May 2018 Special Edition
Written and Edited by: Elizabeth Rivabem Carina Villalona Hunter Sedagat Milo Suarez Published By: Jimenez Issuu
Table of Contents: Page 3- Education
Page 17- Kraft Ad
Page 4- Fashion
Page 18-19 Foreign Affairs
Page 5- Atari Ad
Page 20- Book Review
Page 6- Film and Theatre
Page 21-22 Domestic Affairs
Page 7- Food
Page 23- Camels Ad
Page 8- Culture
Page 24- Games
Page 9- Sony Walkman Ad
Page 25- Celebrity Gossip
Page 10- Sports
Page 26-28- Works CIted
Page 11- Music Page 12- Burger King Ad Page 13- Way we Lived Page 14- Government/Politics Page 15- Golf Ad Page 16- Law and Justice
(â€œThe 1970s Education: Overviewâ€?, 2018)
Education Throughout the 1970s, efforts were made to give more opportunities to immigrants, African Americans, the disabled, and even women. The efforts were much of a success and an example of this success was that more minority students were able to attend schools that had been all-white schools. Nonnative speakers of English were given bilingual instruction, women were able to break all the employment barriers, and the disabled were given a new access to a free public education. A debate also rose between two groups about how to best education American children. One group known as the Traditionalists, also called the back-to-basics proponents, argued that American students should be educated through being given standards of structure, performance, and memorization of concepts and key facts. The other group known as the Progressives believed that American students should be given time and freedom in inquiring and understanding questions that interested them. They believed that structure prevented the learning of students. During the early 1970s, schools started taking a progressive approach in teaching American students. However by the mid-1970s, many of the schools that had taken a progressive approach decided to revert back to a traditional approach since test scores began to drop and parents became concerned. American schools also reflected during the 1970s about the social, racial, and economic situation of the country, since the major political issue on behalf of education was to eliminate segregation. Efforts were made by the South to eliminate segregation in schools and allow minority students. With the power of the courts and the probable loss in federal funds, segregation ended in the South.
After the 60s, hippie inspired fashion was all the rage. In the 1970s, bell-bottom jeans, bright colors, and head accessories were extremely popular. The decade was full of famous fashion icons such as Diane Von Furstenberg and Farrah Fawcett. As time progressed, the late 70s also worked disco inspired features into clothes. However, as important designers began paving a new road for the fashion industry, the clothes of the 1970s began to change radically. Gabrielle Bonheur “Coco” Chanel passed away on January 10, 1971 (““Chanel, the Couturier, Dead in Paris”, 2010), but the public let her style live on through unisex clothes. For example, women began wearing pants almost all the time. Turtlenecks, pant suits, and sportswear (including leg warmers and tennis headbands) also grew in popularity. In the early 70s, clothes were very tight-fitting and often made of polyester, but designers began to break the mold by setting loose, easy silhouettes as the trend. Baggy sweaters, smocks, and kimono sleeves became commonplace amongst the average women of America. Furthermore, tall boots were worn by almost every woman in the country. Menswear was inspired by the ideal gentleman, with masculine shapes and interesting, playful colors. Plaids, houndstooth, and khaki were commonly used for suits. The button down shirt also made a comeback, this time with a bigger collar called a butterfly collar. By the end of the 1970s, prior to the Disco Era of the 80s, neutral color schemes of beige, white, and black hit full force. It appeared that the nation had tired of the fun colors of the 70s.
(“1970s Fashion: Styles, Trends, Pictures & History”, n.d.).
