDYHIRFXVHGRQWKHVRXQGVDQGWKHUHDFWLRQVUDWKHU than the actual words of the answers. An example would be the reactions HYRNHGZKHQDQVZHULQJTXHVWLRQVUHJDUGLQJWKHSULFHRIWKHMDFNHWV7KH interviewees swear, sweat and are obviously stressed over the pressure RIIHHOLQJIRUFHGWRJHWWKLVMDFNHWVLQFHHYHU\ERG\HOVHKDVLW

7KUHH\HDUVDJRDWUHQGSKHQRPHQRQRFFXUUHGLQWKHKLJKVFKRROVRI Seoul. When South Koreaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s extremely cold winter arrived, everyone was VXGGHQO\ZHDULQJ1RUWK)DFHSDGGHGMDFNHWV$QGLQD.RQJOLVKZD\WKH QDPHZDVTXLFNO\WXUQHGLQWR´SDGGLQJMDFNHW´ 1DPHGDIWHUWKLVWUHQG58);;;KDYHVWDUWHGLWVÂżUVWLQDVHULHVRI projects to try to effect the relationship between consumer and producer - to create products that are based on actual communication, connected WRWKHHQYLURQPHQWZKHUHWKHGHVLJQHUORRNVDWWKHQHHGVÂżUVWDQGWKHQ designs.

All the material from the 3000 conducted interviews will be put up on the website for designers - from fashion universities in different cities RI6RXWK.RUHD7RN\R3DULV1HZ<RUN/RQGRQ3DULV0RVFRZDQG +DQJ]KRXWRORRNDWDQGWKHQGHVLJQDFFRUGLQJWRWKHQHHGVRIWKH HQYLURQPHQWDQDOWHUQDWLYHMDFNHW2Q-DQXDU\DOOGHVLJQVVKRXOG EHVXEPLWWHGWR58);;;2Q-DQXDU\DWSP .RUHDQWLPH WKH students participating in the project - expected to be about 2000 - will YRWHRQZKLFKGHVLJQWKH\ZDQW7KHZLQQLQJGHVLJQZLOOEHSURGXFHG and sold, 2000 samples with an individual name tag of the owner attached to the collar.

,QHDUO\'HFHPEHUWKHÂżUVW58);;;UHSRUWHUWHDPVYLVLWHGVRPHRI 6HRXOÂśVKLJKVFKRROVWRORRNDWWKLVWUHQGWKHHQYLURQPHQWRIWKHMDFNHW and what can be learned from it. Since then, a lot of people have joined WKHUHSRUWHUJURXSV7KH\LQFOXGHMRXUQDOLVWVVLJQHUVDQGGHVLJQHUVDOO ZRUNLQJYROXQWDULO\IRUWKHSURMHFWJRLQJWRVFKRROVWDONLQJWRVWXGHQWV WDNLQJSKRWRVDQGUHFRUGLQJWKHLQWHUYLHZV 7KHTXHVWLRQVDUHDOOIRFXVHGRQWKHXVDJHRIWKHMDFNHWVXFKDVZKDW you do if you get a hole in the fabric and the padding starts coming out,

18

%XWWKHVHOOLQJRIDQHZYHUVLRQRIWKHÂśSDGGLQJMDFNHWÂśZLOOQRWEHWKH HQGRI58);;;FRPPXQLFDWLRQEDVHGSURGXFWV$OOWKHPDWHULDOZLOOEH turned into an archive that also will be shown in exhibitions, in galleries and online. And the next communication-based product project will start soon after. www.paddingjacket.com


19


YOM’S VISUA L/LAB

Eloquence runs Eloquence’s art director, YOM’s visual experiment. In this issue, he treats ‘Dictators’ theme of HAFY series.

20


21


event

Cut & Paste Seoul 2011 &XW 3DVWHVWDUWHGLQE\$PHULFDQ-RKQ)LRUHOOLLVFKDQJLQJWKHZD\ZHWKLQNDERXWGHVLJQHUV,QODWH1RYHPEHUWKH&XW 3DVWHZRUOG WRXUVWRSSHGLQ6HRXOWRÂżQGWKHFLW\ÂśVEHVW\RXQJGHVLJQHUVDW3ODWRRQ.XQVWKDOOH$VWKHGXVWVHWWOHGZHVDWGRZQZLWK)LRUHOOLDQG3ODWRRQFRIRXQGHU 7RP%XHVFKHPDQQWRWDONDERXW&XW 3DVWHÂśVMRXUQH\WR6HRXO

(GLWRU$QG\6W/RXLV Photographer. Jun O Hwang Images courtesy. Platoon Kunsthalle

-RKQ)LRUHOOLDQG7RP%XHVFKHPDQQ

Q. What is Cut & Paste? John Fiorelli: Cut & Paste is a live design battle created to bring designers together, showcase young emerging designers and develop new relationships and professional opportunities. Q. why did you start Cut & Paste to help the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s emerging designers? JF: We didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t start it to help the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s emerging designers; we started it originally as a party to celebrate design and to celebrate people we NQHZDQGWRDOVRJLYHXVDFKDQFHWRPHHWQHZSHRSOHLQ1HZ<RUN:H GLGWKHÂżUVWVKRZLQDQGVLQFHWKHQLWÂśVWXUQHGRXWWREHVRPXFK more. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s really to the credit of our community for inspiring us and giving XVIUHVKQHZLGHDVDERXWKRZZHFDQWDNHWKLVIRUPDWDQGZRUNZLWK designers. Q. How did this whole project get off the ground? -),WVWDUWHGLQ1HZ<RUNLQ,WZDVMXVWDRQHRIIVKRZDQGZHDOO NHSWRXUGD\MREV:HGLGIRXUVKRZVLQDQGWKDWZDVDOVRIRUIXQ :KHQFDPHDURXQGZHWRRNLWJOREDODQGPDGHLWDIXOOWLPHWKLQJ DQGQRZLQZHKDYHDFLW\WRXUDQGDJOREDOFKDPSLRQVKLS7KH &XW 3DVWHWRXUVWDUWHGRIÂżFLDOO\LQ1HZ<RUNRQ2FWREHU7KLV is our third show here in Seoul, and weâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ll continue on to do the other nine shows around the world in 2012, from January to April. Our global championship will be in the autumn, when the winners from all the cities ZLOOFRQYHUJHXSRQ1HZ<RUN

22

46SHHGDQGHIÂżFLHQF\DUHREYLRXVO\DELJSDUWRIWKLVFRPSHWLWLRQ 2D designers have 15 minutes, 3D designers have 20 minutes. How did you come up with those time limitations? -):KHQZHÂżUVWVWDUWHGLQZHGLGPLQXWHVEHFDXVHIUDQNO\ thatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s just how long people are willing to watch something continuously. We wanted to be sure it was audience-friendly and something entertaining. In addition to being something inspiring or educational, it at least needed to be entertaining. With 3D modeling, designers really QHHGDOLWWOHPRUHWLPH<RXNQRZSHUFHQWPRUHWLPH:RZZHÂśUHVR JHQHURXV²EXWLWÂśVUHDOO\QRWDORWRIWLPHIRUPRGHOLQJ6RLWÂśVIDVW$QG DQRWKHUUHDVRQZK\ZHGRLWIDVWLVEHFDXVHLWPDNHVGHVLJQHUVUHDOO\ focus on what their concept is. You can show a lot of good design in a short amount of time, even if you donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t have time to polish everything, and you can learn a lot about a designer in terms of how they prioritize and focus their attention. Q. Are you a designer yourself? -)1R²,ÂśPDÂżOPPDNHU,ZRUNLQEXVLQHVVDQG,XVHGWREHDQHOHFWULFDO HQJLQHHUVR,ÂśYHSOD\HGDORWRIGLIIHUHQWUROHV%XW,MXVWKDYHDORW RIIULHQGVZKRDUHGHVLJQHUVIURPP\ZRUNLQÂżOPVRWKDWÂśVZK\,ÂśP interested in that area of creativity. Q. Tom, are you a designer? I know your work with Platoon involves DORWRIGLIIHUHQWÂżHOGV 7RP%XHVFKHPDQQ1RP\EDFNJURXQGLVPRUHPDUNHWLQJDQG advertising, so design comes later to me, as a passion, you could say.


Q. How did you hear about Cut & Paste? 7%,WZDV,JXHVV,FDPHLQWRXFKZLWK-RKQDQGRIFRXUVH from that point onward we thought it would be a great idea to bring Cut & Paste to Korea. So we launched it here at Platoon last December, exactly one year ago, and itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s become an event that we at Platoon really love and are passionate about. Q. How has your experience been working with designers in Seoul and whatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s your take on the whole design scene here? -),WKLQNWKHVFHQHLVYHU\GHHS-XVWLQRXUWZRVKRZVDORQHZHÂśYH ZRUNHGZLWKDOPRVWGLIIHUHQWGHVLJQHUVKHUHLQWKHSDVW\HDUDQGD half. Weâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re actually very impressed with the 3D modeling talent here. We NQHZWKHUHZHUHDORWRIYHU\WDOHQWHGJUDSKLFGHVLJQHUVDQGLOOXVWUDWRUV EXWWKHWDOHQWLQ'DQGPRWLRQDQLPDWLRQZDVVXUSULVLQJ,NQRZWKHUH DUHDORWRIGHVLJQHUVKHUHZKRZRXOGEHQHÂżWIURPZRUNLQJZLWKEUDQGV overseas, and I would also say vice-versa: there are a lot of brands that VKRXOGNQRZDERXWWKHWDOHQWSRROKHUHLQ.RUHD Q. Tom, you said you had wanted to bring Cut & Paste here to Korea. Why do you think itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s so important to have this event here in Seoul? 7%,WÂśVFRQQHFWHGWRFUHDWLYHLQGXVWULHVKHUH,WKLQNWKDW.RUHDQHHGV WKLVNLQGRILQSXWIURPRYHUVHDVEHFDXVH.RUHDLVQRWWKHPRVWFUHDWLYH FRXQWU\:HWKRXJKWWKDWZLWKDQHYHQWOLNHWKLVZHFRXOGKHOSWRFKDQJH that a bit. Q. How does this yearâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s show differ from last yearâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s? 7%,WKLQNWKHTXDOLW\LPSURYHGWKHDXGLHQFHZDVELJJHU,ÂśGVD\ZHKDG DERXWPRUHYLVLWRUVWKLVWLPH$QGWKHSURÂżOHRIWKLVHYHQWKDVJURZQ in the last year. Overall, everyone was more excited about the event. 4-RKQKRZGRHVWKLVHYHQWLQ6HRXOÂżWLQZLWKWKHJUDQGVFKHPH of Cut & Paste worldwide? -)2XUJRDOLVWRZRUNLQWHUULÂżFFUHDWLYHFDSLWDOVZLWKJUHDWWHDPV OLNH3ODWRRQVRLWÂżWVSHUIHFWO\2YHUWKHSDVW\HDUDQGDKDOIZHÂśYH GHYHORSHGDIUDQFKLVHSURJUDPZKHUHZHZRUNZLWKWHDPVYHU\FORVHO\ and they really develop their territory as well as their Cut & Paste SDUWLFLSDWLRQ3ODWRRQZRUNVYHU\DXWRQRPRXVO\WRGHYHORSWKHLUHYHQW DQGZHDOVRZRUNZLWK3ODWRRQLQRWKHUFLWLHVLQFOXGLQJ%HUOLQDQG +HOVLQNL6HRXOÂżWVLQWHUULÂżFDOO\²WKHWDOHQWMXVWVSHDNVIRULWVHOI²DQG ZHÂśUHYHU\H[FLWHGWRFRPHEDFNLQWKHIXWXUH Q. What are the judges looking for when theyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re judging an event like this? JF: Every judge is different and they value their own criteria a little GLIIHUHQWO\DQGVXEMHFWLYHO\EXW,WKLQNHYHU\MXGJHLVDOZD\VORRNLQJIRUD designer to communicate effectively. So, whatever the brief is, whatever the themes are, they need to be able to communicate them clearly and effectively.

UHFHLYHDQGKRZGRLQGLYLGXDOGHVLJQHUVEHQHÂżWIURPVRPHWKLQJ like this? -)7\SLFDOO\WKHSUL]HVWKDWZHKRRNXSIRUWKHZLQQHUVDUHGHVLJQ commissions with brands or design studios that they admire and have a JUHDWSDVVLRQIRU$JRRGH[DPSOHDFWXDOO\LVWKH'JUDQGSUL]H²HYHU\ 3D winner around the world, in all 12 cities receives a sponsorship with Shapeways to develop a new 3D printed product. So our goal with prizes is always to deliver a new opportunity as much as delivering great SURGXFWVRUÂżQDQFLDOJDLQ%XW,WKLQNWKHELJJHVWSUL]HLVWKDWLI\RXDUHLQ the show, you already win because we get the opportunity to brag about WKHTXDOLW\RIWKHSDUWLFLSDQWVDQGSURPRWH\RXUZRUNRQRXUZHEVLWH through all the video that we shoot. We donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t just capture the event itself, but also the preliminary design rounds that they do. Our goal is to share more, not only about the designers, but of their creative process, and so we hope we provide a layer of creative humanity about designers and I WKLQNWKDWÂśVDELJHQRXJKLQFHQWLYHWREHLQWKHVKRZ 7%:HKDGVHYHUDOTXDOLI\LQJURXQGVOHDGLQJXSWRWKHÂżQDOVDW3ODWRRQ DQGDORWRISHRSOHVDLGÂł,ZDQWWRZLQWKLVFRPSHWLWLRQ,ZDQWWRJHW the next promotion from a junior to a senior [designer]. If I win this FRPSHWLWLRQWKHQ,ÂśPDUHDOSHUVRQKHUH>LQWKHGHVLJQLQGXVWU\@´7KDW means a lot for the people competing here. Q. Next year are you looking to expand to more than 12 cities, or will you keep the number the same? -)<RXNQRZ,ÂśPQRWVXUH7KHNH\LVDOZD\VWREHLQWKHULJKWFLWLHVVR LIZHKDYHWKHRSSRUWXQLW\DQGWKHUHVRXUFHVWRGRPRUHFLWLHVWKDWÂśVÂżQH %XWZHGRQÂśWZDQWWRJURZMXVWIRUWKHVDNHRIJURZWKZHZDQWWRGRD EHWWHUMREDQGZHZDQWWRÂżQGQHZRSSRUWXQLWLHVDQGGHHSHQWKHYDOXH of what Cut & Paste delivers to the people who are already in it. So weâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re NLQGRIWDNLQJWKDWTXHVWLRQRQH\HDUDWDWLPH Q. What makes Seoul the â&#x20AC;&#x153;right city?â&#x20AC;? JF: As a city, obviously itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s the city in Korea. As a creative capital, WKHGHSWKRIWDOHQWLVWHUULÂżFQRWWRPHQWLRQWKHRUJDQL]DWLRQVDQG DVVRFLDWLRQVWKDWVXSSRUWGHVLJQ²WKH6HRXO'HVLJQ)HVWLYDOIRU H[DPSOHWKDW'HVLJQ+RXVHSXWVRQHYHU\\HDU²DQG,NQRZWKDWWKH government is very supportive of the creative community and the creative HFRQRP\7KHUHDUHDQXPEHURIFLWLHVZKRZLOOWRXWWKHLUSURJUDPVEXW, would say that Seoul is sincere in supporting the creative economy here, VRWKDWPDNHVLWDJUHDWFLW\WRPH Q. Tom, as a leader in this world of international creative development, whatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s the value of a program like this for Platoon? 7%$V\RXNQRZ3ODWRRQÂśVPLVVLRQLVFXOWXUDOGHYHORSPHQWVRRIFRXUVH we want to bring new creative ideas into this country. I really love this NLQGRIHYHQWEHFDXVHLWÂśVVRQHZDQGUHDOO\KDVWKHSRWHQWLDOWRERRVWWKH whole creative industry in this country over the coming years. www.cutandpaste.com www.kunsthalle.com

Q. Cut & Paste is obviously geared towards helping individuals advance their careers and improve their visibility worldwide. What do the winners of the city-level rounds, like the one in Seoul,

23


project

SILENT JEJU

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Q. Why Jeju? 7KH5HSUHVHQWDWLYHRI7UDYHOUR:HVWDUWHGIURPWKHFRQFHSWRI ´LVRODWLRQ´DQGIRXQGRXUVHOYHVDWWKHZRUG´LVODQG´-HMXLWVHOIKDGQR particular meaning to us, more than being being an island and a prime example of isolation. Q. Why silence? %HFDXVHSHRSOHWDONWRRPXFK6LOHQFHLVPRUHKROO\DQGEHDXWLIXO WKDQODQJXDJH:KHQZHWDONZHMXGJHSHRSOHKDUVKO\IURPWKHLUÂżUVW sentences. With silence we approach each other more slowly and UHODWLRQVKLSVDUHVKDSHGLQDGLIIHUHQWZD\7DONLQJFDQEHVRYLROHQW%XW on this two day trip we are not occupied by verbal language. When we KDYHWRZULWHRUXVHERG\ODQJXDJHWRFRPPXQLFDWHZHKDYHWRWKLQN harder before we express ourselves. Q. Why silent travel? 3HRSOHDUHERUHGE\RUGLQDU\ZD\VRIWUDYHOLQJ7KH\MXVWHDWDQGWDON %XWLI\RXFKDQJHMXVWDVLQJOHWKLQJLWJHWÂśVLQWHUHVWLQJ6LOHQW-HMXLVOLNH DQH[SHULPHQWLQFRPPXQLFDWLRQ:HDUHÂżQGLQJDQHZZD\RIUHODWLQJWR one other, and this project allows people to try a different way of life for a few days. Q. Why biking? First we thought of isolation and we thought of islands, and then we found silence, and then we found electric bicycles. We felt this was more ÂżWWLQJZLWKRXUHWKRVWKDQVFRRWHUVRUFDUVEHFDXVHWKH\GRQÂśWPDNHD sound, and theyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re eco-friendly.

24

4:KDWZHUH\RXUREVHUYDWLRQVIURPWKH¿UVW6LOHQW-HMXWUDYHO" People were more willing to communicate and get creative than we WKRXJKW7KH\ORRNHGIUXVWUDWHGLQWKHEHJLQQLQJEXWWKH\TXLFNO\OHDUQHG to communicate in different ways and soon people we met on the road VLPSO\WKRXJKWZHZHUHDJURXSRIIRUHLJQHUV:KHQWKHJURXS¿QDOO\ EHJDQWRWDONE\RXURZQLQLWLDWLRQWKHLUUHODWLRQVKLSVZHUHFRPSOHWHO\ GLIIHUHQWWKDQWKH\ZRXOGKDYHEHHQLIWKH\KDGKDYHEHHQWDONLQJ7KH\ NQHZHDFKRWKHULQDVLOHQWZD\DQGHYHQWKRXJKWKH\VWDUWHGXVLQJ YHUEDOODQJXDJHWKH\GLGQœWDVNZHUHHDFKRWKHUZDVIURPRUZKDW WKH\GLG7KH\MXVWFRQFHQWUDWHGRQPRPHQWDQGEDVLFFRPPXQLFDWLRQ ERUQHRXWRIQHFHVVLW\:KHQSHRSOHWDONWKH\FUHDWHDQRWKHUVRFLHW\ 7KH\PDNHZDUKLHUDUFKLHVVRPHRQHLVDORVHUVRPHRQHLVFRROEXW LQVLOHQFHWKH\GRQœWHYHQNQRZZKRœVWKHERVV:KDWZHH[SHULHQFHG during these three days, in silence, is basically a fair society, because the SDUWLFLSDQWVGLGQœWNQRZDQ\VRFLDOERXQGDULHV Q. What is TravelRo? 7UDYHO5RLVPDGHRXWRIWKHZRUGV´WUDYHO´DQG´URXWH´DQGLVDQRQOLQH travel community for people who are bored by ordinary travel and are exploring and sharing different ways of traveling. With launching Silent -HMX7UDYHO5RLVQRZFUHDWLQJLWVRZQWRXUSURJUDPFDOOHG¾)ROORZWKH 7UDYHO5Rœ www.travelro.co.kr/route/3166


25


architecture

Motoelastico

)RU0DUFR%UXQRDQG6LPRQH&DUHQDIRXQGHUVDQGSULQFLSDOVRI0RWRHODVWLFRDUFKLWHFWXUHLVPHUHO\DMXPSLQJRIISRLQWIRUZRUNLQWKHFUHDWLYHVHFWRU DWODUJH7KHWZRTXLUN\,WDOLDQVVDWGRZQZLWK(/248(1&(WRWDONDERXWWKHXQRUWKRGR[QLFKHWKH\RFFXS\LQ6HRXOÂśVGHVLJQVFHQHDQGKRZWKH\GHÂżQH success in terms of something much more primal.

(GLWRU$QG\6W/RXLV Photographer. Hea-won Kim Images courtesy. Motoelastico

Q. The two of you work together under the enigmatic moniker â&#x20AC;&#x153;Motoelastico.â&#x20AC;? Can you explain the story behind the name and the kind of work that you produce? Simone Carenca: Moto means movement, as opposed to an actual destination, and this idea can be applied to everything we do; the media that we employ, our trans-disciplinary activity, and even the mode transportation that we use (motorcycles). Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s the best Italian architecture RIÂżFHLQ.RUHDEHFDXVHZHDUHWKHRQO\,WDOLDQDUFKLWHFWXUHRIÂżFHLQ .RUHD,WÂśVDYHU\GLIÂżFXOWHQYLURQPHQWEXWZHOLNHWKHFKDOOHQJH 0DUFR%UXQR0RWRHODVWLFRUHDOO\GHVFULEHVVRPHWKLQJWKDWVZLQJV EHWZHHQWZRSRLQWVLQDQHODVWLFPRYHPHQW%HWZHHQ,WDO\DQG.RUHD EHWZHHQWKHXQLYHUVLW\DQGWKHRIÂżFHDQGEHWZHHQPDQ\DUHDV²ZH DUHDOZD\VLQPXOWLSOHSODFHVDWWKHVDPHWLPH$PRWRUF\FOHZRUNVRQO\ when it moves, which is a very nice metaphor for design or exploration in JHQHUDO,I\RXVWDQGVWLOOLWGRHVQÂśWZRUNLWZRUNVRQO\ZKHQLWÂśVPRYLQJ IRUZDUGVR\RXKDYHWRNHHSJRLQJIRULWWRIXQFWLRQ Q. In addition to architecture, you are also working in a number of UHODWHGEXWQRQHWKHOHVVGLVWLQFWÂżHOGV+RZGLGWKLVGLYHUVLÂżFDWLRQ of your portfolio come about? 6&$UFKLWHFWXUHLVVLPSO\WKHQDPHRIWKHGHJUHHRUWKHNLQGRIOLFHQVH that we have. In our experience, architecture was never isolated from everything else. Even as students, we were already doing furniture, urban design, urban economics, etc. At the time when we were in

26

school, architecture was the only degree that allowed you to enter the design world. Now itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s more specialized, so you can choose from WKHEHJLQQLQJH[DFWO\ZKLFKÂżHOG\RXZDQWWRSXUVXHEXWDUFKLWHFWXUH RIIHUVDYHU\JRRGDQJOHWRORRNDWWKLQJV<RXFDQEHYHU\SUDJPDWLF and concrete, and at the same time have interrelations with all the other disciplines, such as urban design, which is maybe more about HFRQRPLFVWKDQDFWXDOÂłGHVLJQ´ Q. What other disciplines besides architecture is Motoelastico involved in? 0%:HGRWRRPDQ\WKLQJV>ODXJKV@DQGWKDWFDQEHDOLWWOHSUREOHPDWLF sometimes. In the past, weâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve done architecture, interior design, installation, fairs, furniture, some products, a lot of media, events â&#x20AC;Ś I canâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t name them all. 6&)RUXVLWÂśVDPDWWHURIVXUYLYDOLQPDQ\ZD\V²DGDSWDELOLW\LWVHOILV DPRGHRIVXUYLYDO²EXWDWWKHVDPHWLPHZHEHOLHYHLQVSHFLDOL]DWLRQ as well, so itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s a dilemma. For example, is it better to be pro or to be DPDWHXU"Âł$PDWHXU´FRPHVIURPWKH,WDOLDQZRUGamore, which means ORYH7KLVLVDEHDXWLIXOZD\RIWKLQNLQJDERXWZRUNLI\RXÂśUHDQDPDWHXU LWPHDQV\RXORYHZKDW\RXDUHGRLQJLWÂśVOLNHDKREE\,I\RXÂśUHDSUR LWÂśVPRUHOLNH\RXKDYHWRGRLW:KHQ\RXÂśUHDVSHFLDOLVW\RXUHSHDW WKHVDPHWKLQJRYHUDQGRYHU\RXORVHWKHIHDUWRPDNHDPLVWDNHDQG therefore you lose the chance to learn something new. In our case, being able to do many things is an advantage; itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s a mode of survival, because itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s sort of a hostile situation.


HAPPOLICE ZLWK/LP2NVDQJDW.,086$

HAPPOLICE KIMUSARSHQLQJ

Q. Despite whatever hostility youâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve experienced, youâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve managed to stay and develop Motoelastico here in Seoul over the last decade or so. Do you think that your work also helps other ideas or notions of creativity survive? What effect does being a â&#x20AC;&#x153;survivorâ&#x20AC;? day in and day out have on your practice? SC: Yes, you represent an alternative, which sometimes can be very GHPDQGLQJRUYHU\LGHRORJLFDO0DQ\WLPHVZHÂśYHDVNHGRXUVHOYHVÂł,V LWUHDOO\ZRUWKLWWRSXWVRPXFKHIIRUWLQWRWKLVWKLQJ"$IWHULQYHVWLQJVR PXFKWLPHDQGHIIRUWZKDWGR\RXJHW"´,WÂśVDYHU\ELJHTXDWLRQ²PD\EH \RXFDQÂśWFDOFXODWHLWHDVLO\DQGVRPHWLPHVLWÂśVIUXVWUDWLQJ²EXWLW FRQWDLQVDORWRIWKLQNLQJDERXW\RXUKDSSLQHVVDWWKHHQGRIWKHGD\ ,WKLQNWKDWÂśVRIWHQIRUJRWWHQZKHQ\RXWDONDERXWEXVLQHVVRUHYHQ DUFKLWHFWXUHDQGDUW6R,DVNP\VHOIDWWKHHQGRIWKHGD\Âł$P,KDSS\"´ DQGWKHDQVZHULV\HV7KHZRUNDVDUHVXOWLVYHU\SRVLWLYHDQGLW represents an example of the alternative.

QRZZHDUHNLQGRIEDFNGRLQJLQWHULRUGHVLJQ:HÂśUHFXUUHQWO\ZRUNLQJ RQDĂ&#x20AC;DJVKLSVWRUHIRUDODUJHFRUSRUDWLRQZLWKDZHOONQRZQEUDQG7KH\ expect something different from us, but we have a very clear design EULHI1RUPDOO\WKHULVNLQYROYHGZLWKZRUNLQJIRUFOLHQWVWKDWH[SHFW VRPHWKLQJGLIIHUHQWLVWKDWWKH\GRQÂśWDFWXDOO\NQRZZKDWÂłGLIIHUHQW´ PHDQVDQGWKH\GRQÂśWKDYHDQ\WKLQJWRFRPSDUHLWWR7KH\ZDQWWRVHH something thatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s already been built by somebody else and use that as a EDVHVRWKH\VD\Âł2.GLIIHUHQWEXWH[DFWO\OLNHHYHU\ERG\HOVH´,QWKH beginning that was very frustrating.

4,VWKHUHDXQLÂżHGYLVLRQEHKLQGDOOWKHZRUN\RXGRDFURVVVR PDQ\ÂżHOGV" SC: According to Vitruvius, there are three elements in architecture. 1RUPDOO\SHRSOHWKLQNDERXWWKHÂżUVWWZRÂżUPLWDV, which is the solidity of the building and how strong it is, and utilitasZKLFKLVLWVSUDFWLFDOLW\%XW the thing that is so often forgotten is venustas, or what is usually referred WRDVÂłEHDXW\´DOWKRXJKWKLVLVEDGO\WUDQVODWHG5DWKHUWKDQEHDXW\LQ terms of proportions and as related to art, itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s really about the happiness of the message; the bottom line of why you create something and what LPSURYHPHQWLWPDNHV,WÂśVPRUHUHODWHGWRSOHDVXUH 0%1RWRQO\WKHSOHDVXUHRIGRLQJLWEXWWKHSOHDVXUH\RXFDQJLYHWR the people who experience it. At the end of the day, this is really what we are trying to do. Q. One thing thatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s interesting about you two, and about a lot of people working in the creative industry, is just how interdisciplinaryâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; or â&#x20AC;&#x153;amateurâ&#x20AC;?â&#x20AC;&#x201D;people are working these days. How important is this kind of approach to the work that is coming out of Motoelastico? 6&,WKLQNSHRSOHH[SHFWVRPDQ\RWKHUWKLQJVQRZ²H[WUDWKLQJVEXW VWLOOLQFOXGHGLQFUHDWLYHÂżHOGV6RPD\EHWKH\H[SHFWDFRPSOHWHSURMHFW LQFOXGLQJFRUSRUDWHLPDJHLQWHULRUVQDPLQJWKHZKROHSDFNDJH,WKLQN since everything has become multi-media and we are all doing things with our personal computers these days, we expect things to affect us on many levels. Q. Do you think that in order to survive, you really have to diversify everything you do so that you can satisfy the client? 0%,I\RXZDQWWREHLQGHSHQGHQW\HV,I\RXZDQWWREHSDUWRID FRUSRUDWLRQQR%XWWKHQ\RXQHYHUNQRZ7DNLQJLQWRFRQVLGHUDWLRQKRZ WKLVV\VWHPZRUNVHFRQRPLFDOO\DQGIURPDGHVLJQSHUVSHFWLYH,WKLQN thatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s a very big discussion. Q. These days, what is the majority of the work youâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re doing? SC: Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s been a while since the last time we were so involved with it, but

Q. Whatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s it like working on interiors, given your background in architecture? 0%:HGRQÂśWIHHODQ\NLQGRIGLIIHUHQFH,Q,WDO\>GRLQJERWK@LVQRUPDO itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s part of the job, actually. For example, until ten years ago, there was QRZD\WRJHWDGHJUHHLQLQWHULRUGHVLJQLQ,WDO\²LWMXVWGLGQÂśWH[LVW(YHQ now, you have to go to a private school if you want to do that, so for us there is really no difference. SC: When we are doing an interior, we design the façade and use it as a way to connect to the rest of the building. When you have a door, you constantly imagine the experience beginning from a bit before, a bit EHIRUHDELWEHIRUH<RXZRUNZLWKWKHZKROHVSDFHVRWKHIDFWWKDW \RXÂśUHZRUNLQJRQWKHLQVLGHRIDURRPGRHVQÂśWPDNHLWGLIIHUHQWIURPDQ architecture project. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s the same as urban design, something which for us is more than a series of buildings; itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s also the experience of the VWUHHW:HFRPHIURP7RULQRZKLFKLVDEDURTXHFLW\ZKHUHWKHZKROH idea was to design these roads and these squares as if they were interiors. What was happening behind the façades didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t matter; creating RXWGRRUVSDFHVZDVMXVWOLNHGHVLJQLQJLQWHULRUVIRUWKHSXEOLFIRUWKH NLQJIRUFHUHPRQLHV Q. Does your strong connection with Italy play a part in the commissions you get here in Seoul? 6&:HOOWKHUHLVWKHÂłH[RWLFIDFWRU´WKDWVHUYHVWRFUHDWHLQWHUHVWDQG attract business, but of course that comes with a fear as well, because \RXGRQÂśWNQRZKRZWRGHDOZLWKDQDZNZDUGUHVXOW1RUPDOO\ZHÂśUH LQWURGXFHGE\VRPHERG\ZKRNLQGRIVD\VÂł7KH\ÂśUHGLIIHUHQWEXWWKH\ FDQGHOLYHU´DQGWKHSRUWIROLRDQGWKHSXEOLFDWLRQVDQGWKHPHGLDEDFN WKDWXS6RWKHUHLVDOZD\VVRPHERUGHUOLQHULVNWKDWZHSURYLGHDQGWKDW LVZKDWÂśVH[FLWLQJIRUPDQ\GHVLJQRIÂżFHVWKDWDUHQRUPDOO\ZRUNLQJZLWK corporations. 4+RZLVEHLQJEDVHGLQ6HRXOWKHULJKWÂżWIRU\RXDQG\RXUGHVLJQ work? 0%.RUHDLVYHU\LQWHUHVWLQJWRXVEHFDXVHWKHUHDUHYHU\IHZIRUHLJQHUV ZRUNLQJLQGHVLJQLQGXVWU\KHUH$QRWKHURIÂżFHOLNHRXUVIURPDQ\RWKHU FRXQWU\LVYHU\UDUHWKHUHDUHIRXUPD\EHÂżYH6RWKLVFKDOOHQJHPDNHV LWYHU\LQWHUHVWLQJWRZRUNEHFDXVH\RXDUHIDFLQJVRPHWKLQJWKDWLVOLNHD virgin land where very few people have the opportunity to go so deep. 6&,QDURPDQWLFZD\\RXIHHONLQGRIOLNH0DUFR3RORORRNLQJIRUDQHZ SODFHRURQHWKDWLVGLIÂżFXOW)RUXV6HRXOLVDYHU\FRPIRUWDEOHÂłGLIÂżFXOW´ SODFH7KHUHDUHRWKHUSODFHVWKDWPLJKWEHHYHQPRUHFKDOOHQJLQJ

27


ZKHUH\RXUOLIHLVDWULVNIRUH[DPSOHEXWWKHQWKHVXUYLYDOPRGHLVWRR strong and you canâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t relax enough to be creative. Korea represents a place that wants to be global and that has the technology and population to accomplish that. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s still very fertile and changing all the time, so itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s very interesting. Q. Youâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve said before that the â&#x20AC;&#x153;sixth senseâ&#x20AC;? of design is having a sense of humor, and this comes through in a lot of ways in the work you do. How do you view the role of humor in your practice and in architecture in general? 6&+XPRUGRHVQÂśWMXVWDSSO\WRZRUNLWDSSOLHVWRHYHU\WKLQJ%XWZLWK UHJDUGWRZRUNLWÂśVPRUHGLIÂżFXOWEHFDXVHZHDUHQRWZULWLQJFRPHG\ZH are doing business and there is real money involved. If youâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re building someoneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s house, for example, itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s their main investment, and thereâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s usually so much pressure involved that people forget about KDSSLQHVV7KH\WKLQNÂł,ÂśPVSHQGLQJDOOWKLVPRQH\²LWVKRXOGEH IXQFWLRQDOLWVKRXOGEHDJRRGLQYHVWPHQWLWVKRXOGZRUN´HWF%XW WKH\VKRXOGDOVRDVNÂł:KDWDERXWEHLQJKDSS\"´%HLQJKDSS\UHTXLUHV humor; not silliness, but laughter. Q. Then again, some of your projects can also be very serious and research-based, such as the â&#x20AC;&#x153;Borrowed Cityâ&#x20AC;? book youâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re currently developing. 0%,QDZD\\HVDOWKRXJKLWGRHVKDYHVRPHKXPRU:HDUH

28

investigating the city from a point of view which, in many ways, is not YHU\FRQYHQWLRQDO²ORRNLQJDWZD\VSHRSOHXVHSXEOLFVSDFHIRUSULYDWH EHQHÂżWDQGDFNQRZOHGJLQJWKDWGRLQJVRPHWKLQJWKDWLVERUGHUOLQHOHJDO and illegal can produce interesting design. We are always amazed by the way that people here are able to manage a situation of incredible density, ZKHUH\RXKDYHDPLOOLRQSHRSOHLQDVTXDUHNLORPHWHU7KLVJHQHUDWHV DORWRIYHU\YHU\VPDUWVROXWLRQVDQGÂłIXQQ\´EHKDYLRUWKDW\RXZRXOG never see anywhere else in the world. For example, putting your phone QXPEHURQ\RXUFDUZKHQLWÂśVSDUNHGVRSHRSOHFDQFDOO\RXWRPRYHLW ,Q(XURSHRU$PHULFDRIFRXUVHVRPHWKLQJOLNHWKLVZRXOGQHYHUKDSSHQ because of the privacy issue, but what happened here was that little by little, people began decorating these little phone numbers with cushions, SLOORZVDOOVRUWVRIWKLQJV7KDWÂśVWKHPRVWLQWHUHVWLQJXUEDQGHVLJQ research you can do, but it doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t apply to any urban design school. 6&6RLVWKDWDUFKLWHFWXUH",VWKDWPHGLD",VWKDWDFXOWXUDOWKLQJ",W FRQWDLQVDOORIWKHP²LWÂśVNLQGRIDERUURZHGH[DPSOHRUPHWDSKRU of architecture. It helps you to understand the apartment building, ZK\LWÂśVVRGLIÂżFXOWWROLYHLQDWUDGLWLRQDOKRXVHRUKRZWRSURSRVHDQ alternative. All the car culture, residential architecture, all these things are connected. And itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s happening so fast that in ten years, it will all be new. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s really an accelerated laboratory. Here you can experience things that LQ,WDO\ZRXOGWDNHKXQGUHGVRI\HDUV www.motoelastico.com

Vera Wang Flagship store in Chungdam-dong / 2007

0RWRHODVWLFRÂśVDYHQXHRILQĂ&#x20AC;DWDEOHFROXPQVDWWKH3XEOLF'HVLJQ([SR&2(;

0RWRHODVWLFRÂśVRIÂżFHLQ-RQJQRJD

0RWRHODVWLFRÂśVRIÂżFHLQ-RQJQRJD


5$7,$FRVPHWLFLQWHULRULQ&KXQJGDPGRQJ

CONICONI / 2011 / originally designed for Choi Jeong-Hwaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s CCul space exhibition

29


music

KIRIN

.LULQLVDPDQGUHVVHGOLNHKHZDVIURPWKHÂśVLQKLVMHDQMDFNHWDQGSDQWV,ZHQWORRNLQJIRUKLPEHIRUHKLVSULYDWHH[KLELWLRQWRKHDUKLVVWRU\

(GLWRU*L6HRN&KR Photographer: Jun O Hwang Images courtesy. Kirin

Q. Could you tell us about what youâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re doing right now? ,DPFXUUHQWO\ZRUNLQJIRU%HDW%DOO5HFDQGDOVRGRLQJVRPHZRUNLQ WKHÂżQHDUWV Q. Do you have any new work in the pipeline? 0RVWUHFHQWO\,KDYHUHOHDVHGDVRQJFDOOHGÂł:LWK0H´7KHVRQJLVDERXW a man who expresses his true feelings to a woman he is in love with. $QRWKHUVRQJ,KDYHEHHQZRUNLQJRQLVFDOOHGÂł,+DWH/RQHOLQHVV´,WLV about how modern people still feel lonely despite their busy lives. Q. You have an eccentric style. Where do you go shopping? Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m not much of a shopper to be honest. I go shopping once or twice a year when I need a few things for my music videos, but I usually just EX\WKLQJV,OLNHZKHQ,VWXPEOHRQWKHPZKLOHZDONLQJDURXQG,XVXDOO\ wander around the stores in my neighborhood. I donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t really have a preference for old style fashions, and I usually borrow clothes from my father, my friends, and my friendâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s father. Q. What genre does your music fall into? ,WKLQNWKHUHLVDORWRIÂśVDQGÂśVLQĂ&#x20AC;XHQFHLQP\PXVLF,KDYHEHHQ WU\LQJWRZULWHPXVLFZLWKWKHSDVVLRQIURPWKDWHUD,FRXOGQÂśWUHDOO\SLFN DVSHFLÂżFJHQUHEXW,ZRXOGVD\WKDWP\PXVLFKDVERWKWRXFK\DQG exciting elements.

30

Q. You portray a retro sense in all your music, visuals, and music videos. What is it that you are trying to express? And why? In Korea, there is a saying called â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Samposidaeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, which means living a life without dating, marriage, and children. And I believe the only way to RYHUFRPHWKLVSKHQRPHQRQLVWKURXJKSDVVLRQDQGORYH%DFNLQWKHÂśV DQGÂśVZKHQ,ZDVDORW\RXQJHUWKHSHRSOHLQWKDWHUDZHUHÂżOOHGZLWK passion and love. So, I wanted to use those strong characteristics in my music. Q. As a rookie, did you face any obstacles? 'XULQJWKHSUHSDUDWLRQVWDJH,KDGDJRRGWHDPDQGZRUNHGXQGHUJRRG FRQGLWLRQVVR,GLGQÂśWIDFHPDQ\REVWDFOHV:RUNLQJDQGFRPPXQLFDWLQJ ZLWK$TXLELUGDQG'-0DJLN&RRO-ZDVYHU\HIIHFWLYHLQ terms of both music and cooperation. If I had any obstacles, it was probably my eagerness to share my music with other people. Q. Where did you get the inspiration for your music? Is there an DUWLVWZKRVLJQLÂżFDQWO\LQVSLUHG\RX" 7KHPXVLFIURPWKHÂśVDQGÂśVLVP\ELJJHVWLQVSLUDWLRQ/HH+\XQ 'RDQG&KDQJ'XNDUHSUREDEO\WKHPRVWLQVSLULQJPXVLFLDQVRIWKDW HUD7KRVHWZRZHUHWKHELJJHVWLQĂ&#x20AC;XHQFHVRQP\PXVLFDQG,DOZD\V HQMR\HGOLVWHQLQJWRWKHLUZRUNEHFDXVHWKH\KDGDVWURQJ.RUHDQWDVWH to them. Furthermore, the instruments in synthesizers, particularly the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Orchestra Hitâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; touched me and helped me a lot.


Q. Can you tell us about your current private exhibition? 7KHUHLVDFROOHFWLRQRIP\DUWWKDW,KDYHEHHQZRUNLQJRQVLQFH Since the motive of my exhibition is passion, I displayed as many pieces DVSRVVLEOHDQG,DOVRFKRVHDZLGHYDULHW\RIZRUNV7KHUHDUHPDQ\ PDUEOLQJZRUNVDQG,VKRZWKHVHOLYHWRFRPPXQLFDWHZLWKWKHYLHZHUV and audience. Q. What are the differences between writing music and painting? ,GRQ¶WWKLQNWKHUHLVPXFKGLIIHUHQFHEHWZHHQWKHWZRW\SHVRIZRUN WKDW,DPFXUUHQWO\GRLQJ7KHVXEMHFWVDQGPRWLYHVDUHWKHVDPHLQP\ paintings and my music.

Q. What are your plans for the year 2012? ,DPSODQQLQJWRZRUNRQDQHZDOEXP,WKLQN,ZLOOEHDEOHWRUHOHDVHLW HDUO\LQWKH\HDUDQGZRUNRQQHZPXVLFLQWKHVHFRQGKDOIRIWKH\HDU ,DPDOVRORRNLQJIRUZDUGWRH[SDQGLQJP\ERG\RIDUWDQGKDYLQJPDQ\ PRUHH[KLELWLRQV5LJKWQRZ,DPSODQQLQJWRH[KLELWP\ZRUNVLQ0H[LFR Q. What are your goals as an artist and musician? ,WKLQNWKDWWKHUHLVDSODFHLQWKHZRUOGIRUSHRSOHOLNHPHZKRH[KLELW ZRUNLQERWKPXVLFDQGDUW0\JRDOIRUQRZLVWRFRQWLQXHZLWKERWK forms equally. www.facebook.com/sunzkirin

PLEASE STAY / 2011

HERE WE GO NOW / 2011

EDWWOH¿HOG / paint on canvas / 2011

space / paint on canvas / 2011

P\¿JXUHLVUHÃ&#x20AC;HFWHGLQP\KHDUW/ paint on panel / 2011

skull / paint on panel / 2011

31


art

LISTEN TO THE CITY

$VGLUHFWRURIWKHSROLWLFDOO\LQIRUPHGDUWLVWFROOHFWLYH/LVWHQWRWKH&LW\(XQVHRQ3DUNÂśVDFWLYLWLHVDGGUHVVDZLGHUDQJHRILVVXHV)URPJRYHUQPHQW sponsored construction projects to labor and property rights, concern for Koreaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s alarming rate of urban development informs her unique artistic practice, one that stands in a category of its own within this countryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s contemporary art scene.

(GLWRU$QG\6W/RXLV Photographer. Hea-won Kim ,PDJHVFRXUWHV\/LVWHQWRWKH&LW\

Q. A lot of words can be used to describe you with regard to your artistic practice: artist, activist, tour guide, publisher, curator. Do you embrace all these terms or is there one in particular with which you associate strongly? $OORIWKHP,WKLQN:KDW/LVWHQWRWKH&LW\LVGRLQJLVZRUNLQJDVDQ organization, as social designers and curators. We wanted to bridge the gaps between art and society and we ended up realizing that art and design can be really helpful to understand whatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s going on in todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ZRUOG%XWZHDUHDJDLQVWGHÂżQLQJRXUVHOYHVLQRQHZRUG,WPLJKWEH easier for our participants or observers to understand us if we adopted a single sentence or term, but really we are an organization for society and IRUDUWLVWV/LVWHQWRWKH&LW\ÂśVZRUNDQGDFWLYLWLHVDUHDOLWWOHFRQIXVLQJZH GRDORWRIWKLQJV,WKLQNWKDWÂśVJRRG Q. Is the term â&#x20AC;&#x153;activistâ&#x20AC;? appropriate to describe some of the things you do? I know this is a rather loaded term these days, but do you consider your work to be activism? :HZDQWRXUZRUNWREHRQWKHOLQHEHWZHHQDFWLYLVPDQGDUW,Q FDSLWDOLVWLFVRFLHW\DUWZRUNFDQEHFRPPRGLÂżHGYHU\HDVLO\EXWZHGRQÂśW ZDQWRXUZRUNWREHMXVWPHUFKDQGLVH:HDUHDJDLQVWWKHQRWLRQRIDUW as a product, so we began developing a new role for art in our society; a new concept of art.

32

Q. What about the name of the collectiveâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;Listen to the City. Whatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s the story behind it? 8VXDOO\FLW\GHYHORSHUVDQGH[SHUWVWKLQNWKH\QHHGWRGHFLGHVRPH things for the citizens, and then the city government just decides what WKH\ZDQWWRGR%XWHYHU\RQHLVOLYLQJLQWKHLURZQKRPHWKH\DUH H[SHUWVDERXWWKHLURZQOLIHVW\OHVDQGHYHQWKHLURZQDUFKLWHFWXUH²\RX NQRZZHXVHGWREXLOGRXURZQKRPHVPDQ\\HDUVDJR²VRZHZDQWHG the name of our organization to propose that they listen to the citizens. Q. How did you get started, personally, working along these lines? I was interested in political issues to begin with, and I was actually trained as a painter and sculptor. At a certain point, I realized that sculpture and painting werenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t really the best media to address these political issues or social problems, and so I decided to change the format RIP\ZRUN,WKRXJKWLWZRXOGEHPXFKEHWWHUWRPDNHDPDJD]LQHRUGR VRPHVRUWRIDFWLYLVP7KHUHLVVRPXFKSROLWLFDOZRUNLQWKHDUWZRUOG W\SLFDOO\VKRZLQJLPDJHVRISROLWLFDOLVVXHV²LPDJHVRIVWULNHVRURWKHU VWUXJJOHV²EXWQRWGRLQJDQ\WKLQJWRKHOS7KHVHDUWLVWVGRQÂśWDFW:HDUH more interested in actually doing something, rather than just watching or REVHUYLQJ6RLQRUGHUWRWUDQVODWHVXFKDFWLYLVPLQWRDUWZRUNZHZDQWHG to create a sort of bridge between them.


4$QGWKDWEULGJH DWOHDVWDWÂżUVW ZDV6HRXO7RXUV"+RZGLGWKDW project begin? We wanted to reveal the insanity of Seoul and show how the city government destroyed not only its natural beauty, but also some RILWVQDWLRQDOWUHDVXUHV7KDQNVWRWKHLQWHUQHWDORWRISHRSOHIHHO NQRZOHGJHDEOHDERXWHYHU\WKLQJWKHVHGD\V6HRXOIRULQVWDQFHRU &KHRQJJ\HFKHRQ>DQKLVWRULFVWUHDPLQWKHKHDUWRIWKHFLW\@7KLVLV RQHEDGWKLQJDERXWWKHLQWHUQHW:KHQSHRSOHWKLQNWKH\DOUHDG\NQRZ about something, they donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t feel the need to go out and actually see it. We wanted to show the reality of the city and show people whatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s really JRLQJRQVRZHGHFLGHGWRPDNHDVRUWRI³¿HOGWULS´WRJRVHHZKDWÂśV happening. Whatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s happening with Cheonggyecheon, for example, is almost impossible to describe on the internet or through writing; you need to see whatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s going on there and how strange it all is. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s much HDVLHUWRDFWXDOO\WDNHSHRSOHWKHUH 4%ULHĂ&#x20AC;\ZKDWLVKDSSHQLQJDW&KHRQJJ\HFKHRQ":K\GR\RX think itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s strange? Originally, there were approximately 10,000 street vendors who had small businesses in the area, but the city government evicted them ZLWKRXWDQ\FRPSHQVDWLRQRUDOWHUQDWLYHVIRUUHORFDWLRQ7KHQWKH\ destroyed the real stream and replaced it with a layer of rubber, followed E\VWRQHVDQGVDQG7KHZDWHUĂ&#x20AC;RZLQJWKHUHWRGD\LVQRWUHDOVWUHDP water; itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s tap water. If they were to restore the river and follow the FRUUHFWSURFHVVLWZRXOGKDYHWDNHQWHQ\HDUVEXW>IRUPHU6HRXOPD\RU@ /HH0\XQJEDNQHHGHGWRÂżQLVKLWLQWZR\HDUVLQWLPHIRUWKHQH[W presidential election [which he went on to win]. During the construction, WKH\XQHDUWKHGLPSRUWDQWUHPDLQVIURPWKH-RVHRQG\QDVW\²EULGJHV HPEDQNPHQWVDQGRWKHUH[DPSOHVRIKLVWRULFDOFLYLOHQJLQHHULQJ However, restoring these remains properly would have required further GHOD\VVRWKH\ZHUHGHVWUR\HGLQVWHDG7KHFLW\JRYHUQPHQWLQVLVWHGWKDW the project was about restoring history and nature, but it was all a lie.

DOUHDG\EHHQGHYHORSHGDQGH[SORLWHG7KH)RXU5LYHUVSURMHFWLV the result: they are systematically destroying all the countryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s rivers. 7KHVHULYHUSURMHFWVDOOKLJKOLJKWWKHZLGHVSUHDGFRUUXSWLRQVXUURXQGLQJ such large-scale development in Korea. For example, during the Cheonggyecheon development, the regulations regarding the maximum height of the surrounding buildings were changed to allow them to be built even higher. Considering that the city government initiated the SURMHFWIRUWKHVDNHRISURWHFWLQJWKLVKLVWRULFDUHDRIWKHFLW\WKH\VKRXOG have instead imposed even stricter limitations on the height of buildings. As a result of the change in regulations, land prices in the area went up. Despite then-Vice Mayor Yangun Jae being arrested for bribery DQGVHQWHQFHGWRÂżYH\HDUVLQSULVRQ/HH0\XQJEDN>ZKRKDGEHFRPH president] released him after serving only two years. He subsequently became a supervisor of the Four Rivers development project. Of course, WKLVLVMXVWDIUDJPHQWDU\H[DPSOHRIFRUUXSWLRQ7KHFRQVWUXFWLRQ companies made a lot of money from their contracts for the project as ZHOO7KHSUREOHPWKRXJKLVWKDWQDWXUHKDVEHHQGHVWUR\HGZHFDQÂśW buy it with money. Q. How and why did the river become the point of access to your politically-driven art practice? 7KHULYHULVDIXQGDPHQWDOSDUWRIRXUXQGHUVWDQGLQJRIWKHZRUOG7KH DLUWKHVXQWKHPRRQWKHULYHUWKHVRLO²WKHVHDUHWKHEDVLFV<HWWKH desire for wealth has become the most important thing and people donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t UHDOO\FDUHDERXWWKHEDVLFWKLQJVDQ\PRUH6RWKHTXHVWLRQRIRXUZRUN LVÂł:KDWDUHWKHEDVLFYDOXHV"´,DOZD\VZRQGHUHGZKHQGRLQJDULYHU SURMHFWRUDFLW\SURMHFWÂł:KDWLVWKHLUYDOXHDVLGHIURPPRQH\"´,Q Korea, itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s really unbelievable that our government would get rid of all WKHULYHUVLQWKHFRXQWU\LWÂśVFUD]\6RZHZDQWHGWRWDONDERXWWKLVEDVLF word and to share the meaning of the river with other people.Our team is showing what we have in this society; besides money, there is nothing left over.

Q. Youâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve recently devoted a lot of attention to the more recent Four Rivers development project as well. Does this connect at all with your research on Cheonggyecheon? &KHRQJJ\HFKHRQZDVWKHÂżUVWFDVHRIÂłJUHHQZDVK´LQ.RUHD/HH 0\XQJEDNOLNHGLWVRPXFKKHGHFLGHGWRGRLWDOORYHUWKHFRXQWU\ especially after he and the countryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s big business conglomerates [chaebol] realized that the rivers were the only areas left that hadnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t

Q. In addition to rivers, Listen to the City has increasingly directed its focus toward ERQDÂżGH urban development projects in Seoul. The Dongdaemun Design Plaza initiative, which has seen the rights of street vendors and other small business owners scuttled in the name of redevelopment, has been the focus of much of your recent work. What has been Listen to the Cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s approach to this particular issue?

â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;space moraeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; at Duriban (Hongdae, Seoul) / 2011

Claes Oldenburg / 2010 / performance, single-channel video / 8 min

33


34


Memorial for Buddist Monk Munsu VHOILPPRODWHGE\WKH1DNGRQJULYHU SHUIRUPDQFH7VKLUWVDW1DNGRQJ5LYHU *XPL&LW\6RXWK.RUHD 

We did research on the Dongdaemun Design Plaza project for a long WLPHWU\LQJVRUWRXWWKHKLVWRU\RI'RQJGDHPXQ0DUNHWDQGWKHSURFHVV RILWVWUDQVIRUPDWLRQ+LVWRU\PHDQVPDNLQJDVWRU\ULJKW"6RZHZDQWHG to tell the story of these people and what happened to them; we wanted WRDFNQRZOHGJHWKHLUKLVWRU\$FWXDOO\WKHUHZDVQRKLVWRULFDOUHVHDUFK about what happened there, so we put together a history of normal SHRSOHSHRSOHZLWKRXWDQ\SRZHU7KHVHVWUHHWYHQGRUVDQGSRRU WHQDQWV²WKHFLW\JRYHUQPHQWZDQWHGWRJHWULGRIWKHP7KH\NLQGRI ORRNGLUW\DQGVRWKHFLW\GHFLGHGWKH\ZHUHWKHÂżUVWWKLQJWKH\QHHGHGWR PRYHRXW7KHUHZDVQRUHDVRQWROHDYHDUHFRUGRIWKHPWKH\WKRXJKW so thereâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s nothing; itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s the same as so many of the old areas in Seoul. Q. This research is currently included in Artsonje Centerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s â&#x20AC;&#x153;City Within the Cityâ&#x20AC;? exhibition, which focuses on issues of urbanization and others central to your work. Listen to the Cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s project, however, is somewhat isolated and removed from the rest of the exhibition. Is there any reason for that? 2XUZRUNGRHVQÂśWQHHGWREHLQVLGHDPXVHXPDFWXDOO\:HDUHXVLQJWKH JURXQGĂ&#x20AC;RRU²YLVLWRUVGRQÂśWQHHGWRSD\IRUWKHJURXQGĂ&#x20AC;RRUVRZHOLNHG LW²DQGHYHU\RQHZKRFRPHVWKHERRNVWRUHWKHUHFDQDOVRVHHRXUZRUN in that setting. Honestly, our project is completely different from the other SLHFHVLQWKHVKRZ7KHSURFHVVLVGLIIHUHQW,WÂśVDOPRVWDVLIZHDUHGRLQJ our own exhibition outside of the museum, and we are using the space WKHUHDVDQLQIRUPDWLRQVSRW7KLVZRUNVZHOOIRUXVVLQFHRXUDSSURDFK WRDUWZRUNLVTXLWHGLIIHUHQWIURPWKHQRUP Q. So you separated your work from the rest of the exhibition? 1RWUHDOO\EXWNLQGRI3HRSOHFDQDFFHVVRXUZRUNPRUHHDVLO\WKLV ZD\:HZDQWHGWRXVHLWDVDSODWIRUPVRPHWLPHVRXUZRUNORRNV

LQWHUHVWLQJEXWVRPH.RUHDQSHRSOHGRQÂśWOLNHLWEHFDXVHWKH\GRQÂśWZDQW WRNQRZDERXWLW/LIHLVWRXJKHQRXJKLWVHHPVVRDORWRISHRSOHGRQÂśW HYHQUHDGWKHQHZVSDSHU%XW$UWVRQMH&HQWHULVNLQGRIDUHOD[HG place to see an exhibition. Even people who arenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t really interested in WKHSUREOHPVZHDGGUHVVFDQUHWKLQNZKDWKDSSHQHGWR'RQJGDHPXQ with regards to space and place. Q. Letâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s talk about your plans for the future. How do you move forward from here? :HUHDOL]HGLWÂśVQRWHDV\WRPDNHPRQH\DVDQDUWLVW$OWKRXJKZHGRQÂśW OLNHWKHFDSLWDOLVWLFPRGHORIVRFLHW\ZHDUHOLYLQJLQLW&UHDWLYHMREV FRPHZLWKUHDOO\EDGFRQGLWLRQV²YHU\ORQJKRXUVDQGYHU\OLWWOHSD\²VR ZHZDQWWRRUJDQL]HDODERUXQLRQIRUDUWLVWV7KDWÂśVRQHRIWKHUHDVRQV WKDW,TXLWEHLQJDSDLQWHU7KHJDOOHULVWVGRQÂśWWHOO\RXZKRERXJKWDZRUN WKH\GRQÂśWWHOO\RXWKHSULFHLWVROGIRU,IZHPDNHDODERUJURXSWKHQZH can get the power to force them to have a more transparent process. I WKLQNWKLVLVWKHÂżUVWVWHSWRZDUGJHWWLQJULGRIFRUUXSWLRQLQWKHDUWZRUOG Artists are poor, but they are very important in society. Other people DUHMXVWXVLQJWKHPOLNHDVWRFNRSWLRQWKRXJKWKH\WKLQNRIDUWDVMXVW money. Q. Will this labor group be a Listen to the City project? ,WFDQEHSDUWRILWEXWLWQHHGVWREHVHSDUDWHGIURP/LVWHQWRWKH&LW\ (YHQLIVRPHSHRSOHGRQÂśWOLNH/LVWHQWRWKH&LW\WKH\QHHGWRDJUHHRQ this, especially now. We have a new mayor now, and he seems left-wing, EXWHYHQKHGRHVQÂśWNQRZZKDWÂśVJRLQJRQZLWKDUWLVWVDQGWKHDUWV:H need to create something to get some power. www.listentothecity.org

Left image [Design Olympics] Designing a Better Dongdaemun Design Park than Zaha Hadid / 2011 / Open performance advertisement poster

35


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YOM’S VISUA L/LAB

Every Dictator comes in applauses of the public, then they often goes spoils when they are enjoying the power. So we have to wait for new generation who can defeat them, although they also can go bad. I call them, ‘Happy Alternative Functional Youths.’

37


photography

PHOTOGRAPHER HAL

FLESH LOVELVDVHULHVSKRWRJUDSKVRIDFRXSOHLQDTXLOWYDFXXPFRPSUHVVHGEDJE\3+272*5$3+(5+$/7KLVVXPPHULQ6DQ'LHJRFLESH LOVEZDVDZDUGHG¿UVWSODFHDWWKH$UWRI3KRWRJUDSK\6KRZ

Editor. Yuta Sugihara

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Q. How did you conjure the idea of putting models in a vacuum packed bag? I have been shooting couples trying to express their love since 2004. 0\DWWHQWLRQKDVEHHQIRFXVHGRQWKHDFWRIÂľDGKHVLRQÂś7KURXJKWKH concept of â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;adhesionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, I feel that I can visualize the deep love between the couples on a different level. I used the bathtub as a setting in which to photograph the couple because of the bathtubâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s oblong shape. I felt WKHFRXSOHFRXOGEHQHÂżWIURPEHLQJLQDFORVHUVSDFH$OVREHFDXVHLW is a mundane object found in every household, I found a certain charm in it. I have published three of the series: 3LQN\ .LOOHU3LQN\ .LOOHU ';&RXSOH-DP)/(6+/29( was really the next step. I experimented with the idea for about six months. Eventually, I released the new series. 3KRWRVKRRWVDUHDIIHFWHGE\OLJKWLQJEDFNJURXQGFRORUDQGPDQ\ elements in environment, and through these shoots many new ideas KDYHFRPHWRPHDQG,ORRNIRUZDUGWRWU\LQJWKHPRXWLQP\IXWXUH projects. Q. What does FLESH LOVE mean? $WÂżUVW,XVHGWKHQDPHFRESH LOVEIRUWKLVVHULHV)RUWKLVZRUN people are put into a vacuum bag. Since they cannot breathe inside it, I KDYHWRJHWWKHVKRWZLWKLQÂżYHVHFRQGV$VDUHVXOWHDFKSRVHLVXQLTXH DQGQHYHUWREHUHSHDWHGLQH[DFWO\WKHVDPHZD\DJDLQ7RFDSWXUH WKHVHVSHFLDOPRPHQWVPHDQVVRPXFKWRPHDVDSKRWRJUDSKHU7KH SURFHVVLVVLPLODUWRIUHVKSHULVKDEOHIRRGVZKLFKDUHSDFNDJHGLQD VXSHUPDUNHW%XWRQHGD\,PDGHWKHPLVWDNHRIW\SLQJÂľ)/(6+ÂśLQVWHDG RIÂľ)5(6+Âś,IRXQGWKHPLVWDNHTXLWHIXQQ\DQGGHFLGHGWRNHHSLWOLNH that. Q. Can you talk us through the process of capturing these moments DQGH[SODLQVRPHRIWKHGLIÂżFXOWLHV\RXIDFH" After the models are set inside the vinyl bag, using a vacuum cleaner, RQHRIDVVLVWDQWPHQVXFNVWKHDLURXWRIWKHEDJ$IWHUWKHYLQ\OEDJLV YDFXXPSDFNHGWKHUHLVRQO\DERXWWHQVHFRQGVWRFDSWXUHWKHLPDJH I have to start pressing shutter as soon as the air is out of the bag. I get about two chances to capture the image. Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m always tense about the potential danger involved, because this process involves the possibility

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RIDOHWKDODFFLGHQW,PDNHDVWULFWSRLQWRISXWWLQJP\DVVLVWDQWWKURXJK an emergency life saving course. We always prepare portable oxygen LIWKH\KDYHGLI¿FXOW\EUHDWKLQJDQGLFHWRFRROGRZQLIWKHLUERGLHV overheat. I guess this project explores both love and death. Q. How do you plan their poses? &RQFHSWPHDQV³ORYLQJDQGEHFRPLQJRQH´6R,WKLQNKRZWKHPRGHOV FRXOGMRLQWRJHWKHULQWKHEHVWZD\7KHVKDSHWKH\PDNHWRJHWKHU GHSHQGVRQWKHVRIWQHVVDQGXQHYHQQHVVRIWKHLUERGLHV,ORRNDWWKHLU ERGLHVOLNHDSX]]OHDQGVRPHWLPHVLWIHHOVPRUHOLNHDFUREDWLFV Q. It seems that models for this work has unique color and fashion. How do you think about colorfulness and fashion as art elements for FLESH LOVE ? And how do you feel when you stand in front of them arranged in such a strange way? I sense feelings of eroticism, cuteness, and a pop vibe in the visual sense when coming across these poses. Color is always very important factor for color photos. Sometimes I put my images with cheap lollipop FDQG\RU¿JXUHVLQEOLVWHUSDFNZKLFKDUHVROGDW1DNDQREURDGZD\, naturally chose the models with the characteristics mentioned above. I WKLQNWKLVVKRZVWKHFRQWHPSRUDU\FXOWXUHLQ7RN\R$QRWKHUSRLQWLVWKH difference between nudity and fashion. I feel that fashion photos can show us temporary times and culture scene. Particularly with Japanese people, as they seem to devote themselves to their choices in such H[WUHPHV%XW,IHHOWKDWQXGLW\LVDWLPHOHVVWKLQJ Q. How do you plan to progress this series? I plan to continue with FLESH LOVEIRUWKHWLPHEHLQJ0\ZRUNVKDYH EHHQUHFRJQL]HGLQ)UDQFHDQG86$PRUHWKDQ-DSDQ%XWWKHUHDUH PDQ\FRXQWULHVZKHUH,KDYHQRWVKRZHG\HWVR,ZRXOGOLNHWREULQJP\ ZRUN$VLD.RUHDRIFRXUVHEHLQJDYHU\LPSRUWDQWSDUWRI$VLD www.photographerhal.com www.tosei-sha.jp

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brand

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Editor. Anna Choi Photographer. Jun O Hwang

46


Q. What does your brand name DIMITO mean? ,WLVGHULYHGIURPWKH/DWLQZRUGÂł'LPLWWR´EXWZHGHOHWHGRQHÂł7´'LPLWWR PHDQVÂłWREUHDN´RUÂłWROHDYH´:HGHFLGHGWRQDPHRXUEUDQG',0,72 WRGHSDUWIURPRXUPXQGDQHGDLO\OLYHVDQGHQMR\VQRZERDUGLQJ/DWHU ZHIRXQGRXWWKDW',0,72LVDOVRD/DWLQQDPHIRUPHQ7KHRWKHUGD\D foreigner named Dimito actually contacted us and said he wanted to buy our clothes. Q. Your slogan is: â&#x20AC;&#x153;Positive Mind.â&#x20AC;? Can you explain more about your slogan? :H P\FRZRUNHUVDQG, KDGXSVDQGGRZQVZKLOHZRUNLQJWRJHWKHU ,WZDVQÂśWHDV\IRUXVWRZRUNZLWKHDFKRWKHU:HFDPHXSZLWKWKH VORJDQLQRUGHUWRRYHUFRPHDOOWKHREVWDFOHVDQGFRQĂ&#x20AC;LFWVZLWKDSRVLWLYH DWWLWXGH:HQHHGWRNHHSDQRSWLPLVWLFDQGSRVLWLYHPLQGVHWLQRUGHUWR provide high quality products to our customers. Q. What made you start a fashion brand exclusively for snowboarding? ,WRRNDJUHDWLQWHUHVWLQVQRZERDUGLQJZKHQ,ZDVDMXQLRULQKLJKVFKRRO At the time, I was dreaming of becoming a respected snowboarder, but, unfortunately, I wasnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t talented in sports. However, I still wanted to pursue a career related to snowboarding. So I majored in visual design in FROOHJHDQG,GHVLJQHGWKHFORWKHV,ZDQWHGWRPDNH%HIRUHJUDGXDWLQJ ,YLVLWHGPDQ\GHVLJQHUVWRVKRZP\VNHWFKHV7KHQ,JRWDSRVLWLRQIRU WKHÂżUVWWLPHDWDQHZO\ODXQFKHGVQRZERDUGIDVKLRQEUDQG6LQFHWKH company was in its beginning stage, I was in charge of a variety of things IURPGHVLJQWRPDUNHWLQJ7KDQNVWRWKHH[SHULHQFHV,ZDVDEOHWRKDYH ZLGHUSHUVSHFWLYHVLQYDULRXVÂżHOGVDQGZRUNZLWKPDQ\GLIIHUHQWSHRSOH harmoniously. Q. How did you recruit your co-workers as a brand director? A year ago, one of my friends named Sung-jun Huh and I launched ',0,72,FKRVHWKHRWKHUVL[VWDUWLQJPHPEHUVDQGDVNHGWKHPWRZRUN with me. All of them accepted my offer because they were all crazy about VQRZERDUGLQJ(YHQWKHSHRSOHLQRXUÂżQDQFHDQGVDOHVGHSDUWPHQWV HQMR\VQRZERDUGLQJ,GLGQÂśWKDYHWRVZHHWWDONWKHPLQWRZRUNLQJZLWK me because all of them joined voluntarily as we shared the same dreams DQGJRDOV',0,72KDVJURZQWUHPHQGRXVO\EXWZHDUHVWLOOZRUNLQJLQ DOLEHUDOHQYLURQPHQWVLQFHZHVWLOOHQMR\ZRUNLQJWRJHWKHUEHFDXVHZH love what we do. Q. People enjoy snowboarding only in the winter. What do you do in other seasons? Winter is the busiest season for us because snowboarding is a winter sport. However, we are always busy in other seasons. We are constantly ZRUNLQJWRGHYHORSQHZSURGXFWVDQGHYHQWVEHFDXVHZHDUHDOVR dealing with other lifestyle items. We are planning to expand our product lines to produce year-round items people need in all four seasons. I predict our customers will be able to use our new products in two \HDUVLQFOXGLQJVXUÂżQJDQGVZLPPLQJHTXLSPHQWRWKHUZLQWHUVHDVRQ products, as well as everyday clothing and accessories. Q. The colors and textures of DIMITO are very impressive. What do you consider most when choosing colors and textures for your products? ',0,72SXUVXHVVOLJKWO\WRQHGGRZQFRORUVRUH[DJJHUDWHGFRORUVUDWKHU WKDQGHHSKHDY\FRORUV:KHQZHÂżUVWODXQFKHGZHPL[HGĂ&#x20AC;XRUHVFHQW neon colors with pastel colors to give mystic hues. In our second season, ZHPL[DQGPDWFKHGWUHQG\FRORUVVXFKDVEODFNEURZQDQGEHLJH ZLWKWKHÂżUVWVHDVRQÂśVSURGXFWV$V,ZRUNHGIRUDERXW\HDUVLQWKH VQRZERDUGLQJIDVKLRQÂżHOG,QDWXUDOO\EHFDPHDQH[SHUWZKRLVDEOHWR SLFNWKHFRORUVVQRZERDUGHUVZDQW,QP\SHUVSHFWLYHFRORUVDUHPRUH LPSRUWDQWWKDQGHVLJQZKHQPDNLQJVQRZERDUGLQJSURGXFWV,WKLQN FUHDWLQJRXURZQEUDQGFRORULVWKHYLWDOLW\RIWKHEUDQG',0,72LV

EHVWNQRZQIRULWVXQLTXHFRORUVEXWZHDOVRFRQVLGHURWKHUGHWDLOV Since snowboard fashion requires functionality, our subsidiary materials are also uniquely designed. We try to content our customers with carefully designed details. Q. It seems like DIMITO is related not only to clothing, but also sports, music, public art, graphic design, party culture, and many other different genres. Other than snowboarding, I was interested in music when I was \RXQJHU+RZHYHU,VWXFNWRP\RULJLQDOJRDOWRSXUVXHP\FDUHHULQ the snowboarding business. Music was still a part of my life though. Fortunately for me, I was able to interrelate with various musicians DQG'-VZKLOHZRUNLQJLQWKHVQRZERDUGLQJEXVLQHVV,JHWYLFDULRXV satisfaction through my musician friends. I can easily relate to other artists and musicians because we share many things in common. In fact, it is hard to draw a line between art, music, and sports because they are LQWKHVDPHFDWHJRU\7KXVLWVHHPVQDWXUDOIRUPHWREHLQWHUHVWHGLQ PDQ\GLIIHUHQWÂżHOGV 4,FDQÂżQGYHU\LQWHUHVWLQJDQGXQLTXHLPDJHVRQWKHKRPHSDJH of DIMITOâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s â&#x20AC;&#x153;Visualizeâ&#x20AC;? category. <RXPD\WKLQN',0,72ÂśVGHVLJQVDQGWKHEUDQGQDPHLWVHOIDUHYHU\ \RXQJDQGĂ&#x20AC;DVK\+RZHYHU,GRQÂśWZDQWWRPDNHP\EUDQGWRROLJKW 7KHUHIRUH,SXWDORWRIHIIRUWLQJUDSKLFVDQGYLVXDOVZKHQPDNLQJLFRQV and logos. I prefer images with unique stories in them rather than the LPDJHVWKDWKDYHEHHQPDGHWRIXOÂżOORXUQHHGV,WKLQNRXUEUDQGKLVWRU\ will mean a lot later down the line. In order to show people how my brand KDVSURJUHVVHGLQHDFKVWHSLWWRRN,ÂśPDSSO\LQJPHDQLQJWRHDFKYLVXDO image. Q. DIMITO has various supporting programs for snowboarders. Please tell us more about it. 7KHUHDUHDERXWVQRZERDUGHUVZKRDUHFRQWUDFWHGZLWK',0,72 Some of them belong to the national team, and others are amateurs who DUHDVJRRGDVSURIHVVLRQDOV',0,72LVRQO\RQH\HDUROGEXWZHDUH LQYHVWLQJDORWRIPRQH\LQWRVXSSRUWWKHP7KHVQRZERDUGHUVZKRJHW VXSSRUWIURP',0,72DUHSURXGRI',0,72,WZLOOKHOSXVSURPRWHRXU EUDQGWKLVZLQWHULQVQRZERDUGVFHQHV,KRSHWRVHH',0,72DQGRXU DWKOHWHVZKHUHYHUWKHUHLVVQRZ,KRSH',0,72ZLOOEHDEOHWRVXSSRUW the national team in participating in the 2018 Winter Olympics, and I KRSHPDQ\RIWKHPZLOOZLQPHGDOV,ZLOONHHSVXSSRUWLQJWKHDWKOHWHV until my dreams come true. Q. What are the future plans that you want to accomplish through DIMITO? About 3 to 4 years ago, Korean snowboarders had to rely on imported sports clothing and equipment. In some ways, I contributed to create a GRPHVWLFPDUNHWRYHUWKHODVW\HDUV7KHHIIHFWVSUHDGYHU\TXLFNO\ more than I thought, and now, people are buying more domestic brand products than imported ones. Compared to 4 years ago, the current GRPHVWLFVQRZERDUGLQJPDUNHWKDVVHHQPRUHWKDQDSHUFHQW JURZWK,IZHFDQNHHSXSWKHFXUUHQWWUHQGSHRSOHZLOOSUHIHUGRPHVWLF brands over imported ones in a matter of a few years. However, there are many limitations to Koreaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s snowboarding industry. For now, I will just FKDOOHQJHP\VHOIWRWKHOLPLW2QFH',0,72UHDFKHVWKHWRSVSRWLQWKH GRPHVWLFPDUNHWZHZLOOWKHQH[WHQGRXUEXVLQHVVDEURDG,QDGGLWLRQ ,ÂśPSODQQLQJWRSURGXFHRWKHUVSRUWVFORWKLQJLQDERXWÂżYH\HDUVVLQFH,ÂśP interested in other sports. Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m a very ambitious person, and Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m interested LQPDQ\GLIIHUHQWÂżHOGV',0,72LVSHUIHFWIRUPHEHFDXVH,FDQWU\PDQ\ GLIIHUHQWWKLQJVLQYDULRXVÂżHOGV,KRSHP\FRZRUNHUVFRQWLQXHWRHQMR\ WKHLUZRUNDQGDUHKDSS\DERXWZKDWWKH\DUHGRLQJ www.dimito.com

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49


art

ROBERT BRADFORD

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Editor. Anna Choi ,PDJHVFRXUWHV\5REHUW%UDGIRUG

50


KALASHNIKOV FLORA / 110 x 25 x 6 cm

Q. What made you interested in toys as your sculpture material, and when did you start to make this artwork? ,VWDUWHGPDNLQJWR\VFXOSWXUHVDERXW\HDUVDJR$WWKDWWLPH LQ Cornwall England), I was using a very large ex-cow shed for a studio, and there were boxes stored at one end. In one of the boxes there were plastic toys discarded by children who had grown out of them. I responded to the colours and random juxtapositions of the toys in WKHER[DQGGHFLGHGWKDWLI,FRXOG¿QGDZD\RIMRLQLQJPDQ\RIWKHP WRJHWKHUWKH\ZRXOGPDNHYHU\LQWHUHVWLQJODUJHUVFXOSWXUDOIRUPV,WWRRN PHWZR\HDUVRIH[SHULPHQWLQJWR¿QGWKHVWURQJHVWVLPSOHVWDQGPRVW DGDSWDEOHZD\RIGRLQJWKLV$W¿UVW,ZDVZRUULHGWKDWWKHUHVXOWPLJKW DSSHDUNLWVFK%XWWKHQ,VWRSSHGZRUU\LQJ Q. How have you been able to collect so many toys? Do you buy new toys for your work sometimes? $W¿UVW,XVHGWR\VIURPP\RZQFKLOGUHQDQGIULHQGV¶FKLOGUHQ%XWODWHU I needed large quantities, so I began to buy them from car boot sales, (vide graniers in France). It has become a sort of treasure hunt each ZHHNHQGLQWKHJRRGZHDWKHU$WWKHVH³PDUNHWV´PDQ\VWDOOKROGHUV ZRXOGKDYHVRPHSODVWLFWR\V2IWHQLQFDUGERDUGER[HVRQWKHÃ&#x20AC;RRU ,VSHQWDQGVSHQGDORWRIP\WLPHRQP\NQHHVVRPHWLPHV¿JKWLQJ RII\RXQJFKLOGUHQWRJHWWKHWR\VWKDW,PRVWZDQW1RZ,XVXDOO\KDYH WZHQW\RUVRSODVWLFER[HVRIWKHPLQWKHVWXGLRZDLWLQJWR¿QGWKHLU SODFHVRQWKHVFXOSWXUHV,OLNHXVLQJWR\VWKDWKDYHDKLVWRU\RIXVHDQG ,UHDOL]HWKDWWKHUHLVLQKHUHQWO\DNLQGRIFULWLTXHRIFRQVXPHULVPLQWKH ZRUN+RZHYHUWKHPDLQFKRLFHVDQGGHFLVLRQVWKDW,PDNHDUHPRUH often based on size, color, shape and form than a particular attitude to VRFLHW\RUWKHZRUOGLQJHQHUDO,OLNHWUDFLQJFKDQJLQJIDGVDQGIDVKLRQV LQWKHZRUNDQGWR\VUHIHUWRPRVWIRUPVRIKXPDQDFWLYLW\$OORIWKHVH aspects are present more or less in what I do. Often I need pairs of things to create symmetry and will buy new toys where necessary (or if I VHHVRPHSDUWLFXODUWKLQJVWKDW,OLNHRUWKDWFDQKDYHDVSHFLDOIXQFWLRQ LQWKHZRUN  Q. You made a shape of a dog-like animal. Does it have a special meaning? ,FRXOGQRWPDNHVRPDQ\LPDJHVRIGRJVLI,GLGQ¶WOLNHWKHP,VXSSRVH 7KHUHPXVWEHDGRJSDUWRIPH'RJVDUHDOZD\VSOHDVHGWRVHHXV QRPDWWHUZKDWPRRGZHKDSSHQWREHLQ7KH\KDYHOHDUQHGWKHVNLOO of charming many of us enough to feed them and not have to hunt etc. /LNHWR\VWKH\FRPHLQDOOVKDSHVDQGVL]HVIURPGRZQULJKWVFDU\DQG DJJUHVVLYHWRWKHFKLFRUVLOO\7KH\UHÃ&#x20AC;HFWXVKXPDQV,WKLQN7KDW¶VZK\ Q. Toys are one of the strongest symbols of childhood. What place do you feel they have in the adult world of art and galleries? I used to be a psychotherapist, so the relationship between the forming FKLOGDQGWKHHYHQWXDODGXOWLQWHUHVWVPHDVGRHVPHPRU\ RUODFNRILW 

7R\VDUHDOLWWOHVXEYHUVLYH,WKLQNDVLVFKLOGLVKQHVVJHQHUDOO\7KH\ DQGLW FDQPRFNDQGXQGHUPLQHSUHWHQVLRQRIZKLFKWKHUHLVTXLWHDORW of in the art world. I want to communicate simply and directly. And not just to the gallery-going public. I want to touch the heart and the feelings RISHRSOHQRWMXVWWKHWRSRIWKHLULQWHOOHFW,KRSHP\ZRUNFRYHUVRU UHIHUVWRDZLGHUDQJHRIH[SHULHQFHDQGHPRWLRQV,WKLQNWR\VDUHD JRRGYHKLFOHIRUWKLV0RVWSHRSOHFDQ¿QGVRPHSRLQWRIFRQWDFWZLWKWKH ZRUN(YHQLIWKH\KDWHSODVWLFRUMXVWWKLQNLWLVUXEELVK,WLV5XEELVK 4:K\GR\RXPDNHOLIHVL]HRUODUJHUWKDQOLIHVL]HG¿JXUHV"$QG what have peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s reactions been to your sculptures? ,QJHQHUDO,SUHIHUWRZRUNOLIHVL]HRUDELWODUJHU,QDZD\WKHZRUNV explain themselves. I want the pieces to feel real, a part of life or larger than life. Of course they are art - not life or real, they are substitutes for, or equivalents of, real things in life. Which I hope focuses people on the nature of reality by twisting or confusing it a little. Within each bigger VFXOSWXUDOµUHDOLW\¶WKHUHDUHORWVRIOLWWOHVFHQDULRVDQGUHDOLWLHV,OLNH the idea that if one of my sculptures is made up of one or two hundred WKRXVDQGELWV\RXFDQQHYHUUHDOO\NQRZLWFRPSOHWHO\7KLVLVQRWVRZLWK VWRQHFOD\EURQ]HHWF,OLNHWKHIDFWWKDWIURPDGLVWDQFHWKHZRUNV DUHMXVWFRORUHGRUPXOWLFRORUHGVKDSHV7KHQZKHQSHRSOHFRPHFORVH WKH\UHDOL]HZKDWLVJRLQJRQZLWKLQWKHP,OLNHWKHSURFHVVRIUHODWLQJ VHFWLRQVDQGGHWDLOWRWKHWRWDOLW\OLQNLQJPHPRU\ ZKLFKWKH\XVXDOO\ WULJJHU ZLWKWKHQHZFRQWHPSRUDU\³UHDOLW\´ Q. What concept are you expressing through the plastic artwork? 7KHUHLVQRRQHFRQFHSWLQP\ZRUN'LIIHUHQWSLHFHVKDYHGLIIHUHQW â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;meaningsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, and I donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t always use plastic. I have used everything from FXGGO\WR\VERRNV¿UHSODQWVDQGELWVRIWUHHWRSRWVFRXUHUVFORWKHV pegs and hair brushes. If the material feels right for the job, Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ll use it. %XW,GRQ¶WNQRZRIDQ\RWKHUNLQGRIWKLQJWKDWZRXOGEHDVYDULHGDQG YDULDEOHDVWR\VWRGRZKDW,GR7KDWLVZK\WKH\KDYHVWD\HGFHQWUDO Q. What is the next plan as a sculpture artist? ,GRQ¶WXVXDOO\NQRZXQWLOLWKDSSHQV,FDPHEDFNIURPEHLQJZLWKP\ FDPHO DQGULGLQJRQRQH LQ4DWDUDPRQWKDJRDQGEHJDQPDNLQJ DUKLQRFHURVEHFDXVH,ZDQWHGWRGRVRPHWKLQJYHU\EXON\,ZRUNRQ FRPPLVVLRQDVZHOODVPDNLQJµVSHFXODWLYHZRUN¶VRLWRIWHQGHSHQGVRQ what offers for shows or commissions come in. Next year, I may have PXVHXPVKRZVLQ4DWDURU,WDO\DQGJDOOHU\VKRZVLQ)UDQFH+ROODQG and Greece. So, context may affect the next thing. At the moment, I want to cover several species of animals. Maybe one from each continent. A NDQJDURRIRUVXUH%XWPDNLQJKXPDQDQLPDOVDOZD\VLQWHUHVWVPHWRR, DPQRWFHUWDLQRIZKDW¶VQH[W:KDWGR\RXVXJJHVW" www.robertbradford.co.uk

51


BIG FAIRY / 170 x 80 x 100 cm

52


CHRISTMAS PISTOL / 50 x 35 x 5 cm

)$1&<61,))5$ / 110 x 60 x 25 cm

SCRUBBERS / each hight 50 cm

53


TOY BOY 40 / 200 x 110 x 80 cm

54


DARK SNIFF / 110 x 60 x 25 cm

POWER ANGEL OF DEATH / 110 x 50 x 30 cm

55


media

Souvenirs from Earth

/DVW'HFHPEHUDWDOO(XURSHDQµDUWLVWORRNLQJ¶PDQFDPHWR6HRXOIRUWKHVHFRQGWLPHLQOHVVWKDQPRQWKVWRVKRRWDUWYLGHRVDURXQGWKHFLW\ XWLOL]LQJµ.RUHDQGDLO\FXOWXUHIURPW\SLFDO.RUHDQVXSHUPDUNHWWRµ3RMDQJPDWFKD¶DQG.RUHDQ%%4UHVWDXUDQWVDVWKHEDFNGURS(ORTXHQFHFDXJKWXS with him for an exclusive interview on the future of SFE (Souvenirs from Earth) in Korea and around the world.

Editor. Vincent Sung Photographer: Vincent Sung Images courtesy. â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Souvenirs from Earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; (art video images)

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surpriseparty*URXFKHQNR

Q. Marcus, you are a video artist and you founded Souvenirs From Earth in 2006. What is SFE ? 6)(LVWKH¿UVWLQWHUQDWLRQDO79FKDQQHOIRUDUW1RWDERXWDUWEXWEHLQJ DUWWUDQVIRUPLQJDQ\Ã&#x20AC;DWVFUHHQLQWRDQHYHUFKDQJLQJSLHFHRIDUWZRUN delivered by international artists. Q. What do you see when you tune into the channel? Mainly video art, but we also have photo shows, contemporary dance, DQGYLGHRFOLSV7KHDYHUDJHGXUDWLRQRIDSLHFHLVPLQDQGWKH URWDWLRQLVYHU\PXFKRUJDQL]HGOLNHDPXVLFFKDQQHO Q. Where can we see the channel? :HDUHRQFDEOH79LQ)UDQFHDQG*HUPDQ\EXW\RXFDQJHWXV worldwide over the Internet via our homepage sfe.tv. Soon we will be to ,QWHUQHWFRQQHFWHG79VWDEOHWVHWF 4+RZLVWKHFKDQQHO¿QDQFHG" :HFKRRVHQRWWRWDONRQWKHFKDQQHODVLWLVPDLQO\DYLVXDOH[SHULHQFH ZHGHOLYHU7KHUHIRUHDVWKHUHLVQRYHUEDOODQJXDJHWRWKHFKDQQHOLW is a truly international project and an interesting platform for advertisers IURPWKHOX[XU\SURGXFWVLQGXVWU\2QPRVWQHWZRUNVWKHFKDQQHOZLOOEH SURSRVHGDVSD\79ZLWKDVXEVFULSWLRQIHH Q. How big is the market? %DVLFDOO\HYHU\WXUQHGRIIÃ&#x20AC;DWVFUHHQLVDEODFNKROHLQWKHURRPDQG ZHGHOLYHUDGHFHQWFXOWXUDORXWSXWWRFKDQJHWKDWEODFNKROHLQWRDQ art terminal. You donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t have to be into contemporary art to appreciate the program; the channel has a wide range of fans, including all social classes and ages. It is a universal project.

EH%HFDXVHRIWKLVLWLVKDUGWRVHOOYLGHRVLQWKHDUWPDUNHW,IRXQGLW PRUHQDWXUDOWRJHWDQXPEHURIDUWYLGHRVWRJHWKHUDQGPDUNHWLWDVD SURJUDPDVD79FKDQQHOUDWKHUWKDQVHOOLQJLQGLYLGXDOYLGHRV Q. How did you get into art videos? ,VWXGLHG¿OPPDNLQJDW&LQHFLWWDLQ5RPHDQG¿QHDUWVLQ)UDQFHVR, ZDVD¿OPPDNHUDQGSDLQWHUZKHQ,GHYHORSHGWKHFRQFHSWRI³YLGHR SDLQWLQJ´ZKLFKLQDZD\PHOWVWKHVHWZRGLVFLSOLQHVLQWRDQHZDUWIRUP Q. So SFE is to some extent making a place in history? :HOOLWLVFHUWDLQO\RQHRIWKHRQO\SODFHVZKHUHQRUPDO79IRUPDWWLQJ GRHVQRWDSSO\VRLQDZD\ZHDUHDFRXQWHUFXOWXUHWRWUDGLWLRQDO79 SURJUDPV7KLVLVWKH¿UVWWLPHWKDW\RXFDQUHDOO\VHHWKHULFKQHVVRI video creation around the world. No gallery or museum can offer such an overview. Our catalogue, which includes more than 1,000 artists, is by far the biggest around. We also show long-forgotten video clips from the ¿UVW079\HDUVDQG¿OPVDQGYLGHRVIURPWKHSDVWUHDFKLQJWRWKH¿UVW GD\VRI¿OPPDNLQJ1RRWKHUSODWIRUPFDQDFWXDOO\VKRZWKHVHSLHFHV EHFDXVHWKH\GRQRW¿WDQ\ZKHUHRQWKHWUDGLWLRQDOVHQVHRIWHOHYLVLRQ Q. The future for SFE... «LVEULJKW$VWKHQXPEHURI,QWHUQHWFRQQHFWHG79VPXOWLSOLHVDQG DVDOWHUQDWLYHSODWIRUPVFRPSHWHPRUHZLWKROGVFKRRO79QHWZRUNVWR deliver programs to a large number of devices, content is increasingly EHFRPLQJNLQJ6)(FDQFHUWDLQO\PDNHWKHGLIIHUHQFHZLWKRXUVWUDQJH VKRFNLQJVHGXFWLYHDUWSURJUDP www.souvenirsfromearth.tv

Q. How did SFE came about? ,ZDVORRNLQJIRUDVHFRQGZD\WROLYHIURPP\DUWYLGHRV9LGHRLVD GLJLWDODUWIRUPZKLFKLVQRWXQLTXHOLNHIRUH[DPSOHDSDLQWLQJZRXOGEH %HFDXVHRIWKLVLWLVKDUGWRVHOOYLGHRVLQWKHDUWPDUNHW,IRXQGLW

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surpriseparty*URXFKHQNR

58


cantine / Kreiss

houston / Young-1

kiss / Kilo

59


fashion

by Borre

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Editor. Anna Choi Fashion pictures. เพJean Garcin

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Q. Please tell us about the concept of your fashion line 7KH)LUVW &\FOH. The First Cycle stands for everything I wanted to show to the public, not MXVWWKH¿QDOSLHFHVDWWKH3DULVIDVKLRQZHHN)RUPHWKHSURGXFWLRQ process is a big part of the collection, so the subtitle of the show explains LWIRUPH³)URPWKH\DUQWLOOWKHVKRZ´)RUPHORRNLQJIRUWKHULJKW\DUQ LVMXVWDVLPSRUWDQWDVWKH¿QDOSLHFH0DNLQJWKHIDEULFVLVWKHHVVHQFH of the collection I made. One cannot exist without the other. Q. How did you get the inspiration for the oversized knitted coats and dresses? ,PXVWVD\,DOZD\VPDGHWKLFNDQGRYHUVL]HGLWHPV7KH¿UVWWLPH,FDPH WRWKHIDFWRU\ZLWKWKHURXQGNQLWWLQJPDFKLQHV,VDZWKHIDEULFDQGVDLG ,ZDQWWRPDNHDMDFNHWRXWRILW$QGWKDWZDVWKHVWDUWRIZKDWWXUQHG RXWWREHDZKROHSURGXFWLRQSURFHVVWRPDNHLWSRVVLEOHWRXVHWKHWKLFN IDEULFV:HKDGWRFRQVLGHUKRZWRFDOFXODWHWKHVKULQNLQJDQGKRZWR PDNHWKHFRQIHFWLRQSRVVLEOHDQGWRGRWKLVZHKDGWRWHVWLWRYHUDQG over again. Q. What made you interested in thickly padded knits? And when did you start to design in this style? )RUPHWKHWKLFNNQLWVDUHUHDOO\DWWUDFWLYHDQGWKH\IHHODPD]LQJDQGWKH more I tested the more I realized could do with them. So the pieces have evolved over the last 2 years. Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m a designer that fashioned a process out RIWKHPDWHULDOVRLQWKDWVHQVH,KDYHDOZD\VZRUNHGLQWKLVVW\OH7KH material and technique will always lead me to new projects where the outcomes will be dictated by the materials used. Q. Please introduce us a little about your project 7KH7H[WLOH/DE. 7KH7H[WLOH/DELVSDUWRI7KH$XGD[7H[WLOH0XVHXPLQ7LOEXUJWKH Netherlands. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s an amazing place where they have all the textile PDFKLQHV\RXFDQWKLQNRII7KHEHDXWLIXOWKLQJDERXWWKHPXVHXPLVWKDW WKH\JLYHGHVLJQHUVWKHRSSRUWXQLW\WRZRUNWRJHWKHUZLWKWKH technicians, and that leads to new experiments in the textile industry.