(“Atari Ad”, 2014)
Film & Theatre
("Dancefloor from 'Saturday Night Fever' up for Auction")
In the 1970s, many iconic classics in film and theater came out, and the sci-fi and horror genres steadily rose in popularity. A few examples of iconic classics from this decade that are still popular today are The Godfather in 1972, Rocky in 1976, Jaws in 1975, Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory in 1971, A Clockwork Orange in 1971, One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest in 1975, and Apocalypse Now in 1979. Some new groundbreaking films that completely changed the Sci-fi genre were Alien in 1979, and Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope in 1977. At the time, the new graphics in these films, especially in Stars Wars, were revolutionary and never seen before, which helped inspire further improvements to special effects in the future. In addition to Sci-Fi, the horror genre also reached its peak in the 1970s. Some new installments in the horror genre were The Exorcist in 1973, Halloween in 1978, The Omen in 1976, The Texas Chainsaw Massacre in 1974, and Carrie in 1976. In theatre, the musical movie Grease came out in 1978, starring Olivia Newton-John as Sandy Dumbrowski and John Travolta as Danny Zuko, two star-crossed lovers at Rydell High School in the 50s. This movie inspired many on-stage adaptations, and this musical has become an iconic musical that is still beloved and relevant today. One film that impacted the way of life in the 1970s greatly and influenced the disco culture of the 70s and 80s was Saturday Night Fever in 1977, featuring songs from the band the Bee Gees such as “Stayin’ Alive”, which were big hits at the time. Lastly, in TV, the world saw its first taste of Saturday Night Live in 1975, a series of comedy sketches that still keep audiences laughing in front of their TVs today.
(“If You Grew Up in the ‘70s, You’ll Definitely Remember These Foods”, n.d.)
No matter the decade, food has brought people together for centuries. Just like the clothes and culture of the 1970s, food was often fun and interesting. For example, grape-flavored cereal was a trend! European foods also became very popular. From the French, quiche exploded in acclaim. Everyone ate quiche, whether it be at a dinner party or just at a simple family. In fact, quiche became so popular and so common, that a man named Bruce Feirstein got sick of it and wrote a song called “Real Men Don’t Eat Quiche” (Sagon, 1995). The Americans also took recipes away from the Italians. Tiramisu, a dessert made with ladyfingers and coffee, was found at almost every Italian restaurant in the country. In addition, pasta primavera, a pasta made with fresh vegetables, became particularly prevalent in New York homes and restaurants. The reason behind this was the sudden rise in healthier lifestyles. After the hippie movements sweeped the nation, American citizens began making an effort to include fresh ingredients into their meals. This caused the creation of zucchini bread. At first glance, it may seem like any other loaf, but the sweet bread with a veggie surprise delighted moms across the country. In the 1970s, dinner party food was objectively odd. Party fare included aspic, food inside of gelatin or jello, crowns of hot dogs filled with casserole, and lots and lots of fish-shaped mouses. And if that wasn’t enough, ham was eaten with bananas and hollandaise sauce or pineapple. There were a few semi-normal foods, of course. Take cheese logs, for instance. They were rolls of cream cheese, shredded cheese, and a sauce of some type, typically rolled in finely chopped nuts (“If You Grew Up in the '70s, You'll Definitely Remember These Foods”, n.d.). Moreover, Hamburger Helper was introduced in 1971 (“Hamburger Helper”, 2018), and became popular as well. Hamburger Helper is a boxed seasoned pasta sold under the Betty Crocker brand. Also, following the Watergate Scandal in 1972, Watergate salad became a new American invention (Knutson, 2014). It was a “salad” made with pistachio pudding, canned pineapple, Cool Whip (a whipped cream topping introduced in 1966) (“Cool Whip”, 2018), and marshmallows. Moreover, Hamburger Helper was introduced in 1971, and became popular as well. Hamburger Helper is a boxed seasoned pasta sold under the Betty Crocker brand. Overall, food in the 70s was definitely rather bizarre.
(Vanhorn, n.d.) (Mildenberg, Michelle, et al., n.d.)
The culture of the 1970s was all about peace and equality. For instance, after the 60s, hippies were everywhere. A hippie was a youth member of an ideological system that believed in unconventional ethics and took drugs. Unfortunately, the increase of hippies meant that many people smoked marijuana, took LSD, and even injected heroin to “explore different states of consciousness” (The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2017). Their advocation of sex also led to an AIDS epidemic. Typically, a hippie had long hair and listened to psychedelic music. They often wore tie-dye and bead necklaces. Most hippies were college students that did not actively engage in politics. Hippie diets included vegetarian meals and non-processed foods. They also advocated peace and the environment. This growth of environmentalism led to the birth of Earth Day on April 22, 1970. After the Energy Crisis of 1974 (Weltin, 2013), people began to truly realize the finite amount of resources in the world. In addition to hippies, feminists began campaigning for gender equality (“The 1970s”, 2010). Although the feminist movement began in the 60s, it truly gained worldwide recognition in the 1970s. It was not uncommon for women to lead peaceful protests on the streets. Perhaps one of the most memorable feminist actions of the 70s would be the strike on the fiftieth anniversary of the passage of the 19th Amendment (the right for all people to vote, regardless of sex). The Women’s Strike for Equality was organized by National Organization for Women. The primary goal of the strike was to bring attention to unequal pay. Also, a famous case in court of feminism was the Roe versus Wade case over abortion in 1973 (Napikoski, 2017) . In the end, it was decided that women had to right to have abortions. Towards the end of the decade, the disco fever began to set in. Songs like “YMCA”, “Le Freak”, “I Will Survive”, “Dancing Queen”, and “Electric Boogie” made everyone want to dance, and thus disco was created. Funky dances such as the electric slide and the robot were common. Big hair and tight, flashy outfits soon replaced the loose hippie clothes of the 70s. Throughout almost the entire decade until 1975, the Vietnam War had been a topic of controversy. The public was divided into two types of people- hawks and doves. Hawks supported the war while doves disagreed with it. Many doves became conscientious objectors and publicly criticized the immorality of the war effort. Anti-war protests erupted all over the country. People also dissented by burning their draft cards. One of the most famous protests include the Kent State University War Protest in Ohio against the bombing of Cambodia. However, it went horrifically wrong when the National Guard was sent to the college to stop the protest and violence ensued. After tear gas was thrown and gunshots rang out, four innocent bystanders were left dead. This sparked national outrage at the current president, President Nixon.
(“Chic - Le Freak”, n.d.)
(“The Hippies”, n.d.)
(“Old School Sony Ads”, n.d.)
Sports In the 1970s, sports provided the most entertainment to the people of America, especially through television broadcasting. Baseball In 1972, the first Latino player to receive a National League MVP Award, win a World Series as a starter and win the World Series MVP Award, Roberto Clemente died in a plane crash while he was going to do charity work in Puerto Rico. In 1974, Hank Aaron broke the home run record of Babe Ruth by hitting his 715th home run. Boxing In 1974, George Foreman and Muhammad Ali boxed against each other and at the time, Foreman was known as the ‘king of the ring’ since Ali had lost his title to Joe Frazier, who then lost the title to Foreman. After being suspended for three and a half years for avoiding enlistment in the U.S. Army, Ali used his rope-a-dope strategy to knock out Foreman in the eighth round. In 1975, a boxing match took place between rivals Muhammad Ali and Joe Frazier, known as the Thrilla in Manilla. It was the third and final fight between these two legendary boxers and Ali won after 14 rounds of boxing. Olympics The 1972 Summer Olympics was an amazing event but a horrible tragedy event occured. Eight Palestinian terrorists of the group, Black September kidnapped eleven Israeli Olympic team members and demanded after for the release of 234 prisoners in Israeli jails. In a failed rescue attempt, the nine remaining Israeli Olympic members were killed and five of the terrorists were killed. In the 1972 Summer Olympics, Mark Spitz won seven gold medals for the United States and dominated the Olympics. In the Olympic Men’s Basketball Final, the United States took a controversial defeat to the Soviet Union since the referees had given the Soviets three chances to win the game and many of the American players have still not accepted their silver medals. Basketball: In 1979, basketball popularity soared in college when the Michigan State Spartans played against undefeated Indiana State The Spartans were favored to win and were led by Earvin “Magic” Johnson, while Indiana State was led by Larry Bird. Michigan State won 75-64. In professional basketball, the ABA sought to merge with the NBA and were not able to because of contract complications. Hall of famer, Julius Erving played for both the ABA and the NBA and the teams for both these associations clashed against each other in order to get Irving. and was able to win the ABA’s scoring title. Football: In 1972, the Miami Dolphins won the Superbowl, completing their undefeated season. In the years of 1974 and 1975, the Pittsburgh Steelers won consecutive Super Bowl titles and also won Super Bowl titles in two consecutive seasons of 1978 and 1979.