7KHRSHQYLHZDQGWKHYDVWNQRZOHGJHRIWKHVWDIILQWKHWH[WLOHPXVHXP DUHWKHSHUIHFWLQJUHGLHQWVWRZRUNZLWKDVDGHVLJQHU Q. Please talk us through the process of making designs. In the stop motion animation that I did with the animator Niels Hoebers, I tried to explain the steps of the production process, from choosing WKH\DUQWKHURXQGNQLWWLQJPDFKLQHVWHDPLQJWR¿QDOL]LQJWKHSLHFHV We wanted arouse the interests of people that are not interested in the production process and at least have fun watching it. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s not about only HQWHUWDLQPHQWEXWLW¶VQLFHZKHQ\RXH[SODLQDSURFHVVOLNHWKDWDQG encourage the viewers to have fun too. 47KLV\HDU\RXKDG\RXU¿UVWFROOHFWLRQDWWKH3DULV)DVKLRQ Week. What were your impressions of the fashion week? )LUVWRIDOO,KDGVRPXFKIXQZLWKDOOWKHSHRSOHWKDWKHOSHGPH,WZDV DPD]LQJ$QGHYHU\WKLQJWXUQHGRXWH[DFWO\DV,ZDQWHGLWWRR,WZDV funny to see that press called me â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;madâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; to be showing at the same time DV&KDQHOEXW,QHYHUH[SHFWHGWKDWWKDWZRXOGEHDSUREOHP7KH UHDFWLRQVZHUHVRQLFH,QHYHUWKRXJKWSHRSOHZRXOGEHWKLVLQWULJXHGE\ someone showing their production process. It was good to see that the WKLQJ,OLNHGWKHPRVWDERXWWKHVKRZZDVVRDSSUHFLDWHG Q. What is the next experiment with your fashion designing? ,¶PORRNLQJLQWRQHZSURFHVVHVDQGWDONLQJZLWKIDFWRULHVEXWWRSURFHHG with the plans I need way more capital than I can front at the moment. The First Cycle,¿QDQFHGE\ZRUNLQJKDUGDQGWKHPDNLQJWKHPRVW RIWKHRSSRUWXQLWLHVWKDWWKH7H[WLOH0XVHXPJDYHPHDQG,VKRXOG GH¿QLWHO\QRWIRUJHWDOOWKHKHOSIURPWKHDPD]LQJSHRSOHWKDWEHOLHYHLQ me. In the future I hope there will be more opportunities for me to have WKHVDPHNLQGRIIUHHGRPVRWKDWZHFDQFUHDWHPRUHJUHDWSURMHFWV, ZRXOGDOVRORYHWRGHYHORSPRUHIRURWKHUIDVKLRQEUDQGV%XW,ZLOOEH FRPLQJRXWZLWKQHZZRUNVRRQ www.byborre.com

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photography

Louis Park

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Editor.Yunhee Kang Photographer. Jun O Hwang ,PDJHFRXUWHV\/RXLV3DUN

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Q. You were pretty successful in London. What made you come back to Korea after spending 10 years there? 7KLVLVWKHÂżUVWTXHVWLRQSHRSOHDVNPHDIWHUFRPLQJEDFNWR.RUHD:HOO WKHUHLVQRVSHFLÂżFUHDVRQIRUP\FRPHEDFNEXWLWZDVP\RULJLQDOSODQ WRFRPHEDFNWRP\KRPHODQG,MXVWWKRXJKWÂľ,WÂśVWLPHWRJREDFNÂś6RPH SHRSOHDVNPHLI,SUHIHUZRUNLQJLQ/RQGRQEHFDXVH/RQGRQLVVXFK a wonderful city, but it all depends on your mindset. I had a lot of fun ZRUNLQJDVDVW\OLVWLQ.RUHDLQWKHSDVWWRR Q. The theme of your photo exhibition is â&#x20AC;&#x153;Boy.â&#x20AC;? Why are you so interested in boys? ,WKRXJKWDORWDERXWWKHWKHPHIRUP\FRPHEDFNH[KLELWLRQ7KHQ, GHFLGHGWRFKRRVHDWRSLFWKDW,FRXOGH[SUHVVWKHEHVW,WKLQNWKHPRVW beautiful thing is the human body; the body lines of females, especially, are indescribably beautiful. However, I was more attracted to boys with WKHLULPSHUIHFWEHDXW\WKDQJLUOVZLWKSHUIHFWEHDXW\%R\VDUHPDOHVEXW WKH\DUHQRW\HWIXOO\PDWXUHGDQG,OLNHWRH[SUHVVWKHLULPSHUIHFWLRQLQ my pictures. Q. Boan Inn used to be an old inn, and now it is used as a gallery. :K\GLG\RXSXWWKHSLFWXUHVRI:HVWHUQPRGHOVKHUH",ÂżQGLW pretty interesting. :KHQ,ÂżUVWVDZWKLVSODFH,FDPHXSZLWKWKHLGHDRIFRPELQLQJ /RQGRQÂśVSRVWPRGHUQVHQVHZLWK.RUHDÂśVPRGHUQEXLOGLQJV,WKRXJKWLW would create an interesting vibe, so I set the date for my exhibition. As I expected, it created a special vibe, and I received good reactions from WKHDXGLHQFH,WKLQNLWLVLPSRUWDQWWRKDYHDVSHFLDOPRRGIRUP\ZRUN and exhibitions. Q. Is mood the most important factor you take into consideration when taking pictures? <HV:KHQWDNLQJSLFWXUHVRIDSHUVRQLWLVKLVRUKHUYLEHQRWKLVRU KHUORRNVWKDW,ZDQWWRH[SUHVV7KHUHIRUH,WKLQN\RXVKRXOGKDYH \RXURZQXQLTXHOLIHVW\OHLQRUGHUWREHFRPHDJRRGPRGHO%HLQJD JRRGPRGHOLVQRWMXVWDERXWORRNLQJJRRGQRUKDYLQJDJRRGSRVWXUH 6RZKHQ,WDNHSLFWXUHV,GRQÂśWUHDOO\SURYLGHP\PRGHOVZLWKVSHFLÂżF GLUHFWLRQV,WKLQNWKH\ORRNWKHPRVWEHDXWLIXOZKHQUHOD[LQJSRVLQJ QDWXUDOO\6R,REVHUYHDPRGHOFDUHIXOO\ÂżUVWEHIRUHVWDUWLQJDQLQWHUYLHZ RUFRQYHUVDWLRQ,WU\WRÂżJXUHRXWZKRKHRUVKHLVE\ORRNLQJDWWKHLU FORWKLQJKDELWVDQGEHKDYLRUV,SHUVRQDOO\GRQÂśWOLNHWKHVPHOORI FLJDUHWWHVDQG,GRQÂśWHYHQVPRNH%XW,OLNHWDNLQJSLFWXUHVRIVPRNLQJ models because of the atmosphere. I love the facial expressions of the PRGHOVZKHQWKH\EORZDFORXGRIVPRNHDQGWKHDXUDRIVPRNH Q. You seem like a very sensitive person. People say that my pictures are lyrical. Photos automatically reveal the character of the photographer, and I canâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t help but express my delicate and sensitive characteristics through my pictures. Compared to my SUHYLRXVZRUNP\FXUUHQWSKRWRVKDYHEHFRPHPRUHVLPSOHDQGGULHU $WÂżUVWWKH\ZHUHDORWPRUHVHQVLWLYHDQGORYHO\,ÂśYHHYHQEHHQWROG WKDWWKH\DUHÂłJLUOLVK´,WKLQNP\SKRWRVDUHQRZÂłER\LVK´$Q\ZD\V,ÂśYH learned over the years that controlling my emotions allows me to express more things.

Q. Why did you add painting to your photos? How did it start? 2QHGD\ZKHQ,VDZDSKRWR,WKRXJKWÂľ3DLQWLQJZRXOGPDNHWKHSKRWR ORRNPRUHKDUPRQLRXVÂśDQGVR,GLGLW,DGGSDLQWLQJVRQVRPHSKRWRV DQGOHDYHWKHRWKHUVWKHZD\WKH\DUH,WKLQNKLJKO\RIWKHJHQHUDO structure, harmony, and mood. 40RVWRI\RXUSKRWRVDUHEODFNDQGZKLWH,VWKHUHDQ\VSHFLÂżF reason for that? 7KHFRQFHSWRIWKLVH[KLELWLRQLVÂľSRUWUDLWÂś,SHUVRQDOO\WKLQNEODFNDQG white photos are the best way to create portraits. Q. You were a fashion stylist. What made you become a photographer? ,ÂśYHZRUNHGDVDVW\OLVWLQ.RUHDIRUDERXWVHYHQ\HDUV$V,WXUQ, ZDQWHGWRWDNHDEUHDNDQGOHDUQVRPHWKLQJQHZWRUHÂżOOP\HQHUJ\DQG HQKDQFHP\VHOI%HFDXVH,WUDYHOHGDEURDGDORWIRUEXVLQHVVWULSV, ZDVQÂśWDIUDLGRIOLYLQJDEURDG6R,GHFLGHGWRVWXG\LQ/RQGRQ7KH VFKRRO,DWWHQGHGLQ/RQGRQRIIHUHGERWKIDVKLRQVW\OLQJDQGSKRWRJUDSK\ DVPDMRUV6LQFHP\MREZDVEHLQJDVW\OLVWLWZDVQÂśWYHU\GLIÂżFXOWIRU PHWROHDUQSKRWRJUDSK\DWWKHVDPHWLPH,ZDVDEOHWRWDNHIDVKLRQ FDWDORJVDQGEHLQYROYHGLQVW\OLQJ7KLVDOORZHGPHWREHPRUHĂ&#x20AC;H[LEOH As a matter of fact, the number of photographers who are also directing their whole fashion shoots is increasing in Europe these days. I still consider myself a fashion director rather than a photographer. After all, photos are the means to express fashion. Q. Donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t you want to work on other projects other than photography? Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m actually preparing for other things. I released some simple video clips at the exhibition. Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m also operating my own homepage and upload articles there, but it is under construction at the moment. Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m LQWHUHVWHGLQH[SUHVVLQJWKLQJVLQYDULRXVZD\VDQG,ÂśGOLNHWRSURFHHGLQ collaborations with other artists. Q. It seems like you are interested in human beings. Do you actually enjoy interacting with others? Yes, I do. I love hanging out with people. I always say to my friends, ZKLOHKDYLQJDGULQNZLWKWKHPÂł/HWÂśVWU\WREHWKHSHUVRQZKRZLOOEH UHPHPEHUHGHYHQ\HDUVODWHU´,WKLQNEHLQJDOLYHLQRWKHUSHRSOHÂśV memories is the most meaningful thing in my life. Q. Why do you hang out with young people often? ,HQMR\VSHQGLQJWLPHZLWKFUHDWLYHEULOOLDQW\RXQJDUWLVWV7KHUHDUHDORW of talented young artists in Korea, but unfortunately, there arenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t many ZD\VWRSURPRWHWKHP,ÂśGOLNHWRKHOSWKHPPDNHWKHLUGUHDPVFRPH true. Q. What are your future plans? ,ZLOONHHSZRUNLQJRQP\IDVKLRQFDWDORJSURMHFWVDQGFROODERUDWLRQ projects with various companies. I will hold my personal exhibition in the QHDUIXWXUHDJDLQ1RZWKDW,ÂśPEDFNWR.RUHD,ZLOOHQMR\PDQ\WKLQJV here and mingle with many people. I will lead a happy life. www.imlouis.com

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MAX 17

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KENO 17

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PATRICK 17

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music

THE STRIKERS

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Editor. Yunhee Kang Photographer. Jun O Hwang ,PDJHFRXUWHV\7KH6WULNHUV

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4,WWRRN\RXÂżYH\HDUVWRUHFRUGDQGUHOHDVH\RXUVHFRQGDOEXP :KDWKDYH\RXEHHQGRLQJRYHUWKHODVWÂżYH\HDUV" Each member of the band was preparing for the next album, while doing personal projects. I was playing music with the Copy Machine with the EDQG/D]\%RQHDQGMRLQHGWKH6WULNHUVODWHU7KHQ,SHUIRUPHGFRQFHUWV DFURVV-DSDQDQGZURWHVRQJVIRUWKHQHZDOEXP,WWRRNXVDIXOOWZR years to release the new album. We put a lot of effort in it. Q. Can you tell us a little more about your concerts in Japan? 7KH6WULNHUVEHORQJVWRWKH8QLRQ:D\FUHZDQGWKHPHPEHUVRIWKH band got together because we love a variety of sub-cultures, including SXQN7KH8QLRQ:D\EHFDPHDFTXDLQWHGZLWK-DSDQÂśVLQGLHODEHOV and got some opportunities to perform in Japan. Since we didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t have VSRQVRUVRXUVFKHGXOHVZHUHSUHWW\WLJKWEHFDXVHZHFRXOGQÂśWĂ&#x20AC;\WR Japan frequently. So we performed around 25 times a month across the country. It was pretty hard and tiring, but we had a ball. Q. Your band is well versed in melodic Sk8 punk. How is melodic Sk8 punk different from regular punk? 0HORGLF6NSXQNLVRIWHQOLVWHQHGWRZKLOVWVNDWLQJRQWKHVWUHHWV<RX GRQÂśWQHFHVVDULO\KDYHWRVNDWHWROLVWHQWRLWEXWPHORGLF6NSXQNLVD SDUWRIWKHVNDWLQJFXOWXUHDQGLQFOXGHVIDVKLRQDQGOLIHVW\OH0HORGLF6N SXQNIHDWXUHVVPRRWKPHORGLHVDQGIDVWWHPSRV Q. Melodic Sk8 punk is not really widely listened to in Korea. What about in Japan? 0HORGLF6NSXQNLVQRWDSRSXODUJHQUHRIPXVLFEXWPXVLFORYHUV in Japan enjoy various genres of music compared to their Korean FRXQWHUSDUWV7KHUHDUHFRXQWOHVVSRSXODUORFDOEDQGVDFURVV-DSDQDQG music cultures are set equally in every county of the country, which are DORWELJJHUWKDQ+RQJGDH:HJRWWKHFKDQFHWRLPSURYHVLJQLÂżFDQWO\ ZKLOHSHUIRUPLQJLQ-DSDQZKHUHWKHFRPSHWLWLRQLVÂżHUFH1RZSXQN ORYHUVLQ-DSDQNQRZRXUQDPH Q. The lyrics of the songs in your new album are mostly English. Is there any particular reason for this? :HDUHFODVVLFDOPHORGLF6NSXQNEDQG0XVLFIDQVZKRDFNQRZOHGJH our originality are all over the world. We are trying to sing in English in the hope of letting many music lovers enjoy our music, regardless of their QDWLRQDOLWLHV,QIDFWRXU(QJOLVKVNLOOVDUHQRWWKDWJUHDWVRZHVSHQGD ORWRIWLPHÂż[LQJRXUO\ULFV Q. The title of your new album is â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Screaming Youth.â&#x20AC;&#x2122; However, some people may think you guys are not young. Of course I think three of you are still young. Do you consider yourselves young? 3XQNPXVLFLWVHOILV\RXQJVRZHFDPHXSZLWKWKHWLWOHZLWKRXWPXFK thought. Our music itself is young and we try to act young on the stage

ZKHQSHUIRUPLQJ,ÂśPWKHÂżUVWJHQHUDWLRQLQWKLVÂżHOGVR,EHORQJWRDQ ROGHUJHQHUDWLRQ%XWDUHQÂśW,VWLOO\RXQJ",ZLOOTXLWP\EDQGZKHQ,UHDFK the age when I cannot scream and run around the stage. Q. Your band has a strong image of naughty boys since you are doing punk rock, combined with street culture. But I feel that you guys take life seriously whilst being aggressive and violent. 0RVWVNDWHUVDUHYHU\QLFH7KH\HQMR\WKHWKULOORIH[WUHPHVSRUWV EXWWKH\DUHYHU\LQQRFHQWDQGQDwYHLQVLGH7KH\DOVRWDNHWKHLUOLYHV seriously. Our music also contains the agonies of life that everyone can easily relate to. Q. Your band is in the sub-culture category. Donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t you wish to proceed to the mainstream category in order to communicate with a larger number of people? 2IFRXUVHZHÂśGOLNHWRFRPPXQLFDWHZLWKPRUHSHRSOHDQGOHWWKHPHQMR\ our music, and Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve never given up my hope. I just donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t want to dilute our originality to appeal to the public. In fact, it is wrong to distinguish WKHPDMRUFXOWXUHIURPLQGLH,WKLQNGLYLGLQJPDMRUPXVLFLDQVDQGLQGLH PXVLFLDQVLVPHDQLQJOHVV,WKLQNDOOPXVLFLDQVDUHSDUWRIDKXJHPHGLD FKDQQHO7KH\VD\WKDWWKHGHPDQGRIGRPHVWLFPXVLFLVORZEXWWKH media decides the demand. For example, music programs include only RQHEDQGWRSURYLGHDQDVVRUWPHQWRIYDULRXVJHQUHVDQGVD\Âł2QHLQGLH EDQGLVJRRGHQRXJK´ Q. You are already acknowledged as a top band in Korea. What was the focus on your new album? &RPSDUHGWRWKHSUHYLRXVRQHRXUQHZDOEXPLVPRUHUHÂżQHGDQG polished. Personally, I put a lot of effort into it and spent two years, and, LQDVHQVHP\ZKROH\HDUFDUHHUWRPDNHLW,DPHQGHGHDFKVRQJ PDQ\WLPHVDQGZHQWRYHUWKHZHDNSRLQWVWRPDNHWKHPEHWWHU,KRSH WKLVDOEXPFDQEHWKHVWDQGDUGRIPHORGLF6NSXQNLQ.RUHD,ÂśPYHU\ FRQÂżGHQWLQRXUDOEXP,KRSHPDQ\\RXQJSXQNNLGVHQMR\RXUPXVLF and hopefully the general public can enjoy and relate to it as well. Q. Have you got any gigs coming up in the future? In Korea, we will be playing at small theaters and we will also have a WRXURI-DSDQLQWKHÂżUVWKDOIRIWKH\HDU,QRXUHDUO\GD\VZHKDGWRDVN people if we could hold a concert, but now people are inviting us to play FRQFHUWVÂżUVW6LQFHRXUQHZDOEXPLVDZRUNIURPWKHKHDUWZHZLOOWU\ our best to spread it to more people. Q. How long do you think the Strikers will last? ,ÂśYHQHYHUWDONHGDERXWLWZLWKP\PHPEHUVEXW,JXHVVZHZLOONHHS GRLQJLWXQWLOZHWKLQNZHDUHWRRROGWRSOD\RQWKHVWDJH www.thestrikers.co.kr

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studio visit

VAKKI

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(GLWRU*L6HRN&KR Photographer. Jun O Hwang

Q. Please introduce yourself for our readers. &XUUHQWO\,DPZRUNLQJDVDQ,QWHUIDFHGHVLJQHU,¶PZRUNLQJRQ' JDPHDSSOLFDWLRQSURMHFWV,¶PDOVRZRUNLQJRQP\SHUVRQDOSURMHFWV, love exploring new things. I consider myself an interesting woman. Q. You are creating your artwork using a variety of methods and PHGLD:KDWPDGH\RXMXPSLQWRWKLV¿HOG" ,DOZD\VORYHGPDNLQJWKLQJVVLQFH,ZDVDFKLOG,XVHGWRSURGXFH VKRUW¿OPVPXVLFYLGHRVDQGVRQJVDVZHOODVFKDUDFWHUV$OORIWKHVH FDPHWRPHQDWXUDOO\EHFDXVHWKH\ZHUHYHU\LQWHUHVWLQJWRPH7KHUH ZHUHQRVSHFLDOUHDVRQVWRVWDUWPDNLQJWKHP+RZHYHUP\WKRXJKWV EHFDPHPRUHVSHFL¿FDV,JUHZROGHUDQG,ZDQWHGWRH[SUHVVP\ thoughts in various ways. I also wanted to communicate with people WKURXJKP\ZRUN Q. Your productions are witty and cheerful. Are you a witty and cheerful person, too? I love something cheerful and pleasant. As I told you earlier, Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m a pretty LQWHUHVWLQJZRPDQ,JXHVVP\FKDUDFWHUQDWXUDOO\UHÃ&#x20AC;HFWVRQP\ZRUN 0DQ\RIP\WKHPHVDUHGDUNDQGKHDY\EXW,ORYHWRH[SUHVVWKHPLQ humorous and witty ways, rather than serious and heavy ways. 4<RXUSURGXFWLRQVVHHPROGIDVKLRQHGEXWÃ&#x20AC;DVK\DQGJURWHVTXH at the same time. From where do you get your inspiration? 7KHLPDJHV\RXFDQVHHLQP\FROODJHDUHIURPROGPDJD]LQHVDQG DGYHUWLVHPHQWV7KHUHIRUH\RXPD\IHHOOLNHWKH\DUHROGIDVKLRQHG,Q

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WKH¶V ¶VDGYHUWLVHPHQWVWKHUHZHUHQRWHFKQLFDOJLPPLFNVUDWKHU they used raw images to encourage consumption. I often use these DGYHUWLVHPHQWV¶PHWDSKRUVDQGUHDOLPDJHVEHFDXVH,¿QGWKHPYHU\ interesting. I experience new visual experiences in between the familiar and strange images. My graphic images are also creating patterns from these experiences. Q. You are also working as a VJ. Please tell us more about it. ,¶PXVHGWRZRUNLQJRQLPDJHVWKDWUHÃ&#x20AC;HFWVRFLDOLVVXHVZKHQ,¶PQRW ZRUNLQJIRUDVSHFLDOVKRZRUYHQXH,ZDQWWRWDONDERXWWKHLVVXHV of our society experiences, rather than expressing my feelings to the musicâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s beat with simple motions. Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m trying to express my thoughts and feelings through visual images. Q. Are there any special methods you use to create your artwork? )LUVWRIDOO,WKLQNDORWDERXWWKHWKLQJV,¶PLQWHUHVWHGLQ,DOZD\V observe the things and living organisms around me carefully. I always have a lot of curiosity about them, and I feel excited as I learn about them. As I imagine the objects, they create stories in my imagination. I FDQVHHP\LPDJLQDWLYHLPDJHVLQWKHVWRULHVDQG,PDNHWKHPFRPHWR OLIHWKURXJKP\DUWZRUN6LQFH,ZDQWWRVKRZWKHPLQPRUHLQWHUHVWLQJ ways, Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m using a variety of media. 4:KDWLVWKHPRVWGLI¿FXOWSDUW" 'LVWULEXWLQJWLPHLVWKHPRVWGLI¿FXOWSDUW(YHQZKHQ,KDYHVSHFL¿F SODQV,DOZD\VODFNWLPHVR,KDYHWRWKLQNDERXWXVLQJP\WLPHZLVHO\


Q. You have a lot of cute dolls and fancy things in your house. Why do you collect these things? ,XVXDOO\WDNHVRPHWKLQJVIURPWKHSODFHV,YLVLW,ORYHYLVLWLQJQHZ SODFHVDQGWUDYHOLQJDURXQG7KHUHIRUH,HQGHGXSFROOHFWLQJVRPDQ\ different things. Interestingly, these things unexpectedly go well with each others as I display them in one place. Q. When did you start using the workroom? ,PRYHGLQWRWKHZRUNURRPWZR\HDUVDJRGXULQJWKHKRWUDLQ\VHDVRQ Q. Can you tell us some of good things about the Workroom? &XUUHQWO\,¶PXVLQJWKLVZRUNURRPDVP\UHVLGHQFHDQGZRUNURRP because the structure of the space meets both purposes. My residence DQGZRUNLQJSODFHLVFOHDUO\VHSDUDWHGDQG,OLNHWKHZLQGRZDUHD(DFK room has a different atmosphere. My cats are also happy because this SODFHUHFHLYHVORWVRIQDWXUDOOLJKW7KHUHDUHDOVRWZRKXJHVWRUHKRXVHV ZKHUH,FDQVWRUHP\ELWVDQGSLHFHV,¶PLQWRFRRNLQJWKHVHGD\VDQG P\NLWFKHQLVYHU\VXLWDEOHIRUFRRNLQJEHFDXVHLWLVFRQQHFWHGZLWK windows. I often invite my friends over for dinner parties. Q. Your workroom is beautiful and well-decorated. How does the URRPLWVHOILQÃ&#x20AC;XHQFH\RXUZRUN" 7KDQNVIRU\RXUFRPSOLPHQW%XWLI\RXWDNHDFORVHUORRNDWWKLVSODFH it is not really decorated. Many objects are out of order and sync. If I UHDOO\GHFRUDWHGP\ZRUNURRPLWZRXOGEHÃ&#x20AC;DVKLHU,JXHVVFRPIRUWDEOH VHWWLQJVPDNHPHPRUHFDOPDQGVWDEOHZKHQ,¶PZRUNLQJ

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“Will You Come Again Tomorrow?”¶¶¶

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The End of The World / 7’20’’ / 2010

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Woman / 5’45’’ / 2010

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Tuna can woman / Acrylics on Canvas / 2011

The two tomatoes that she threw away / Acrylics on Canvas / 2011

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journalism

DONGMI LEE

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Editor. Yunhee Kang Photographer. Jun O Hwang

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Q. Congratulations on your new book, â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Itaewon Freedom.â&#x20AC;&#x2122; Why did you decide to write it? Itaewon is my favorite place. Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve been coming here for 10 years, and Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve got many regular places that I go. Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve become attached to this place. %\FKDQFH,KHDUGRQHSXEOLVKHUZDVSODQQLQJWRSXEOLVKDERRNDERXW Itaewon. I didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t care much about other places, but since it was about Itaewon- I personally wanted to write it. Q. There are many places people can hang out. Like Hong-Dae or Chong-Dam. Why do you like Itaewon so much? ,WÂśVRSHQWRHYHU\RQH$ORWRIFXOWXUHVDUHPL[HGLQWKHUH7KRVHDUHWKH GLVWLQFWLYHIHDWXUHVRI,WDHZRQ,WÂśVQRWDZNZDUGLIVRPHWKLQJVDUH in the club crowed with 20 somethings. You can see children and old men in a trendy cafĂŠ. I used to hang out in Hong-dae, but as I got older I EHJDQWRIHHOXQFRPIRUWDEOHWKHUH,QHYHUIHOWOLNHWKDWLQ,WDHZRQ7DNH +RPRVH[XDO+LOODVDQH[DPSOH,WÂśVDEDFNVWUHHWIXOORIJD\EDUVDQG FOXEV7KHUHDUHDORWRIVH[XDOPLQRULWLHVIURPYDULRXVEDFNJURXQGVDUH all gathering together, and they form their own society. Q. Do you have any favourite gay bars or clubs that you often go? I used to go to â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;G bar.â&#x20AC;&#x2122; It was the hottest spot on Homosexual Hill, but it shut down and I feel very sad about that. Couple of years ago, ,ZDWFKHGDWUDQVJHQGHUVKRZLQ&OXE7UDQV,ZDVVXUSULVHGDWWKHLU GUDPDDQGDUWLVWU\,UHDOO\HQMR\HGLW,ÂśPGUDZQWRWKHIDFWWKDWWKH\ORRN OLNHRUGLQDU\PHQLQWKHLURUGLQDU\OLYHVEXWWKH\EHFRPHYHWHUDQVKRZ JLUOVZKHQWKH\WDNHWRWKHVWDJHRIWKH7UDQV%DU,WÂśVQRWRQO\VH[XDO PLQRULWLHVEXWDOVRDORWRIWUHQG\SHRSOHOLNHDUWLVWVDQGGHVLJQHUVFRPH WRZDWFKWKHVKRZ:KHQ,VD\Âľ7UDQV6KRZÂś\RXPLJKWWKLQNWKDWLWÂśVDQ erotic show, but it is a performance full of laughs, tears, and emotions. 2QHRIP\JD\IULHQGVDLGWKDWWKHVKRZLQ7UDQVLVÂłWKHKLJKHVWTXDOLW\ WUDQVVKRZLQWKHZRUOG´+HVDLG.RUHDVKRXOGSUHVHUYHLWDQGSURPRWHLW as a cultural product. Q. Recently, we have seen a lot of fancy restaurants and lounge bars spring up in Itaewon. What do you think about these changes? 7KH\DUHKHOSLQJWRFKDQJHWKHLPDJHRI,WDHZRQ.RUHDQSHRSOH DOZD\VWKRXJKWLWZDVGDUNDQGGDQJHURXV:KHQVRPHRQHVDLGKH or she usually hung out in Itaewon, we assumed that they were a bit RGG%XWWKHVHGD\V,WDHZRQKDVEHFRPHWKHKRWWHVWSODFHLQ6HRXO <RXFDQÂżQGPDQ\IDQF\UHVWDXUDQWVORXQJHEDUVDQGFOXEV7KH difference between Itaewon and other popular spots in Seoul is that we can see the balanced harmony between luxurious culture and sub culture. Sometimes I get worried that are losing the unique â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Itaewonatmosphereâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; as the capital of major companies comes gushing in, but ,ÂśPDOZD\VUHOLHYHGZKHQÂżQGQHZSODFHVWKDWIHHGWKDWKXQJHU,KDYHIRU underground culture. Q. Can you give us any recommendations from your book? 7KHUHDUHPDQ\H[RWLFUHVWDXUDQWVIURPYDULRXVFXOWXUHVLQ,WDHZRQ Âľ=HOHQÂśWKHRQO\%XOJDULDQUHVWDXUDQWLQ.RUHDÂľ3HWUDÂśWKH,VODPLF restaurant which only uses halal food and doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t sell alcohol. â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Spain Clubâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, where you can taste Jamon with the best fresh ham. â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Sortinoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;sâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; is an authentic Italian restaurant. In fact, Italian food is a bit salty for

.RUHDQV7KH\ÂśYHKDGDORWRIFRPSODLQWVDERXWWKHDPRXQWRIVDOWLQWKHLU meals, but they never change their recipes. So, people have no choice EXWWRDFFHSWLWVĂ&#x20AC;DYRU7KHUHDUHWZRFDIpVWKDW,ZDQWWRUHFRPPHQG DVZHOOWKHÂżUVWRQHLVÂľ7DNHRXW'UDZLQJÂś,WLVWKHDOWHUQDWLYHSODFHIRU DUWLVWVZKLFKNHHSVZLWKWKDWIDPLOLDULPDJHRIDWUDGLWLRQDOFDIp$QGWKH VHFRQGLVÂľ6SDFH**XXOOÂś7KLVSODFHLVDK\EULGVSDFHZKHUHFXVWRPHUV canâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t really decide whether itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s a creative space, an exhibition or an art shop. Q. Through detailed information and fun episodes in your book, I get the strong impression that you do know the places you write about very well. How do you feel that this familiarity helps the bookâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s credibility as the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;must haveâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; guide to Itaewon? I hate prejudice. I want to convert the negative-prejudices that people have on Itaewon. Of course itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s getting better nowadays, but people FRQWLQXHWRWKLQN,WDHZRQLVDVWUDQJHGDUNSODFH7KLVPLJKWVRXQG VWUDQJHLQLWVHOIEXW,WKLQN89ÂśVVRQJÂľ,WDHZRQ)UHHGRPÂśKDVPDGH SHRSOHVWDUWWRWKLQNGLIIHUHQWO\RI,WDHZRQ7KHWLWOHRIP\ERRNLVDOVR Âľ,WDHZRQ)UHHGRPÂśDQG,WKLQNWKDWWKLVLVWKHJHQHUDOPHVVDJHRIWKH ERRN,ZDQWSHRSOHWRORRNDW,WDHZRQDVLWLVZLWKRXWSUHMXGLFH,QWKH ERRNWKHUHDUHVRPHSUHFLRXVSODFHVWKDW,GRQÂśWZDQWWRVKDUHEHFDXVH I am afraid that if a large number of people visiting them might ruin the DWPRVSKHUH%XW,ZURWHDERXWHYHU\SODFHWKDW,NQRZVRWKDWSHRSOHFDQ enjoy Itaewon without prejudice. Q. Are there any other places that you want to introduce? 7KHUHDUHJRRGSODFHVEXW,WDHZRQLVWKHRQO\SODFHWKDW,NQRZ everything about. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s very odd but some of cities that I am really drawn to VWDUWZLWKWKHOHWWHUÂľ%Âś%HUOLQZKLFKZDVWKHEDFNJURXQGRIP\ODVWERRN DQG%DQJNRN%XHQRV$LUHVLVDFLW\,GHVSHUDWHO\ZDQWWRJRWRDQGZULWH about. Q. It seems like you really enjoy traveling to cities. I used to cover stories about the hottest or trendiest places, and most trends in Seoul are coming from overseas. So I naturally started introducing hot spots abroad. A life of leisure in a rural area would be JUHDWEXW,WKLQNWKHUHLVVRPXFKIXQWREHKDGLQFLWLHV,QWKHFLW\ SHRSOHIURPGLIIHUHQWEDFNJURXQGVDUHIRUPLQJYDULRXVFXOWXUHVDQGWKLV interests me a lot. Q. You like people, donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t you? <HV,OLNHWRVHHSHRSOHEXLOGLQJFXOWXUHVDQGHQMR\LQJWKHPWRJHWKHU 0\IDYRULWHSODFHVLQ,WDHZRQDUHOLNHWKDW,OLNHWKHRZQHUVRIWKH SODFHVWKHIRRGWKHLQWHULRUDQGWKHZKROHDWPRVSKHUH7KHVHDUHYHU\ important, but in the end, it comes down to the people I communicate with. If the place is owned by a good person and has good customers, WKH\FDQPDNHWKHLURZQXQLTXHFXOWXUH Q. What are your plans for the future? I want to continue to write. I donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t want to write just about travel, though ,ZLOOWU\WRSXWP\VXEMHFWLYHYLHZVLQWRWKHERRNV,ZULWH,VHHP\VHOI ZULWLQJWRZQJXLGHVÂżOOHGZLWKLQIRUPDWLRQIRUHQMR\LQJWKHSODFH,QWKH IXWXUH,ZRXOGOLNHWRZULWHDWUDYHOHVVD\IXOORIFRQWHPSODWLRQV

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drawing

Bukchon

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Illustrator. Sngoog Choi Editor. Anna Choi

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photo. Jun O Hwang

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art

PARK SEUNG YEA

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(GLWRU*L6HRN&KR Photographer. Jun O Hwang

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Q. Your drawings embrace the grotesque, and leave us with a strong impression. What is the motive behind making these drawings? 7KHUH¶VQRVLQJOHPRWLYH,WKDVHYROYHGDQGFKDQJHGDVWLPHKDV SDVVHG:KHQ,ZDVDVWXGHQW,ZRXOGZRUNRQDEVWUDFWLRQDQG SHUIRUPDQFH,XVHGWRVSHQGWZR\HDUVPDNLQJWZRVFXOSWXUHV*RLQJ through those processes, I am here now. My worries, pains, and hopes might have changed shapes, but the original identity was not changed FRPSOHWHO\,¶YHDVNHGTXHVWLRQVDERXWIHDUDQGKRUURUVLQFH,ZDV \RXQJ,FDQVD\WKDWP\ZRUNUHSUHVHQWVWKHWLPHIRUVHHNLQJDQVZHUVWR WKRVHTXHVWLRQV,FKRRVHWKLVZRUNDVLWLVDERXWIDFLQJWKRVHµPRQVWHUV¶ LQP\OLIH7KLVLVZKHUH,DPQRZDQG,ZDQWWRWDONDERXWWKLVWKURXJK my drawings. Q. In most of your drawings we can see the combination of body parts, with the hands being particularly impressive. What is the meaning of all this? ,QP\ZRUNKDQGVDUHDGLVWLQFWLYHIHDWXUHDVLGHIURPRWKHUIHDWXUHVRI WKHERG\7KHPRVWGLVWLQFWDVSHFWVRIKXPDQFLYLOL]DWLRQDQGV\VWHPV are in the evolving intelligence and functions. And this happens because of using hands. Hands have evolved closely with the human brain and created civilization and the systems of operation. Human hands are clearly excellent tools. Among those functions as tools, I have focused on KDQGVEHLQJXVHGµZHDSRQV¶:HDSRQVDUHIRUERWKDWWDFNDQGGHIHQVH %XWZKDWHYHUWKH\DUHEHLQJLVXVHGIRUZHZLOOKDYHVRPHRQHHOVH¶V EORRGRQRXURZQKDQGV/LNHWKLVZHGHIHQGRXUVHOYHVIURPIHDUDQG ZHDWWDFNIRUVXUYLYDO)RUWKLVSURFHVVZHDVVXPHRWKHUVDUHPRQVWHUV DQGZHWU\WRSURWHFWRXUVHOYHV%XWWKDWSURWHFWLRQEHFRPHVDQDWWDFN DQGWKHDWWDFNKXUWVQRWRQO\XVEXWLWKXUWVRWKHUVDVZHOO Q. Most of your drawings are monotones. Whatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s the intention using this color scheme? It has symbolic meaning. Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve learned how I can see things with my RZQSHUVSHFWLYHWKURXJK¿OPLQJSLFWXUHVZLWKDPRQRFKURPHFDPHUD :HFDQVHHDOOFRORUVRIWKHZRUOGRQWKHYLHZ¿QGHURIWKHFDPHUD but photographers need to see it as light. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s not easy to differentiate EHWZHHQZKDW,VHHDQGZKDW,LPDJLQH,VHHFRORUDVUHÃ&#x20AC;HFWLRQDQG SURMHFWLRQRIOLJKWDQG,WU\WR¿QGDQHVVHQWLDOµOLJKW¶WKDW,PLJKWRYHUORRN or lose while a physical phenomena happens. As a symbolic expression RI¿QGLQJVRPHWKLQJ,DFWXDOO\VHH,XVHPRQRWRQHVLQP\GUDZLQJV Q. Monsters, fear and horror are among the things that you draw. Have you ever been haunted by any of these things? 7KHVXEWLWOHRIP\H[KLELWLRQODVWVXPPHUZDVµH[LVWEXWQRWH[LVW¶7KH WUXWKRIIHDUFDQH[LVWVRPHWLPHVEXWPRVWRIWKHWLPH,WKLQNLW¶VMXVW a fear of something that has not happened yet. Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m not afraid of my PRQVWHUV7KH\DUHZHDN7KLVZHDNQHVVWULHVWRH[SUHVVSDLQDJRQ\ DQGGHVLUHE\WZLVWLQJWKHLUIDFHVKDQGVDQGERG\%XWWKH\QHYHUMXPS out from the drawings and strangle or bite people. I am familiar with WKHP,DPWKHFUHDWRURIWKHPRQVWHULQVLGHPH7KH\DUHQRWWKHWKLQJV that I am afraid of, but I do need to face them directly.

represent a â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;writtenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; story. I draw and write. I tell a story by drawing and ZULWLQJµ'UDZLQJ¶LVMXVWIRUPH,W¶VP\SHUVRQDODUW%XWµZULWLQJ¶LVP\ desire for communication. Also when I tell my story, I become curious about other peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s stories. 4'R\RXHQFRXQWHUDQ\GLI¿FXOWLHVZRUNLQJRQWKHVHSURMHFWV" 7KH¿QDQFLDODVSHFWLVDOZD\VDWRXJKWKLQJWRRYHUFRPHEXW,JXHVVLW¶V not just me but just all artists- especially young artists, are struggling ZLWKWKDW7KHELJTXHVWLRQLVFDQZHPDNHDOLYLQJRQO\E\VHOOLQJRXU DUWZRUN"([KLELWLRQVWKHPVHOYHVFDQEHDSDLQ,W¶VEH\RQGDSOHDVDQW H[SHULHQFH:KLOH,DPSUHSDULQJIRUDQH[KLELWLRQLWLVKDUGWRZRUN RQRWKHUSURMHFWV,VRPHWLPHVIHHOOLNH,GRQ¶WZDQWWREHGRLQJWKLV :RUNLQJRQDSURMHFWRUGUDZLQJDSLFWXUHLVLQ¿QLWHO\MR\IXOSURFHVVDQG is an action of pleasure and amusement, even though drawing itself is SDLQIXO%XWZKLOH,SUHSDUHDQH[KLELWLRQ,FDQ¶WGUDZ6RPHWLPHV,QHHG to postpone drawing and consider it as something which is no longer a SULRULW\0RUHRYHUWKHWKLQJVWKDW,QHHGWRZRUNRQWRHDUQDOLYLQJDQG, SXWP\WLPHDQGHIIRUWLQWRFDQEHSDLQIXO7KHSUREOHPLVWKDWZKHQ,DP in that situation, the only thing I want to do is draw. It might be true what SHRSOHVD\DERXWPH,PLJKWEHWKHµ*ROEDQJ¶SDLQWHU Q. Youâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve got bachelors and a Masters degree in New York. What was life like New York? Do you think that your work has been affected by this period of your life? ,WZDVZRQGHUIXOWLPHIRUPH,ZDVKDSS\IUHHDQGIXO¿OOHG,FKRVH WKLQJVZLWKRXWKHVLWDWLRQDQG,ZRUNHGWKURXJKP\OLIHDV,KDGSODQQHG it. When I had an idea, I put it into action the following day. Sometimes it IHOWPRUHOLNHPDQXDOODERUDQGWKHZRUNORDG,SXWRQP\VHOIZRXOGKDYH EHHQLOOHJDOLIVRPHRQHKDGEHHQHPSOR\LQJPH%XW,KDGQRFRPSODLQWV about that. Even though I had my parents and family there to help me, ,FKRVHQRWDVNWKHPIRUDQ\WKLQJ,ZDVFRPSOHWHO\SRRUFRPSOHWHO\ content being in the lowest class of society. And I believe that it was at that I became who I am. Q. What stimulates your creativity? When I see other artistâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s paintings I become so eager to draw pictures that occasionally I catch a cab and go straight home. At those moments, ,¶P¿OOHGZLWKMHDORXV\HQY\DQGKRSH Q. Do you have anything that bugs you while you work? µ'UDZLQJ¶LWVHOIJLYHVPHIXO¿OOPHQW$IWHU,GHFLGHGWRH[KLELWP\ ZRUNWKHLQWHQWLRQRIP\DUWKDVEHHQIRFXVHGRQµFRPPXQLFDWLRQ¶ It is consistent and continuous. I try not to push my language, but WRXQGHUVWDQGRWKHUSHRSOH¶V,KRSHWKDWP\ZRUNFDQLPSO\PRUH metaphors, and be understood easily at the same time. Pain, desire, loneliness, and anxiety are not so different from one another, and are ERUQIURPWKHVDPHHVVHQFHRIVDGQHVV7KHUHDUHVRPDQ\ZRUGVDQG ODQJXDJHVWKDWDUHGLI¿FXOWWRXQGHUVWDQG,ZDQWWRH[SUHVVP\IHHOLQJV in an understandable language. Finding that common language that transcends conventional speech and communication is probably the PRVWGLI¿FXOWWKLQJDERXWFUHDWLQJWKHNLQGRIDUW,VWULYHWRFUHDWH

Q. You recently published the book â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Nightmare Diary.â&#x20AC;&#x2122; Could you tell us about the book? I dream a lot at night and I have been recording them for a long time. 0RVWRIP\GUHDPVDUHYHU\GLP7KH\DUHGDUNVWLOOORQHO\DQGVFDU\ 7KHVHDUHP\QLJKWPDUHV7KRXJKZULWLQJGRZQWKRVHQLJKWPDUHV sometimes brings me joy and can sometimes be a record of my personal OLIH%XWLWLVPRUHOLNHDSURFHVVWKDWFRQ¿UPVWKDWQRQHRIWKHVHWKLQJV DUHUHDOWKDWWKH\DUHMXVWGUHDPV7KURXJKWKLVSURFHVV,VDYHGP\VHOI IURPWKHµFDQ¶WVOHHSEHFDXVHRIQLJKWPDUHV¶VLWXDWLRQ1LJKWPDUHV or dreams cannot be separated from the real world. It is part of my XQFRQVFLRXVQHVV7KH\PDNHXSRIP\OLIH2QHGD\,ZDQWWR SXEOLVKWKHVHZULWLQJVZLWKVRPHRIP\DUWZRUN:LWKRXWUHDOO\WKLQNLQJ DERXWLW,SXEOLVKHGWKHERRNµ7KH0RQVWHU1LJKWPDUH'LDU\¶,WGRHVQ¶W PDNHDQ\VHQVHLI\RXWU\WR¿QGDQ\ORJLFRUVWRU\LQWKHERRN,WLVMXVWD pure record of my nightmares.

Q. What are your plans for 2012? I am battling with the idea of â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;giving shape to plane level.â&#x20AC;&#x2122; I am still WKLQNLQJDERXWKRZ,FDQ¿QLVKFRQYH\WKLVLGHD,WLVJRLQJWREHKDUGEXW IXQ,DOVRKDYHDFKDQFHWRH[KLELWP\ZRUNDEURDG6R,DPWKLQNLQJ DERXWKRZ,FDQHQMR\LW,¶YHQHYHUWDNHQDQ\VKRUWFXWVLQP\OLIHDQG, never expected to. I always accepted a long way round as blessing and VRPHWKLQJZKLFKZRXOGPDNHPHDVWURQJHUDUWLVW,PLJKWDUULYHODWHRQ WDNLQJWKHSDWK,¶YHFKRVHQEXW,WKLQN,FDQVHHDQGGLJHVWPRUH,KRSH WKDWLQ,FDQNHHSZDONLQJWKLVSDWKDQGH[SHULHQFHPRUHWKLQJV

Q. Could you please tell us about your artistic style? ,XVHSDSHUDFU\OSHQDQGLQNIRUP\GUDZLQJV8VLQJSHQVFDQKHOSWR

blog.yahoo.com/artpark

Q. What is your goal as an artist? I want to be happy. And though I am sure that there are many ways to grasp happiness, drawing is where mine comes from. So I hope that HDWLQJVOHHSLQJPHHWLQJQHZSHRSOHZRUNLQJEHLQJVLFNEHLQJKHDOWK\ DQGOLYLQJDOLIHZRXOGEULQJPHKDSSLQHVVWRR,W¶VQRWHDV\%XWWKDW¶VOLIH

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hands bug / Acrylic, pen on paper / 2011

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casque1 / Acrylic, pen on paper / 2011

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feMALE Deer / Acrylic, pen on paper / 2011

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standarded / Acrylic, pen on paper / 2011

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enforced insight / Acrylic. pen on paper / 2011

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hand cought in the time of the space / Acrylic, pen on paper / 2011

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art

DONGHYUN SON Donghyun Son draws western pop icons in an Oriental style. Welcome to his world of art.

Editor. Anna Choi Images courtesy. Gallery2

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Q. What made you merge western pop icons and oriental paintings? Nature is the most important and frequent subject in Oriental paintings. %XW,ZDQWWRGUDZVRPHWKLQJWKDWJLYHVDQHZPRGHUQGLPHQVLRQWRD traditional style. I chose to draw things that are closest to me and put them together in a sort of mash-up cultural mess. Q. Among the Oriental paintings, it seems that you are most LQWHUHVWHGLQSRUWUDLWV'R\RXKDYHDQ\VSHFL¿FDUWLVWVZKRKDYH inspired you? In Korean history, the Joseon Dynasty was the era of restoration for SRUWUDLW,ORRNHGDWDORWRISRUWUDLWVIURPWKDWHUDDQG,QDWXUDOO\VWDUWHG GUDZLQJ-RVHRQVW\OHSRUWUDLW,OLNH0\XQJNL/HH¶VSRUWUDLWRI-DHVRRQ Oh and his SRUWUDLWRI6HKZDQJ.DQJ¶V7KHIRUPHURQHLVWKHEHVW on expression and the latter one is impressive in the way that it shows WKHVXEMHFWVPLQGDVKHZHDUVDQRI¿FLDOKDWDQGFRPPRQFORWKHV Q. I heard that you actually study the characters before you draw. Can you tell us about your process for drawing these pop-icons? ,XVXDOO\UHVHDUFKWKHFKDUDFWHUEHIRUH,VWDUW:KDWZDVWKHEDFNJURXQG RIWKHFKDUDFWHU¶VELUWK":KDWZDVWKHUROHRILWDQGLILWZDVDVHULHV" :KDW¶VWKHKLVWRU\RIWKHVWRU\":KHWKHULWKDVLUUHJXODULW\",ILWKDVZKDW ZDVWKHRFFDVLRQ",IDQDFWRUSOD\HGWKHSDUWRIWKHFKDUDFWHU,ZRXOG

also study the actor. And if the character is a real person, then I also ZRXOGVWXG\WKHLUOLIH)RUPHP\ZRUNLVµWUDQVPLQG¶SURFHVV,W reproduces not only the shape, but also the mind. 4:KDWDUHWKHGLI¿FXOWLHVZKHQ\RXEOHQGWKH2ULHQWDOWHFKQLTXHV with the Western icons? For me, it was natural to draw Oriental paintings with western icons, so I QHYHUUHDOO\HQFRXQWHUHGDQ\GLI¿FXOWLHV,MXVWKDGIXQ Q. Your work makes people re-think traditional Oriental paintings. As an Oriental painters, what do you think about present oriental paintings? ,GRQ¶WWKLQNWUDGLWLRQDO2ULHQWDOSDLQWLQJVDUHROGIDVKLRQHG7KH\FDQ KDYHLQ¿QLWHSRVVLELOLWLHV,WKLQNZHFDQZRUNZLWKWUDGLWLRQDOWKHRU\RI painting. Or, we can also build our own theory. 4,VWKHUHDQ\¿JXUHRUVXEMHFWWKDW\RXZDQWWRGUDZ":KDWDUH your plans for the future? %HFDXVH,KDYHEHHQZRUNLQJRQDSRUWUDLWVHULHVIRUDZKLOHWKHUHPLJKW EHDORWRIFKDQJHVWRWKHSURMHFWHYHQDV,NHHSZRUNLQJRQWKHP,DP WKLQNLQJDERXWGUDZLQJODQGVFDSHVRUSLFWXUHGUDZQ,QGLDQLQN,FDQ¶W explain it with language or writing. www.gallery2.co.kr

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7KH3RUWUDLWRIWKH7HHQDJH0XWDQW1LQMD7XUWOH5DSKDHO / 2008

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7KH3RUWUDLWRI+HUR0U%DWPDQ / 2005

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7KH3RUWUDLWRI+HUR0U6XSHUPDQ / 2005

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Portrait of the King / weâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve almost theret / 2008

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Portrait of the King\RXURFNP\ZRUOG

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art

SEUNG JOON CHOI

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Editor. Snil Yom Photographer. Jun O Hwang

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Q. Please tell us about your current jobs. ,µPDPHGLDDUWLVWZKRLVDFWLYHO\ZRUNLQJRQDUWSURMHFWV,7DQG education. I participated in small to medium sized group art projects DERXW¿YHWLPHVLQ,¶PDOVRZRUNLQJLQWKH,7¿HOGDQG,¶P FRRSHUDWLQJZLWKRWKHUGHYHORSHUVWKURXJKFRQIHUHQFHVDQGZRUNVKRSV RQWKHWHFKQLTXHFDOOHGµ+70/¶ZKLFKLVDKRWLVVXHDWWKHPRPHQW ,QWKH,7¿HOG,¶PZRUNLQJXQGHUWKHWKHPH³$JLOH´DQLQWHUQDWLRQDO movement that pursues humanity and productivity at the same time. Also, I sometimes consult organizations. Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m also experimenting with KRZWRVKDUHDQGOHDUQDERXWFXOWXUHVVXFKDV+DFNDWKRQ +DFNLQJ 0DUDWKRQ $QG,¶PZRUNLQJZLWKWKH$UW&HQWHU1DELWRSUHSDUHIRU media art project events and recently, I also participated in Google .RUHD¶V+DFNDWKRQHYHQW&XUUHQWO\,¶PWHDFKLQJµ,QWHUDFWLYH0HGLD¶DW 9LVXDO&RPPXQLFDWLRQ'HVLJQGHSDUWPHQWLQ.RRNPLQ8QLYHUVLW\DQG â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Developing educational contentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; at the graduate school of dancing. In DGGLWLRQ,HVWDEOLVKHGDNLQGHUJDUWHQDQGWHDFKDQH[SHULPHQWDOFODVV FDOOHGµ+HDOWK\PHGLD¶DIWHUVFKRRO,KHOSSHRSOHIURPNLQGHUJDUWHQHUVWR JUDGXDWHVFKRROVWXGHQWVDQGRI¿FHZRUNHUVXVHQHZPHGLDLQKHDOWK\ ways. In the process, I also help them to meet, learn, and grow together.

$IRUHVWRI¿UHÃ&#x20AC;LHV   ,¶YHGLVSOD\HGWKLVSURMHFWWKHPRVWRIDOOP\ZRUN7KH¿UVWVWHSVZHUH made spontaneously in about two hours after I came up with ideas for WKHSURMHFW$OWKRXJKLWGRHVQ¶WFRQWDLQDQ\LPSRUWDQWPHVVDJHV7KH\ love this project because it is stereotypical media art (the images change according to the reactions of the audience) in Korea and it also shows EHDXWLIXOLPDJHV,WORRNVSUHWW\JRRGZKHQ,¿OOWKHH[KLELWLRQVSDFHZLWK VHYHUDOVFUHHQV7KHPRYHPHQWVRIWKHDXGLHQFHVFDUHRIIWKHYLUWXDO ¿UHÃ&#x20AC;LHVDQGPDNHWKHPÃ&#x20AC;\DZD\ZLWKVRXQG,ORYHGWKLVSURMHFWEXWDOVR LWVSDUNHGWRWKLQNDERXWP\OLPLWDWLRQVDVDFUHDWRU

Q. Please tell me about your previous projects.

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I contributed columns to the media art webzine â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Alice onâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; from 2006. I started my columns with technology and ended with the relations with QHZPHGLDDQGHGXFDWLRQ KWWSDOLFHRQWLVWRU\FRP )RU,%0 'HYHORSHUZRUNV,FRQWULEXWHGDUWLFOHVLQDERXWP\H[SHULPHQWV LQHGXFDWLRQZKLFKZDVLQVSLUHGE\WKH$JLOHFXOWXUHLQ,77KHFRQWHQW included my opinions and experiences to let the artists and designers NQRZWKHQHFHVVDU\VNLOOVZKHQZRUNLQJRQQHZPHGLDSURMHFWV0\ experiments in college classrooms are also in a line with these articles. (http://limnm.tistory.com/1)

3URMHFW,   3URMHFW,ZDVDZRUNVKRSDQGGLVSOD\WKDW,SDUWLFLSDWHGLQE\DFFLGHQW DWWKH$UW&HQWHU1DELZKLOH,ZDVZRUNLQJLQWKHFRPPXQLW\FDOOHG,13 (Interactivity and Practice), in which artists, developers, researchers, and curators interchange each otherâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ideas. It was my debut as an artist. ,SDUWLFLSDWHGLQWKHSURMHFWIRUWKH¿UVWWKUHH\HDUV6.JURXS¶VVRFLDO contributing team, university studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; group Sunny (http://www.besunny. FRP WKH$UW&HQWHU1DELDQGRWKHUDUWLVWVWRRNDSDUWLQWKHSURMHFW IRUIRXU\HDUVDERXWWKUHHPRQWKVSHU\HDU,QP\¿UVW\HDU,YLVLWHG OHVVIRUWXQDWHWHHQDJHUVLQSRRUQHLJKERUKRRGVDQGZRUNHGZLWKWKHP HYHU\ZHHN,ZDVWKHLUPHQWRUDQGKHOSHGWKHPWRFUHDWHWKHLURZQZRUN pieces. In my second year, I spent time with teenagers who escaped from North Korea. It wasnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t easy to create displays with them because it ZDVRXU¿UVWDWWHPSW+RZHYHUWKHH[SHULHQFHVKHOSHGDORWODWHUSXUVXH my career. .NXP1DEL 'UHDPLQJ%XWWHUÃ&#x20AC;\    It was an experiment to produce an interactive play with a drama company Sadari (http://www.sadari.org/), which allowed children to participate in the play at the exhibition hall. Using some interactive WHFKQLTXHVVXFKDVPDFKLQHYLVLRQZHSURGXFHGEDFNJURXQGVVXFK DVÃ&#x20AC;RZHUJDUGHQV¿HOGVDQGXQGHUZDWHUZRUOGVLQWHUDFWZLWKPRWLRQV RIFKLOGUHQ$OVRZHFUHDWHGDFKDUDFWHUFDOOHGµ7KH&DWHUSLOODU¶7KHQ ZHFRPELQHGWKHWZRLPDJHVWRVKRZKRZ7KH&DWHUSLOODUEHFDPHWKH EXWWHUÃ&#x20AC;\DQGDOORZHGWKHDXGLHQFHWRSDUWLFLSDWHLQWKHVWRU\PDNLQJ SURFHVV:KLOHZRUNLQJRQWKHSURMHFW,FRXOGWKLQNDORWDERXWWKH components of plays, the roles of actors, and the participation of the DXGLHQFH7KHFROODERUDWLRQZRUNZLWK6DGDULKHOSHGPHDORWWROHDUQ how to incorporate technology into stories.

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I made plans and created the software to produce real-time images, my brother made the hardware and physical computing to create glittering images that react to sensors, and my wife made the ceramic ware WKDWORRNHGOLNHDQRFDULQD,ZDQWHGWREULQJEDFNWKHPHPRU\RIRXU childhood when we blow dandelions. I also made it possible to blow the GDQGHOLRQVLQWRWKHDLUE\VHQGLQJWH[WPHVVDJHV/HWDORQHWKHXQLTXH features of the project, it was our family project.

/(76   It was a social-cultural experiment project conducted by the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;sustainable creatorsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; group,â&#x20AC;&#x2122; which was sponsored by the Ministry of Culture and 7RXULVP,¿UVWFDPHLQWRFRQWDFWZLWK/(76 /RFDO(QHUJ\7UDGLQJ 6\VWHP DWWKHDOWHUQDWLYHSURJUDPPLQJODQJXDJHIHVWLYDOLQWKH,7 culture. I wanted to visualize the things we can learn and teach each other because I was impressed by the creators, who shared information ZLWKHDFKRWKHULQIXQZD\V,¶GOLNHWRLQFRUSRUDWHWKLVSURFHVVLQWRRWKHU ¿HOGVLQFOXGLQJ,7)RUWXQDWHO\,FRXOGJHWVSRQVRUVKLSDQGSURFHHGZLWK WKHPRQWKH[SHULPHQW<RXFDQFKHFNRXWWKHSURFHVVDQGUHVXOWVDW http://balsang.cc/ . Q. What made you to become an â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;artistâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;? ,FDPHLQWRFRQWDFWZLWKD3&LQDQGLWKDVEHHQDSDUWRIP\OLIH since then. I was into Computer Graphics after graduating high school DQG,¶YHEHHQZRUNLQJLQGLJLWDOFUHDWLRQDW%%6XQWLO,ZDVLQP\PLGGOH 20s. I majored in Applied Physics (I was not good at math and physics but interested in them, so i wanted to learn more about them when i enter a university.) and science education. However, I chose to build my career LQSURJUDPPLQJLQZKHQ,VDZ3L[DU¶V7R\VWRU\,ZDVIDVFLQDWHGE\ WKHLU6KDGLQJ/DQJXDJHLW¶VDSURJUDPPLQJODQJXDJHWKDWFDQH[SUHVV natural phenomenon. In 2005, I was teaching rapid prototyping

$IRUHVWRI¿UHÃ&#x20AC;LHV / installation view / 2006

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to the UI researchers at a conglomerate. It was about how to fast prototype software products that are user-interactive and the tools I used at the time were creative tools such as Flashâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Action Script and Processing. All of a sudden, I was wondering how Processing was used LQGRPHVWLFPDUNHW,JRRJOHGLWDQGIRXQGWKH$UW&HQWHU1DEL,YLVLWHG the center and met with curators and artists. I ended up beginning my exhibitions with INP and the Project i while socializing with them. For the ¿UVWWZR\HDUV,ZRUNHGZLWKSURIHVVLRQDODUWLVWVDOOWKHWLPHEHFDXVHRI P\ODFNRIDUWLVWLFEDFNJURXQG'XULQJWKDWSHULRG,H[SHULHQFHGDORWRI FROODERUDWLRQZRUNDQGOHDUQHGPDQ\WKLQJVDERXWWKHSURFHVVLQFOXGLQJ the good and bad points. It was a very important experience for me and it KDGDORWRILQÃ&#x20AC;XHQFHRQP\ZRUNODWHUGRZQWKHOLQH 4:KDWDUH\RXUVSHFL¿FGUDZLQJWRROV" 7KHSURJUDPPLQJODQJXDJHLVRQHRIWKHPRVWLPSRUWDQWWRROV&XUUHQWO\ ,¶POHDUQLQJDQGXVLQJ-DYD6FULSWIRUP\ZRUNEXWSUHYLRXVO\,XVHG& 2WKHUWKDQ&,XVHGWRXVHRWKHUODQJXDJHVVXFKDVMDYDFF,WKLQN programming languages have the power to intervene into virtual reality. ,WLVOLNHVD\LQJ³7KHUHVKDOOEHOLJKW´DQGOLJKWFRPHVLQWRH[LVWHQFH,W is the process of translating my ideas into a language that the computer FDQUHDOL]HWRVKRZYLVXDOPRYLQJLPDJHV7KHSURJUDPPLQJODQJXDJH LVDPHGLXPDQGWRROWKDWPDNHVPHIHHOOLNHDQDUWLVDQZKRH[SUHVVHV KLVLGHDVZLWKDWRPLFELWV%HVLGHVWKHSURJUDPPLQJODQJXDJHLVXVHG YHU\RIWHQLQP\GDLO\OLIHDQGLWVRPHWLPHVDIIHFWVWKHZD\,WKLQN Q. What is the main theme that you express with this tool? ,WLVDERXWKHDOWK\LQWHUDFWLRQDQGFRHYROXWLRQ7KLVPHVVDJHLVQRW UHDOO\H[SUHVVHGWKURXJKP\ZRUNVKRZQDWWKHH[KLELWLRQKDOOVEXWLQ WHUPVRIP\VRFLDODFWLYLWLHVDQGHGXFDWLRQ,¶PZRUNLQJZLWKWKDWWKHPH SUHWW\RIWHQ,¶PLQWHUHVWHGLQPDNLQJWHFKQRORJ\DQGPHGLDLQWHUFKDQJH positive energy between people rather than focusing on faster, bigger, PRUHSRZHUIXODQGXQEDODQFHGJURZWK,GRQ¶WWKLQN,KDYHDJLJDQWLF calling; Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m just trying to do the things I can do well by interacting with the SHRSOHDURXQGPH7KLVLVZK\,¶PLQWHUHVWHGLQWKHSURMHFWVIRUWKHIXWXUH generations and I love experimenting under the themes meeting other artists, learning, and growing.

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Q. Is teaching university students different from teaching kindergarteners? 7KHSURFHVVLVWKHVDPHEXWGHOHJDWLRQRISRZHULVGLIIHUHQW,¶P SDUWLFXODUO\WU\LQJWRNHHSHDFKJURXS¶VFKDUDFWHULVWLFVLQPLQGZKHQ teaching â&#x20AC;&#x201C; be it an individual, a small group, or large group. Doing documentation all of the results, retrospectives visually has become P\KDELWZKLFK,OHDUQHGZKLOHWHDFKLQJNLQGHUJDUWHQHUV,XVHWKH same methods of helping students to broaden their horizons. I also DFNQRZOHGJHWKH]RQHRISUR[LPDOGHYHORSPHQWRIWKHOHDUQHUVDQGPDNH curriculum in which their social interaction enriches their learning. As for NLQGHUJDUWHQVWHDFKHUVKDYHPRUHUHVSRQVLELOLWLHVZKHQVXSSRUWLQJWKHLU students. However, it is very possible for college students to visualize their own learning process and realize their own strength. Since I can GHOHJDWHDXWKRULW\WRWKHVWXGHQWVHDFKVWXGHQWFDQWDNHUHVSRQVLELOLW\ of their own personal growth and development. However, the basic idea behind it is the same â&#x20AC;&#x201C; helping students to help each other to live their lives to the fullest. Of course it is important to invest in more time for the future, but it is important to help them enjoy their lives, rather than forcing WKHPWRVWXG\VRPHWKLQJWKH\DUHQRWLQWHUHVWHGLQ7KHVDPHJRHVIRU teachers and professors. Q. You are an artist and educator. What is it like to work both jobs? 0\H[SHULHQFHDVDPHGLDDUWLVWLQ.RUHDLVDFWLQJOLNHDVWUDWHJ\WR DWWUDFWPRUHSHRSOH¶VDWWHQWLRQ,¶YHEHHQNQRZQDVDXQLTXHFUHDWRU LQDUW,7DQGVFLHQFH,KDGDFKDQFHWRPHHWDYDULHW\RISHRSOHDVD media artist and it helped expand my horizons. However, these days, ,¶PDOVRWKLQNLQJDERXWWKHPHDQLQJRIP\ZRUNRQFHDJDLQ,WLVDOZD\V IXQWRZRUNOHDUQDQGH[SHULHQFHPDQ\WKLQJVLQP\¿HOGEXWWKH\ GRQ¶WDOZD\V¿WZLWKP\YLVLRQRIOLIH,WKLQN,¶PH[KDXVWHGGXHWRP\ ZRUNHWKLFDQGGRLQJWRRPDQ\H[KLELWLRQSURMHFWV,IHHOVRPHNLQGRI HVWUDQJHPHQW/RRNLQJEDFNWKHHGXFDWLRQDOH[SHULPHQWVRYHUWKHODVW WZR\HDUV,ZDVIXOORIHQHUJ\DQG,FRXOGIXOO\FRQFHQWUDWH,IHOWOLNH ,ZDVGHVWLQHGWRZRUNLQHGXFDWLRQ¿HOGZKLOHGRLQJWKHH[SHULPHQWV +RZHYHUQRZ,IHHOOLNH,VKRXOGWDNHDPRPHQWWRORRNEDFNRQWKHSDVW UDWKHUWKDQKLWWKHDFFHOHUDWRU7KLVGRHVQ¶WPHDQWKDW,¶PJRLQJWRTXLW P\MREDVDPHGLDDUWLVWDQGHGXFDWRU:KDW,QHHGIRUQRZLVWRWDNHD rest to regain my creative energy and reorganize my thoughts to


incorporate my various experiences and put them together to create EULGJHVEHWZHHQWKHP,QVKRUW,¶GOLNHWRIRFXVRQFUHDWLQJWKHQH[W stepping stone to jump further.

Q. Lastly, please open your programming source to our readers. Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve introduced the sources for One processing projects. It is already RSHQRQWKHZHE<RXFDQDOVR¿QGRXWWKHPHDQLQJRIWKLVZRUNIURPWKH DUWLFOHµ3DUWLFOHV3HRSOHDQG2UJDQL]DWLRQV¶ KWWSMDQFKLLQ"S 

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2UJDQL]LQJ&ULWHUV KWWSZZZRSHQSURFHVVLQJRUJYLVXDOV"YLVXDO,'  class Critter extends Particle { Ã&#x20AC;RDW] Ã&#x20AC;RDWGLUGLUBKHDGYBGLUBKHDG Critter() { } void Update() { super.Update(); YBY[ Y[  YBY\ Y\  GLU DWDQ YBY\YBY[ 3,  YBY[  YBY\  YBGLUBKHDG  DWDQ Y\Y[ 3, GLU   GLUBKHDG YBGLUBKHDG  GLUBKHDG FRQVWUDLQ GLUBKHDG3, 3,   YBGLUBKHDG  GLUBKHDG  } void DrawCritter(PGraphics pg) { Ã&#x20AC;RDWW DJH ] UBYLVXDODEV UBYLVXDO VLQ WSKDVH

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Editor. Anna Choi

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Q. You are known in Korea for your video clip â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;EOLQGâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. Can you please tell us about that? blind imagines a parallel-universe version of Japan which also suffered DQXFOHDUFULVLVEXWZDVOHVVOXFN\WKDQLWVUHDOZRUOGFRXQWHUSDUW,W¶VD place where fallout readings are part of the weather forecast and gas PDVNVDUHDVXELTXLWRXVDVEODFNVXLWVDQG*XFFLEDJV,ZDQWHGWR H[SUHVVSHRSOH¶VDPELYDOHQFH7KLVLVDVHULRXVIHDWXUH¿OPWKDWUDGLDWHV hope at the same time. Q. What made you to produce this video? 2EYLRXVO\WKHGLVDVWHULQ)XNXVKLPDZDVWKHFDWDO\VW6LQFH,¶YH EHHQOLNHPDQ\SHRSOHVKRFNHGE\QXFOHDUSODQWH[SORUDWLRQ2Q$SULO, ZHQWWR1HZ<RUNIRUDGLJLWDOGHVLJQWRXUQDPHQWFDOOHG&XW 3DVWH DVDPRWLRQJUDSKLFVGHVLJQHU,VSHQWZHHNVWKHUHZLWKP\IULHQGV ,ZDVDVNHGDERXWWKHVLWXDWLRQLQ)XNXVKLPDDQGKRZVHULRXVLWZDV 2QHRIP\IULHQGVHYHQDVNHGPHWRPRYHWR*HUPDQ\,ZDWFKHGWKH 79QHZVEURDGFDVWVHYHU\GD\LQ1HZ<RUN7KHQ,FDPHEDFNWR-DSDQ Everything became normal again, and I felt the differences between WKHUHDQGKHUH%XWSHRSOHDUHVWLOOOLYLQJLQ)XNXVKLPD7KDWPDGHPH DQJU\DQG,FRXOGQ¶WVWRSP\VHOIIURPPDNLQJWKLVPRYLH,GRQ¶WWKLQNWKDW LWFRXOGFKDQJHHYHU\RQH¶VPLQG%XW,I,GLGQRWKLQJWKHQQRWKLQJZRXOG FKDQJHULJKW" Q. What do you think about nuclear issues caused by the earthquakes? I personally believe that the development of nuclear power is XQQHFHVVDU\7KHIDFWWKDWWKH-DSDQHVHJRYHUQPHQWKDVDOUHDG\ allowed the development of 54 nuclear power plants is unsettling enough. I have been living near 54 potential nuclear bombs without UHDOL]LQJKRZTXLFNO\P\OLIHFRXOGEHLQGDQJHU$QGWKLVIDFWPDNHVPH QHUYRXVDQGDQJHUVPHWKHPRUH,WKLQNDERXWLW0\OLIHKDVEOLQGHGP\ eyes to see this fact, and I came to my senses when this catastrophic HYHQWWRRNSODFH,WKLQNWKHPHVVDJHIURPWKH¿OP³7XUQLQJDZD\IURP WRGD\¶VUHDOLW\ZLOOEOLQGRXUIXWXUH´KDVKDGDJUHDWLQÃ&#x20AC;XHQFHRQP\ WKLQNLQJEHFDXVHDOWKRXJKZHFDQQRWFKDQJHWKHSDVWZHFDQOHDUQ from it and guide our future in the right direction. Q. Recently, you have released a new project called â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Social 0.0 labâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; with the team youâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve worked with before on â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;EOLQGâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. Can you tell us a bit about this team? 7KLVZRUNLV0RWRUROD¶V9LUDO&P7KHFRQFHSWRIWKLVSLHFHZDV ³(YHU\WKLQJLVLQWHUFRQQHFWHGEXWWKH\FKDQJH´7KH¿QDOGHFLVLRQ LQPDNLQJWKLVSLHFHZDVGRLQJDFROODERUDWLYHZRUNZLWK'RPPXQH the Japanese internet broadcasting agency. Very exclusive members SDUWLFLSDWHGLQWKLVSLHFHRIZRUN7KHJURXSZDVFKRVHQGXHWRWKHLU RULJLQDOLW\DQGLQÃ&#x20AC;XHQFHLQWKHFXOWXUDOOLIHLQ-DSDQ(YHU\PHPEHUZDV DVNHGWKHIROORZLQJTXHVWLRQ³+RZZRXOG\RXGHVFULEHDIXOOOLIH"´7KH PHPEHUVZHUHWRDQVZHUWKHTXHVWLRQVDQGWKHQDVNWKHVDPHTXHVWLRQ to the people who are watching the video. Most have said, they are living DVDWLV¿HGOLIHZLWKPRVWRIWKHLUQHHGVPHW$QG\HWZKDWLVWKLVIHHOLQJ RIHPSWLQHVVZHIHHOZLWKRXUOLYHV"+RZZRXOGRXUOHYHOVRIVDWLVIDFWLRQ change when we face the political problems, or the development of QXFOHDUSRZHU"7KLV¿OPGRHVQ¶WJLYHXVWKHDQVZHUVWRWKHVHTXHVWLRQV EXWWKURXJKLWZHFDQORRNEDFNLQWRRXUOLYHVDQGWKLQNPRUH Q. Social 0.0 lab was made as a promotion video for Motorola. However, it is very interesting because it talks about modern people who are addicted to social media. How did you come up with the idea? ,ZDVORRNLQJIRUZKDWZHODFNLQRXUJHQHUDWLRQDQG,FDPHWRWKLV LGHDZKHQ,ZDVWKLQNLQJDERXWZKHUHZHDUHKHDGLQJLQRXUOLYHV%XW QRZDGD\VWKHSDUDGLJPVDUHFKDQJLQJVRTXLFNO\LQRXUOLYHVDQGZKDW

people have been pursuing is slowly changing and they have lost their VHQVHRIZD\%XWLQWKHPLVWRIDOOWKLV,ZDVKRSLQJWR¿QGDQDQVZHUWR DOOWKHVHSUREOHPVDQGWKDWLVZK\,ZDQWHGWRPDNHWKLV¿OP 4:KDWZDVPRUHGLI¿FXOW±SURGXFLQJSURPRWLRQDOYLGHRFOLSVRU personal movies? And in which one did you put more effort? 0DNLQJRUSURGXFLQJD¿OPLVQHYHUHDV\7KLVSLHFHZDVJLYHQWRPH and my point of view and the direction which I have decided to follow IRUWKLVZRUNZRQ¶WFKDQJHµ3URGXFWLRQFRQGLWLRQV¶DUHYHU\LPSRUWDQW and choosing the best conditions to produce something is of paramount LPSRUWDQFH6RPHGLUHFWRUVJHWDQJU\E\WKHIDFWWKDWWKHZRUN FRPSOHWHGLVQRWZKDWWKH\ZHUHH[SHFWLQJ%XWSURGXFLQJVRPHWKLQJLV MXVWOLNHDPDNLQJDEDE\7KHZRUNLVOLNHP\RZQFKLOGVR,FDQ¶WDVVHUW such absurdity. So all in all, the result is my responsibility and I should DOZD\VFKDOOHQJHP\VHOIIRUDJUHDWHURXWFRPH,GRQ¶WZDQWWRPDNH excuses for not doing my best. Q. The cast for Social 0.0 lab are mainly very powerful people in Japanese culture. What kind of messages do you want to deliver using their voices? 7KHPHVVDJHLVWRWKLQNDERXWZKDWDQµDEXQGDQWOLIH¶LV,QWKH JHQHUDWLRQVWRFRPHZHZLOOKDYHWRWKLQNDERXWWKHSUREOHPVWKDWZHZLOO be facing, and how we will be living our lives. For example, I am living in 7RN\RDQG,ZLOORQO\HDWIRRGWKDWKDVEHHQSURGXFHGLQWKH(DVWDUHD %XW,¶PQRWVXUHLILW¶VUHDOO\VDIH7KLVLVDSUREOHPEHFDXVHSHRSOHDUH still living in those dangerous areas, and the government and the media are trying to avoid this fact. So, I hope to open the eyes of the public in the hope of pushing them to face their own situations even when the government and the media have turned their heads away. 47KHQZKDW¶V\RXUGH¿QLWLRQRIDQµDEXQGDQWIXWXUHVRFLHW\¶" 7KH-DSDQHVHFXOWXUHLVULFKZLWKVHUYLFHVDQGLQIRUPDWLRQ6RPHSHRSOH WKLQNWKDWLWLVDEXQGDQWEXWRWKHUVWKLQNWKDWLWLVODFNLQJLQLWVRZQZD\V and the inconvenience is abundant. Some claim, it is richening but the VDFUL¿FHVPDGHDUHXQDEOHWREHVHHQDQGVRPHHYHQFODLPWKDWRXU OLYHVDUHSK\VLFDOO\LUUDWLRQDO7KURXJKWKLVZRUN,ZDVDEOHWRPHHW DORWRIGLIIHUHQWNLQGVRISHRSOHZLWKDORWRIGLIIHUHQWSRLQWVRIYLHZ 7KLV¿OPZRQ¶WJLYH\RXDQDQVZHUWR\RXUSUREOHPVEXW,KRSHLWZLOO JUHDWO\DIIHFW\RXUZD\RIWKLQNLQJ%XWRQHWKLQJWKDW,KDYHUHDOL]HGLV WKDW³KDSSLQHVV´LVQRWOLYLQJDQRUGLQDU\OLIHZLWKRXWDQ\SUREOHPV,Q this generation, our happiness is not simply just being happy with our individual lives, the environment, the culture is also a great contributor to our â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;fullâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; lives. So therefore, I believe that an education system and in a FXOWXUHWKDWKHOSVXVH[SHULHQFHDQGWKLQNPRUHDERXWWKHVHSUREOHPVLV closer to what we can call an abundant life. Q. In general, your works contain strong social messages. What will your next project be? ,¶PQRWGHOLEHUDWHO\PDNLQJ¿OPVZLWKVWURQJPHVVDJHV$OWKRXJKVD\LQJ that, I have portrayed and stressed the importance of the message in WKH¿OPV,¶YHPDGHEHFDXVH,DPDOZD\VXQFRQVFLRXVO\WKLQNLQJDERXW WKHUHODWLRQVKLSEHWZHHQWKHVRFLHW\WKHFRXQWU\WKHLQGLYLGXDOV7KLV idea of contemplating life has never escaped from my head, ever since I was into philosophy in high school. I hated the fact that a personâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s LGHQWLW\DQGSHUVRQDDUHFUHDWHGE\WKHDPELHQFHDQGLQÃ&#x20AC;XHQFHRIWKH environment. So in order to exist on my own I have studied philosophy, DQGKDYHIRXQGP\DQVZHUVWKHUH7KHPRUH,JHWLQWRPDNLQJWKLV¿OP the more educated and profound I have become. I also believe that one RIWKHUHDVRQV,DPOLYLQJLVWRSURGXFHD¿OPRIVLJQL¿FDQWLPSRUWDQFH 2QHGD\,KRSHWKDW,ZLOO¿QLVKLWDQGVKRZLWWRWKHZRUOG www.keep-ie-real.jp

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TOSHIFUMI TANIUCHI Q. What encouraged you to enter the restricted zone? 7KHUHDUHFXUUHQWO\PDQ\DQWLQXFOHDUPRYHPHQWVLQ-DSDQ6RPH use data to protest nonnecessity, while I wanted to record and tell what is really going on in an abandoned town that a nuclear accident created. I do not intend to demonstrate vocally, but Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m determined to straightforwardly convey my message of reality to the world by using my photos. Q. What was the most impressive phenomenon of the area? $VLGHIURPWKHIDFWWKDWLWZDVOLNHEHLQJLQDVFL¿PRYLHZKDWZDVWUXO\ VKRFNLQJLVWKDWWKHWRZQFDQQHYHUEHWKHVDPHDVLWZDVSUH 5HVLGHQWVZLOOQHYHUEHDEOHWRFRPHEDFN7KRXJKVORZO\EXWVXUHO\ VRPHRIWKHRWKHUGLVDVWHUUHJLRQVDUHRQWKHLUZD\EDFNWRZDUGV UHFRQVWUXFWLRQE\FOHDQLQJZUHFNDJHVDQG¿QGLQJPLVVLQJSHRSOHWKH UHVWULFWHGNP]RQHKDGQ¶WEHHQWRXFKHGIRUDPRQWKDIWHUWKHGLVDVWHU EHFDXVHRIWKHUDGLRDFWLYHFRQWDPLQDWLRQ7KHWRZQZLOOVORZO\WXUQLQWR DZHDWKHUHGDUHD)RUWKH¿UVWWLPHLQP\OLIH,IHOWVFDUHGIDFLQJDWRZQ where people can no longer reside. I feel the need to get the message out that your town can be the next to come. Q. Could you tell us a little about shot selection? 7KHUHZDVDOZD\VDVXEMHFWLQHYHU\SLFWXUHDQGWKHLPDJH,VWULYHGWR GHSLFWZDVFOHDU%XWWKLVZDVOLNHDQDVVLJQPHQWJLYHQIURPDZKROH GLIIHUHQW¿HOG,WZDVVWLPXODWLQJ3UHVVLQJWKHVKXWWHUEXWWRQWRFDSWXUH DQRUGLQDU\ORRNLQJWRZQZKHUHWKHVRXQGRIWKHZLQGDQGP\VHOIZHUH RQO\VRXQGVWKDWH[LVWHGZDVHHULH,WZDVGLI¿FXOWWRIRFXVRQFKRRVLQJ a motif. You may have experienced being in an empty town, perhaps on 1HZ<HDU¶V'D\LQGRZQWRZQ7RN\REXW,ZDQWHGWRH[SUHVVVRPHWKLQJ different from that, the invisible fear as I feel them. Q. How long will you continue this project? As long as possible because this is something people should not forget. ,LQWHQGWRUDQGRPO\HQWHUWKHDUHDDQGWDNHWKHWLPHWRUHFRUGLW7KH place will be grassy next summer, weeds will run rampant and ivy may climb a building wall and may turn into a scene from a Ghibli movie.

7KHXQNHPSWEXLOGLQJVZLOOVXUHO\PDLQWDLQWKDWGHVRODWHIHHOLQWKH DWPRVSKHUH%XWZKDW,DPWU\LQJWRVD\LVWKDWWKLVLVDWRZQWKDWVWLOO exists, and I want to announce this as a report of what a nuclear disaster would bring forth. Q. Do you not worry for your own health? I enter the town for a day or two at a time, armed with a protective suit, ERRWVPDVNVDJRJJOHVDQGD*HLJHUFRXQWHU7KHDLUUDGLDWLRQOHYHO is not too high, but I particularly worried about inhaling dust. Internal radiation exposure is what I fear the most. When I went near the reactor LQSODQWLQ$SULOWKH*HLJHUFRXQWHUUHDGLQJEHFDPHLQFDOFXODEOH,UDQ WRWKHFDUDQGÃ&#x20AC;RRUHGLW(YHU\WKLQJHOVHLVDORWVDIHU,JXHVV7KRXJK, DOZD\VPDNHVXUHWRPRQLWRUWKHOHYHOVRIUDGLDWLRQ,¶PH[SRVHGWR Q. What are your aims within the documentary photography genre? $V,GLG 8\JKXUSURMHFW,JRWVRPHDZDUGVDVGRFXPHQWDU\ZRUNV EXW,GRQRWFDWHJRUL]HP\ZRUNV,MXVWWDNHSKRWRVDQGVKRZWKHPWR SHRSOH,¿QGZD\VWRHIIHFWLYHO\GRWKDWEXWLW¶VDVVLPSOHDVWKDW)RU WKDWUHDVRQP\ZRUNVSHUKDSVEHORQJWRWKH¿QHDUWJHQUH,EHOLHYHLQ the power of photography, in a way that someoneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s life could be saved RUKROGDSRWHQWLDOWRFKDQJHWKHZRUOG7KLVLVZK\P\LQWHUHVWVKDYH VKLIWHGWRVRFLDOFRQFHUQVDQGDFWLYLVPLQUHFHQW\HDUV0\ZRUNVPD\ KDYHWKHSRWHQWLDOWRVDYHVRPHRQH,NQRZWKLVPD\VRXQGLPSUXGHQW EXWWKDWWKRXJKWWXUQHGLQWRDIDQWDV\ZLWKLQPH7KLVLVZK\P\VXEMHFW FDUULHVDPRUHGLUHFWPHDQLQJWKDQHYHUEHIRUH7KRXJK,DPVWLOOQRW sure if this is a challenge, but it is clear that Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve become more focused RQWKHVRFLDOLVVXHV )URPWR7DQLXFKLIROORZHGWKHSHRSOHRI 7KH8\JKXU$XWRQRPRXV5HJLRQ,QKLVPDVWHUIXOFROOHFWLRQKHFDSWXUHG WKHYDQLVKLQJHWKQLFLW\DQGWKHLUFXOWXUHE\DGGLQJWKHLU'1$WRLQN<RX FDQFKHFNKLVZRUNVRQWKHZHE www.tony-gogo.com

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3RMDQJPDFKDLVDPRELOHNLWFKHQPDFKLQHWKDWLVFRPPRQO\IRXQG scattered around Korean streets, acting as small independent vessels WKDWRSHUDWHVRPHZKHUHEHWZHHQDUHVWDXUDQWDQGDEDU7KH\DUHSDUW of the invisible fabric of the city and form an integral part of Korean street culture. 7KH\DUHW\SLFDOO\GLYLGHGLQWRWZRIRUPVWKHGD\ZDJRQVVHUYLQJDYDVW array of fried and traditional dishes, and the night wagons, with their SODVWLFVNLUWVDQGGRGJ\OLJKWÂżWWLQJVWKDWDFWDVPRELOH.RUHDQSXEV Pojangmachas today represent an alternative way to experience the city. We live in a time when most of the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s existing fabric is more often than QRWHUDVHGDQGGHPROLVKHGWRPDNHZD\IRUQHZODUJHXUEDQSURMHFWV which simply dilute the city of its original DNA. Pojangmacha for us is a tool that allows us to understand the city from a micro

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perspective, where intimacy, routines and daily life form the core of modern dwelling in a metropolis. 2XUSURMHFWGRHVQRWVHHNWRUHLQYHQWWKHSRMDQJPDFKDRUHYHQUHEUDQG WKLVWUDGLWLRQDOXUEDQDUWLIDFWUDWKHUE\DQDO\]LQJLWVÂłPRGXVRSHUDGL´ we want to fabricate a new form of micro architecture, that transforms the way we conceive buildings and vessels can adapt to the city. Micro architecture in our view has the power to act as a sort of urban acupuncture, treating the ailments of the city not by surgically removing organs (buildings) but by relieving its stresses via precise interventions. Pojangmachas operate within the forgotten corners of the city, in the interstices that we donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t normally associate with any useful program, this combined with their 100% practical and functional architecture results in a beautifully poetic composition that recaptures the lost human scale of WKHFLW\7KLVSURMHFWVHHNVWRH[SORUHWKLVSRHWLFWHQVLRQ


We began by researching the existing typology of pojangmachas that were already in operation within in our metropolis. We tried to understand by H[SHULHQFLQJGRFXPHQWLQJDQGE\WDNLQJDSDUWWKHH[LVWLQJIDEULFRIZKDWPDNHVXSWKHSRMDQJPDFKDDQGWKHQUHDGMXVWLQJDQGUHDVVHPEOLQJWKH existing language. 2XU¿UVWGHVLJQZDVGHYHORSHGE\WKHFRQFHSWRIGLVVHFWLQJWKHH[LVWLQJSRMDQJPDFKDDQGVHSDUDWLQJLWWKURXJKWKHNLWFKHQZKHUHWKHLQEHWZHHQ VSDFHEHFDPHDFLUFXODWLRQURXWHIRUWKHSXEOLF7KLVFLUFXODWLRQURXWHWKDWFXWVVWUDLJKWWKURXJKWKHNLWFKHQDUHDEOXUVWKHERXQGDU\EHWZHHQSXEOLF VSDFHDQGSULYDWHNLWFKHQDUHDZKHUHLQWLPDWHLQWHUDFWLRQZLWKWKHFKHIVFDQEHKDGJLYLQJDQDWPRVSKHUHZKLFKLVYHU\PXFKSUHVHQWLQWKHRULJLQDO pojangmachas.

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3RMDQJPDFKDLVDYHVVHOWKDWQDYLJDWHVWKURXJKDFLW\DQGGRFNVDWDVLWHZKHUHLWJHWVSXWWRJHWKHU,WLVDQH[DPSOHRIÃ&#x20AC;RDWLQJSRUWDEOHDUFKLWHFWXUH WKDWKDVQRVSHFL¿FVLWHDQGLVÃ&#x20AC;H[LEOHWRDGDSWWRDQHZORFDWLRQ7KLVLVVRPHWKLQJZHWULHGWRDGDSWWRRXUGHVLJQFRQFHSW 6WLOOEHLQJDEOHWRRSHUDWHZKHQLWLVIXOO\IROGHGWKLVVWUXFWXUHFDQWUDQVIRUPLQWRYDULRXVFRQ¿JXUDWLRQVDQGVL]HVDFFRUGLQJWRLWVVLWHORFDWLRQDQGLWV intended use. :HSODQWRFRQWLQXHGHYHORSLQJWKLVSURMHFWIXUWKHUE\H[SHULPHQWLQJZLWKPDNLQJRWKHUIXQFWLRQDOYHVVHOVVXFKDVDQRXWGRRUFLQHPDDWHDKRXVH D¿VKLQJGHFNPXVLFYHQXHDQGPD\EHDKRXVHWRR7KHVHZLOODOVRGRFNVRPHZKHUHLQWKHFLW\¶V¶XUEDQIDEULFFDWHULQJWRZDUGVDKXPDQVFDOHRI intimacy.