("Music Word Wall Decor with Treble Clef | Hobby Lobby | 1296318")
The 1970s provided a lot more variety in music genres, and new technology and music equipment allowed artists to become more experimental than before, because of all the new possibilities. Some new popular genres in music during the 1970s were disco, hip hop, rock, and electronic music. In this decade, a common method of listening to music was on vinyl records because they now became affordable to everyone. Popular artists at the time included rock bands Pink Floyd, Led Zeppelin, The Who, Three Dog Night, Aerosmith, and Simon and Garfunkel, Elton John, David Bowie, Neil Diamond, Bruce Springsteen, Stevie Wonder, Kiss, Grammy award winning country singer Johnny Cash, and the Bee Gees. The upbeat pop songs of the Bee Gees helped inspire the disco culture and were featured in the iconic 70s movie Saturday Night Fever, with their songs selling over 30 million copies. The Motown Sound which had started in the 1960s continued with the Jackson 5 throughout the 70s. Although the Beatles split apart in 1970, there was a resurgence of the British invasion through many successful English bands like The Who and Led Zeppelin topping the hit music charts and billboards. However, many music festivals that had been popular in the past disappeared due to violence, protests,and the dangers of attending. Some classic hits from the 1970s were “Sweet Caroline”, “I Will Survive”, “YMCA”, “Imagine”, “Stairway to Heaven”, “Stayin’ Alive”, “Night Fever”, “Killing Me Softly”, “Bohemian Rhapsody”, “American Pie”, and “Ring My Bell”.
Ad 3 (Hunter)
("The 10 Greatest Arcade Games of the 1970s | Big Fish Blog")
("Japanese Inventions That Changed the World")
The 1970s were a time of improved technologies, where home and everyday life became more comfortable and convenient through many new inventions. The 70s were also known as the Golden Era of Vinyl Records because this was a common and affordable method of listening to music, and almost everyone owned one in their household. In 1971, Email was invented which made communication easier, which people started using to communicate with others at long distances, instead of just communicating by phone call, and it was used greatly in businesses and the work environment to send out important information. Also, with the invention of the Kodak digital camera in 1975, picture taking became more common and advanced in quality while still being affordable to the public, and it became a common activity and hobby in everyday life. In 1971, a computer memory disc called the Floppy Disc was created, which was an earlier version of the flash drive. Another home invention that was popular in the time and changed the way of watching movies was the VHS, because now people could buy whichever movie they wanted and play it over and over again in their own home, which led to the invention of the DVD. Many kids spent a lot more time on their TV playing video games with the invention of the Atari video game console in 1977, and many arcade games such as Space Invaders grew in popularity because this was a whole new type of game that was never seen before and had the perfect appeal to young people, which is still one of the most popular forms of recreation today. One other popular puzzle game that was invented in the 1970s was the Rubix Cube. With the Sony Walkman, invented in 1979, people could now listen to music portably such as on jogs or walks, instead of just waiting to find a room with a record player, and this became a big hit, inspiring the inventions of the MP3 players and iPods in later decades. Another portable hit was the invention of the mobile phone in 1973, which allowed people to contact each other from anywhere, without being connected to a cord. A huge medical advancement of the time was the MRI scanner invented in 1977. Aside from home and everyday life, the 70s became a great era for partying, and at night, when looking for some time to cool off from the stress of work, people would head over to clubs and dance to disco music, similar to what is pictured in the movie Saturday Night Fever.