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$VZHOODVRSHUDWLQJLQGLYLGXDOO\WKHVHYHVVHOVFDQDOVREHDVVHPEOHGDUUDQJHGWRJHWKHUWRRSHUDWHLQYDULRXVFRQ¿JXUDWLRQVRIPL[HGXVHSURJUDPV to cater for various events and needs, forming a larger structure that can be travel to any sites, any size and open up, engaging and catering to the urban metropolis at an intimate, micro level. %\FROODERUDWLQJZLWKRWKHUSURIHVVLRQDOVDQGRWKHUGHVLJQHUVZHZLVKWRPDNHWKLVDFRPPXQLW\SURMHFWZKHUHLWFDQFRQQHFWZLWKVRFLHW\DWPXOWLSOH OHYHOV&XUUHQWO\ZHKDYHFROODERUDWHGZLWK-LKR-HRQDFKHIZKRKDVJLYHQXVKLVLQSXWIRUWKH¿UVWYHVVHO¶VNLWFKHQIURPDFKHI¶VSRLQWRIYLHZDV ZHOODVGHYHORSLQJDPHQXIRURXUSRMDQJPDFKD:HDOVRKDYH8GR/HHD'-ZKRLVH[SORULQJWKHPLGGOHDJHG.RUHDQPXVLFVFHQHDQGWREULQJLW XSWRGDWHVRWKDWLWFDQEHSHUIRUPHGDWRXUYHVVHO$QGUHFHQWO\ZHKHOGDZRUNVKRSZLWKXQLYHUVLW\VWXGHQWVIURP.HLP\XQJ8QLYHUVLW\WRGHVLJQ tables for the pojangmacha.

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PHOTOLOG OF POJANGMACHA PROJECT 6WXGLR(O¶VWZRDUFKLWHFWVZKRSHUVRQDOO\SURGXFWV32-$1*0$&+$7DHKR.LPDQG7DHEHRP.LP 7KHLU32-$1*0$&+$PDQXIDFWXULQJSURFHVVDQG32-$1*0$&+$SRSXSHYHQWUHFRUGV

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information

World Exhibitions (GLWRU$QG\6W/RXLV

Seoul City Within the City For its only group exhibition of 2011, ArtSonje brings together 18 artists and artist collectives in an examination of the state of the city as a conceptual entity, especially with regard to history, population, and geography. 12 November 2011 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 15 January 2012 ArtSonje Center http://artsonje.org/ Joris Laarman Dec 13, 2011 - Jan 20, 2012 .XNMH*DOOHU\VSDFH ZZZNXNMHJDOOHU\FRP TV Commune 79&RPPXQH explores the implications of television in art and society via the ZRUNRI1-3DQGKLV contemporaries as ZHOODVDUWLVWVOLYLQJDQGZRUNLQJWRGD\ 6HSWHPEHUÂą-DQXDU\ 1DP-XQH3DLN$UW&HQWHU KWWSZZZQMSDUWFHQWHUNU Choi Dae Jin: Human Work 7DNLQJWKHWKHRULHVRI.DUO0DU[DQG+DQQDK Arendt as its jumping-off point, Choi uses sculpture, installation and mural to assert KLVRZQLQWHUSUHWDWLRQRIZRUNDQGODERULQD stirring and deeply person exhibition. 24 November â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 31 January $OW6SDFH/223 http://galleryloop.com/ Lim Eung-Sik: Father of Korean Photography 7HQ\HDUVRQVLQFHWKHGHDWKRI.RUHDÂśV quintessential realist photographer, MoCA Korea honors the anniversary in this largeVFDOHUHWURVSHFWLYHZKLFKIDLWKIXOO\UHĂ&#x20AC;HFWVWKH life and times of ordinary Koreans throughout the twentieth century. 21 December 2011 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 12 February 2012 National Museum of Contemporary Art, 'HRNVXJXQJ$QQH[ KWWSZZZPRFDJRNU Tell me Tell me: Australian and Korean Art 19762011 A joint exhibition venture between NMOCA Korea and MCA Sydney, WKLVVKRZORRNVDWWKHFRQYHUJHQFHVDQG departures in contemporary art of Korea and

130

$XVWUDOLDEHJLQQLQJZLWKWKHDUULYDOLQRI VHYHUDOVLJQLÂżFDQW.RUHDQDUWLVWVLQ6\GQH\ 1RYHPEHUÂą)HEUXDU\ National Museum of Contemporary Art KWWSZZZPRFDJRNU Five Different Prologues 13 January â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 25 February *DOOHU\6NDSH ZZZVNDSHFRNU Whanki Kim 6 January 6 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 26 February Gallery Hyundai www.galleryhyundai.com Reviewing Korean Sculpture: amplitude and vibration 'HFHPEHUÂą)HEUXDU\ SOMA Museum http://www.somamuseum.org/ David LaChapelle in Seoul 22 November 2011 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 26 February 2012 Seoul Arts Center http://www.dlcseoul. com :RUNLQSURJUHVV.DUO/DJHUÂżHOG photography exhibition A retrospective of the photography of fashion GHVLJQHU.DUO/DJHUÂżHOGZKRVHLPDJHVKDYH been part and parcel of Chanel ads for over a quarter century. 13 October 2011 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 18 March 2012 Daelim Contemporary Art Museum http://daelimmuseum.org PPP by 275c Exhibition 6ZHHW:LW 6:L7 6:L7&DPRXĂ&#x20AC;DJH 3DWWHUQ$UWZRUN Collection 11 February 2012 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 11 March 2012 &2/$*DOOHU\ www.gallerycola.com

New York Roni Horn 'HFHPEHUÂą-DQXDU\ Andrea Rosen Gallery www.andrearosengallery.com Jeff Wall: New Photographs 'HFHPEHUÂą-DQXDU\ Marian Goodman Gallery www.mariangoodman.com

Maurizio Cattelan: All 4 November 2011 -22 January 2012 Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum www.guggenheim.org Trisha Brown 'HFHPEHU-DQXDU\ 6LNNHPD-HQNLQV &R ZZZVLNNHPDMHQNLQVFRFRP Peter Liversidge: Where We Begin 8 December 2011 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 28 January 2012 Sean Kelly Gallery ZZZVNQ\FRP Beverly Fishman 10 December 2011 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 28 January 2012 Galerie Richard www.galerierichard.com Sherrie Levine: Mayhem 10 November 2011 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; -DQXDU\ Whitney Museum of American Art www.whitney.org Myong Hi Kim: Borrowed Landscape 12 January â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 25 February Art Projects International www.artprojects.com Clifford Owens: Anthology 13 November 2011 -12 March 2012 MoMA PS1 www.momaps1.org

London Paul McCarthy: The King, The Island, The Train, The House, The Ship 16 November 2011 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 14 January 2012 Hauser & Wirth www.hauserwirth.com London Art Fair /RQGRQ$UW)DLUWKH UKâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s largest art fair IRU0RGHUQ%ULWLVK and contemporary art returns, with over 100 galleries featuring the great names of the 20th century alongside exceptional recent ZRUNIURPOHDGLQJÂżJXUHVDQGHPHUJLQJWDOHQW 18 January - 22 January %XVLQHVV'HVLJQ&HQWUH,VOLQJWRQ ZZZORQGRQDUWIDLUFRXN


The Mystery of Appearance 7 December 2011 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 18 February 2012 Haunch of Venison www.haunchofvenison.com Lygia Pape: Magnetized Space 7 December 2011 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; )HEUXDU\ Serpentine Gallery www. serpentinegallery.org

dealers from around the globe a platform IRUWKHH[KLELWLRQRIYLQWDJHPDVWHUZRUNV contemporary photography, as well as video DQGPXOWLPHGLDLQVWDOODWLRQV7KLVH[FLWLQJ juxtaposition creates the character that is photo l.a. 12 January â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 16 January Santa Monica Civic Auditorium www.photola.com LA Art Show: Modern & Contemporary 18 January â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 22 January /$&RQYHQWLRQ&HQWHU www.laartshow.com

aida rubio gonzalez: la vida es un sueno 15 December 2011 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 20 February 2012 Rosenfeld Porcini www.rosenfeldporcini.com Zarina Bhimji -DQXDU\Âą0DUFK Whitechapel Art Gallery www.whitechapel.org

Glenn Ligon: AMERICA 23 October 2011 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 22 January 2012 /RV$QJHOHV&RXQW\0XVHXPRI$UW /$&0$

www.lacma.org

James Welling: Wyeth -DQXDU\Âą)HEUXDU\ :DNR:RUNVRI$UW ZZZZDNRDUWMS Wang Yahui: Pick up a leaf when it falls 20 January- 25 February 2012 7RPLR.R\DPD*DOOHU\7RN\R ZZZWRPLRNR\DPDJDOOHU\FRP Ken Matsubara: The Sleep Water -Meling Frozen MemoriesKen Matsubara dissolves our sleeping PHPRULHVMXVWOLNHWKH\DUHIUR]HQDWWKH ERWWRPRIRXUKHDUWVLQKLVZRUNVPDGHRI antique objects. 3 February â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 4 March 2012-01-13 MA2 Gallery www.ma2gallery.com Bettina Rheims: Made in Paradise 26 March â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 15 May 7RN\R0HWURSROLWDQ Museum of Photography www.syabi.com

Danny First: Peaceful Solitude 7 January â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 18 February Maloney Fine Art ZZZPDORQH\ÂżQHDUWFRP

Beijing Wang Qiang: Venus Hotel 20 November 2011 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 15 January 2012 :KLWH6SDFH%HLMLQJ www.whitespace-beijing.com

Weegee: Naked Hollywood 13 November 2011 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 27 February 2012 02&$Âą7KH0XVHXP of Contemporary Art (Grand Avenue) www.moca-la.org

Huang Ying: My Mirrored Realm 31 December 2011 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 16 January 2012 7RGD\$UW0XVHXP www.todayartmuseum.com Henry Hudson: Between A Rock and A Hard Place 20 November 2011 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 30 January 2012 F2 Gallery www.f2gallery.com Hong Hao: As It Is 10 December 2011 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 26 February 2012 %HLMLQJ&RPPXQH www.beijingcommune.com Zhan Wang: My Personal Universe 26 November 2011 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 25 February 2012 UCCA â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Ullens Center for Contemporary Art www.ucca.org.cn

Los Angeles Tom Knechtel 3 December 2011 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 10 January 2012 Marc Selwyn Fine Art ZZZPDUFVHOZ\QÂżQHDUWFRP photo l.a. 2012 Continuing the discourse on photographyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s SODFHLQWKHÂżQHDUWVSKRWRODSURYLGHV

Tokyo Yoko Ono 10 December 2011 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 28 January 2012 7RPLR.R\DPD*DOOHU\ 7RN\R www. WRPLRNR\DPDJDOOHU\ com Nobuko Tsuchiya: We are living in a time machine 18 November 2011 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 28 January 2012 6&$,WKH%DWKKRXVH www.scaithebathhouse.com Aki Eimizu 'HFHPEHUÂą-DQXDU\ MA2 Gallery www.ma2gallery.com Ryoko Aoki 10 December 2011 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 4 February 2012 7DNH1LQDJDZD ZZZWDNHQLQDJDZDFRP

Bangkok Lady Image: Artist: Anchalee Arayapongpanich 7KHH[KLELWLRQÂł/DG\ ,PDJH´SUHVHQWV paintings inspired by the artistâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s experience with all the media in WRGD\ÂśVVRFLHW\VXFKDVPRYLHVFRPLFERRNV RUHYHQRQOLQHVRFLDOQHWZRUNV January 26, 2012 - March 4, 2012 $5'(/*DOOHU\RI0RGHUQ$UW www.ardelgallery.com M L Toy Xoomsai An exhibition to honour the pioneer of nude photography in 7KDLODQG Âł1RWSRUQRJUDSKLF PDQWKH\ÂśUHQXGHV´ 0/7R\ÂśVQXGHVDUH PXFKPRUHWKDQSLFWXUHVRIQDNHGPRGHOV WKH\DUHDFWVRIGHÂżDQFHDJDLQVWWKHSRZHURI the fascist state and its imposed social order. 7KH\UHĂ&#x20AC;HFWWKHDUWLVWÂśVFRXUDJHWRSXEOLFO\ H[SORUHWKHEHDXW\RI7KDLZRPHQWKHPRGHOVÂś FRQÂżGHQFHLQWKHLUERGLHVDQG7KDLPDOH fantasies concerning the opposite sex. 7 January â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 26 February 2012 ZZZNDWKPDQGXENNFRP

Yutaka Koyanagi -DQXDU\Âą)HEUXDU\ .HQML7DNL*DOOHU\ ZZZNHQMLWDNLFRP

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Korean version WX[—

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㙸⏼⢰G䑜㊌SG⫼䀴䐹G☥G␘ⵝ⮨㡸G⬕㙸㚰G䚼␘UGἬG⒉⺸㜄G㫴ἼG⇨ᴴG␘ⵝ⮨㜄G㢨䚨⓸⪰Gᴴ㫴ḔSG 㜠⤠G㇠⣀☘㡸G⯜㙸G㢰㡸G㫸䚽䚌⏈G㜡䚔㡸G䚔G㍌G㢼᷀G═GᶷGᵍ␘UG xUG⽀⣐☐㢌G♈⤽䉤⦐㉐G䚜‌G㢰䚌ḔG㢼⏈G㇠⣀☘㡸G㛨⛯᷀G⯜㡸G㍌G㢼㛼⏈ᴴf X≸G㤸SG⇌㝴G䛼㉥㨴㢨⢰⏈G㾐ẠᴴG䚜‌G♈⴬䋔⪰G㐐㣅䚼␘UGἬ⫠ḔGἬG㞬㢌G㝘䘼⮘ⶸG㜠㉣G⮹㡴G ⇨ᴴG㫵㥅G䚐G⮹G䚐G⮹G㋄㡸G⇨ⴴ㛨G♈⴬䋔㢌G㐑ẠᴴG╌ὤ⪰G㥐㙼䚼␘UG⇌⏈GⱰ⦔G⮘ⶸ☘G⯜▄G ㏘⊬㟤⸨☐ᴴG∼ⱨG㦿㙸㉐G⯜㢬G㾐Ạ☘㢨␘UG㐠㫴㛨G㣠ⱨḴ⫠⇌G㜵㛹GḴ⥜G㢰㡸G䚌㐐⏈G⺸☘⓸G ㏘⊬㟤⸨☐⪰G㫄Ὠ␘UGᵍ㢨G㢰䚌ὤG㠸䚨GἬ☘㡸G㉘☑䚨㚰䚼ὤG⸨␘⏈G⯜▄G㫴Ἴ㢌G♈⴬䋔㝴G ᵍ㡴G䟀㇠⪰G⃼℈㞈ὤG⚀ⱬ㜄G㏘㏘⦐G⯜㜴␘UG♈⴬䋔⏈G䜸㣠Gἐ⯜ᴴGₘG䆠᷀G㉥㣙䚌ḔG㢼㫴⬀SG Ἤ⤻␘ḔG♥♥䚌ḔGἐ㥉䞈═G䟀㇠Gᵍ㫴⏈G㙾␘UG❄GἬ⤻␘ḔG䚍㈑┍㙸⫠Gᵍ㡴G㙸⫼㻈㛨GἬ⨭⓸G 㙸⏼␘UG㦿㙸㉐G⯜㢨ḔSG㫄ᶵ᷀G㢰䚔G㍌G㢼⏈G㢨ㇵ㤵㢬G䐴㡸G㢨⨜ḔG㢼␘ḔG㈑ᴵ䚐␘UG xUG㏘⊬㟤⸨☐⏈Gᷜ㟬G䚐G㐐㫀㜄Gᴴ㣙G㢬ὤᴴG㢼⏈⒤SG␘⪬G᷸㤼㜄⏈G㛨⛘G㢰㡸G䚌⏈ᴴf 䜸㣠ᾀ㫴⏈G㏘⊬㟤⸨☐Gㇵ䖼㢨G㨰㢨ὤG⚀ⱬ㜄G䟀㇠ᴴGᷜ㟬㡸G㩅㐠㡰⦐G㟨㜵╌ḔG㢼␘UGἬ⤠⇌G ᷜ㟬G㢨㞬㜄⓸G䚡ㇵGⵈㆌ␘UG㟤⫠ᴴG㻈Ạ䚌⏈Gⵝ䛙㡴G⢰㢨䘸㏘䇴㢰G㙸㢨䊐㡸G▄⨜G␘⨜⏈Gᶷ㢨ὤG ⚀ⱬ㜄G㫴㋁㤵㡰⦐Gㇼ⦐㟨Gㇵ䖼ḰG㢨ⷘ䏬G☥㡸G㨴⽸䚌ḔG㢼␘UG⇌㩅㜄⏈G㇠⣀☘㢨G㢰G≸G⇨⇨G 䙸㟈⦐G䚌⏈G㙸㢨䊐☘㡸G␘⨜⮨㉐SG㢰G≸G┍㙼G㥉㐔㛺㢨G㡔㟝䚐Gㇵ䖼㡸G⬀☐⏈Gᶷ㢨G⯝䖐㢨␘UGY ≸G㥉⓸G䟸㜄⏈G㉐䚅㢨⇌GⱰ⊴㢨㝴GḴ⥜═G㜠⪸G㐐㫀Gㇵ䖼ḰG㏘⊬㟤⸨☐SG㏘䇘㝴Gᵍ㡴Gᷜ㟬G㐐㫀G ㇵ䖼SGἬ⫠ḔG䓽㋀㜄G㢹㡸G㍌G㢼⏈G㢌⪌⇌G㙹㉬㇠⫠Gㇵ䖼G☥⓸G㣌Gᵊ㻤㥬G㢼㡸Gᶷ㡰⦐G㜼ㇵ═␘UG xUG♈⴬䋔Gㇵ䖼☘㢌Gㇽᵄ㢨⇌G䊁㏘㸄ᴴG⬘㟤G㢬ㇵ㤵㢨␘UG♈⴬䋔⬀㢌GㇽḰG䊁㏘㸄⪰G⬀☘G⚀G 㩅㥄㡸G▄⏈Gᶷ㡴Gⱨ㛻㢬ᴴf 䞈⥘䚐G㠄ㇽ㢨G⌼㜄Gᴴ㣙G㣌G⡸ὤ⏈G䚌㫴⬀SG♈⴬䋔ᴴG㈑ᴵ䚌⏈G䞈⥘䚜㡴G㫸䚐G㠄ㇽG⸨␘⏈G㇨㬑G 䚐G䋘㢨G␘㟨╌ᶤ⇌G㝘ⶸ═Gㇽ㢨␘UG㢀㐑㡰⦐G♤㫴⮨SG⇔G㢀㐑⸨␘⏈G㇨㬑G㢩䣀G㢀㐑㢨G㇠⣀☘㢨G 䢕㍌䚌ὤ㜄G㎱␘UG⤤㾡䚼⒌G㷟G㐐㫀㜄⏈G䝉ṅㇽḰG䑀㏘䊈G䋘㡸Gⵤㇽ䚌㜠G㝘ⱌ䚐G⏄⇀㡸G㇨⥬␘UG Ἤ⫠ḔG㢨ⶼG▄Gⶼ㬬G㐐㫀㜄⏈G㜠ὤ㜄G⽈⣍SG⽀⢰㟨SGⷔ㢨㫴G☥G䏬⥀♈䚐G䀠⤠⪰Gⴭ㏘G⬘㾡䚌㜴␘UG ㏘⊬㟤⸨☐G䑜㊌G⺸㚰㜄㉐GXW≸G㥉⓸G㢰㡸G䚌⮨㉐SG㇠⣀☘㜄᷀G㦿㡴Gⵌ㢅㡸G㛯⏈Gㇽ㜄G␴䚨G ㈑ᴵ䚔G㍌G㢼㛼␘UG㇠⣀☘㢌G⌼㜄Gᴴ㣙G⭰㤴G⡸⥘⮨G⭿㫸G♈㣄㢬㡸G䚌⏈Gᶷ⓸G㩅㟈䚌㫴⬀SG ㇽᵄ㢌G㉔䈑㢨G⒈㟥G㩅㟈䚌␘UG⽀⣐☐㢌G䏭㬉㤵㢬G䀠⤠⪰G⬀☐⏈Gᶷ㢨GḛG⽀⣐☐㢌G㈑⮹⥙ḰG ᵍ␘ḔG㈑ᴵ䚐␘UG♈⴬䋔⏈G㢰␜Gㇽᵄ㢌G䏭㉥㡰⦐G㇠⣀☘㢌G㐐㉔㡸Gↀ㫴⬀SGἬG㞬㜄⓸G㐘㥐⦐G 㝫㡸G㢹㛨⹘㡸G⚀G⏄↸G㍌G㢼⏈G♈䊀㢰䚐G⺴⺸ᾀ㫴G㐔ᷱ㡸G⬂㢨G㘤ḔG㢼␘UG㏘⊬㟤⸨☐G䑜㊌㡴G ♈㣄㢬㡴GⱰ⦔G⠤㛨⇐Gὤ⏙㉥⓸Gᷬ⽸䚨㚰䚌ὤG⚀ⱬ㜄G⺴㣄㣠G䚌⇌䚌⇌㜄⓸G⓹㣄㤵㢬G♈㣄㢬㡸G 䚐␘UGᶽ㡰⦐G☘㛨⇌㫴G㙾⏈G♈䊀㢰☘㢨GḔᵑ☘㜄᷀G㣈㣈䚐Gᵄ┍㡸G㨸G㍌G㢼⓸⦑G⊬⥙䚌ḔG㢼␘UGG xUG♈⴬䋔⏈G␜㍐䢼G㝫㄄⬀G㙸⏼⢰G㏘䔠㽔SG㢀㙹SG␴㩅㜼㍔SG㜵ㇵSGἬ⣌䙱G♈㣄㢬SG䑀䐤ⱬ䞈GG☥G ␘㛅䚐G㣙⪨㜄GḴ㐠㡸G⸨㢨⏈GᶷGᵍ␘U ㏘⊬㟤⸨☐㄄⬀G㙸⏼⢰SG㢀㙹⓸G∼ⱨG䚌ḔG㐪㛼⒌G㛨⫤G㐐㤼㢨G㢼㛼␘UGἬ⤠⇌G㢰␜G⇌㢌G⯝䖐⪰G ㏘⊬㟤⸨☐GḴ⥜G㇠㛹㡸G䚌⏈Gᶷ㡰⦐Gᷤ㥉䚼ḔSG㢀㙹㜄G␴䚐G⃼㡴G䓰㾌㫴⏈G⯯䚼␘SGἬG䟸㜄⓸G ᷸㋁G⴬⥜㢨G⇜㙸㢼㛼⏈⒤SG㏘⊬㟤⸨☐G⽀⣐☐⪰G䚌⮨㉐⓸G␘㛅䚐GⳘ㫴㊌ḰG♈㥐㢨☘Ḱ㢌G Ẅ⪌ᴴGᴴ⏙䚼␘UG⇌⏈GἬG㾐Ạ☘㡸G䋩䚨G␴⫠G⬀㦥㡸G䚌ḔG㢼⏈GᶷGᵍ␘UG⒈㟥㢨G㜼㷨⏙G⺸㚰㢌G ㇠⣀☘㡴G㉐⦐GẄᵄ䚌ὤᴴG㎠㟨GᶷGᵍ␘UG⴬㍔SG㢀㙹SG㏘䔠㽔G☥㢨G䚐G㟬䇴⫠G㙼㜄G㢼ḔGἬG᷸ᷱ⪰G ⇌⌸ὤᴴG㛨⥩␘UGἬ⣌㉐G♈⴬䋔㜄㉐G㢨⤤G㜠⤠G⺸㚰㜄GḴ㐠㡸Gᴴ㫴ḔG䟸㠄䚌ḔG㢼⏈Gᶷ㡴G∼ⱨ⇌G ␭㜤䚌␘⏈G⏄⇀㢨G☔␘UG xUG䝼䓌㢨㫴㜄㉐G}šœˆ“¡Œ⢰⏈G㾨䊀Ḕ⫠⪰G⸨⮨G⬘㟤G㣠⴬㢼⏈G♈⴬䋔⬀㢌G㢨⴬㫴☘㡸G⸰G㍌G 㢼␘UG ♈⴬䋔⢰⏈G⽀⣐☐⮹㢨⇌G䋕䋕G䎴⏈G♈㣄㢬㡸G⸨⮨Gṽ㣙䢼G㤾ḔG㛨♈⦐G䎼㫴G⯜⪰GᶷGᵍ㡴G ⏄⇀㢨G☔␘UGἬ⤠⇌G㤼␴Gᴴ⸁㫴⬀㡴G㙾㡴G⏄⇀㡸G㨰ḔG㐪␘UGἬ⣌㉐GἬ⣌䙱㢨⇌G⽸㨰㛰G ⺴⺸㜄㉐⏈G㙸㢨䂌SG⦐ḔG䚌⇌䚌⇌㜄⓸G㢌⴬⪰Gᴴ㫴ḔG⬀☔␘UG␜㍐䢼G䙸㟈㜄G㢌䚨G⬀☐⏈G 㢨⴬㫴⸨␘⏈GἬG㙼㜄G㏘䋔⫠ᴴG␨㡴G㢨⴬㫴⪰G㉔䝬䚐␘UG⇌㩅㜄G⽀⣐☐ᴴG⒈Gⵐ㤸䚌⮨GἬ┍㙼G 㑇㙸㝜G䢼㏘䋔⫠ᴴG㩅㟈䚨㫼Gᶷ㢨␘UG㢨G⽀⣐☐ᴴG␜᷸ⷸ⦐G㛨⛘G䢼㏘䋔⫠⪰G㫴⏼ḔG㞈⏈㫴⪰G 䠋⇔G⸨㜠㨸G㍌G㢼ὤG㠸䚨㉐G⯜☔G⽸㨰㛰㤵㢬G⺴⺸㜄G⡯㡸Gᴴ㫴ḔG㫸䚽䚌ḔG㢼␘U xUG♈⴬䋔⏈G㏘⊬㟤⸨☐G㉔㍌☘㜄᷀G␘㛅䚐G䟸㠄㡸G䚌ḔG㢼⏈⒤SG㢨㜄G␴䚨G㢨㚰ὤ䚨G␠⢰U ♈⴬䋔㝴G᷸㚱㡸G䚐G㏘⊬㟤⸨☐G㉔㍌☘㢨G㏘Ɒ␘㉣G⮹G㥉⓸G㢼␘UGạᴴ␴䖐G㉔㍌⓸G㢼ḔG䘸⦐G ⯯㫴㙾㡴G㙸⫼㻈㛨G㉔㍌☘㢨G㢼␘UG♈⴬䋔ᴴG㈑Ὠ㫴GX≸Gⵊ㜄G╌㫴G㙾㚌㫴⬀SGἬG㥉⓸G㢬㠄㢌G ⢰㢨⒈☘㡸G䟸㠄䚌ḔG㢼␘⏈Gᶷ㡴Gṽ㣙䢼G⬂㡴G䍠㣄⪰G䚌⏈Gᶷ㢨⢰ḔG㈑ᴵ䚐␘UG♈⴬䋔㢌G䟸㠄㡸G ⵏ㡰⮨㉐G㏘⊬㟤⸨☐⪰G㫄ὤ⏈G㉔㍌☘㢨G♈⴬䋔㜄G␴䚨G㣄ὁ㐠㡸Gᴴ㫴ḔG㦿㙸䚨㨰ḔG㢼␘UG ⒉⺸㜄G㏘⊬㟤⸨☐G㐔㜄㉐G♈⴬䋔ᴴG㝠Gᷜ㟬㜄G䞉㐘䢼G㣌G㚀⥘㫴᷀G╔GᶷGᵍ␘UG㛨♈ᴴ⇌G⌼㢨G 㢼⏈Gḧ㜄⏈G♈⴬䋔㝴G♈⴬䋔㢌G㉔㍌☘㢨G㢼ὤ⪰Gὤ␴䚐␘UGYWX_≸G┍᷸㝠⫰䙱G⚀G㟤⫠⇌⢰G ạᴴ␴䖐䐴㜄G♈⴬䋔ᴴG䟸㠄䚌⏈G⢰㢨⒈ᴴG㵬ᴴ䚌ḔSGἬG⢰㢨⒈ᴴG⮈␠㡸G♤᷀G═␘⮨GἬᶷG⬀䆰G ⇨ᴴG䚌⏈G㢰㜄G㢼㛨㉐G⒈G㢨ㇵ㢌G㜵ṅ㢨G㛺㡸GᶷGᵍ␘UG xUG㟤⫠⇌⢰㢌G㏘⊬㟤⸨⒈☘㡴G㉬᷸㤵㡰⦐G㛨⏄G㍌㨴㜄G㢼⏈ᴴf 㟤⫠⇌⢰㜄㉐G┍᷸G㝠⫰䙱G㡔㾌ᴴG䞉㥉═G䟸⦐G㟤⫠⇌⢰㢌G┍᷸G㏘䔠㽔G㍌㨴㢨G⋆㙸㥬㚰䚐␘⏈G ⺸㠸ὤᴴG㦤㉥╌ḔG㢼␘UGἬ⤠⇌G㏘⊬㟤⸨☐⏈G㞬ạ㜄㉐G㐐㣅═Gⱬ䞈㢨ὤ⓸䚌ḔSG䚐ạ㡴G㞬ạG ⸨␘G⌼㢨G㝘⏈G㐐ὤᴴGṽ㣙䢼G㬛␘UGἬ⤤G㜨㙹䚐G䞌ᷱ㦤ᶨ㜄㉐G㟤㠈䚌᷀G⬀☘⥘⮨G㐐ᴸ㢨G㦤ἼG 䙸㟈䚌㫴G㙾㡸ᾀG㈑ᴵ═␘UG㙸㫵ᾀ㫴⏈G㉬᷸㤵㢬G㍌㨴㡴G㙸⏼㫴⬀SG┍᷸G㝠⫰䙱㡸G᷸ὤ⦐G䜸㣠G 㟤⫠⇌⢰⓸G┍᷸G㏘䔠㽔⺸㚰㢌G㡔㋀≸☘㡸G㡕㉥䚌⏈G⒤㜄G㐠䜼㡸Gὤ㟬㢨ḔSG⾔⪬G㐐㢰G⇨㜄G 㟤⫠⇌⢰G㉔㍌☘⓸G㉬᷸㤵㢬G㍌㨴㢨G╔Gᶷ㢨⢰ḔGὤ␴䚌ḔG㢼␘UG xUG㚒㡰⦐G♈⴬䋔G⽀⣐☐⪰G䋩䚨G㢨⨜ḔG㐪㡴G᷸䟁㡴Gⱨ㛻㢬ᴴf ZS[≸G㤸ᾀ㫴⬀G䚨⓸Gạ⇨㜄㉐G㚕㊌G㏘䔠㽔㢌G㢌⪌⇌G㣙⽸G☥㡸G㍌㢹G⽀⣐☐㜄G㢌㦨䚼␘UG㛨⛯᷀G ⸨⮨GἰGXW≸G┍㙼G⇨ᴴG㻈㫸䚨㞈⒌G㢰☘㢨G㢨G⺸㚰㜄㉐㢌Gạ⇨G⓸⬘㏘䐥G⽀⣐☐G⻄㡸G㢰㡰䇠G㍌G 㢼㛼␘ḔG㈑ᴵ䚐␘UGἬG㜵䛙㢨Gṽ㣙䢼G⾜⫠G㤸䑀╌㛨㉐SG䜸㣠⏈G㍌㢹⽀⣐☐G⸨␘Gạ⇨G⽀⣐☐㢌G 䑄⬘㍌⣽㢨G⋆㙸㦀␘UG[≸G㤸㜄G⽸䚨Gᶤ㢌GⵥGⵤG㢨ㇵ㢌G㉥㣙⪔㡸G⸨㢬␘UG㫴ἼG㻈㉬⦐G⸬␘⮨G 䛙䟸G⮻G≸G㢨⇨㜄Gạ⇨⽀⣐☐ᴴG㍌㢹⽀⣐☐⸨␘G㇠⣀☘㜄᷀G㟤㠈䚌᷀G㢬㐑╔G㍌G㢼㡸GᶷGᵍ␘UG Ἤ⤠⇌G㟤⫠⇌⢰㜄㉐G㏘⊬㟤⸨☐G㣙⪨⦐G㢨⨤G㍌G㢼⏈G㢰☘㡴G䚐᷸ᴴG㢼␘UG㢰␜㡴GἬG㺐Ḕ㾌㢌G 䚐᷸ᾀ㫴G㺐␴䚐G⓸㤸䚨G⸰G㈑ᴵ㢨␘UGạ⇨G㏘⊬㟤⸨☐G㐔㜄㉐G♈⴬䋔ᴴG㺐Ḕ㢌G㠸㾌ᾀ㫴Gᴴ᷀G ╌⮨G䛙䟸㜄⏈Gἴ⦐ⷀG⫼䀴䐹㡸G㥐␴⦐G䚔G᷸䟁㢨␘UG❄SG␘⪬G㏘䔠㽔G㦹⯝㜄⓸GḴ㐠㢨G㢼㛨㉐G\ ≸G㥉⓸G䟸㜄⏈G␴㩅㤵㢬G㏘䔠㽔G㢌⪌⪰G㤸ⵌ㤵㡰⦐G␘⨤G᷸䟁㢨␘UG㠄⣌G⇌⏈G㟉㐠㢨Gṽ㣙䢼G ⬂ḔG䚡ㇵG㜠⤠G⺸㚰㜄GḴ㐠㡸G▄ḔG㢼␘UG㫴Ἴ㢌G♈⴬䋔⏈G⇨ᴴGᴴ㫸G␘ⵝ⮨㢌G⏙⥙㡸G䓰㾔G㍌G

㢼⏈G♥G⬒⏈G㢰㢨␘UG⇌㝴G䚜‌䚌⏈G㇠⣀☘⓸G⇌㷌⤰G㢨G㢰㜄㉐G䚽⸩㡸G⏄↰ὤ⪰Gⵈ⢴␘UG G

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“–œšG—ˆ™’ xUG⤤⒌㜄㉐G㉥ḩ㤵㢬G䚽⸨⪰G⸨㢨␘GXW≸G ⬀㜄G䚐ạ㡰⦐G─㙸㝜G㢨㡔ᴴG㢼⏈ᴴf 䚐ạ㜄G㝘⏼G㇠⣀☘㢨Gᴴ㣙G⭰㤴Gᶨ≘⏈G 㫼ⱬ㢨GἬᶷ㢬⒤UUU䏭ⷸ䚐G㢨㡔ᴴG 㢼␘ὤ⸨␘⏈G㠄⣌Gὤᴸ㡸G㥉䚨▄ḔG ⇌ᴸGᶷ⓸G㙸⏼㫴⬀G㜵㜵G䚐ạ㡸G⛔⇔G ㈑ᴵ㡰⦐G⇌ᴸGᶷ㡴G㙸⏼㛼ḔSG˄㢨㴘G╌⮨G 䚐ạ㜄G─㙸ᴼG⚀ᴴG╄␘˅⏈G㈑ᴵ㢨G☘㛨㉐G ─㙸㞈␘UG⤤⒌㜄㉐G㈑䞐䚌␘G㉐㟬㜄㉐G 㢰䚌⥘⮨G␩␩䚌㫴G㙾ᷔ∄ḔGⱰ㛨⸨⏈G 㢨☘⓸G⬂㡴⒤G␘G㣄ὤ䚌ὤG⇌⪸㢬GᶷGᵍ␘UG 䚐ạ㜄㉐G㏘䇴㢰⫠㏘䏬⦐G㢰䚔G␭㐐㜄G ṽ㣙䢼G㣠ⵀ᷀G㫴⇼␘U

xUGỴạG㇠㫸㤸㢌G㨰㥐ᴴGiv€␘UG䏭ⷸ䢼G ㋀≸㜄GḴ㐠㢨G⬂㡴G㢨㡔ᴴG㢼⏈ᴴf Ỵạ㤸㡸G㛨⛘G㨰㥐⦐G䚔ᾀGḔⴰ䚌⮨㉐G⇌⪰G ᴴ㣙G㣌G䖐䜸䚌ḔSG⇨ᴴGᴴ㣙G㣌G䖐䜸䚔G㍌G㢼⏈Gᶷ㡸G䚨㚰ᷔ␘ḔG㈑ᴵ䚼␘UG⇨ᴴGᴴ㣙G㙸⪸␩␘ḔG ㈑ᴵ䚌⏈Gᶷ㡴G㢬ᴸ㢌G㐔㷨⦐G䏭䢼G㜠㉥㢌Gḕ㉔㡴G㢨G㉬ㇵGⱨ㛻⸨␘G㙸⪸␩␘ḔG㈑ᴵ䚐␘UG 䚌㫴⬀GἬG㝸ⷱ䚐G㙸⪸␘㟴G⚀ⱬ㜄G㝘䢼⥘G⇌㜄᷀⏈G⴬㝸㉥㢌G㙸⪸␘㟴㡸Gᴴ㫸G㋀≸㢨G䢙⴬⦡᷀G ␘ᴴ㝜␘UG⇜㣄㢨⮨㉐⓸G㙸㫵G㝸㤸䚐G⇜㣄⏈G㙸␀SG⺼㝸㤸䚜㢨G㨰⏈G⓹䏭䚐G⺸㠸ὤ⪰Gㄐ㛨⇨⏈G ㋀≸㡸G␨㙸⇨⏈G㣅㛹㡸G㦿㙸䚐␘U xUG㝘⣌═G㜠Ḵ㢨㛼␘ᴴGᵘ⤠⫠Gḩᴸ㡰⦐G㇠㟝╌ḔG㢼⏈G⸨㙼㜠Ḵ㜄G㉐㛅G⯜⒬☘㢌G㇠㫸㢨G ᶬ⥘㢼⏈Gᶷ㢨G㣠⴬㢼␘U 㢨Gḩᴸ㡸G㷌㢀G⸨⏈G㍐ᴸG䚐ạ㢌Gἰ␴Gᶨ㻉ⱰḰG⤤⒌㢌G⯜⒌䚐Gᵄᴵ㢨G㻝─䚌⮨G䢙⴬⦐㟨G ᷤḰᴴG⇌㝠Gᶷ㢨⢰⏈G㈑ᴵ㜄Gⵈ⦐G㤸㐐G㢰㥉㡸G㣕㚌␘UG㜼ㇵ␴⦐G㠸䏬㢼ḔG䏭ⷸ䚐G⺸㠸ὤᴴG 䝉㉥╌㛼ḔGḴ⣀ᵑ㢌Gⵌ㢅⓸G㦿㚌␘UG㠄⣌G㣅㛹㢨ᶨG㤸㐐ᶨG䏭ⷸ䚐Gⱨ☐ᴴGⱯ㛨⇌㝘⏈Gᶷ㡸G 㩅㟈䚌᷀G㈑ᴵ䚐␘U xUG㇠㫸㜄㉐Gᴴ㣙G㩅㟈䚌᷀G㈑ᴵ䚌⏈Gᶷ㢨Gⱨ☐㢬ᴴf Ἤ⤻␘UG㢬Ɒ㇠㫸㡸G㵁㡸G⚀㜄⓸G䖐䜸䚌ḔG㐪㡴Gᶷ㡴G㞬⯜㣄㷨⢰ὤG⸨␘⏈G䚐G㇠⣀㢨Gㄐ㛨⇨⏈G ⺸㠸ὤ␘UG⚀ⱬ㜄G䠀⪡䚐G⯜⒬㢨G╌ὤG㠸䚨㉐⏈G㞬⯜⇌G䔠㪼ᴴG䠀⪡䚐Gᶷ㡸G≌㛨㉐㉐G㣄㐔⬀㢌G ㇽ㢨G㢼⏈G⢰㢨䘸㏘䇴㢰㡸Gᴴ㥬㚰G䚐␘ḔG㈑ᴵ䚌ὤ⓸G䚐␘UG㇠㫸㹠㜵㡸G䚔G⚀㜄⓸G⯜⒬☘㜄᷀GⷸG 㫴㐐⪰G⇨⫠㫴G㙾⏈␘UG㣄㜤㏘⤱᷀G㎠ḔG㢼㡸G⚀SG㢼⏈GἬ␴⦐㢌G⯜㏩GἬG㣄㷨⪰Gᴴ㣙G㙸⪸␩␘ḔG ㈑ᴵ䚐␘UGἬ⣌㉐G㷌㢀G⯜⒬㢨G㝘⮨G㢬���⼤⪰G䚌ᶤ⇌G␴䞈⪰G⇌⌸ὤG㤸㜄G㦤㟝䢼GḴ㵤⺴䉤G䚐␘UG ἬᴴG㢹㡴G㝫㢨⇌G㏩Ḵ㤵㡰⦐G䚌⏈G䚽┍G☥㜄㉐GἬG㇠⣀㢨G㛨⛘G㇠⣀㢬㫴ᴴGㄐ㛨G⇌㝘ḔG⇌⏈G Ἤᶷ㡸G㍐ᴸ䔠㵝䚌⥘ḔG⊬⥙䚌⏈Gᶷ㢨␘UGᵐ㢬㤵㡰⦐G␨ⵤG⇸ㇼ⪰G㦿㙸䚌㫴⓸G㙾ḔG䢕㜤ᴴ⓸G 㙸⏼㫴⬀G␨ⵤ⪰G䙰㟤ḔG㢼⏈G⯜⒬☘㢌G⯜㏩㢨G㇠㫸㜄G⬂㡴Gᶷ⓸Gⱨ☐G⚀ⱬ㢨␘UG␨ⵤ㜤ὤ⪰G ⇨ㄐ⏈G㍐ᴸ㢌G⯜⒬㢌G䖐㥉㢨⇌G㜤ὤ㢌G㙸㟤⢰SGἬGḩὤG㋁㜄G␨ὨGⱨ☐⪰G㦿㙸䚐␘UG xUGṽ㣙䢼G㉠㉬䚐Gᵄ㉥㡸G㫴⏼ḔG㢼⏈GᶷGᵍ␘U ⇨G㇠㫸㡸G⇨G㇠㫸㷌⤰G⏄↰᷀G䚌⏈Gᶷ㢨Gⵈ⦐G㉐㥉㉥㢨␘UG㇠⣀☘㢨G⇨G㇠㫸㜄㉐⏈G␘G㉐㥉㤵㢬G ᵄ㉥㢨GⱯ㛨⇐␘ḔG䚌⒈⢰UG㵁⏈G㇠⣀㢌G⇨⮨㢨Gⵈ⦐G☐⤠⇔G㍌ⵊ㜄G㛺⏈Gᶷ㢨G㇠㫸㢬⒤SG⇨ᴴG 㠄⣌Gṽ㣙䢼G㉠㉬䚌ḔGᵄ㉥㤵㢬G㉥ᷝ㢨␘G⸨⏼G㛨㮈G㍌G㛺⏈GᶷGᵍ␘UGⵈ⅄Gᶷ㢨G㢼␘⮨G㷌㢀㜄G ⽸䚨GἬ⣌⓸G㐠䙀䚌ḔGᶨ㦤䚨㫸G䓬㢨⢰⏈Gᶷ㢨␘UG㷌㢀㜄⏈G䠜㙠Gᵄ㉥㤵㢨ḔG⤠⽈⫠䚼␘UG㐠㫴㛨G Ž™“š䚌␘⏈G⬄⓸G☘㛼␘UG㫴Ἴ㡴G‰– š⢰ḔG䚨㚰G䚔ᾀfG㛨㭀ᶨGḰ䚌᷀G㬅㛨≗⏈Gᶷ⸨␘⏈G 㤼㥐䚌⏈Gᶷ㢨G⒈G⬂㡴Gᶷ㡸G䖐䜸䚨㨴␘⏈Gᶷ㡸G㚀᷀G╌㛼␘U xUG㇠㫸㜄G䓌㢬䐹㡸G⒈䚐Gᶷ㢨G⌼㜄G⡼␘UG㛨⛯᷀G㐐㣅═G㣅㛹㢬ᴴf ㇠㫸㡸G♥G⹘㡸G⚀G˄㤴ὤ㜄G䓌㢬䐹㡸G䚌⮨G⒈G㦤䞈⦐㟨G⏄⇀㢨G⇌ᷔ␘˅⢰⏈G㈑ᴵ㢨G☘㛨㉐G 䚐Gᶷ㢨␘UG⚀ⱬ㜄G䓌㢬䐹㡸G䚌⏈G㇠㫸⓸G㢼ḔGἬ␴⦐G▄⏈G㇠㫸⓸G㢼␘UG䚌⇌䚌⇌㜄G㢌⴬⪰G █␘ὤ⸨␘⏈G㤸㥐㤵㢬GẠ⓸㝴G㦤䞈SGⱨ☐⪰G㩅㐐䚌⏼ᾀU xUG㣅䖼㢨Gᶤ㢌G␘G䢅ⵥ㢨␘UG㢨㡔ᴴG㢼⏈ᴴf 㢨ⶼG㇠㫸㤸㢌G䀜㉽㡴G—–™›™ˆ›㢨␘UGᵐ㢬㤵㡰⦐G㢬Ɒ㇠㫸SGἬG㩅㜄㉐⓸G—–™›™ˆ›⏈G䢅ⵥ㢨GἬG ㇠⣀㡸Gᴴ㣙G㢬ᴸ␩᷀G㣌G䖐䜸䚨G㨴␘ḔG㈑ᴵ䚐␘U xUG㠄⣌⏈G䑜㊌G㏘䇴㢰⫠㏘䏬㜴␘UG㛨⛯᷀G㇠㫸㡰⦐G㝢ὤ᷀G╌㛼⏈㫴GẵἼ䚨G䚌⏈G㇠⣀☘㢨G㢼㡸G ᶷGᵍ␘UG ạ⇨㜄㉐G㏘䇴㢰⫠㏘䏬⦐G^≸㜠ᴸG㢰䚌⮨㉐GZW␴G㸼ⵌ㢨G╌⏼G䡨㐑GᷬG㣠㻝㤸㢌G㐐ᴸ㡰⦐G ㇼ⦐㟨Gḩ⺴⪰G䚨㚰ᷔ␘⏈G㈑ᴵ㢨G☘㛼␘UG㠀⇍G㻐㣙㡸G㣄㨰G␘⏼⏈G㢰㡸G䚌␘G⸨⏼G㞬ạ㜄㉐G ㇠⏈Gᶷ㜄G␴䚐G▄⥘㟴⓸G㛺㛼ὤG⚀ⱬ㜄G㡔䚍㡸Gᴴὤ⦐G䚼␘UG⇨ᴴG㫸䚍䚐G⤤⒌㢌G䚍Ẅ⏈G 䑜㊌Ḱ㜄G㏘䇴㢰⫵ḰG㇠㫸㤸ḩ㢨G㢼㛼⏈⒤G㠄⣌G㏘䇴㢰⫠㏘䏬ᴴG㫵㛹㢨␘G⸨⏼G㏘䇴㢰⫵G 㤸ḩ㡸G䚌⮨㉐G┍㐐㜄G㇠㫸㡸Gⵤ㟤⏈Gᶷ㢨G㛨⥩᷀G⏄
㫴㫴G㙾㚌␘UG䑜㊌G䞈⸨G㇠㫸㡸G㵁㡰⮨㉐G ┍㐐㜄G⇨ᴴG㏘䇴㢰⫵㜄GḴ㜠䚌ḔG⸨䋩㡴G㜄♈䉤☘㢨G䚌⏈G㢰ᾀ㫴GḴ⫠䚌␘⸨⏼G⒈G㢰Ḵ㉥G㢼᷀SG 䖐䜸䚌⥘Ḕ㣄G䚌⏈Gᶷ㡸G㡔㜤䚌᷀Gゅ㙸G⇰G㍌G㢼㛼␘UG㐘㥐⦐G㫴ἼG㡔⤱㜄㉐⏈G䑜㊌G䞈⸨⪰G㵁㡸G ⚀G䔠䋔Ἤ⣌䒰☘㢨G㤸㷨㤵㢬G♈⤽䉤G㜡䚔㡸G䚌⏈Gᷱ㟤ᴴG⏌㛨⇌ḔG㢼␘UG㜵䞈⦐G㾌⮨Gᵄ⓹㢌G 㜡䚔㢨⢸ᾀfG㫴Ἴ⓸G⇌⏈G⇨ᴴG˄䔠䋔Ἤ⣌䒰˅⢰⏈G㈑ᴵ⸨␘⏈G˄䑜㊌G♈⤽䉤˅⢰⏈G㈑ᴵ㢨Gᵉ䚌␘UG ᷤạG㇠㫸⓸G䑜㊌㡸G䖐䜸䚌⏈G㍌␜㢬G㉼㢨␘U xUGἬ⤻␘⮨G䑜㊌㇠㫸G㞬㜄G␘⪬G㇠㫸㡸G䚔G㈑ᴵ㡴G㛺ᷔ␘U ⇌⏈G㐐㣅⺴䉤G㫴Ἴᾀ㫴SGἬ⫠ḔG㚒㡰⦐⓸G䑜㊌᷸䋩㜄G㢼⏈G㇠⣀㢨␘UG㍐㍌㜼㍔㡸G䚌ḔG㐪␘⏈G ㈑ᴵ㡴G䚨G⸬㤵G㛺␘U

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xUG㇠㫸G㞬㜄G␘⪬G㣅㛹㡸G䚔G㈑ᴵ㡴G㛺⏈ᴴf ᷸㋁G䚨㉐G㨴⽸㩅㢨␘UG㤸㐐㜄㉐⓸Gᴸ␜䚌ὤ⏈G䚌㫴⬀G㜵ㇵGㇵ㜵㡸G䚼ḔSG䜸㣠⏈G㣔㐐G㩅␜G ㇵ䈐㢬⒤G䝼䓌㢨㫴⓸G㟨㜵䚌⮨㉐G㫵㥅Gὤ㇠⓸G㝠⫤␘UG␘㛅䚐Gⵝ㐑㡰⦐G䖐䜸䚌⏈Gᶷ㜄GḴ㐠㢨G ⬂ḔG䏭䢼G␘⪬G㜼㍔ᴴ☘ḰG䚜‌G䂐⢰⸨⤼㢨㊌G䚌⏈Gᶷ㜄GḴ㐠㢨G䆠␘UG

ᶷ⓸G㚔⬘䚌㫴G㙾⇌UG⌸Ạ⏈G⮈㢨㤴SG⌸Ạ⏈G㢬♈⦐GẠⷸ䚌⏈Gᶷ㡴GⳘ㫴㊌G㣄㐔㢨⢰ὤ⸨␘⏈Gᶤ␴G ⴬♈㛨G㵸≄㢨⢰ḔG㈑ᴵ䚐␘UGạ⇨㜄G⵨☐㢀㙹㢌G㍌㟈ᴴG㤵␘Ḕ⏈G䚌㫴⬀SGᷤạGἬG㍌㟈G㣄㷨⪰G ⴬♈㛨ᴴG㥉䚐␘UG㢨⪰䊀⮨G㢀㙹䘸⦐Ἤ⣜㜄㉐GẠㇽG⬒㻈ὤ㟝㡰⦐G⵨☐G䚌⇌⪰G≗ḔG˄㢬♈⵨☐⏈G 㢨G㥉⓸⦐G㻝⺸䚌␘˅⢰ḔG㥉䚨ⶸ⫤␘U

xUG㱽G㛌ὤ⪰G☘㛨⸨⮨G㢬ᴸ㜄G␴䚐GḴ㐠㢨G䆠ḔGẄ⪌䚌⏈Gᶷ㡸G㫄ὤ⏈GᶷGᵍ␘U ㇠⣀☘ḰG㛨㟬⫠⏈Gᶷ㡸G㦿㙸䚌⏈⒤G㍔㣄⫠㜄㉐G䚡ㇵG䚌⏈G⬄㢨G㢼␘UG˄㫴ἼG㢨G㍔㣄⫠⪰G㐡㜠G≸G 䟸G㈑ᴵ䚼㡸G⚀Gὤ㛩G㋁㜄G⇜⏈G㇠⣀㢨G╌㣄˅ḔUG㇠⣀㢌Gὤ㛩G㋁㜄G㦨㣠G䚌⏈Gᶷ㢨G㢬㈑㜄㉐Gᴴ㣙G 㢌⴬G㢼⏈G㢰㢨⢰ḔG㈑ᴵ䚐␘U

xUG㢨⴬Gạ⇨㜄㉐⏈G㢨G⺸㚰㜄㉐G㺐Ḕ⦐G㢬㥉㡸GⵏḔG㢼␘UGἬ⤻␘⮨G㢨ⶼG㚜ⷈ㜄㉐G⯝䖐⦐Gㇰ㡴G ᶷ㡴Gⱨ㛻㢬ᴴf 㫴⇐GⶼG㚜ⷈ㜄G⽸䚨G䠜㙠G㉬⥜╌㛨㫴ḔG␘☠㛨㦀␘UGᵐ㢬㤵㡰⦐⏈G㢀㙹G㢬㈑GX\≸㡸SG⵨☐⦐G 㛌ὤ䚌⮨GY≸㜠⪰G⁽G㵸㠀G㛸㷡⇐Gḩ㡸G☘㜠G㣅㛹䚐G㚜ⷈ㢨␘UGḕG䚌⇌ᴴG㝸㉥╌⮨G⮻G㐡Gⶼ㢨ḔG ㍌㥉SG⸨㝸G㣅㛹㡸G䋩䚨G㝸㉥⓸⪰G⋆㜠ᵈ␘UG㢨G㚜ⷈG㣄㷨ᴴG␴䚐ⴰạG”Œ“–‹ŠGz’_G—œ•’㢌GŒ—Š 㢨G╌㛼㡰⮨G㦿ᷔ␘UGἬ⬀䆰G㣄㐔⓸G㢼␘UG㤾㡴G䓅䆠䇘☐☘㢨G⬂㢨G☘㛨㨰⮨G㦿ᷔḔG⬘⏼㙸⪰G ≌㛨㉐G⬂㡴G㢨☘㜄᷀G㟤⫠㢌G㢀㙹㡸G㚀⫨G㍌G㢼⏈G᷸ὤᴴG╌⮨G㦿ᷔ␘U

xUG㤾㡴G㾐Ạ☘ḰG⬂㢨G㛨㟬⫤␘ḔG☘㛼␘U 䏭䢼G㵱㢌㤵㢨ḔGⵌ㬑㢨⏈G㤾㡴G㜼㍔ᴴ☘ḰGẄ⪌䚌⏈Gᶷ㡸G㫄Ὠ␘UG㟤⫠⇌⢰㜄⏈G㣠⏙㢨G㵜ḔG ≌㾌⏈G㤾㡴G㜼㍔ᴴG㾐Ạ☘㢨G⬂㡴⒤GἬᶷ㡸G㚀⫨G㍌G㢼⏈G䋩⦐ᴴG⬂㡴GᶷGᵍ㫴G㙾㙸G㙼䇴ᾑ␘UG ⇨G㜡⣽㢨G╌⏈G䚐GἬ☘㡸G㢨ↀ㛨G㨰ḔG㐪␘U xUG㚒㡰⦐㢌G᷸䟁㡸G⬄䚨G␠⢰U 㜠⤠G⬘㷨㝴G䑜㊌G䞈⸨G☥㡴G᷸㋁G㫸䚽䚔Gᶷ㢨ḔSGὤ㛹ḰG䚜‌Gㇵ䖼㜄G⇨G㣅䖼㡸G⒈䚌⏈G 䂐⢰⸨⤼㢨㊌⓸G㛌ὤᴴG⇌㝘ḔG㢼␘UGᵐ㢬㤸⓸G⭬㫴㙾㡴G⴬⣌㜄G❄G䚔G᷸䟁㢨␘UGἬ⫠ḔG䚐ạ㜄G Ỵạ䚼㡰⏼ᾀG㢨ḧ㜄㉐G㫄ὬG㍌G㢼⏈Gᶷ☘㡸G⌸⫠⮨㉐G㇠⣀☘ḰG㛨㟬⫨G㜼㥉㢨␘UG㫄ᶵ᷀G㇠⏈G ᶷ㢨G㦿␘UG

xUG㚒㡰⦐Gḩ㜤᷸䟁㢨G㛨⛘ᴴU 䚐ạ㜄㉐⏈G㦤Ἤ⫼䚐G㋀Ἥ㣙㢌Gḩ㜤☘㢨G⮻GᵐG㣕䜴㢼ḔSG㝠G㸼㜄G␘㐐G㢰⸬G䍠㛨⪰G䚔G㜼㥉㢨␘UG 㤸㜄⏈G⌸ᴴG⺼⤠G㨰㫴G㙾㙸⓸G㟤⫠ᴴG⭰㤴G㵲㙸ᵈ␘⮨SG㢨㥐⏈GἬ㯱㜄㉐G㟤⫠⪰G㚀㙸⸨ḔG⭰㤴G 㸼㷡䚐␘UGἬ⫠ḔG䟀㐠㢌G㚜ⷈ㢨⏼⬀䆰G⬂㡴G㢨☘㜄᷀G␘ᴴᴴὤG㠸䚨G␘ᴵ⓸㜄㉐G⊬⥙䚔Gᶷ㢨␘U xUG⵨☐G㏘䏬⢰㢨䀘㏘⏈G㚒㡰⦐G㛰⫼⇌G⒈G㢨㛨ᴼGᶷGᵍ⇌f ⮘ⶸ☘㢨⣅G♥䢼GἬ⤤G㛌ὤ⪰G䚨G⸬G㤵㡴G㛺⏈⒤SG㟤⫠ᴴGⱨ␴㜄G㉐ὤG⏍㛼␘ḔG㈑ᴵ䚌ὤG 㤸ᾀ㫴⏈G᷸㋁G䚌㫴G㙾ᷔ⇌U

W^YTW^Z—

{ŒGz›™’Œ™š xUG\≸㢨⢰⏈GₘGὨG䉴㡸G▄ḔGY㬅㢨Gⵐ⬘G ╌㛼␘UGἬ┍㙼Gⱨ㛻㡸G䚌⮤G㫴⇼⇌f ␘⪬G㾐Ạ☘㡴G䏼䏼㢨G㣄ὤG㢰㡸G䚌⮤G 㢀㙹㡸G㨴⽸䚌ḔG㢼㛼ḔSG⇌⏈G⵨☐G ⤼㢨㫴⸬ḰG㾨䙰⭬㐔㜄㉐G䞐┍䚌␘G⇌㩅㜄G 䚝⪌䚼␘UGἬG䟸㜄G㢰⸬Gᴵ㫴⪰G─⮤Gḩ㜤㡸G 䚌⮤G㢀ⵌG㣅㛹㡸G䚼␘UG㢀ⵌ㡴GY≸㡸Gᶤ㢌G ⁽G㵸㠀G㣅㛹䚼␘UGㇵ␭䚐Gḩ㡸G☘㜴␘UG

xUG㢰⸬㜄㉐㢌Gḩ㜤G䍠㛨⏈G㛨⛯᷀G 㢨⨸㦀⏈㫴fG ⵨☐G㏘䏬⢰㢨䀘㏘⏈G䓅䆠⪰G⽸⦣SG␘㛅䚐G 㣙⪨㢌G㉐⽀G䀠㸄Gⱬ䞈⪰G㠸䚨Gⱽ㾐G 㡔⏼㝜㠜㢨G䆠⨜G㋀㋁㢨␘UG㡔⏼㝜㠜㢨ᴴG 㢰⸬㢌G㢬♈G⤼㢨⽈ḰG㾐⺸㡸G㑇㡰⮨㉐G 㢰⸬㜄㉐Gḩ㜤䚔Gὤ䟀ᴴG㈑ᷰ␘UG♤⦐G ㏘䔤㉐⏈G㛺ὤG⚀ⱬ㜄G㜠㡔⦐㟨G㢰㥉㡸G 㬘G㍌G㛺㛨㉐G䚐GⶼG≌㛨ᴴ⮨G䚐G␠㜄GY\䟀Gᴴ⣽Gḩ㜤䚌⮤G㤸ạ㡸G─㚌␘UGㇵ␭䢼Gⶸᶤ㟨G 㢰㥉㢨㛼㫴⬀G㣠⴬㢼㛼␘U xUG”Œ“–‹ŠGz’_G—œ•’㜄G㥉䋩䚐G䐴㢨␘UG”Œ“–‹ŠGz’_G—œ•’⏈G㢰ⵌG䓅䆠㝴G㛨⛯᷀G␘⪬ᴴf ㎱᷀G⬄䚌⮨GὬᶤ⫠㜄㉐G㏘䀴㢨䏬G䇴⮨㉐G☗⏈G䓅䆠⢰ḔG㈑ᴵ䚌⮨G═␘UG⁡G㏘䀴㢨䏬⪰G䇼G䙸㟈⏈G 㛺㫴⬀G䑜㊌G☥G⢰㢨䘸㏘䇴㢰G㣄㷨⪰G㙸㟤⪨⏈G㏘䀴㢨䏬Gⱬ䞈㜄G㋁䚨G㢼⏈SG㏘䏬⫠䏬G䀠㸄G㩅G 䚌⇌␘UG㡔⥘䚐G⮐⦐♈㝴G⾔⪬G䊐䔠ᴴG䏭㬉㢨␘UG xUGạ⇨⏈G”Œ“–‹ŠGz’_G—œ•’G㙠㢨G≇㫴G㙾␘UG㢰⸬㡴G㛨⛘ᴴf ”Œ“–‹ŠGz’_G—œ•’G㣄㷨ᴴG␴㩅㤵㢬G㣙⪨⏈G㙸⏼㫴⬀Gὤ⸬㤵㡰⦐G␘㛅䚐G㣙⪨㢌G㙠㢨G䚐ạḰ⏈G ⽸Ẅ⓸G㙼G╌᷀G䆠␘UG䞁␴⸨␘G䆤Gἐ⯜㢌G㙠㢨G㤸ạ㢌GᴵG㫴ⵝ⫼␘Gⵐ␠䚨G㢼ḔGἬG㫴㜡㜄㉐G 㢬ὤᴴG⋆㡴G⦐䀠⵨☐ᴴG㍌⓸G㛺㢨G⬂␘UGἬ⤤Gḧ㜄㉐Gḩ㜤㡸G䚌␘G⸨⏼Gᷱ㣵㐠G⽸㏫䚐Gᶷ㢨G ㈑ᷜG⒈G㾌㜨䚨㦀ḔGὤ⣽⓸G㦿㙸㦀␘UG㢨㥐⏈G㢰⸬G⇨㜄㉐G䓅䆠㜄GḴ㐠G㢼␘G䚌⏈G㇠⣀☘㡴G㟤⫠G ⵨☐㢌G㢨⪸㡸G㙸⏈G㥉⓸㢌G㢹㫴⪰Gᵊ᷀G╌㛼␘U xUGạ⇨㜄G─㙸㝴G\≸G⬀㜄Gⵐ⬘䚐G㚜ⷈ㜄㉐G㥐㢰G⌼㜄G⡸⏈Gᶷ㡴Gᴴ㇠ᴴGᶤ㢌G㜵㛨⦐G 㢨⨜㛨㦀␘⏈Gᶷ㢨␘UG㢨㡔ᴴG㢼⇌U 㟤⫠⏈G㥉䋩G”Œ“–‹ŠGz’_G—œ•’⪰G䚌⏈G⵨☐㢨␘UGἬ⤤G㝘⫠㫴≄⫠䐤⪰G㚀㙸⸨ḔG㵲⏈G㢨☘㡴G 㤸㉬᷸㜄G䒰㥬G㢼␘UG㟤⫠㢌G㢀㙹㡸Gạ㤵G⺼ⱬ䚌ḔG⬂㡴G㢨☘㢨G☘㛨㩠㡰⮨G䚌⏈G⫼㢀㜄Gᴴ㇠⏈G ╌⓸⦑G㜵㛨⦐G㘤⥘ḔG䚐␘UG㇠㐘G㟤⫠ᴴG㜵㛨⪰GἬ⤻᷀G㣌G䚌⏈G䓬㡴G㙸⏼⢰G㉿㢨G⯜㜠G㙽㙸G ᴴ㇠⪰G⡣㛨GḔ㾌⮨㉐G⊬⥙㡸G⬂㢨G䚐␘U xUG㚜ⷈG䇴㢨䏴㢨G˄šŠ™Œˆ”•ŽG –œ›˅␘UGⷸ⦐G㙼G㤾㣊㙸fG⢰ḔGⵌⱬ䚌⏈G㇠⣀☘⓸G㢼㡸GᶷGᵍ␘UG Ɒ⦔G⇨ᴴG⸨ὤ㜈G㤾㫴⬀UG㏘㏘⦐G㷡㻌㢨⢰ḔG㈑ᴵ䚌⏈ᴴf 䓅䆠G㣄㷨ᴴG㤾㡴G㢀㙹㢨⏼ᾀSG㇠㐘G䆤GḔⴰG㛺㢨G㥉䚐G㚜ⷈG䇴㢨䏴㢨␘UG㟤⫠G㢀㙹G㣄㷨⓸G㤾㡸G ㄄G㙸⏼⢰Gⱨ␴㜄㉐㢌G㚕㊌SG㜄䐤䏐☐G㣄㷨㜄㉐G㤾㢀㢨G☐⤠⇌㚰G䚐␘ḔG㈑ᴵ䚐␘UG㢨㯱㜄㉐⏈G ⇨ᴴGᶤ㢌GX㉬␴⢰SG㜤㣙㣄㜄G㋁䚌ὨG䚌㫴⬀G㙸㫵G㤾㫴G㙾㡴ᴴfGⱨ␴㜄㉐G⠤ḔG㋀⫠㾌ḔGἬ⤤G ᶷ㡸G⯯䚌⏈G⇌㢨ᴴG╌⮨G⵨☐㜄㉐GⱰ⤠⇌㚰ᷔ␘ḔG㈑ᴵ䚌ḔG㢼␘UG xUG㏘䏬⫠䏬䀠㸄㝴G䚝㸄㫸G䓅䆠⢱㢨⢰G㙹┍G㢨⴬㫴ᴴGᵉ䚐⒤SG˄ⱨ㦤ᶨG␘G⺴㍌ḔG⸨㣄˅㢌G ⏄⇀⸨␘⏈G㫸㫴䚌᷀GḔⴰ䚌ḔG㢼␘⏈G⏄⇀㢨Gᵉ䚌␘U ㏘䀴㢨䏬G䇴⏈G㚔☘G⸨⮨G␴⺴⺸G㵝䚌␘UG㢩㏘䏬⫰G㏘䔠㽔⢰G㏘⫨㡸G㫄ὤ⮨㉐⓸G㋁㡸G⸨⮨G ㍐▙㢨␘UG㷡㻌㢨⢰⮨G⌸Ạ⇌G䚔Gⷉ䚐GḔⴰ☘㡸G䚌⏈G㫸㫴䚐G㷡㻌☘㢨␘UG㟤⫠G㢀㙹㜄⓸G㫸㫴䚌᷀G ㇪㡸G␘㐐G䚐GⶼG─㙸⸨᷀G䚔SG⌸Ạ⢰⓸Gḩᵄ䚔G㍌G㢼⏈GḔⴰ㢨G⊭㙸☘㛨G㢼␘U xUG㉐⽀䀠㷌㜄G㋁䚨G㢼⏈⒤SG⒈G⬂㡴G㢨☘ḰGẄ⪌䚌ὤG㠸䚨G⮈㢬㏘䏬⫰㡰⦐G㫸㻐䚌⥘⏈G㈑ᴵ㡴G 㛺⏈ᴴf ␭㜤䢼G⬂㡴G␴㩅ḰG㋀䋩䚌ḔG㟤⫠G㢀㙹㡸G㚀⫠ḔG㐪ḔSGἬᶷ㡸G䚐Gⶼ⓸G䔠ὤG䚐G㤵G㛺␘UG␘⬀G⒈G 㣌G⭭䢼ὤG㠸䚨G㝘⫠㫴≄⫠䐤⪰G䢠㉑㐐䇘⥘G䚌㫴G㙾㡸G㄄㢨␘UG㇠㐘G⮈㢨㤴㝴G㢬♈⪰GẠ⺸䚌⏈G

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㥬G⬂㢨G ㇠㟝䚐␘SG㜼⪰G☘㛨SG㜠㉥䞈㣙䖼GṅḔ㜄G䚐G㜠㣄ᴴG㙸⪸␩᷀G⸨㜠㚰G䚌⏈G㢨⴬㫴㜄Gᷜ☐⣅㢨㢌G 䉬㢨GḰ䚌᷀G⸨㢨⏈Gᷱ㟤G㢨⪰G䔠䋔㈩㡰⦐G㥉⫠G䚌㫴G⯯䚐Gᶷ㢨⢰☔㫴SG㋁㝫G⽀⣌㢨㫴㛨GṅḔ㜄G 㡔▄ᴴGἬ␴⦐G⽸㸄G⸨㢨⏈GᶷḰGᵍ㢨G㛨㮈G㍌G㛺㢨G⸨㜠㫴⏈G⫠㛰G㢨⴬㫴☘㡴G⇌㢌G㦿㡴G㋀㣠ᴴG ═␘UG㢨⤻☣G㢩㍍䚐GᶷGᵍ㫴⬀G⇣㉔G㢨⴬㫴☘G㇠㢨㜄㉐G⇌⏈Gㇼ⦐㟨G㐐ᴵ㤵㢬Gᷱ䜌㡸G䚌᷀G ═␘UGἬ⣌䙱G㣅㛹G❄䚐G㢨⤠䚐G㜼☘ḰGᵍ㢨G⇣㉔Gᷱ䜌㜄㉐G⏄
㫴⏈G䑜䉨☘㡸G㨰⦐G⬀☘ḔG㢼␘UG 㛨⛯᷀G⸨⮨GḰ㣙╌ḔGᶤ㬇═G㢨⴬㫴☘㢨G㟤⫠G⌼㜄⏈G␭㜤㐐G╌㛨G㞈ὤG⚀ⱬ㜄SG䝭㡴G㥉䝉䞈═G 㢨⴬㫴⪰G㟈Ạ䚌⏈G♈㣄㢬G㣅㛹㡸G䚌⏈G⇌㢌Gㇵ䞝☘㢨G㢨⤤G㋀㣠㜄G␴䚐G⦐⬑㡸G䇘㠀G⇌ᴴ⏈GᶷG ᵍ␘U xUG}qG䞐┍⓸G⃬㨴䢼G䚌ḔG㢼⏈⒤SG}qG䞐┍㡸G䋩䚨G㢨㚰ὤ䚌ḔG㐪㡴Gᶷ㢨G㢼⏈ᴴfG 䏭ⷸ䚐G㌰⇌Gḩ㜤㢨G㙸␀Gḩᴸ㜄㉐G䙀⤼㢨⪰G䚔G⚀㜈GἬG㐐㥄㜄G㢰㛨⇌ḔG㢼⏈G㇠䟀㤵㢬G㢨㎼㜄G ␴䚐G㢨⴬㫴G㣅㛹㡸G䚨㞈␘UG␜㍐䢼G⯜㊌⬀㡰⦐G㢀㙹G⽸䏬㜄G⬒㻤G䖐䜸䚌ὤG⸨␘⏈G䜸㣠G⇨ᴴG ㇨ḔG㢼⏈G㇠䟀㤵㢬Gⱬ㥐㜄G⒈G㛌ὤ䚌ḔG㐪㛼␘UG⇌⏈G㜵ㇵ㡰⦐GἬᶷ㜄G␴䚨Gㇵὤ䚔G㍌G㢼⏈G 㣄⫠⪰G⬀☘㛨G⇌㙸ᴴḔ㣄G䚼␘U GG xUG␭㐔G㣄㐔⬀㢌G䏭ⷸ䚐G㣅㛹Gⵝ㐑㢨G㢼␘⮨Gⱨ㛻㢨G㢼⏈ᴴf ⭰㤴G䝬ὤ㐠㢨G☐⏈G㇠Ɒ☘㜄G␴䚐GḔⴰ㡸G䚐␘UG⇌⏈G⏌G⇨G㨰㠸㜄G㢼⏈G㇠ⱰG䝭㡴G㈑⮹㷨㜄G ␴䚨G㡔㐠䢼GḴ㵤䚐␘UG⇌⏈G䚡ㇵGἬG㇠Ɒ㜄G␴䚨G⬂㡴GẵἼ㫑㡸Gᴴ㫴ḔG㢼ḔSGἬGẵἼ㫑㡸G 㚀㙸ᴴḔG䈄Ạ䚌⏈GḰ㥉㜄㉐G㉘⤼㢸㡸G⏄↴␘UG㇠Ɒ㡸GㇵㇵG䚌␘G⸨⮨G㛨⏄G㍐ᴸSGGㇵㇵ䚌⒌G ᶷ☘㢨G㜤ᷤGḔ⫠⪰G⬀☘㛨G⇌㙸ᴴḔSGἬG㙼㜄㉐G㏘䋔⫠ᴴG䇸㈑䚐␘UGἬG㏘䋔⫠G㋁㜄㉐Gㇵㇵ㢌G 㢨⴬㫴☘㢨G⇌㜨╌ḔG⇌⏈GἬᶷ㡸G㣅㛹㡰⦐G㝢Ὠ␘UGἬ⫠ḔG⇌⏈GἬG䖐䜸☘㡸G⸨␘G䢙⴬⦐㟨G ⵝ㐑㡰⦐G⸨㜠㨰ὬG㠄䚨㉐G␘㛅䚐G⬘㷨㜄G␴䚐G㐐⓸⓸G䚌ḔG㢼␘U


xUG㣅㛹㡸G䚔G⚀G㛨⥘㟨G㥄㡴Gⱨ㛻㢬ᴴf 㐐ᴸG⺸ⵤ⪰G䚌⏈Gᶷ㢨Gᴴ㣙G㛨⥩␘UG᷸䟁㡴G㢼⒈⢰⓸G㐘䚽㡰⦐G㝢ὤὤ㜈G㐐ᴸ㤵㢬G㥐㚱㢨G⬂㙸G 㣅㛹G㐐ᴸ㡸G㛨⛘G㐑㡰⦐G⺸ⵤ䚔G㫴⪰G⭰㤴G㈑ᴵ䚐␘U G xUG䟀㇠G㈑䞐㡸G䚌⮤Gᵐ㢬G㣅㛹☘㡸G㫸䚽䚌⏈Gᶷ㢨G䣌☘㫴⏈G㙾㡴ᴴf 㡕㷨㤵㡰⦐⇌G㥉㐔㤵㡰⦐G䣌☔Gᶷ㡴G㇠㐘㢨␘UG䚌㫴⬀SGᵐ㢬㣅㛹㡴G䚌ḔG㐪㛨㉐G䚌⏈Gᶷ㢨���㜄G 㨰㠸G㾐Ạ☘㜄᷀G䣌☔Gᶷ㡸G㣌G䖐䜸䚌㫴G㙾⏈␘UG㐘G㈑䞐㡴G䚐⫼♈⦐G䙰G䉤㫴⏈G㤸㣵䉤㜄㉐G㨱㡸G ᶷGᵍ㢨G㢰䚌ḔSG㬅㜄G㝴㉐G˄␴䚐ⴰạG⬀㉬˅⢰ḔG㞬㾌⮤G㣅㛹㡸G㐐㣅䚐␘U xUG㬅㜄GỴ㜠㟨G㢬䝉☘SG䞈⥘䚌Ḕ⓸G␘㛅䚐G㣕┍㇠⏼G☥G⬂㡴GⱰᶨ☘㢨G㢼␘UG㢨⤠䚐GⱰᶨ㡸G ⯜㡰⏈G䏭ⷸ䚐G㢨㡔ᴴG㢼⏈ᴴf ⸨䋩G㛨⛘G㣙㋀㜄Gᴴ⮨GἬG㣙㋀㜄G㢼⏈GⱰᶨ☘㡸Gᴴ㫴ḔG㝘⏈G㏩㉥㢨G㢼␘UG⇣㉔Gḧ㡸Gᴴ⏈Gᶷ㡸G 㦿㙸䚌ḔSG㢨ḧG㤴ḧG─㙸␘⏼⏈Gᶷ㡸G㦿㙸䚐␘UGἬ⤠␘G⸨⏼G㢨⤤㤴⤤G㣕┍㇠⏼GⱰᶨ☘㢨G⬂㢨G ⯜㢨᷀G╌㛼␘UGἬ⤤⒤G␘⪬Gḩᴸ㜄㉐Gᴴ㫴ḔG㝜Gᴵᴵ㢌GⱰᶨ☘㢨G䚐GẤ⒤㜄G⯜㢨⮨G㢌㞬⦐G㣌G 㛨㟬⫠⏈Gᷱ㟤ᴴG⬂␘U xUG㢨G㣅㛹㐘㡴G㛬㥐⺴䉤G㇠㟝䚌ḔG㢼⏈ᴴf 㣠㣅≸G⬘㟤G⒙ḔG⽸ᴴG㝘⏈G㜠⪸㜄G㢨G㣅㛹㐘⦐G㢨㇠㞈␘U xUGᶤ㨰㝴G㣅㛹㐘⦐G㇠㟝䚌ḔG㢼⏈SG㢨Gḩᴸ㢌G㣙㥄㡸G㋀ᵐ䚨␠⢰U 㫴ἼG㣅㛹㐘㡴Gᶤ㨰㝴G㣅㛹㡸G䚜‌G㇠㟝䚌ḔG㢼⏈⒤SGἬ㜄Gᶬ⬒⏈GẠ㦤㢨␘UGᶤ㨰ḩᴸḰG 㣅㛹ḩᴸ㢨G⮹䞉䢼G⇌⍔㥬G㢼㛨G㦿ḔSG㵱㢌G㠸㾌⇌G⏄⇀㢨Gḩᴸ⫼␘G␠⢰㉐G㦿␘UG䚻㇨㢨G㣌G ☘㛨㝴㉐GḔ㛅㢨☘⓸G㦿㙸䚌ḔSG⇌㢌G㣕␘䚐G㋀䖼㡸G㥉⫠䚔G䆤G㵱ḔᴴGYᵐG㢼⏈Gᶷ㢨G㣙㥄㢨␘UG 㟈㫌㡴G㟈⫠㜄G⾔㥬㢻⏈⒤SG㾐Ạ☘㜄᷀G㟈⫠⪰G䚨㨸⚀㜄⓸Gḩᴸ㢨G⺸⫠╌㫴G㙾ḔG㵱㡰⦐G 㜤ᷤ╌㛨G㢼㛨G⺴㜀㢌GẠ㦤ᴴG⬌㜄G☔␘U xUG㣅㛹㐘㡸G㢨ㆌ᷀G㣌G⃬⮤⋇㚌␘UG㣅㛹Gḩᴸ㡴G␭㐔㢌G㣅㛹㜄G㛨⛘G㜵䛙㡸G⴬㾌⏈ᴴf 㢨ㆌ᷀G⃬⮤⋇㚌␘⢰ḔG⬄䚨㩌㉐GḔ⬍␘UG䚌㫴⬀SG㣄㉬䢼G⸨⮨G⃬⮤㫸GᶨG㙸⏼␘UG㥐⭿␴⦐G䍡䍡G Ɒᶨ☘㢨G⇌㜨╌㛨㢼ḔG㥐⭿␴⦐Gⵤ㾌╌㛨G㢼␘UG㣅㛹㐘㡸G⃬⮸㡰⮨G㙸⫼⓸G⒈G㟈⢴䚼㡸ᶷ㢨␘UG 㝘䢼⥘G䓬㙼䚌᷀G⸨㜠㫴⏈G㣅㛹ḩᴸ㢨G⇌⪰G㦴G㵜⺸䚌ḔG㙼㥉╌᷀G⬀☘㛨G㨰⏈Gᶷᵍ␘U xUG㬅㜄GḔ㛅㢨⪰GY⫼⫠⇌G䇘㟤ḔG㢼␘U 㫴Ἴ G㇨㙸㝘⮨㉐G㈑⮹㷨⪰G䇘㠀⸬G㤵㢨G㛺␘UG㸼☥䚍ẄG㚒㜄㉐G䑀⏈GἬG䢈䚐G⸅㙸⫠G䚐⫼⫠G 䇘㠀⸨㫴G㙾㚌␘UG㢨㡔⏈G⇌⸨␘G⭰㤴G㨱⏈␘⏈G㈑ᴵ㢨G㐟ḔGⱨ㉐㠔⏈⒤SG㣅≸G㛨⏄⇔Gᵅ㣄ὤG Ḕ㛅㢨⪰G䇘㠀㚰Gᷔ␘⏈G㈑ᴵ㢨Gⶼ㮁G☘㛼␘UG 㷟ⶼ㬬GḔ㛅㢨⪰G䇘㟤ὤG㐐㣅䚐G䟸⦐G㤵㫴G㙾㡴G㈑䞐G䑜䉨㢌Gⷴ䞈ᴴG㢼㛼ḔG␘⪬G㐐ᴵ☘㡸Gᴴ㫼G ㍌G㢼⏈Gὤ䟀ᴴG╌㛼␘UG㟤㉔G㇨㙸ᴴ⏈G┍㙼G⬂㡴G㈑⮹㷨㝴G㦿㡴GḴ᷸⪰G㡔㫴䚌Ḕ㣄G䚌⏈Gⵈ⣜㢨G 䀘㦀␘UGἬ⫠ḔG㐐ᴸ㡸G㯰ᵐG㘤⏈G⒤㜄GἽἽ䚼⒌G⇨ᴴSG㦤ἼG⒈G⺴☐⤠㠀㫴ḔG㜠㡔ᴴG㈑ὤὤG 㐐㣅䚼␘UG㙸⫼⓸G䝬⪨⯠㢌Gⷴ䞈ᴴG㈑ὨGᶷGᵍ␘UGἬ⫠ḔG⇌⭬㫴G䚐G⫼⫠⏈GὬ㜄㉐G⒤⫠ḔG㞈␘UG 㢨ㇵ䚌᷀GἬGḔ㛅㢨ᴴG⇌⪰G㦬㦬G㰇㙸㝘⮤G␴䞈⪰Gᶬ㛼⒈⣠␘UGἬ⫠ḔSG䜸㣠G␠䑱㢨G▄G⫼⫠⓸G 䇘㟤ḔG㢼␘UG␠䑱㢨☘㢨G㚀㡸G⇧㙸㉐G㙸㨰G⬂㡴Gㇼ↰G␠䑱㢨☘㢨G㢼␘UG xUG㵱㣅G㟉Ạ⪰G㣄Ἥ䚌⏈Gᶷ㡴Gⱨ㛻㢬ᴴf 㵱㣅G㟉Ạ⪰G㣄Ἥ䚌⏈Gᶷ☘㡴G㙸㨰G⬂␘UG㨰㠸㢌G㇠ⱰSG㨰㠸㢌G㾐Ạ☘SG⇨ᴴG⸨ḔG㢼⏈G㣄⨀☘SG 㢨⴬㫴☘SG⇨ᴴG䚌⏈G㈑ᴵ☘G☥☥UG 㟷ὤ᷀G☘⫨G㍌⓸G㢼ᷔ㫴⬀SGᴴ㣙G⇌⪰G㣄Ἥ䚌ḔG㢼⏈GᶨG⡜ᶤ㟨G⇌㢌G⡜ᶤ㟨G㐠㣙Gᵍ␘UGᴴ⬀䢼G 㢼㡰⮨G㋁㜄㉐G⡜ᶤ㟨Gⱨ㛬ᴴᴴG㝠⢰㝴㉐G㛨㮈G㨸G⯜⪨ᷔ␘UG㛨㮈G⚄G㟤㟬䚨㫴ὤ⓸G䚐␘UGᷤạG 㵱㣅G㟉Ạ⪰G㣄Ἥ䚌⏈Gᶷ㡴Gⵈ⦐G⇌G㣄㐔㢬GᶷGᵍ␘UG㉬⺴㤵㡰⦐G⸨⮨G⇨ᴴG⸨⏈GᶷSG⇌㢌G 㨰㠸㜄㉐G㢰㛨G⇌⏈G㢰☘㜄G㢌䚨㉐G㣄ἭG␭䚌⏈Gᷱ㟤⓸G⬂␘UG G xUG㟈㫌G㫸䚽䚌ḔG㢼⏈G㣅㛹㡴Gⱨ㛻㢬ᴴf 㐐㣅㡴G䚼㫴⬀G␘⪬GG䘸⦐㥑䏬☘㜄Gⴴ⥘㉐G↑⇨㫴G⯯䚐GⳘ㫵⽸♈㝘SGἬ⫰G☥㢨G㢼␘UG䜸㣠⏈GἬG 㣅㛹☘㡸G⫼ⱨ⫠䚌⏈G㩅㢨⮤SG㣌G↑⇼㡰⮨G㦿ᷔ␘UG❄䚐G㦵㡴G㉬ㇵ㡸G⒈G䆠᷀G⸨ḔG㐪㡴G㻝┍G䚌㜄G Ạ㢹䚐G䜸⴬ᷱ㡸G㢨㟝䚐G㣅㛹☘㡸G㫸䚽䚌ḔG㢼␘UG G xUGㇼ⦡᷀G⓸㤸䚨⸨ḔG㐪㡴G㣅㛹㢨G㢼␘⮨f 㣅㛹㢌GḰ㥉GἬ⫠ḔGᷤḰⱰ㢨G䜸㣠⸨␘G⒈G␘㢨⇌ⴭ䚐GḰ㥉SG䝉䈐㜴㡰⮨G㦿ᷔ␘UG㣠⴬㢼⏈G䝉䈐㢌G ㉘㾌G㣅㛹㢨⇌SG㟴㫵㢨⏈GẠ㦤㢌G㉘㾌Ɒ⓸G⬀☘ḔG㐪␘UGἬ⫠ḔG⏌G䝰㣄G㣅㛹㡸G䚌⏈G㏘䇴㢰㢬⒤G ⫼㢀G⬒⏈G㇠⣀☘ḰG䚜‌G䘸⦐㥑䏬⪰G㫸䚽䚨⸨ḔG㐪␘U

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k–•Ž”TsŒŒ xUG˄㢨䈐㠄G䘸⫠⒘˅G㻐ᴸ㡸G㻉䚌䚐␘UG㛨⛯᷀G ⇌㝜G㵹㢬ᴴf 㥐㢰G㣄㨰GᴴḔG㦿㙸䚌⏈G┍≘ᴴG㢨䈐㠄㢨␘UG XW㜠≸G㤸⺴䉤G㣄㨰G☐⇌☘ὤG㐐㣅䚼ḔG 䚌⇌▌G␜Ḝ㬅☘㢨G⏌㛨⇌⮨㉐G㢨G┍≘㜄G ␴䚍G㚔㵝㢨G㡔␠⫠Gᵉ䚨㦀␘UGἬ⤤⒤G 㻐䑄㇠㜄㉐G㢨䈐㠄㜄GḴ䚐G㵹㡸Gὤ䟁䚌ḔG 㢼␘⏈G㋀㐑㡸G㟤㜤䢼G㥅䚌᷀G╌㛼␘UG␘⪬G 㫴㜡㢨⮨G⯤⢰⓸G㢨䈐㠄㜄GḴ䚐G㵹㢨⢰⮨G ⇨ᴴG㘤ḔG㐪␘ḔG㈑ᴵ䚌⒌G㵜㜄G㜤㢨G ␳㚌␘U

ᾀ䓌㜄⏈G㛨⫤G㙸㢨⺴䉤G⊬㐔㇠ᾀ㫴G␘㛅䚐G㜤⥭㽩㢨G㙽㙸G㢼␘UG䞁␴G㚒⓸G㣄㨰G☐⇌☘㛼㛼㫴⬀G ⇌㢨⪰G⭭ḔG⇌⏼G㢨㥐G⇨ᴴG㢼㡰⮨G㙼G╔GḧGᵍ␘⏈G㢨㫼ᵄ㡸G㩌㉐G⺼䓬䚌␘UGἬ⤤G⮨㜄㉐G 㢨䈐㠄㡴G㣄㡔⦡␘UG㢨䈐㠄㢨G⌸Ạ㜄᷀⇌G㜨⥘G㢼⏈Gḧ㢬Gᶷ㡸G⸨㜠㨰⏈G␴䖐㤵㢬Gḧ㡰⦐G˄ ᷀㢨䣄˅㡸G⾰G⋇㡸G㍌G㛺␘UG᷀㢨ⵈSG䆨⤱G☥㢨G☘㛨㵠G㢨GḜ⯝㜄⏈G᷀㢨SG⤼㪼⽸㛬SGⵈ㢨SG 䏬⣐㏘ᾀ㫴Gạ㤵㡸G⺼ⱬ䚐G␘㛅䚐G㉥㤵G㋀㍌㣄☘㢨G⯜㜠☘⮤GἬ☘⬀㢌G䑀⢰␘㢨㏘⪰G㢨⨜ḔG 㢼␘UG xUG㣄㨰Gᴴ⏈G᷀㢨ⵈ⇌G䆨⤱㢨G㢼⇌f 㠄⣌GnG‰ˆ™G⢰⏈G᷀㢨ⵈ⪰G㣄㨰Gᵈ㛼␘UG䚐G⚀G˄⊰␘˅䚌⏈G㚔☘㡴G␘G⯜㜠☘⒌Gḩᴸ㢨㛼⏈⒤G 㫴Ἴ㡴G㛺㛨㥬㉐G㙸㎠㟨Gḧ㢨␘UG⮻G≸G㤸㜄G㷌㢀㡰⦐G䆨⤱G˄䏬⣐㏘˅㜄㉐G䏬⣐㏘㥔⒈G㌰⪰G⸬G 䟸G㌰ᴴG⸨㜠㨰⏈G☐⢰⫼㝴G㜼㍔㉥㜄Gᾐ㬑G⊴⢴G䟸G㫴Ἴᾀ㫴G㫄ᷜG㵲ḔG㢼␘UG䓽㋀㜄⏈G䓽ⷈ䚐G ⇜㣄㢌G⯜㏩㢨㫴⬀G㌰⪰G㠸䚨G⸩㣙㡸Gᵊ㻤G㢹⏈G]⮹㢌Gⷔ䊀⣅G˄㛬⏼˅☘㢨G䓰㾌⏈G㌰⪰G⸨ὤG㠸䚨G ㉥㋀㍌㣄⏈GⱰ⦔G㜼㍔ᴴ⇌G♈㣄㢨∼G☥G␘㛅䚐G㫵㛹Ấ㢌G䏬⥀♈䙰䙀☘㢨G⯤⥘☔␘UG䏬⣐㏘㌰⢰ḔG ˄㚰䚐G㌰˅⪰G⛔㝠⫠ὤG㐡ㇵ㢨㫴⬀G㟷㢀ḰG⌼ⱰSGᵄ┍㢨G䚐G⒤G㉒㢬Gⱨ␴⏈G㵜⢰⫠G㜼㍔㜄Gᴴᾑ␘UG ⬘ⶼG┍䚽䚌⏈G᷀㢨㾐Ạ⏈G˄㉬᷸G㛨⏄G䏬⣐㏘䆨⤱㡸Gᴴ⓸G㢨⬀䚐G㝸㉥⓸㢌Gⱨ␴ᴴG㛺␘˅⮤G ⱬ䞈ㇵ䖼㡰⦐G⸨㦨䚨G䇘㠀㚰G䚐␘ḔG㨰㣙G䚔G㥉⓸␘UG xUG㺐ἰG㢨䈐㠄㡴GḔἽG⤼㏘䋔⣅㢨⇌G⢰㟨㫴ⵈᴴG㋁㋁G☘㛨㵜⮤G⾔⪨᷀Gⷴ䞈䚌ḔG㢼␘UG㢨⤤G ⷴ䞈㜄G␴䚨G㛨⛯᷀G㈑ᴵG䚌⏈ᴴf ⬒␘UGὤ㦨㜄G㢨䈐㠄㢨⢰ḔG䚌⮨G㢀㾜䚌ḔG㠸䜌䚐G┍≘⢰⏈G㢬㐑㢨Gᵉ䚼␘UG㨰⦐G⊬⏈G┍≘ᴴG 㛨♈∄⏈G㫼ⱬ㜄G˄㢨䈐㠄˅㢨⢰ḔG␴␩䚌⮨G㢨ㇵ䚐G㐐㉔㡸G⸨㢨⏈G㢨☘㢨G㢼㡸G㥉⓸㜴␘UG䚌㫴⬀G 㺐ἰ㜄⏈G㉐㟬㜄㉐Gᴴ㣙G˄䚟˅䚐G㫴㜡㡰⦐GἽ⺴ㇵG䚌ḔG㢼␘UG㍌㨴Ἵ㢌G⤼㏘䋔⣅ḰGᴴ㣙G㣌⇌ᴴ⏈G ⢰㟨㫴ⵈSG䆨⤱㢨G⯜▄G⯜㜠G㢼␘UG䚌㫴⬀G㢨⤻᷀G˄⤡㊈⫠˅䚐Gḧ☘㢨G☘㛨㉐⓸G㷡␨┍㢨⇌G ᴴ⦐㍌ὬG☥ḰGẠ⺸╌⏈G⬘⥙㡴G˄⤡㊈⫠˅㝴G˄㛬⒈Ἤ⢰㟨☐Gⱬ䞈˅ᴴGḩ㦨䚐␘⏈Gᶷ㢨␘UG␴ὤ㛹G 㣄⸬㢨G☘㛨㵜ḔG㢼⏈Gᶷ㡸G⸨⮨G㢨䈐㠄G䏭㡔㢌G㥉㼜ᴴG㇠⢰㫼Gᾀ⹄G㟤⥘╌ὤ⓸G䚌㫴⬀SG❄G䚐G䁔G ◫Ḝ⯝㜄㉐⏈G␴㙼ⱬ䞈ḩᴸ㡸G㫴䛙䚌⏈Gḩᴸ☘⓸Gㇼ⦡᷀G㈑ᷜ⇌ḔG㢼㛨G㙸㫵㡴G㙼㐠㢨␘UG xUG㵹㜄G㋀ᵐ═G⤼㏘䋔⣅ḰGᾀ䓌G㩅G⮻Gḧ㡸G㻈㷐䚨G␠⢰U 㢰␜G㢨䈐㠄㜄⏈G㢰㵁㢨G☘㛨㝜G␘㛅䚐Gạᴴ㢌Gⱬ䞈⪰Gⵈ䈉㡰⦐G䇸䇸䚐G⇨ḩ㡸Gᵊ㻌G㢨ạ㤵㢬G ⤼㏘䋔⣅㢨G⬂␘UG䚐ạ㜄㉐G㡔㢰䚌᷀G⺼ᴴ⫠㙸G㢀㐑㡸G⬏⸰G㍌G㢼⏈G⤼㏘䋔⣅G˄㥘⥀˅SG 㢨㏠⣀Ẅ㜄㉐G䛼㟝䚐G㤼㵜㜄G♤⢰G⓸㇨䚐GḔὤ㝴G㐑㣠⨀⬀㡸G㇠㟝䚨G㢀㐑㡸G⬀☘ḔSG㡜ⷉ㜄G ♤⢰G㍔㡴G䑄⬘䚌㫴G㙾⏈G㩅┍G⤼㏘䋔⣅G˄䓌䏬⢰˅SG㺐ḔἽG┰㫴G◫␘⫠㇨㡸G㢨㟝䚨G⬀☔G䚌⯱㡸G ⬏G⸰G㍌G㢼⏈G˄㏘䓌㢬G䆨⤱˅G☥㢨G␴䖐㤵㢨␘UG㢨䇼⫠㙼G⤼㏘䋔⣅G˄㋀⪨䐤⊬㏘˅⏈G㜠䇴G䚐ạ䞈═G 㢨䇼⫠㙼G⤼㏘䋔⣅Ḱ⏈G␘⪨᷀G㥉䋩㡸G䖐ⵝ䚌⏈G⟑㐠G㢼⏈G㬅㢨␘UG㇠㐘G㢨䇼⫠㙸G㢀㐑㢨G 䚐ạ㢬㢌G㢹㜄⏈G㬐᷀G⏄
㥬G㢩㍍䚌㫴G㙾㡴G㢨☘㢨G⭭ὤ㜄⏈G䣌☔G⺴⺸㢨G㢼⏈⒤G㢨Gḧ㡴GἬG ᴸG㍌⬂㡴G䆨⤼㢸㡸Gⵏ㡰⮨㉐⓸G㢨䇼⫠㙸㢌Gᴸ㉬ὤ⪰GἬ␴⦐G㡔㫴䚌⮤GᷤạGἬG⬏GἬ␴⦐⪰G ㋄␌☘㜄᷀G㢬㥉ⵏḔ㚰G⬄㚌␘UGᾀ䓌⦐⏈G˄ᾀ䓌⦐G㠸㣙䚐G㣅ᴴ☘㢌G␴㙼ḩᴸ˅㡸G䖐ⵝ䚌⏈G˄䊀㢨䆠G 㙸㟷G☐⦐㢽˅ḰG㙸䐤㏘䏬G㺐㥉䞈ᴴG˄㵱㣅G⤼㫴⒌㐐SG㤸㐐㣙SG㙸䏬㍁G☥Gἐ㥉䚔G㍌G㛺⏈G䝰㉥ḩᴸ˅㡸G ⯝䖐⦐G⬀☔G˄㏘䓌㢨㏘G⃴˅G☥㡸G㻈㷐䚐␘UG xUG㵹㡸G㢱␘G⸨⮨G♈䊀㢰䚐G㥉⸨㝴G㠸䏬G≌㾌⏈G㢰䞈G☥㜄㉐G㤴㣄G⸬㢬㢨G㐘㥐⦐G㫄ᷜG㵲㙸G 㣌G㚀ḔG㢼␘⏈G⏄⇀㡸Gᵉ䚌᷀Gⵏ⏈␘UG㢨⤻᷀G㣄㐔㢌G䝼GἬ⢰㟨☐⪰Gἴ⦐G㜢㛨G⬂㡴G㢨☘㜄᷀G ㋀ᵐ䚐␘⏈Gᶷ㡴G⸬㢬㜄᷀G㛨⛘G㢌⴬㢬ᴴfG ὤ⸬㤵㡰⦐G⇨ᴴG㥐㢰G㐟㛨䚌⏈GᶷG㩅G䚌⇌ᴴG˄䓬ᷠ˅G㢨␘UG⇌⏈G⇨ᴴG㇠⣅䚌⏈G┍≘㢬G㢨䈐㠄㢨G ˄㦿㫴G㙾㡴G䓬ᷠ˅㜄G㑇㜠G⸨㜠㫴⏈Gᶷ㡸GᾜḔG㐪␘UGⱰ⦔Gᴼ㍌⦑GἬG㢨⴬㫴ᴴG㦿㙸㫴ḔG㢼ὤ⏈G 䚌㫴⬀G㙸㫵⓸G㢨䈐㠄㡸G˄㣌G⯜⪨ᷔḔGⱨ㉐㟨Gḧ˅㡰⦐G㈑ᴵ䚌⏈G㇠⣀☘㢨G⬂⒈⢰UG㦴G㟷ὤ␘ḔG 䚔G㍌⓸G㢼⏈⒤G⇌⏈Gᴴ㍌G˄|}˅ᴴG˄㢨䈐㠄G䘸⫠⒘˅㡸G⺴⪬Gᶷ㢨G␴㩅☘㢨G㢨䈐㠄㡸G⒈G䓬䚌ḔG ὁ㥉㤵㡰⦐Gⵏ㙸☘㢰G㍌G㢼⏈G᷸ὤᴴG╌㛼␘ḔG㈑ᴵ䚐␘UG⇨G㵹G㥐⯝⓸G❅ᵍ㡴G˄㢨䈐㠄G䘸⫠⒘˅G 㙸␀ᴴUG⬄GἬ␴⦐G㇠⣀☘㢨G㣄㡔⦐㟨G㢨䈐㠄㡸G䓬ᷠG㛺㢨G㣄㡔⦡᷀Gⵈ⢰⸨⮨G㦿ᷔ␘UG⇌G䝰㣄⬀G 㚀ḔG㐪㡸G㥉⓸⦐G㋀㩅䚐G㙸㫴䏬☘㡸G㋀ᵐ䚌⮨㉐G∼ⱨG⬂㡴G㢨☘㢨G㵲㡸ᾀG㟤⥘╌⏈Gᶷ⓸G ㇠㐘㢬⒤GἬ⣌⓸G䓬ᷠG㛺㢨Gⵈ⢰⸨⮨G㦿ᷔ␘⏈G⫼㢀㢨G⒈G䆠⏼ᾀG⇜ὴ㛺㢨G㋀ᵐ䚼␘UG xUG㋀ᵐ䚌ḔG㐪㡴G❄G␘⪬G┍≘ᴴG㢼␘⮨f 䚐ạ㡴G㙸㫵G⯜⪨ᷔ␘UG㦿㡴Gḧ㢨G⬂ὨG䚐⒤G⇨ᴴG㢨⤻᷀G㋁㋁☘㢨G㚀ḔG㢼⏈Gḧ㡴G㢨䈐㠄G ㄄㢨⢰UUUἬ⤤⒤G㟤㜤䢼G⇨ᴴG㦿㙸䚌⏈G⓸㐐G㩅G㏘䓔⫵㢨Gi⦐G㐐㣅䚌⏈Gḧ㢨G⬂␘UG⮻G≸G㤸G㵹㡸G ⇬Gc␘㐐Gⷔ⪰⫤e㢌Gⷔ⪰⫤㢨⇌Gⵝ䂉G☥UUUSGᴴ㣙GᴴḔG㐪㡴Gḧ㢨㣄G⁡G㵹㡰⦐G⇨ḔG㐪㡴Gḧ㡰⦐⏈G ⺴㜄⊬㏘㙸㢨⤼㏘ᴴG㢼␘U xUG⓸㐐㜠䚽㡸G㡔⓹G㦿㙸䚌⏈GᶷGᵍ␘UG 㠄⣌⏈G㣕㫴㜄㉐Gᴴ㣙G䚟䚐GḧSG䏬⥀♈䚐Gḧ㡸G㼜㣠䚌⏈Gᶷ㡸G⬂㢨G䚼㛼␘UGἬ⤤⒤GᷤạG㉐㟬㢌G 䏬⥀☐⏈G␴⺴⺸G䚨㞬㜄㉐Gᶨ∼㝘᷀G╌⏼ᾀSG㣄㜤㏘⤱᷀G䚨㞬㢌G䚟G㏘䑓㡸G㋀ᵐ䚌⏈Gᶷ㡰⦐G 㝢ᷜᴴ⮨㉐G䚨㞬G⓸㐐⪰G㋀ᵐ䚌⏈Gἴ㡸G㘤᷀G╌㛼␘UG㜠㡔⦐㟨G㐐Ḝ⓸G㦿ὤ⏈G䚌㫴⬀G⓸㐐⏈G ␘㛅䚐G㇠⣀☘㢨G⯜㜠☘㛨G␘㛅䚐Gⱬ䞈⪰G䝉㉥䚨Gᴸ␘⏈G㥄㜄㉐G㣠⴬㢼␘UG xUG㠄⣌G㇠⣀㡸G㦿㙸䚌⇌G⸨␘U Ἤ⤻␘UG⓸㐐㢌G⾔⪬G㡔䚽㡸G⬀☘㛨⇨ḔG˄䚟㏘䑓˅㡸G㵲㙸G⯜㜠☐⏈G㢨⏈Gᷤạ㜄G⯜☔G㇠⣀㢨⏼ᾀUG ⌸ẤᴴᴴGἬ⤤Gⱬ䞈⪰G⬀☘㛨⇨ḔSG㇠⣀☘㢨G⯜㜠☘㛨G䚜‌G㫄ὤ⏈G⯜㏩㢨G㦿␘UG㢨䈐㠄㜄㉐G ᵐ㢬㤵㡰⦐G㦿㙸䚌⏈Gᴴ᷀☘⓸Gᷤạ㜈GἬGḧ㢌G㟨㜵㣄ᴴG㦿㙸G㫄ᷜG㵲⏈Gḧ㢨G␴⺴⺸㢨␘UG 㢀㐑㢨⇌G㢬䊀⫠㛨SG㤸㷨㤵㢬G⺸㠸ὤ⓸G㩅㟈䚌㫴⬀Gᷤạ㜄GἬGḧ㜄㉐G⇨ᴴG㋀䋩䚌⏈Gᶷ㡴G ㇠⣀㢨⏼ᾀUG㦿㡴G㇠⣀㢨G㟨㜵䚌⏈Gḧ㜄⏈G㦿㡴G㋄␌☘㢨G㵲ḔGἬG⬀㢌Gⱬ䞈ᴴG⬀☘㛨G㫸␘UG xUG㚒㡰⦐G᷸䟁䚌ḔG㢼⏈G㢰㡴f ᷸㋁䚨㉐Gἴ㡸G㘤ḔG㐪㡴Gᶷ㢨G⇨G㋀⬑㢨␘UG⁡G㜠䚽Gἴ⬀G㘤⥘⏈G㈑ᴵ㡴G㛺␘UG˄㢨䈐㠄G䘸⫠⒘˅ 㡴G⇨G㨰Ḵ㢨G☘㛨ᴴὨG䚼㫴⬀Gὤ⸬㤵㡰⦐G㇠⣀☘㢨G㢱ḔG㢨䈐㠄㡸G㫄ὤ⏈⒤G䙸㟈䚐G㥉⸨☘㡸G ᴴ☑G㵸㟨G˄┍≘G㙼⇨㉐˅㢌G㉥ᷝ㢨㛼␘⮨G㚒㡰⦐⏈G㜠䚽㫴㜄㉐㢌G㇠ㇽ㡸Gᴴ☑G␨㡴G㜄㒸㢨⓸G 㒜⸨ḔG㐪␘UG

xUG䞁␴G㚒㢨⇌G㷡␨┍G☥G⊴Gḧ㡴G⬂␘UG㞐G 㢨䈐㠄㢬ᴴfG ⌸Ạ㜄᷀⇌G㜨⥘㢼⏈GḧSG␘㛅䚐Gⱬ䞈ᴴG 䝰㣠╌㛨G㢼⏈GḧG㢨⢰⏈Gᶷ㢨G␘⪬G㫴㜡ḰG ᴴ㣙GẠ⺸G╌⏈G㥄㢨␘UGYW␴ᴴG㜨ṅ䚌⏈G䆨⤱㜄G[W␴ᴴGᴴ⓸G㤸䜴G㢨ㇵ䚌㫴G㙾ḔG䏬⥀♈䚐G

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wˆ™’GšŒœ•ŽG Œˆ xUGἬ⦐䊀㏘䆠䚐G␭㐔㢌GἬ⫰㡴Gᵉ⥠䚐G 㢬ㇵ㡸G㨴␘UG㢨⤤GἬ⫰☘㡸GἬ⫠᷀G═G═G ᷸ὤ⏈Gⱨ㛻㢬ᴴf 䚌⇌㢌G␜㥉㤵㢬G᷸ὤ⏈G㛺⏈G☣G䚌␘UG 㝘⣐G㐐ᴸ㡸Gᶤ㾌⮤G㢨⤻᷀G㫸䞈䚌ḔG ⷴ䞈G╌㛨㞈␘ḔG㈑ᴵG䚐␘UG䚍㈑G 㐐㤼㜄⏈G㻈ㇵG㣅㛹㡸G䚌ὤ⓸G䚌㜴ḔSG 䒰䔠⭰㏘⪰G䚌ὤ⓸G䚼␘UG␜G▄Gᵐ㢌G㦤䝉G 㣅㛹㡸G⻍☘ḔGY≸G㢨⢰⏈G㐐ᴸ㡸G⸨⇬G 㤵⓸G㢼㛼␘UGἬ⤠䚐GḰ㥉☘㡸Gᶤ㾌Ḕ㉐G ⫼㾌G˄␭㜤䚐G☣˅㢨G㫴Ἴ㜄G␘␘⪨᷀G ╌㛼␘UG⇌㢌GḔⴰḰSGḔ䋩ḰSGᴼ⬑㡴G 㣅㡴Gⷴ䞈☘㡸Gᶤ㾌⮤G⯜㛅㡸G␠⫠䚌㫴⬀G 㥉㷨⪰G㝸㤸䚌᷀Gⵈ⃬㫴⏈G㙾㙸G㞈␘UG ⇌⏈G㙸㨰G㛨⫨G⚀⺴䉤G˄▄⥘㟴ḰGḩ䔠˅ ⢰⏈G䞈▄⪰Gᴴ㫴ḔG㇨㚌␘UG⇌㢌G㣅㛹㡴G Ἤᶷ㢌G㐘㷨⪰G㵲㙸㝜G㐐ᴸ☘㢨⢰⏈G㈑ᴵ㡸G䚐␘UG⇌⏈G㇪㢌Gᷱ䜌ḰSG㚒㡰⦐㢌Gᷱ䜌㜄G ␴䚐G㜼ㇵ㡸G䚔G⚀㜄G▄⥘㟴㡸Gᴴ䚨㝘⏈G㐘㷨㜄G␴䚐G㤴䚡㢌GⵝⷉSG䝭㡴G䝅ㇵ㢌Gⵝⷉ㡸G 㵲㙸㞈␘UGGἬ⫠ḔG⇌⏈GἬGⱨ㍌䚐G˄ṨⱰ˅G☘ḰG㫵⮨䚔G㍌G㢼⏈Gⵝⷉ㡰⦐G㢨G㣅㛹㡸G䈑䚼␘UG Ἤᶷ㢨G䜸㣠G⇌㢌G㠸㾌㢨ḔG⇌⏈GἬᶷ㡸GἬ⫰㡰⦐G⬄䚌Ḕ㣄G䚐␘U xUG␭㐔㢌G㣅㛹㡴G㐔㷨☘㢌G㦤䚝㡰⦐GἬ⥘㫴⏈Gᷱ㟤ᴴG⬂␘UG䏭䢼G㋄㢨G㢬ㇵ㤵㢬⒤SG㛨⛘G㢌⴬⪰G ᵊḔG㢼⏈ᴴf ⇨G㣅㛹☘G㋁㜄㉐G㋄㡴G㢬ᴸ㡸G㜠䇴㢌G㦨㣠☘Ḱ㢌G㵜ⷸ㉥㡸G⬀☘㛨G⇨⏈G☑S㐘㤵㢬G䏭㉥㢌Gᵐ㷨ᴴG ═␘UG㢬ᴸ㢌Gⱬ⮹SG㐐㏘䊐㢌G䏭㫼㡴G㢬ᴸG㏘㏘⦐G㣄⣅㏘⤠㠀G䚌⏈G㫸䞈═G㫴⏙ḰGὤ⏙G㋁㜄G 㢼㡰⮤GἬᶷ㡴G㢬ᴸ㢌G˄㋄˅㢌G㣄㡔⦐㟨G㇠㟝㜄G㢼␘ḔG⸬␘UGἬG㋄㡴G㢬ᴸ㢌G▄⌀⪰G㫸䞈㐐䁐㞈ḔSG 㫴Ἴ㢌Gⱬ⮹ḰG㐐㏘䊐㡸G㵱㦤㐐䁤␘UG㢬ᴸ㢌G㋄㡴G⺸⮹䚌Ḕ⓸G⠤㛨⇐G˄⓸Ạ˅ᴴG╌㛼␘UGἬ⫠ḔG ἬG˄⓸Ạ˅⦐㒜㢌Gὤ⏙G㩅Gᴴ㣙G⇨᷀G⓿⸨㢨⏈Gᶷ㡴G˄ⱨὤ˅⦐㒜㢌G䏭㉥㢨␘UGⱨὤ⏈GḩᷝḰGⵝ㛨㢌G ὤ⏙㡸Gᵊ⏈␘UGⵝ㛨☔SGḩᷝ㢨☔SG㋄↑㡴GἬGḰ㥉G㋁㜄㉐G䙰⪰GⱯ䢼ᶤ⇌G㻝䜼╌㛨Gⶸ⫠ḔG⬀␘UG 㟤⫠⏈GἬ⤻᷀G▄⥘㟴㡰⦐⺴䉤G㟤⫠⪰Gⵝ㛨䚌ḔSGⵝ㛨㢌G㍌␜㡰⦐㉐Gḩᷝ䚐␘SGἬ⫠ḔGἬGḰ㥉G ㋁㜄㉐G䇴㢬㡸GṨⱰ⦐Gᴸ㨰䚌ḔSG㦨㣠䚌⏈SGἬ⤠⇌G㦨㣠䚌㫴G㙾⏈GṨⱰ☘㡸G䛙䚌㜠G▄G㋄㡸G ⇨㤴㛨G㏘㏘⦐㜄᷀SGἬ⫠ḔG䇴㢬㜄᷀Gㇵ㵸ὤ⪰G⬀☘⮤G㇨㙸ᴸ␘U G xUG⯜⊬䋘㢌GἬ⫰☘㢨G␴⺴⺸㢨␘UG㛨⛘G㢌⓸ᴴG㢼⏈ᴴf ㇵ㬉㤵㢬G㢌⴬⪰Gᵊ⏈␘UG⇌⏈G␴ㇵ㡸G⸨⏈G˄ᵐ㢬㤵˅㢬G㐐㉔㡸SG䢅ⵥG䙸⪸G㾨⮈⢰⦐G㇠㫸㡸G㵁㡰⮤G ⵤ㠔⒌Gᷱ䜌㡸Gᴴ㫴ḔG㢼␘UG㾨⮈⢰㢌G⼤G䑀㢬⒈㜄G⽸㾐G␴ㇵḰG㉬ㇵ㡴G㾰⢰㫴⬀G䢅ⵥ㢌G㇠㫸㡸G 㵁⏈G㢨⏈GἬᶷ㡸G⾏㡰⦐G⸨㙸㚰G䚐␘UG⸨㜠㫴⏈GᶷḰG㐘㥐⦐G⸨⏈Gᶷ㢨G␠⢰㚰G䚐␘⢰⏈G㇠㐘㡴G ㎱᷀G㢩㍍䚨㫴ᶤ⇌G␭㜤䚌᷀G㢨⨸㫴⏈G㢰㢨G㙸⏼␘UG⇌⏈G˄ㇽ˅㡸G⾏㢌GẨ㤼ḰG䍠㜵☥㢌GⱰ⫠㤵㢬G 䜸ㇵ㡰⦐G⸨⮤SGἬGḰ㥉G㩅㜄㉐G⇨ᴴGᴸḰ䚌ḔG㢷㛨ⶸ⫠᷀G╌⏈G⸬㫼⦐㉐㢌G˄⾏˅㡸G㵲㡰⥘G䚐␘UG ⫼㾌G⌼㜄G䚌⇌㢌G䙸䉤⪰G㣙㵝䚐G☣SG䝭㡴G⸨㜠㫴⏈Gᶷ㢨G㙸⏼⢰G˄㐘㥐⦐G⸨⏈Gᶷ˅㡸G㵲㡰⥘⏈G ㇵ㬉㤵㢬G䚽㠸㢌G䖐䜸㡰⦐㉐G⇌⏈G䢅ⵥSG䝭㡴G⯜⊬䋘㢌G㣅㛹㡸G㫸䚽䚨㝘ḔG㢼␘U G xUG␭㐔㢨G䖐䜸䚌⏈GṨⱰSG▄⥘㟴SGḩ䔠ᴴGⱨ㉡᷀G⏄
㫼G⚀ᴴG㢼⏈ᴴf 㫴⇐G㜠⪸G⇌㢌Gᵐ㢬㤸㢌G⺴㥐⏈G˄㦨㣠䚌⏈SGἬ⤠⇌G㦨㣠䚌㫴G㙾⏈˅G㢨㛼␘UGḩ䔠㢌G㐘㷨⏈G ⚀⦔G㇠㐘㢨ὤ⓸G䚌⇌SG␴⺴⺸㡴G㦨㣠䚌㫴G㙾⏈SG㢰㛨⇌㫴G㙾㡸G㢰㜄G␴䚐G⴬㜤㢌G▄⥘㟴㢨㫴G 㙾㡸ᾀ⢰ḔG㈑ᴵ䚐␘UG⇌⏈G⇌㢌GṨⱰ㢨G▄⥩㫴G㙾␘UGἬ☘㡴G⴬㚱䚌␘UG⴬㚱䚐G⃼䏴ᶤ⫰㡰⦐G Ḕ䋩㡸SGⶼ⌀⪰SGᴼ⬑㡸Gㄐ㛨⇨⮤G㛰ẨḰG㋄㡸SG⯬㡸G⽸䏴㛨G㢨㚰ὤG䚌⥘G䚌㫴⬀GἬ⫰Gⵊ㡰⦐G 䎴㛨⇌㝴G⇌㢌G⯝㡸G㦤⪨ᶤ⇌G⌸Ấᴴ⪰GⱰG㍌⓸G㛺␘UG⇌⏈GἬ☘ḰG㢩㍍䚌␘UGᷤạSG⇨G㙼㜄G 㦨㣠䚌⏈G˄ṨⱰ˅㢌G㵱㦤㣄⏈G⇌G㣄㐔㢨␘UG䓽⮨G㠸㜄GἬ⥘㫸GἬ⫰G㋁㢌GṨⱰ㢌G㵱㦤㨰⏈G⇌G 㣄㐔㢨␘UGἬ☘㡴G▄⥘㟴㢌G␴ㇵ㢨G㙸␀G⇨ᴴG㫵⮨䚌㜠㚰G䚔G␴ㇵ㢸㜄G⺼Ḱ䚌␘U G xUG˄㙹⯱G㢰ὤ˅⢰⏈G㵹㡸G⇨㛼㛼␘UG㢨G㵹㜄G␴䚨G㉘⮹䚨␠⢰U ⇌⏈Gⱨ㍌䚐G⃼☘㡸G⃰␘UGἬ⫠ḔG㝘⣟┍㙼GἬᶷ㡸Gὤ⦑䚌㜠G㞈␘UG␴⺴⺸㢌G⇌㢌G⃼☘㡴GㇽḰG ⾏㢨G⴬㚱䚌␘UG㛨▕ḔSGḔ㟈䚌⮤SG㞬⦡ḔSG˄ⱨ㉡␘U˅GἬ⤻᷀Gⱨ㍌䚐G㙹⯱☘㡸G⃰␘UG㙹⯱㢌Gὤ⦑㡴G ᵐ㢬㤵㢬G㫄ᶤ㟴OfP㡸G㨰ὤ⓸G䚌㜴ḔSG䚌⇌㢌Gὤ⦑㢨G╌ὤ⓸G䚌㜴㫴⬀GἬG㙹⯱㜄㢌G㢩㍍䚨㬄SG Ἤ⫠ḔGἬᶷ㢨G㐘㥐ᴴG㙸␀G⃼㢸㡸G䞉㢬G䚌⏈G䚌⇌㢌GḰ㥉㢨G╌㛨㨰㛼␘UGἬ⦐G㢬䚌㜠G⇌⏈G˄ 㙹⯱㢨G▄⥘㠀˅G㣔☘㫴G⯯䚌⏈Gㇵ䞝㡰⦐⺴䉤G⇌⪰G㛨⏄G㥉⓸GẠ㥐䚔G㍌G㢼㛼␘UG㙹⯱SG⃼㡴Gⷸᵐ㢌G ㉬ㇵ㢨G㙸⏼␘UGᷤạG⇌㢌Gⱨ㢌㐑㢌G㢰⺴㢨␘UG㣔☘㛨G㢼㡸G⚀⏈G❄G䚌⇌㢌SG⇨G㢬㈑㢌GXVZ㢌G ㉬ㇵ㢨⢰⏈G㈑ᴵ㡸G䚐␘UG㛨⏄G⇔SGἬᶷ㡸G⇌㢌G⮻⮻㢌G㣅㛹ḰGⱪ㛨SG䚌⇌㢌G㦤㟝䚐G㩅㛰ᶤ⫰ḰG ᵍ㡴G㋀⫠⦐G㻐ᴸ䚌ḔG㐪㡴G㈑ᴵ㢨G☘㛼ḔSG⸩㣕䚌ᶤ⇌SG᷸䟁㤵㢬G㈑ᴵG㛺㢨GἬ∙GḔ㏘⢴䢼G Ἤ␴⦐G㫸䚽䚼ḔSGἬ⤤GḰ㥉㡸Gᶤ㸄G㉬ㇵ㜄G⇌㝜SG㙸㨰G▄㉐G㛺⏈G㵹㢨G˄ṨⱰ㤸aG㙹⯱㢰˅G㢨␘UG ⱨ㛬ᴴ⪰G㢱㛨⇨⥘G䚌ᶤ⇌G⊰⫠⪰G㵲㡰⥘G䚌⮨GἬ㤴G⬄㢨G㙼G╌⏈G⇨㟝㢰G♤⪸㢨␘UGἬ∙GἬᶷ㡴G ᴴᵄG㛺㢨GḔ㏘⢴䢼Gὤ⦑═G˄㙹⯱㢰ὤ˅㢰G♤⪸㢨␘U G xUG㣄㐔⬀㢌G㣅㛹Gⵝ㐑㡸G㋀ᵐG䚨␠⢰U 㦹㢨㝴G㙸䆠⫨GⱰᵄSG⸰䓐SG䓐SG㢽䆠G☥㡸G㇠㟝䚌ḔG㢼␘UG䙸ὤẠ⦐㉐㢌G˄⸰䓐ḰG䓐˅㢌G㇠㟝㡴G 䙸ὤẠ⦐G˄㘤㜠㫴⏈˅G㢨㚰ὤ⢰⏈Gㇵ㬉㉥㡸G⬀☘㛨G⇨ὤ⓸G䚐␘UG⇌⏈GἬ⫤␘SGἬ⫠ḔG㘨␘UGἬ⫰ḰG 㘴㡸G䋩䚌㜠G˄㢨㚰ὤ˅⪰G䚌⏈Gᶷ㢨␘UG␜㫴G˄Ἤ⫤␘˅⏈G䚽㠸⏈G㫴Ἥ䢼G⇌⬀㢌Gᵐ㢬㤵㢬G䚽㠸␘UG Ἤ⫠ḔG˄㢨㚰ὤG䚐␘˅⏈G㋀䋩㜄G␴䚐G㜨⬑㢨␘UG⇌㢌G㢨㚰ὤ⪰G⵽㛨⇸㡰⦐G䇴㢬㢌G㢨㚰ὤᴴG ẵἼ䚨㫴ḘG䚐␘U xUG㣅㛹㡸G䚌⮨㉐G㛨⥘㟨G㥄㢨G㢼⏈ᴴfG㢼␘⮨SGⱨ㛻㢬ᴴf ㉬᷸㢌G␴⺴⺸㢌G㣅ᴴ☘SG䏭䢼G㤾㡴G㣅ᴴ☘㢨GḔẤ⺸䍠G䚌⏈Gḩ䋩㢌Gⱬ㥐UGᷤạG㣅㛹㢌G 䑄⬘⬀㡰⦐G㈑᷸⪰G㡔㫴䚔G㍌G㢼⏈ᴴ㜄G␴䚐G⺴⺸㢨␘UG⚀⦔G㤸㐐⪰G䚐␘⏈G䚽㠸㣄㷨ᴴGὤ㆜ḰG ᵄ㇠G㢨ㇵ㢌GḔ䋩㢨G╌ὤ⓸G䚐␘UG㤸㐐⪰G㨴⽸䚌ḔSG㫸䚽䚌⏈GὤᴸG┍㙼G㣅㛹㡸G䚌⏈Gᶷ㡴G䣌☘㛨G 㫸␘UG⚀⦔G㤸㐐⪰G˄䚌ὤG㐟␘˅⏈GḔ䋩㡸G⏄↰ὤ⓸G䚐␘UG˄㣅㛹㡸G䚐␘SGἬ⫰㡸GἬ⫤␘˅⏈G䚽㠸G 㣄㷨⏈GくḜ㢨G㖘㐐᷀G㙸䙀㫴㛬㥉Gⱨ䚐㢌Gὤ㆜㢨ḔSG䃀⢱ḰG㡔䢠㢌G䚽㠸㢨ὤ⓸G䚌␘UGOⱰ⦔G⇌㢌G ᵐ㢬㤵㢬G㈑ᴵ㢨␘PG㤸㐐⪰G㫸䚽䚌⏈G㐐ᴸ☘G┍㙼GἬ⫰㡸GἬ⫠㫴G⯯䚌ᶤ⇌SGⱨ㛬ᴴGY㵜㤵㢬Gᶷ㢬G 㛅G◘⦐G⴬⨜㛨G▄㛨㚰G䚌⏈Gㇵ䞝㡴G⇌㜄᷀GḔ䋩㢨␘UG⒈Ấ␘⇌SG㈑᷸⪰G㠸䚌㜠Gⱨ㛬ᴴG❄G␘⪬G˄

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⓿⸨㢨⏈GἬ⫰㢨␘UG䟸㣄⏈GḴ⯜⪰G㘤ḔG㚰⸩O䓽ⴰ㢨G㢹⏈G㝫P㡸G㢹㡴G⯜㏩㡰⦐G㣄㐔㢌G 㐠ㇵ㡸G␨㡰⥘䚐Gⵝ㐑㜄Gᵄ䇸䚐␘U xUG㸼ㇵ㡸G䖐䜸䚌ὤG㠸䚨G㐘㥐⦐G㿄⫡䉤㜄G␴䚨G὾㢨G㚀㙸⸨⏈GḰ㥉㡸Gᶤ㾐␘ḔG☘㛼␘UG㣄㾟G 㣠⴬㢼ḔGᴴ⸁᷀⬀G⸨㢰G㍌⓸G㢼⏈G䑑G㿄⫡䉤☘㡸G὾㢨G㢼⏈G┍㛅G㸼ㇵ䞈⦐G䖐䜸䚌ὤG㠸䚐G㣅㛹G Ḱ㥉㡸G☘⥘G␠⢰UG ⇌⏈GἬ⫰㡸GἬ⫠ὤG㤸㜄G㢨⤤㤴⤤G㦤㇠⪰G䚌ḘG䚐␘UG㠄㣅㣄㜄G㢌䚐G㿄⫡䉤㢌G䇸㈑Gⵤᷱ⺴䉤G ㇨䓨⸨ḔSG㠄㣅㜄㉐GἬG㿄⫡䉤㢌G㜡䚔GἬ⫠ḔG㜤㣅㢰Gᷱ㟤⏈GἬG㜡㇠⪰G㇨䓨⸨ὤ⓸G䚐␘UGⷴ㨰㢌G ᷱ㟤ᴴG㢼⏈㫴SG㢼␘⮨G㛨⛘Gᷱ㟤ᴴG㢼⏈㫴㜄GḴ䚨㉐⓸G㚀㙸⸬␘UGⵤ㟤ᴴG㿄⫡䉤⪰G㣠䜸䚐G ᷱ㟤㜄⏈GἬGⵤ㟤㜄GḴ䚨㉐⓸G㇨䓨⸨ḔSG㐘㦨㢬Ɒ㢌Gᷱ㟤㜄⏈GἬG㢬Ɒ㢌G㇪㜄G␴䚨Gḩ⺴䚐␘UG⇨G 㣅㛹㡴G㢬Ɒ㡸G˄㤸㐔訯蘡˅䚌ὤG㠸䚐GḰ㥉㢨⢰ḔG㈑ᴵ䚐␘UG㪽SG㢬Ɒ㢌G䝉ㇵ㡸G㣠䜸䚌⏈Gᶷ㄄⬀G 㙸⏼⢰G㥉㐔ᾀ㫴G␨㙸⇨⏈G㢰㢨␘U xUG┍㛅䞈GὤⷉḰG㉐㛅G㙸㢨䂌㡸Gᷤ䚝㐐䇘⏈G⒤G㢼㛨㉐G㛨⥘㠔⒌G㥄㢨⇌Gᴴ㣙GḔⴰ㢨G╌㛼⒌G ⺴⺸㡴Gⱨ㛻㢬ᴴf ⇨᷀G㢼㛨㉐G㉐㛅G㙸㢨䂌㡸G㋀㣠⦐G┍㛅䞈⪰GἬ⫠᷀G═G㢰㡴Gṽ㣙䢼G㣄㜤㏘⤠㟨GḰ㥉㢨㛼ὤG ⚀ⱬ㜄SG㛨⥘㟴㢨⇌GḔⴰ⸨␘⏈G㫄ᶤ㟴㢨G㚒㉤␘U xUG␭㐔㢌G㣅䖼㡴G䜸␴㢬㜄᷀G㤸䋩G┍㛅䞈㜄G␴䚐Gㇼ⦐㟨G㢬㐑㡸G⺼⤠㢰㡰䁤␘ḔG㈑ᴵ═␘UG ┍㛅䞈ᴴ⦐㉐G㈑ᴵ䚌⏈G䜸␴G┍㛅䞈㜄G␴䚐Gᷠ䚨⏈Gⱨ㛻㢬ᴴfG ˄㤸䋩˅G┍㛅䞈⢰ḔG䚨㉐G㝏⇔㢌G⇕㡴Gᶷ㢨G㙸⏼␘UG㢨⏈G䜸␴㜄㉐⓸Gⱨ䚐䚐Gᴴ⏙㉥㡸Gᴴ㫴ḔG㢼␘UG 㤸䋩㤵㢬G䞈⦔㜄G㢌ᶤ䚌㜠G㣅㛹䚔G㍌G㢼⏈Gㇼ⦐㟨Gⵝ㐑㢨Gⱨ㍌䢼G㦨㣠䚔G㍌G㢼␘ḔG㈑ᴵ䚐␘UG 䝭㡴G㣄㐔⬀㢌G䞈⦔㡸G㉬㟬G㍌G㢼⏈Gᴴ⏙㉥G❄䚐Gⱨ䚐䚌␘ḔG㈑ᴵ䚐␘U xUG㚒㡰⦐G䞈䔡㜄G␨ḔG㐪㡴G㢬ⱰG䝭㡴G㋀㣠⏈Gⱨ㛻㢬ᴴfGἬ⫠ḔG᷸䟁G㩅㢨㐔G␘㢀G㐐⫠㪼ᴴG 㢼␘⮨G㋀ᵐ䚨G␠⢰UG 䚐G㢬Ɒ㜄G␴䚐G㸼ㇵ䞈G㜤㣅㡸G⮻GⶼG㥐㣅䚌㜴ὤ㜄SG㸼ㇵ䞈G㣅㛹㡴G㫴㋁䚌╌G⬂㡴Gⷴ䞈ᴴG㈑ὬG ☣䚌␘UG㇤㍌䞈⓸GἬ⫠ḔG㐪ḔSG㍌Ⱪ㡰⦐⬀GἬ⫠⏈GἬ⫰⓸G㈑ᴵG㩅㢨␘UG⬄㢨⇌Gἴ⦐G㋀ᵐ䚔G㍌G 㢼⏈G㢰㡴G㙸⏼⢰G㈑ᴵ═␘U

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Ἥ␜G㇠␘⫠㝴㢌G䝅㛹Gᷱ䜌㡴G⇌㢌G㉥㣙㜄G㦿㡴G㣄㛅⺸㢨G╌㛼␘U ⵌ♛⺼㢨㢌G㍦GOˆG–™Œš›G–G͌™Œ͍ŒšGaGYWW]P ἬG┍㙼Gᴴ㣙G㜠⤠GⶼG㤸㐐⪰G䚼⒌G㣅㛹㢨␘UG㺐㸼㢌G㣅㛹㡴G㙸㢨♈㛨ᴴG⛔㝘⪬㫴GY㐐ᴸ㜠G⬀㜄G 㪽䢙㤵㡰⦐G⬀☘㛼⏈⒤SG㩅㟈䚐G⮈㐐㫴⪰G␨ḔG㢼㫴⏈G㙾㫴⬀Gạ⇨㜄G㋀ᵐ╠⒌G⴬♈㛨㙸䏬㢌G ㏘䊀⤼㝘䇴㢹OḴᵑ㢌Gⵌ㢅㜄G㢨⴬㫴ᴴGⷴ䞈䚌⏈P㤵㢬G㣅㛹㢨ḔSG㢨㆐G㢨⴬㫴⪰G⸨㜠㨰ὤG⚀ⱬ㜄G ㉔䝬╌⏈G㣅㛹㢨G㙸␀ᴴG㈑ᴵ═␘UG㜠⤠ᵐ㢌G㏘䆠⫤㡸GὬ᷀G㜤㣙䚌㜠Gḩᴸ㡸Gᴴ☑G㵸㟤⮨G⏄⇀㡴G ₘG㦿㡴GᶷGᵍ␘UGḴᵑ㢌G㟴㫵㢸㡴Gᴴㇵ㢌Gⵌ♛⺼㢨⪰G⊴⢰G⇔㙸ᴴ᷀G䚌⏈GḰ㥉㜄㉐G㋀⫠㝴G 㢨⴬㫴ᴴG⬀☘㛨㫸␘UG㦿㙸䚌⏈G㣅㛹㢨ὤ⓸G䚌㫴⬀G㵱㣅㣄⦐㉐㢌G䚐᷸⪰G☘㛨⇨⏈G㣅㛹㢨⢰Ḕ⓸G ㈑ᴵ䚌ḔG⚀ⱬ㜄G䞐┍㜄G␴䚐GḔⴰ㢌Gⵐ␜㢨G╌㛨㨴G㣅㛹㢨ὤ⓸G䚌␘UG ⴰ☘⤼Gⵈ⣀䇴ḔG䠜䠜GO‰“–ž•ŽGˆG‹ˆ•‹Œ“–•GaGYWW`P ⇨ᴴGὤ䟁ḰG㋀䘸䏬㠜㛨⪰G⬀☘㛨G㐘㐐ᴸG㜵ㇵ㡸G⬀☘ḔSG㾐┍㈑㢨G䚌☐㠜㛨㝴Gw šŠˆ“G j–”—œ›•ŽG⺴⺸㡸G⬕㙸G㉰㉐㜄Gⵌ㢅䚌㜠G⾏㢨G⇌⏈G⺴⺸㡸G⬀☘ḔSG㙸⇨ᴴG㝘㾨⫠⇌㝴G㡔㇠䚌᷀G ㈑ὨG⓸㣄ὤG⺴⺸㡸G⬀☘㛼⒌G㣅㛹㢨␘UG㢹㡰⦐Gⵈ⣀㡸G⺼㛨Gⴰ☘⤼⪰G⇔⥘⸨⏈G⊴㢨㢌G㍐㍌䚐G ⊴㢨㤵Gᵄ㉥㡸G㣠㈑㇤G䚌ḔG㐪㛼ḔSG㜠ὤ㜄G㍐㟤⫠⬄⦐GG˄ⵈ⣀˅㢨G㋀㠄㡸G⾀␘⢰⏈G㢌⴬⓸G㢼㡰⏼SG ⱬ㣄⮈㐐㫴⦐G㋀㠄㡸G⸨⇨⓸G㜡㐐Gⴰ☘⤼㙜ᴴG⇔㙸ᴴ᷀G䚌⏈G㐐⓸⪰G䚨⸨㚌␘UG␘⪬ᶨG㵜㾌G 䚌Ḕ㉐⢰⓸Gᴴ㦥㢨G䚜‌G⬀☔G㣅㛹㢨㛼⒌Gᶷ㢨Gᴴ㣙Gὤ㛩㜄G⇜⏈␘U 㚜⫠㏘㝜SGpitGkŒŒ“–—Œ™ž–™’šGὤḔGOYWW]SGYWW`P ⴬♈㛨㙸䏬⪰G㤸ⱬ㤵㡰⦐G␘⨜⏈G㠭㫸㢬G㚜⫠㏘㝜㜄G㜤㣠䚼⒌G䀠⤰㡰⦐GYWW]≸G⺴䉤GὤḔ䚼␘U O››—aVVˆ“ŠŒ–•U›š›–™ UŠ–”VY[ZPGὤ㍔㜄G␴䚐G㢨㚰ὤ⦐G㐐㣅䚨㉐G⎨⴬♈㛨㝴GẄ㡕Ḱ㢌GḴ᷸⦐G ⫼ⱨ⫠G䚼ḔSGpitGkŒŒ“–—Œ™ž–™’š㜄㉐⏈Gp{㢌G㚔㣄㢰OhŽ“ŒPⱬ䞈㜄㉐G㜵ᵄ㡸G㛯㛨GẄ㡕㢌G 㜵㜡㜄㉐G㐘䜌㡸G䚼⒌G㢨㚰ὤ⦐GYWW`≸㜄GὤḔ䚼␘UGOG››—aVV“”•”U›š›–™ UŠ–”VXGPG㜼㍔V♈㣄㢬G ⺸㚰㢌G㇠⣀☘㜄᷀G⎨⴬♈㛨G㣅㛹㜄G䙸㟈䚐Gὤ㍔㡸G㤸㍌䚌ὤG㠸䚨GḔⴰ䚌ḔG㐘㷐䚼⒌G⇨㟝☘㢨G ㇵ␭G㍌G␨ᷜ㢼ḔSG㟈㫌㢌G␴䚍㜄㉐㢌GẄ㡕㐘䜌㢨G㢨GὤḔἴ㢌G㜤㣙㉔Gㇵ㜄G㢼␘U sl{zGOYWXWP ⱬṅ⺴㢌G㫴㠄㡸Gⵏ㙸G㫸䚽╌㛼⒌G˄㫴㋁ᴴ⏙䚐G㵱㣅ḩ┍㷨˅䞐┍㜄㉐G㫸䚽╌㛼⒌G㇠䟀ⱬ䞈㤵G 㐘䜌㢨␘UG㺐㸼Gsl{zOs–Šˆ“Gl•Œ™Ž G{™ˆ‹•ŽGz š›Œ”P㡸G㥅䚐Gᶷ㡴Gp{㜵㜡㜄㉐G㢼㛼⒌G ␴㙼㛬㛨㻉㥐Oˆ“›ˆ•ˆ›ŒG—™–Ž™ˆ””•ŽG“ˆ•ŽœˆŽŒGŒš›ˆ“P㜴␘UG㚱ᴸ㢌Gἐ㾍㡸G㫴䇘⮤G㇠⣀☘㢨G ㉐⦐G㚀⥘㨸G㍌G㢼⏈GᶷḰGⵤ㟤ḔG㐪㡴Gᶷ㡸G㐐ᴵ䞈G㐐䇘ḔG㜤ᷤ䚌㜠G㬛㡴G㐐ᴸ┍㙼G㣠⴬㢼᷀G ⵤ㟴㡸G⇌⌸⏈G⯜㏩㡸G⸨ḔG䆤G㢬ㇵ㡸Gⵏ㙸㉐G㢨⪰Gp{⺸㚰G⬀㢨G㙸⏼⢰G␘⪬G⬂㡴G⺸㚰㜄G ㋀ᵐ䚌ḔG㐪㛼ḔSG⫼㾜G㫴㠄㡸Gⵏ㡸G㍌G㢼㛨㉐GXWᵐ㠈G┍㙼㢌G㐘䜌㡸G䚔G㍌G㢼㛼␘UGἬGḰ㥉ḰG ᷤḰ⏈G››—aVV‰ˆ“šˆ•ŽUŠŠG㜄G㣌G㥉⫠╌㛨㢼␘U xUGᵘ⤠⫠㜄㉐G㤸㐐⪰G䚌⏈G㙸䐤㏘䏬ᴴG╌ὤᾀ㫴G⇜␘⪬GḰ㥉㢨G㢼㛼⒌GᶷGᵍ␘UG㋀ᵐ䚨␠⢰UG X`_Z≸G㪼㢀㢌G㛨⫤㐐㤼G⺴䉤Gwj⪰G㥅䚼ὤG⚀ⱬ㜄G䀨䘜䉤⏈G⇌㜄᷀G⬘㟤G㾐ⴴ䚐G㦨㣠㜴ḔSG䏭䢼G Ḕ☥䚍ẄG㢨䟸⦐⏈Gj–”—œ›Œ™Gn™ˆ—Šš㜄G䖭G⾔㫴᷀G╌㛨SGiizG☥㜄㉐G♈㫴䉬G㵱㣅㜄G␴䚐G 䀘Ⳙ⏼䐤G䞐┍㡸GXW␴G䟸ⵌ⺴䉤GYW␴G㩅ⵌᾀ㫴G䚨㞈␘UG䚍㵱㐐㤼㢌G㤸ḩ㡴G㢅㟝Ɒ⫠O㍌䚍㢨⇌G Ɒ⫠☥㢌GḰ䚍㜄GḴ㐠㡸G⬂㢨Gᴴ㫴ḔG㢼㛼㫴⬀G㥉㣅G㣌䚌㫴⏈G⯯䚨㉐SG⒈Gⵤ㠀⸨ḔG㐪㛨G㉔䈑䚐G 㤸ḩ㢨㛼␘P㝴GḰ䚍Ẅ㡕㢨㛼⏈⒤SGX``\≸GwŸˆ™㢌G{– Gz›–™ ⪰G⬀⇌⮨㉐SG䘸⦐Ἤ⣌ⵁG㛬㛨⦐G 㣄㜤䜸ㇵ㡸G䖐䜸䚌⏈Gzˆ‹•ŽGsˆ•ŽœˆŽŒ⢰⏈Gᶷ㜄G⬘⨀╌㛨G⸬ᷝ㤵㢬G䘸⦐Ἤ⣌ⵁ㢌G㉬᷸⦐G ≌㛨㝘᷀G╌㛼␘UGYWW\≸㜄⏈G㛨⛘G␴ὤ㛹㢌G|p⺸㚰G㜤Ạ㠄☘㡸G␴ㇵ㡰⦐G™ˆ—‹G—™–›–› —•Ž 㢨⢰⏈G⇨㟝㡰⦐Gᵉ㢌⪰G䚌ḔG㢼㛼␘UG㇠㟝㣄Gㇵ䝬㣅㟝㢨G㢼⏈G㋀䘸䏬㠜㛨G㥐䖼㡸G⾔⪨᷀G 䘸⦐䋔䇴㢨䚅G䚨⸨⏈G㨰㥐㜄G␴䚐Gᶷ㢨㛼⏈⒤SG␭㐐G㇠㟝䚌ḔG㢼⒌G䍨㢨Gm“ˆš㢌GhŠ›–•GzŠ™—›㝴G w™–ŠŒšš•ŽG㢨⢰⏈G㝘䘼㋀㏘G㵱㣅G⓸Ạ㜴␘UGⱬ☑G㢨Gw™–ŠŒšš•Ž㡸Gạ⇨㜄㉐⏈G㛨⛯᷀G䞐㟝䚌⏈G 㫴ᴴGẵἼ䚌㜠GẠἴ㜄㉐Gᶴㇽ㡸G䚨⸨㚌ḔSGἬG⚀Gⵐᷠ䚌᷀G═Gḧ㢨Gh™›ŠŒ•›Œ™Guˆ‰㜴␘UGⱨ㣅㥉G 㵲㙸ᵈḔSG䆄⤼㢨䉤⢰㝴G㣅ᴴ⢰⏈G㇠⣀☘㡸G⬀⇌᷀G╌㛼ḔSGἬ☘ḰG㛨㟬⫠᷀G╌⮨㉐G㚒㜄㉐G 㢨㚰ὤ䚐GpuwSG䘸⦐㥑䏬⪰G᷸ὤ⦐G㤸㐐⪰G㐐㣅䚌᷀G╌㛼␘UG㷌㢀GY≸ᴸ㡴G㜼㍔㜄G␴䚐Gⵤᷱ㡸G ᴴ㫴ḔG㢼㫴G㙾㚌ὤG⚀ⱬ㢬㫴SG⏌G㜼㍔G☥㢌Gⵤᷱ㡸Gᴴ㫸G⺸☘ḰG䝅㛹㡸G䚌⮨㉐G㣅㛹㡸G䚌⏈G ㇵ䞝㢨G╌㛼␘UG㢨G⚀G䝅㛹㜄G␴䚐Gᷱ䜌㡸G⬂㢨G䚌᷀G╌㛼ḔSG㛨⛘G㣙㥄ḰG㚱㥄㢨G㢼⏈G㫴SG㛬㥐G ㇵ㷌⪰G㨰ḔGⵏ᷀G╌⏈G㫴G☥☥G䝅㛹㢌G␘㛅䚐G㢨㎼⪰G㚀᷀G╌㛨SG㢨G䟸㢌G䞐┍㡸G䓰㾌⏈⒤G䆤G 㜵䛙㡸G㨰㛼ḔSG─㢨䁐G⸰G⚀G㥉⬄G㩅㟈䚼⒌Gᷱ䜌㢨⢰ḔG㈑ᴵ䚐␘U xUGXWWW≸㤸㢌G䞈ᴴ☘㡴G䟀ⷱ㜄Gㇽ㋀⪰Gⵐ⢰GἬ⫰㡸GἬ⥬␘UGYWXX≸⓸㜄G␭㐔㢨G⬀☘ḔG㢼⏈G 㣅䖼㢌G⓸Ạ⏈GẠ㷨㤵㡰⦐Gⱨ㛻㢬ᴴf 䘸⦐Ἤ⣌ⵁ㛬㛨ᴴGᴴ㣙G㩅㟈䚐G⓸ẠG㩅㜄G䚌⇌⢰ḔG⸰G㍌㢼␘UG㟈㫌G㨰⦐Gḩ⺴䚌⮤G㣅㛹㜄G 䞐㟝䚌ḔG㢼⏈G㛬㛨⏈G‘ˆˆšŠ™—›㢬⒤G㢨㤸㜄⏈GjJ㢨⢰⏈G㛬㛨⪰G㇠㟝䚌㜠G㣅㛹㡸G䞐㟝䚨G㞈␘UG ἬGⵊ㜄⓸G‘ˆˆSGŠRRSGŠG☥㢌G⮹⥭䝉G䘸⦐Ἤ⣌ⵁG㛬㛨O”—Œ™ˆ›ŒG—™–Ž™ˆ””•ŽG“ˆ•ŽœˆŽŒP⪰G 㨰⦐G␘⨜㛨G㞈␘UG䘸⦐Ἤ⣌ⵁG㛬㛨⏈Gᴴㇵ䜸ㇵ㜄Gᵐ㢹䚔G㍌G㢼⏈G䣌㡸Gᵊ⏈G㛬㛨⢰ḔG㈑ᴵ䚐␘UG ⫼㾌G˄⾏㢨G㢼㡰⢰H˅⢰ḔG㢨㚰ὤG䚌⮨G⾏㢨G㈑ὤ⏈GᶷḰGᵍ㡴G㫄ᶤ㟴㢨Gᶤὤ㜄G㢼␘UG㐐ᴵ㤵㡰⦐G ⸨㢰SGἬ⫠ḔG㇨㙸G㟴㫵㢰GẠ㦤⪰G㈑ᴵ㡰⦐G⛔㝠⫠ḔGἬGᶷ㡸G䀨䘜䉤ᴴG㐘䜸㐐䇠G㍌G㢼⏈G㛬㛨⦐G ⶼ㜡䚌⏈G㣅㛹UG㠄㣄㝴⓸Gᵍ㡴G‰›š⪰Gᴴ㫴ḔG⇨ᴴG䖐䜸䚌ḔG㐪㡴G䚐♴䚐♴GẠ㉥䚨Gᴴ⏈G㣙㢬㢨G═G ὤ⺸㢨G☘᷀G䚌⏈G⬘㷨㢨⮤SG㣅㛹㢌G⓸Ạ㢨␘UG᷀␘ᴴSG㢰ㇵ㛨G␘㢀㡰⦐G㣄㨰G㇠㟝䚌⏈G㛬㛨㢨ὤG ⚀ⱬ㜄Gᴴↈ㡴G㈑ᴵ䚌⏈Gⵝ㐑㜄⓸G㜵䛙㡸Gⵏ㡸G⚀ᴴG㢼␘U xUGἬG⓸Ạ⦐G䖐䜸䚌⏈G␭㐔㢌G㩅㐠G䊀⫼⏈Gⱨ㛻㢬ᴴf ᶨᵉ䚐Gㇵ䝬㣅㟝SGḩ㫸䞈㜄G␴䚐Gᶷ㢨⢰ḔG㈑ᴵ䚐␘UG㢨G⮈㐐㫴⏈G㐘㥐G㤸㐐㣙㜄㉐G⸨㜠㨰⏈G 㣅㛹㡰⦐⏈G㙸㫵G㻝⺸䢼G䖐䜸╌ḔG㢼㫴⏈G㙾㫴⬀SG㇠䟀䞐┍ḰGẄ㡕㢌G⬙⢱㜄㉐⏈GₘG㐘䜌㡸G䚌ḔG 㢼⏈G㨰㥐㢨␘UGㇼ⦐㟨Gὤ㍔ḰG⴬♈㛨ᴴG㣄ὤG㣄㐔㡸G⒈G⾔⪨ḔSG⒈G䆠ḔSG⒈Gᵉ⥙䚌ḔG⺼ἔ䝉㤵㢬G ㉥㣙㡸G䚌㫴G㙾ḔSG㇠⣀ḰG䚜‌G㢰ㇵG㋁㜄㉐G㉐⦐⪰G⓸㟤⮤G䚜‌G␘㢀G㫴䓽㡸G㜠⏈⒤Gὁ㥉㤵㢬G 㜄∼㫴⪰G㨰ḔGⵏ⓸⦑G䚌⏈⒤GḴ㐠㢨G㢼␘UGᶤ㵱䚐G㋀⮹㢌㐑㢨G㢼␘ὤG⸨␘⏈G⇨ᴴG㇨㙸ᴴ⮤G ⬀⇌ḔGㇵ䝬㣅㟝G䚔G㍌G㢼⏈G㇠⣀☘G㥉⓸㜄᷀G⬀㢨⢰⓸G⇨ᴴG㣌G䚔G㍌G㢼⏈G㢰㡸G䚨⸨⏈Gᶷ㢨␘UG Ἤ⤻ὤG⚀ⱬ㜄G␘㢀G㉬␴⪰G㠸䚐G㣅㛹㜄GḴ㐠㢨G㈑ὤḔSG⬀⇜Sⵤ㟴S㉥㣙G☥㜄G␴䚐G㨰㥐⦐G㐘䜌㡸G 䚌ὤ⪰G㫄ᷜ䚐␘SGG xUG␴䚍㜄㉐Gᵉ㢌⪰G䚔⚀㝴G㡔㾌㠄㜄㉐G㙸㢨☘㡸G␴䚔G⚀SG㛨⛘G㵜㢨ᴴG㢼⏈ᴴf 㥅ἰGⵝⷉ㡴G┍㢰䚌㫴⬀SGỀ䚐㢌G㠸㢸㢨G␘⪬GᶷGᵍ␘UGẠ㷨㤵㡰⦐G⓸㤸䚌ḔG㢼⏈G⺸㚰⏈G䚐G 䆨⣌㏘⪰G㈑ᴵ䚔G⚀Gᵐ㢬SG㋀Ἤ⨭SG㤸㷨㢌Gᴵᴵ㢌G㏘䀴㢰G␜㠸ᴴG⯜▄G㇨㙸㢼⓸⦑G䚌⏈Gᶷ㢨␘UG㢨G ᵐ⊄ḰG㢨⪰G㠸䚐G㐘㷐Gⵝⷉ㢬Gὤ⦑㣅㛹㢌Gᴴ㐐䞈G⺴⺸㡴G㡔㙸Ẅ㡕㜄㉐Gⵤ㟤ḔG⯬㜄Gⵤ㢬G㏩ḴG ᵍ㡴Gᶷ㢨␘UG䚍㏩㣄☘㢌Gἰ㥅ⵐ␭㜵㜡㡸G㢬㐑䚨G㨰ḔGᴵᴵ㢌G㫴䓽㡸G㏘㏘⦐G≇䣄G㍌G㢼⓸⦑G

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⓸㝴㨰⥘⏈G䈐⓸SG䚍㏩㣄☘㢌G㇠䟀㤵Gㇵ䝬㣅㟝㢨GἬ☘㢌Gⵤ㟴㡸G⒈㟥G䗁㟈⦡᷀G䚌⓸⦑GẠ㦤⪰G ㉘᷸䚌⏈Gᶷ㡴G⇨ᴴG㛨⛘GẄ㡕㢌G㽩㠸㜄㉐⇌G┍㢰䚌᷀G䞐㟝䚌⏈Gⵝⷉ㢨␘UG㢨G㫴㠄㢌GḰ㥉㜄㉐G 㡔㾌㠄㢌Gᷱ㟤⏈GẄ㇠ᴴG䚨㚰G䚌⏈G㢰㢨G⒈G⬂␘UG䚌㫴⬀G␴䚍㢌Gᷱ㟤⏈G䚍㏩㣄G㏘㏘⦐ᴴG㣄㐔㢨G 䓰㸄⇨⏈GḰ㥉㡸Gὤ⦑䚌⮤G㣄ᴵ䚔G㍌G㢼⓸⦑G䚌⏈G㢰㢨G㻝⺸䢼Gᴴ⏙䚌␘UG⸨␘G⬂㡴GỀ䚐㡸G 㠸㢸䚔G㍌G㢼ὤG⚀ⱬ㜄SGᴵ㣄㢌G㉥㣙㜄G⒈G㵹㢸㡸G㫴⮨㉐G⸨␘G⇌㙸ᴸG䝉䈐㢌G㐘䜌㡸G䚔G㍌G 㢼␘UG䚌㫴⬀GἬGὤ㤴㜄㉐G㻈Ạ䚌⏈Gⵈ⏈G┍㢰䚌␘UGἬG㐐㤼㡸G䗁㟈⦡᷀G㇨㙸ᴴ⓸⦑G㉐⦐G┉⏈G ᶷ㢨␘UG⴬⣌⪰G㠸䚨G䍠㣄䚌⏈G㐐ᴸ㢨G╔G㍌G㢼⓸⦑G䚌⏈G⺴⺸⓸GⱰ⦔G㩅㟈䚌ᷔ㫴⬀SGἬGḰ㥉㢨G 㛩㫴⦐G䚌ὤG㐟㡴Gḩ⺴⪰Gᵉ㟈G␭䚌⏈Gᶷ㢨G㙸⏼⢰UG䖭G⾔㥬㉐G㫄ᶵḔG䗁㟈⦡᷀G㨰㛨㫸G㐐ᴸ㡸G 㜵㠸䚌⓸⦑G⊬⥙䚌⏈Gᶷ㢨␘UG㢨ᶷ㡴GẄ㇠⇌GẄ㍌㢌G䔠㫴㊌㜄G㢼⏈G㇠⣀㜄᷀⓸G❅ᵍ㢨G㤵㟝╌⏈G ᶷ㢨⢰G㈑ᴵ䚐␘UGG xUG⴬♈㛨G㙸䐤㏘䏬㢨⮨㉐SGẄ㡕㣄㢨␘UG▄Gᴴ㫴⪰G䚔⚀G㛨⛘G㵜㢨ᴴG㢼⏈ᴴf ạ⇨㜄㉐G⴬♈㛨G㙸䐤㏘䏬⦐G䞐┍䚐Gᷱ䜌㡴G⇨G㇠䟀㤵G䔠㫴㊈␑㜄㉐G⸨㣄⮨Gⷀ㡸G㡔㢬䚌⏈G⁷ḰG ᵍ㡴G㤸⣩㢨␘UG㜼㍔SGp{SGḰ䚍SG㡩䚝G☥㢌G㜵㜡㜄㉐GⲈᴴG㐔ὤ䚐Gᶷ㡸G䚌⏈G㇠⣀㡰⦐G⇨Gᴴ㾌⪰G 㣌G䑈㙸㞈ḔSG㣌G㋀⯜㐐䁐G㞈␘ḔG㈑ᴵ䚐␘UG⴬♈㛨㙸䐤㏘䏬⦐G␘㛅䚐Gὤ䟀㜄㉐G␘㛅䚐G㇠⣀☘㡸G ⬀⇠ḔSGἬᶷ㢨G㢬㥅䚐G␘⪬Gᶷ㡰⦐Gⶼ㥬⇌ᴴ⏈G㫄ᶤ㟨Gᷱ䜌㡸G䚨㞈␘ḔG㈑ᴵ䚐␘UG䚌㫴⬀G 㟈㫌㡴G㤸㐐㣙G☥㜄㉐G㣄㐔㢨G㦿㙸㉐G䚐G㣅㛹㡰⦐GḴᵑḰG⬀⇌⏈Gᶷ㢨G⇨᷀G㛨⛘Gᴴ㾌ᴴG㢼⏈G 㢰㢬㫴GḔⴰ䚌⏈Gᷱ㟤ᴴGₘG㢼␘UG⇨ᴴGḩ⺴䚌ḔG㐪ḔG㐘䜌䚌ḔG㐪㡴Gὤ㍔㡸Gᴴ㫴ḔG㣅㛹㡸G䚌⏈G ᶷ㡴G⏌G㣠⴬㢼⏈G㢰㢨㫴⬀SGἬGᶷḰG⇨G㇪㢨G㻈Ạ䚌Ḕ㣄G䚌⏈Gⵝ䛙㢨G㙸㫵G㢰㾌䚌㫴⏈G㙾⏈GᶷG ᵍ␘UGἬG┍㙼㢌G㣚㡴G㤸㐐㜄G㋀⯜╌ὤ⓸G䚼ḔSG⬘∼⫠㫌㜄G⾔㥬G㢼ὤ⓸G䚌␘UGˆ™›š›˅šGš›ˆ›Œ”Œ•› ⪰G㘬G⚀㢌GṨ⫠ᵄGᵍ㡴Gᶷ㢨G⏄
㫸␘UGẄ㡕㢌G㜵㜡㜄㉐㢌G㐘䜌㡴G㫴⇐GY≸G㥉⓸⪰G─㢨䁐G⸰G ⚀SGẄ㡕㜄G␴䚨G㈑ᴵ䚌ḔG㐘㷐䚌⏈GḰ㥉㜄G㬅㩅䚔G㍌G㢼㛼ḔSG㜄∼㫴⓸G㻝⺸䚼⒌GᶷGᵍ␘UG㢨G Ẅ㡕㜄㉐㢌G㐘䜌㢨G⇨ᴴG㥉⬄G㬅㩅䚨㚰G䚔G㣅㛹㢨⢴G⏄⇀㡸Gⵏὤ⓸G䚼␘UGἬ⤤⒤G㫴Ἴ㡴Gᶤὤ㜄G ⒈Gᴴ㋁G䓌␠㡸GⵓὤG⸨␘⏈G㫴⇌㝜GḰ㥉㡸G䟀Ḕ䚌ḔG㥉⫠䚌⮤G⫼♈⪰G㦴G⬀☘㛨㚰ᷔ␘⏈G㈑ᴵ㢨G ☔␘UGἬ⤻␘ḔG㙸㜼G䖭G㎠⮨㉐G▄Gᴴ㫴⪰G䞉G⇨⥘⋇ḔG㐪㫴⏈G㙾␘UG⇨G䏭ὤG㩅㜄G䚌⇌⏈G䚌⇌㢌G 䞐┍㢌G㙸㟷䖿㢨G␘⪬Gᶷ㢌G㢬䖿㢨G╌⓸⦑G㜤ᷤ䚌⏈Gᶷ㢬⒤SG㫴ἼG⇨᷀G䙸㟈䚐Gᶷ㡴G㵱㦤㤵G 㜄∼㫴⪰G䟀⸩䚔G㜠ⵥ㡸G⫼⥜䚌ḔSG⴬♈㛨㙸䏬㢨ᶨGẄ㡕㢨ᶨSG␘⪬Gⱨ㛻㢨ᶨGᴸ㜄G䚨㞈⒌G䞐┍㢌G 㡔㇠䚐G⺴⺸ḰG␘⪬G⺴⺸㡸G㦹䚝䚨㉐Gㇵ㠸G㽩㠸㜄㉐G䚌⇌㢌G⬙㡸G㣕㡸G㍌G㢼⏈G㈑ᴵ㡸G㵜⺸䢼G 㥉⫠䚌⏈Gᶷ㢨␘UG㪽SG␘㢀㡸G㠸䚐G⓸㚱㢌G䋔␴⪰G⬀☐⏈Gᶷ㜄G㬅㩅䚌ḔG㐪␘U xUG⫼㫴⫽㡰⦐G␘㛅䚐G㣅䖼G㩅㜄G䚐ᴴ㫴⪰G㋀ᵐ䚨㨰ḔSG䘸⦐Ἤ⣌ⵁ㋀㏘⪰Gḩᵐ䚨␠⢰U 䘸⦐㉬㐥G㣅㛹G⮻Gᴴ㫴⏈G㋀㏘ᴴGḩᵐ╌㛨㢼␘UG

═␘UG㟤⫠⏈G㥉⸨ᴴG≌㾌ḔSGⱰᶨ㢨G≌㾌ḔSG䚡ㇵG⯜☔GᶷḰG㜤ᷤ╌⏈G㇠䟀㜄G㇨ḔG㢼㛨㉐G䚽⸩䚐G 䜸␴㢬㢨⢰ḔG⬄䚐␘UG䚌㫴⬀G㟤⫠ᴴG⏄↰⏈Gḩ䛼䚜㡴Gⱨ㛻㢬ᴴfG㫴ἼG㙼ḔG㢼⏈G㥉㾌⇌G⴬♈㛨SG 㠄㣄⥙Gⵐ㤸G☥㢌G䆤Gⱬ㥐☘G㚒㜄㉐G㫸㥉㡰⦐G㟤⫠㜄᷀G䗁⺴䚐G㇪㡴Gⱨ㛻㢬ᴴfG㢨⤤G㥄㜄G␴䚨G ⯜▄G㈑ᴵ䚨⸨⏈G㣅䖼㢨␘UG␩㡴G㣅䖼㜄G㛺␘UG㟤⫠Gᴵ㣄ᴴG㈑ᴵ䚔G䙸㟈ᴴG㢼␘U xUGz–Šˆ“GWUWG“ˆ‰㡴Gt–›–™–“ˆ㢌G䘸⦐⯜㊌㡰⦐㉐G⬀☔G㣅䖼㢸㜄⓸G⺼Ạ䚌ḔSG㋀㊐G⴬♈㛨㜄G㩅⓹G ═G䜸␴㢬㜄G␴䚨GḰᵄ䚌᷀G⊰䚌ḔG㢼⏈Gᶷ㢨G䢙⴬⦡␘UG㛨⛯᷀G㢨⤤G⇨㟝㡸GẠㇵ䚼⏈ᴴf 㐐␴㜄Gⱨ㛻㢨G䙸㟈䚐㫴⪰G㵲⏈GḰ㥉㜄㉐G˄㫴ἼG㟤⫠ᴴG㛨♈⪰G䛙䚨G㇨㙸ᴴ⏈㫴˅⪰Gṽ㣙䢼G 㩅㟈䚌᷀G㈑ᴵ䚌᷀G╌㛼␘UGἬ⫠ḔG㟤⫠ᴴG䛙䚨㚰G䚔Gⵝ䛙㡰⦐㉐G˄䗁⺴䚜˅㢨⢰⏈G䇘㠀☐⪰G ⛔㝠⥬␘UG䑜⤠␘㢸㢌Gⷴ䞈ᴴG㢰㛨⇌ḔG㢼⏈G㫴ἼSG䜸㣠ᾀ㫴G㟤⫠ᴴG䛙䚨G㝜GⱰ㫼㤵㡰⦐G䗁⺴䚐G ㇠䟀⏈G䔠䞈Gㇵ䈐ᴴG╌㛼ḔSG㚒㡰⦐G㫸䚽䚨㚰G䚔Gⵝ䛙㡸G㢷ḔG㢼␘UGἬGᴴ㟨⒤G㇠⣀☘㜄᷀G㢨⤤G 㫼ⱬ㡸G⒌㬄㡰⦐㒜Gⱨ㛬ᴴG䚌⇌㢌G䆤G䚨␩㡸G㛯㡸G㍌G㢼㫴⏈G㙾㡸ᾀGὤ␴䚌㜠G㢨G㣅䖼㡸G⬀☘᷀G ╌㛼␘U xU䘸⦐⯜㊌G㜵ㇵG㥐㣅ḰGᵐ㢬㤵㢬G㜵䞈G㥐㣅G㇠㢨㜄㉐G㛨⥘㠔⒌G⺴⺸㡴Gⱨ㛻㢬ᴴfGἬ⫠ḔSGἬG ㇠㢨㜄㉐Gᴴ㣙G㩅㥄㡸G█G⺴⺸㡴Gⱨ㛻㢬ᴴf 㛬㥐⇌G㜵ㇵ㡸G⬀☐⏈⒤G㢼㛨Gᴸ␜䚐G⺴⺸㡴G㛺㫴⬀SGὤ⸬㤵㡰⦐G䘸⦐⯜㊌㟝G䀘⭬㊐G㣅䖼㢨☔G 㣄㐔㢌G㜵䞈G㣅䖼㢨☔G⇌㢌G㢹㣙㡴Gⷴ䚌㫴G㙾⏈␘UG˄㥐㣅㢌G㦤ᶨ˅㢨⢰⏈Gᶷ㡴Gᵐ㢬㤵㢬G㣅䖼㡸G ⬀☘G⚀㜄⓸G㨰㛨㫴᷀G⫼⥜㢨␘UGἬG㦤ᶨG㩅㜄㉐Gᴴ㣙G㦿㡴Gᶷ㡸G㉔䈑䚌⏈Gᶷ㢨G㩅㟈䚌␘UGᴴↈSG 㣄㐔㢨G㈑ᴵ䚌⏈Gᶷ㷌⤰G㢰㢨G㫸䚽╌㫴G㙾㡸Gᷱ㟤G˄㢨G㣅䖼㡴G⇨G㏘䇴㢰㢨G㙸⏼␘H˅⢰ḔG⬄䚌⏈G ㇠⣀㢨G㢼␘UGἬ⤠⇌G⇌⏈G䀘⭬㊐G㣅䖼㢨☔Gᵐ㢬G㣅䖼㢨☔G⇨ᴴG⬀☘㛨G⇬G㙸㢨㝴Gᵍ㡴Gᶷ㢨ὤG ⚀ⱬ㜄GἬ⤻᷀G⬄䚔G㍌G㛺␘UG♈⤽䉤㢬G㢨ㇵG㣅䖼㢌G㉥Ḱ㜄G␴䚐G㵹㢸㡴G⇌㜄᷀G㢼ḔSG㛬㥐⇌G ᴴ㣙G㦿㡴G㣅䖼㢨G╌⓸⦑G㺐␴䚐G⓸㤸䚐␘UG䚔G㍌G㛺⏈Gᶷ㢨⮨G⬀☘㫴⓸G㙾ḔSG㢰⓸Gⵏ㫴G㙾⏈␘UG ㏘㏘⦐㜄᷀Gⷴ⮹G䚌ḔG㐪㫴⏈G㙾㡰⏼ᾀU xUGz–Šˆ“GWUWG“ˆ‰㢌G㿄㏘䐹㡴G㢰⸬Gⱬ䞈᷸㜄㉐G㜵䛙⥙㢨G㢼⏈G㇠⣀☘㢨G㨰⪰G㢨⨜Ḕ㢼␘UG Ἤ☘㢌G䣌㡸G⾀⥘G㤸䚌ḔG㐪㛼⒌G⮈㐐㫴⏈Gⱨ㛻㢬ᴴf ˄䗁⺴䚐G㇪˅㜄G␴䚌㜠GḔⴰ䚨⸨ὤ⪰GỀ㡔䚌⏈G⮈㐐㫴㢨␘UG㚒㡰⦐㢌G㐐␴⏈G㟤⫠ᴴGᴴ㫴ḔG㢼⏈G 㜠⤠Gⱬ㥐㜄G␴䚨G䞉㐘䢼G㈑ᴵ䚨⸨ḔSG㛨⛯᷀G㇨㙸ᴴ㚰G䚔㫴⪰GḔⴰ䚌⏈Gᶷ㢨G㩅㟈䚐G㐐␴␘UG 㜼⪰G☘⮨G˄⇌⏈G⓸䃸㜄G㇨ḔG㢼ḔSGḴ┍㫴ⵝ㜄㉐G㝜G㚰㵸⇌GḔὤ⪰G⭭⏈␘UGἬ⤻㫴⬀GἬᶷ㢨G 㥉⬄⦐G㙼㤸䚐㫴G㢌㐠㏘⤱␘˅⢰⏈G㫼ⱬ㜄㉐G㐐㣅䚨⸨㣄UG㥉⺴⇌G␴䝉G⴬♈㛨G㜄㉐⏈Gⵝ㇠⏙G ⱬ㥐㜄G␴䚨G㛬Ἵ㡸G῰⫠⏈G䓬㢨␘UG䚌㫴⬀G㙸㫵⓸G⇔⫼␘G㝘㜰╌㛨ᴴḔG㢼⏈G㫴㜡㜄㉐G㇠⣀☘㢨G ㈑䞐䚌ḔG㢼␘UGἬ⤤Gᴴ㟨⒤G⬘㢰G㙸ⱨᶷ⓸G㈑ᴵ䚌㫴G㙾ḔG㇠⏈Gᶷ㢨G㥉⬄⦐GṐ㵢㡴Gᶷ㢰ᾀfG 㢨G㣅䖼㡸G䋩䚨㉐G㇠⣀☘㢨Gⱨ㛻㢬ᴴGḔⴰ䚨⸨⏈G᷸ὤᴴG╌ὤ⪰Gⵈ⢴␘U

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COLLECTION

LIE SANG BONG 10 YEARS (ORTXHQFHKDVNHSWWUDFNRIWKHZRUOGIDPRXVGHVLJQHU/LH6DQJ%RQJ¶V\HDUFDUHHU :H¶YHWDNHQH[WUDFWVRIKLVÃ&#x20AC;DVK\SDVVLRQDWHOLIHDQGSXWLWDOORQRQHSDJH

Editor. Vincent Sung Concept / Production. Visual Sponge Project Photographer. Vincent Sung Hair Artist. Min Oh 0DNHXS$UWLVW-LHXQ-HRQ(XQML$Q.\RQJDH+ZDQJ 0RGHOV7DH<RXQ.LP 6RR.\HRQJ/HH *HQHUDO0DQDJHU /LH6DQJ%RQJ &KXQJ&KXQJ/HH 'HVLJQ6W\OLQJ /LH6DQJ%RQJ $QQLH(XQZRR3DUN 139


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2002 FW LOST MEMORIES 7KHÂżUVW3DULVFROOHFWLRQZDVDQH[SUHVVLRQRI human life as a watch spring to represent the return RISDVWGD\V%ODFNZDVXVHGDVWKHPDLQFRORUWR JLYHDIHHOLQJRIDQROGEODFNDQGZKLWHSKRWRJUDSK from the past, and the use of red expressed the VWULNLQJPRPHQWVWKDWKDSSHQHGGXULQJWKHSDVW Also, stitch-printing and handmade elements were used to express lost memories. 2003 FW CULTURE MIX ,QVSLUHGEWKHVUHWURVW\OHWKLVFROOHFWLRQ uses contrast through loose and tight silhouettes to emphasize the sexiness and felinity of a womanâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s body. Various prints and pelt techniques were used on wool and leather fabrics to create a unique texture mix of the materials with a color palette of EODFNEURZQDQGYLROHW 2004 FW MONOCHROME FILM ,QFRUSRUDWLQJWKHWKHPHRIEODFNDQGZKLWHRI WKHVWRWKHVFRPELQHGZLWKWKHV 5RFNDQG5ROOVH[LQHVVZDVYHU\SRZHUIXOO\VKRZQ LQWKHFROOHFWLRQ)ULOODQGOHDWKHUZLWKIXOOĂ&#x20AC;RZLQJ VLOKRXHWWHVPDGHFODVVLFORRNVLQWRDPRGHUQFKLF 7KHXVHRIĂ&#x20AC;RZHUSULQWVLQ5RFNDQG5ROOVW\OHG SLHFHVDGGHGDQDLURINLWVFKWRWKHFROOHFWLRQ7KH fun mix of various fabrics and shapes maximized the glamorous beauty of women.

2005 FW PUMP UP THE VOLUME )URPWKHPRWLIVRIWKHVV3XPS8S the Volume collection literally expressed the exaggerated volume of puff sleeves, shoulder lines DQGVNLUWVLOKRXHWWHV'HVLUHIRUWKHEHDXW\WKDW ZRPHQZRXOGOLNHWRVKRZRIIZDVUHYHDOHGRQ VWDJH%ODFNIHDWXUHGDVWKHPDLQFRORUZLWKUHG violet, and gold as accent colors. Materials that are VLON\DQGJOLWWHU\DQGYHOYHWLQEHDXWLIXOFRORUVZHUH XVHGZLWKÂżQHSULQWHGOHDWKHU7KLVFROOHFWLRQVKRZHG a woman who is feminine but strong enough to express herself. 2006 FW MOONLIGHT SHADOW Previously, no one had ever done a collection based on Koreaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s national writing script, Hangul, and this RQHDOVRGUHZLQVSLUDWLRQIURPWKH%DURTXHDJHV 7KHFROOHFWLRQLQFRUSRUDWHGDYDULHW\RIHOHPHQWV including moonlight shadows with a distinctly bluish tint, winter tree prints that appeared in the blue moonlight, and exquisitely drawn Hangul letters by QRWHG.RUHDQDUWLVW/LP2NVDQJDQGVLQJHU-DQJ 6DLN 2007 FW SWINGING EAST %DVHGRQWKHPRVWIDVKLRQDEOHVLOKRXHWWHVIURPWKH VWKHFROOHFWLRQIRFXVHVRQ)XWXULVP0DQ\ of the details were inspired from antique Korean Âż[WXUHVVXFKDVEXWWHUĂ&#x20AC;\KLQJHVDQGVKHOOVKDSHG EXWWRQV7KHMX[WDSRVLWLRQRIQHZDQGROGZDV achieved through the use of metallic and plastic materials combined with enamel leathers.

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2008 FW HEAVENLY CREATURES Inspired by Kimera, one of Koreanâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s treasured singers and world famous pop opera singer, the outstanding structural symmetry combined with asymmetry of the collection is what commands DWWHQWLRQ/D\HUVRIFLUFXODUSLHFHVEHFRPHĂ&#x20AC;RZHUV and accordion shapes which represent the harmony RIYROXPHDQGVWUXFWXUH&RORUIXOĂ&#x20AC;RZHUHPEURLGHULQJ and leather printing creates the modern Korean mix and match. 2009 FW CAT PEOPLE 7KHFRPSOHWLRQRIWKLVFROOHFWLRQUHTXLUHGDORQJ process of creative endeavors regarding shapes, VWUXFWXUHVDQGPDWHULDOV7KHPRVWLPSRUWDQWDVSHFW was the strong desire to infuse a Korean motif into WKHFROOHFWLRQ7KHDYDQWJDUGHFXOWXUDOPL[UHDFKHV its climax with the combination of traditional motifs such as the structural silhouettes of the exaggerated shoulders, laser cut leather with traditional patterns, DQGOHRSDUGSULQWVFRDWHGRQSODVWLFÂżOP7KH FROOHFWLRQDOVRXVHVDSULQWRI6KLQ<RRQERNÂśV0LLQ do, as well as extreme decorations using tassels and a structured silhouette designed with modern tones.

2010 FW INNER CITY LIFE Inspired by strong and chic city women, this collection incorporates architectural silhouette with graphical prints, and adds a futuristic and military WRXFK%\XVLQJZRROOHDWKHUIR[IXUVDWLQDQG ceramic/plastic, it gives contemporary women a city XQLIRUP7KURXJKDULEERQSDWWHUQLQEODFNSLQNDQG blue with a Korean mother of pearl the collection reinterpreted urbanity into a trend setter. 2011 FW 1$785(&5($7,9(63,5,7 7KHVHUHQHIHHOLQJVHYRNHGE\WKHĂ&#x20AC;XLGJUDFHRI arched lines and curved horizons of Zen imagery has been reinterpreted with a modern twist throughout WKHFROOHFWLRQ)RU/LHVDQJERQJ=HQWDNHVIRUPLQ architectural silhouettes with a feminine form in hues of grayish beige and brown with splashes of gold. 7KHPDVWHU\RIYROXPLQRXVDQGJHRPHWULFVKDSHV EULQJVWROLIHDXQLTXHYLVLRQXWLOL]LQJZRRODQGVLON with a touch of Cloque detailing. 2012 SS DANCHEONG /LH6DQJ%RQJÂśVLQVSLUDWLRQIRU66FROOHFWLRQ FRPHVIURPWUDGLWLRQDODUFKLWHFWXUHHOHPHQWVNQRZQ DVÂł'DQFKHRQJ´ZKLFKLVWKHDUWRIGHFRUDWLYH colors painted on wooden buildings and artifacts IRUWKHSXUSRVHRIVW\OH7KHFROOHFWLRQLVDERXW connecting the past, present and future together by going beyond time and spaces with the theme. Splendid patterns with a mix of straight and organic lines create unique graphic images and bright color SDOHWWHVRISLQNGDUNEOXHDQGOHPRQ\HOORZ9LYLG FRORUVSDLUHGZLWKDUHVWUDLQHGVLOKRXHWWHPDNHWKH FROOHFWLRQVLPSOHDQGIXQ7KHVKDSHVRIWKHMDFNHWV and dresses were created through playing with the FRORUVRIWKHDUFKLWHFWXUDOHOHPHQWV7KHWUDGLWLRQDO ORRNRI'DQFKHRQJKDVEHHQWUDQVIRUPHGLQWR PRGHUQSDWWHUQVDQGSULQWV7KHXVHRIYDULRXVNLQGV RIVLONKLJKOLJKWVWKHDLU\PRYHPHQWVRIWKHGUHVVHV along with a mix of jersey and tencel.


Fashion designer

LIE SANG BONG

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46LQFHWKDWÂżUVWFROOHFWLRQ,SHUVRQDOO\VDZGXULQJ6)$$EDFN in 1996, you have continued to successfully surprise me with LPSUHVVLYHVHWWLQJVIRU\RXUFROOHFWLRQVZKHUHGR\RXJHWDOOWKHVH inspirations from? Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m inspired by everything Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m interested in and everything I want.

Q. Could you give us more information about your projects in New York? 1HZ<RUNZLOOUHPDLQDVWKHPRVWLQĂ&#x20AC;XHQWLDOIDVKLRQFLW\DQGLWLVDOZD\V ÂżOOHGZLWKQHZHQHUJ\6LQFH1HZ<RUNLVDQDWWUDFWLYHFLW\,GHFLGHGWR VWDUWZRUNLQJWKHUHWZR\HDUVDJR

4,KDGWKHFKDQFHWRYLVLW\RXUSHUVRQDORIÂżFH RUODERUDWRU\ DQG VDZDQDUUD\RIREMHFWVWKDW\RXFROOHFWHGZKLOHWUDYHOLQJZKLFK country or place impressed you the most? Where would you wish to live, if not in Seoul? 7KHPRVWLPSUHVVLYHFRXQWU\,ÂśYHEHHQWRZDV,QGLD7KHFRXQWU\ÂśVVWURQJ images and its mysterious culture are still embedded in my head. Each FLW\KDVDORQJDQGXQLTXHFXOWXUHDQGWUDGLWLRQ7KHPRVWOLYDEOHSODFH for me is Santorini Island in Greece because the weather is warm and QLFH7KLVLVZKHUH,FDQDOVRWDNHDUHVWTXLHWO\$OVR6DR3DXORLQ %UD]LO1RUPDQG\LQ)UDQFHDQG9HQLFHLQ,WDO\DUHP\IDYRULWHFLWLHVWKDW cherish both modern and ancient civilizations.

Q. What projects were you assigned to the Korea National Tourism Organisation/Seoul City as a â&#x20AC;&#x153;representative of contemporary fashionâ&#x20AC;? abroad? 7KH0LQLVWU\RI&XOWXUH6SRUWVDQG7RXULVPVXSSRUWVWKH.RUHDQIDVKLRQ LQGXVWU\LQ1HZ<RUN,ÂśPPDNLQJSUHVHQWDWLRQVGXULQJWKH1HZ<RUN IDVKLRQZHHN

Q. Since 2002, you have started to grace Parisâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; catwalk with your IDVKLRQFROOHFWLRQV:KDWZDV\RXUÂżUVWLPSUHVVLRQRIWKHIDVKLRQ world in Paris? How different or similar is it to the fashion world in Seoul? ,DGPLUH3DULVDQGLWLVWKHFHQWHURIZRUOGIDVKLRQ3DULVWKLQNVKLJKO\ of creativity and supportd continuous collections, but collections are not considered important in Korea. Seoul has a long way to go before advancing to an international fashion scale. Q. Any particular anecdotes/stories from Paris you would like to share with our readers? Right before boarding the airplane, I heard over the intercom that they ZHUHORRNLQJIRUPHDWWKHDLUSRUW$WWKHPRPHQW,UHPHPEHUHGP\ luggage that I had forgotten to bring with me before the departure procedure. When I came out of the departure control center, I realized WKH)UHQFKDLUSRUWVWDIIKDGPLVWDNHQP\OXJJDJHIRUDSRVVLEOH explosive. Q. Can you tell us more about your artistic projects for the future? ,GRQÂśWKDYHDQ\VSHFLÂżFSODQVIRUP\IXWXUHSURMHFWV,MXVWWKLQNDERXW WKHLPPHGLDWHQH[WSURMHFW,GRQÂśWHYHQKDYHWLPHWRWKLQNDERXWWKHIXWXUH

Q. Tell me more about your travels and your favorite places to visit. I also know some of your friends living in Bali .... ,XVXDOO\JRWUDYHOLQJWZLFHD\HDUWRWDNHDUHVW7KHÂżUVWRQHLVWRUHIUHVK P\HQHUJ\H[SHULHQFHDQHZFXOWXUHRIWKHZRUOGDQGÂżOOP\VHOIZLWKQHZ HQHUJ\7KHRWKHURQHLVWRUHOD[LQQDWXUHDQGHPSW\P\PLQG,ORYH WRUHOD[TXLHWO\XQGHUWKHVXQLQ%DOLRURQEHDFKHVLQWKH6RXWK3DFLÂżF Ocean. Q. Can you give us your â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;bucket listâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; (list of all the things you would OLNHWRGREHIRUHÂľG\LQJÂś " ,ÂśGOLNHWREHRQVWDJHDVDQDFWRUDQGORYHXQWLO,GLH Q. Who inspires you in the world of entertainment/fashion? And why? I respect all designers, but I especially admire Vionnet and Yves Saint /DXUHQW6LQFH,VWLOOKDYHDORQJZD\WRJRDVDGHVLJQHU,FRQWLQXRXVO\ get inspired by those great designers. Q. Can you give us hints about your next collectionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s *F/W 2012 concept/inspiration? What inspired you for the next collection? 6WRQHZDOOV7KHZDOOVZHUHDSODFHIRUFRPPXQLFDWLRQZKHQ,ZDVDOLWWOH ER\%DFNWKHQZHGLGQÂśWKDYHDFDUDQGZHPHWRXUQHLJKERUVRQWKH streets, and the stone walls between the houses acted as communication pathways where people shared love with each other. www.liesangbong.com

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Creative ideas travel fast and far – Eloquence NHHSVWUDFNRIWKHPDQGWKHSHRSOHEHKLQGWKHP :HLQWURGXFHFUHDWRUVDQGWKHLUZRUNV:HWDNH DORRNEHKLQGWKHVFHQHVDQGWUDFHWKHHIIHFWV of this journey. We share ideas about creators’ OLIHVW\OHVDQGZRUNLQJFRQGLWLRQV We see the world through the eyes of creators. Please send your subscription request to, eloquence.creators@gmail.com 7UDQVSHUDFFRXQW Shinhan bank 140-008-087830 TIMESCORE Co.Ltd 120,000KRW for 1 year

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ELO QU ENCE international creators magazine


Eloquence magazine - February 2012