The 1970s was the decade when the long Vietnam War was finally brought to an end, with the government extending under the Nixon, Ford, and Carter Administrations throughout the decade. One influential event in politics during this decade was the release of the Pentagon Papers in 1971 showing how the Johnson Administration had lied to the American people about the Vietnam War, and this destroyed the people’s trust in the government. Another famous event that proved the government untrustworthy was the Watergate Scandal. On June 17, 1972, several burglars broke into the office of the Democratic National Committee, the Watergate building, and they had been arrested for being caught wiretapping phones and stealing documents. Right as the burglars were breaking into the office, a security guard who happened to be in the area noticed that someone had tapped several of the building’s locks, and called the police, who arrived just in time to catch the burglars. The burglars turned out to be a part of Nixon’s reelection campaign, but Nixon actively covered up the crime. A few days after the break-in, it was found that Nixon had paid the burglars to keep quiet and not incriminate him. Later, Nixon and his aides instructed the CIA to impede the FBI’s investigation of the crime, so that no ties to his presidency would be found. However, Nixon was reelected in November 1972, after giving a speech that convinced his voters that his White House Staff was not involved in the break-in, since there was no real proof incriminating him yet. After an investigation of the crime and extensive coverage by reporters from the Washington Post, Nixon’s role in the scandal was revealed, and he resigned on August 8, 1974 before being formally charged with a crime, so that he would not be impeached for abuse of presidential power and obstruction of justice. Because of the overwhelming pressure they were facing, many of Nixon’s aides testified before a grand jury that Nixon had secretly taped every conversation that took place in the Oval Office. When prosecutors gained access to the tapes, they would be able to convict Nixon of his crimes, so Nixon fired prosecutor Archibald Cox who was intent on getting the tapes, in order to protect himself. In July, the Supreme Court ordered Nixon to turn in the tapes incriminating himself, and shortly after their release on August 5, Nixon resigned to avoid impeachment. When Nixon’s vice president Gerald Ford was sworn in as the new president, he pardoned Nixon’s crimes while in office, so Nixon could never be tried and arrested for his role in the Watergate Scandal.
Law & Justice In law and justice, the 1970s proved to be a very powerful and impactful year for women’s rights. Roe vs. Wade was one of the most influential supreme court decisions in history regarding this topic. This moved the feminist movement from a basic desire of simple rights like the one to vote, to giving women more power over their own bodies, and granting them more freedoms. The Roe vs. Wade decision made on January 22, 1973, legalized abortions in the first trimester of pregnancy, and declared that the Texas state regulation of abortion was unconstitutional due to a violation of the right to privacy. The case won in a landslide 7-2. The two “neys” came from were white and rehnquisttraditionally conservative justices. This allowed more women to work in the workforce, which paved the way for the normalization of women working. An example of this was in 1973, Newsweek Magazine agreed to end sex-segregated jobs in their facility and set new equal hiring standards. The Roe vs. Wade decision also gave women more economic freedom. More economic freedom led to more influence, and more influence led to more political clout. With more influence and political clout, the gate to true equality was opened, and it has given women the rights and say that they have today. One another important advancement in law and justice was that in 1973, the death penalty was authorized.
(“Bill of Rights”, n.d.)
(“Wiener Wednesday: Kraft Dinners”, 2013)
Foreign Affairs ("U. S. Foreign Policy 1970s--Today")
Foreign affairs in America during the 70s were marred mostly by the Vietnam War, which lasted from November 1, 1955 to April 30, 1975, between South Vietnam and North Vietnam, who were fighting to make Vietnam Communist, so the US helped South Vietnam to fight the spread of communism because they were afraid other countries in Southeast Asia would fall to communism too if Vietnam did because of the domino theory.. And while the Vietnam War had a short spike of patriotism that comes with all wars, overall it was a widely unpopular war. It was so unpopular that conscientious objectors weren't considered cowards, while their equivalent in every other war was. Refusal to serve, draft card burnings and “hunting accidents” were all commonplace. The Vietnam war as is typically rendered in the media with American boots on the ground was sent into action by Gulf of Tonkin incident. On August 2, 1964, in the Gulf of Tonkin, Three Vietnamese torpedo boats shot at the USS Maddox. The Maddox was able to sink all three ships with the help of air support. This led to Johnson being able to retaliate as much as he saw fit; meaning that Johnson could technically perpetuate the war forever bases on this one incident. He did not hide his intentions in his public speech three days after the event saying “The determination of all Americans to carry out our full commitment to the people and to the government of South Vietnam will be redoubled by this outrage” During the 1970s, when Nixon became president, he decided to start a bombing campaign in Cambodia to try to weaken North Vietnamese forces, but this only started a civil war in Cambodia. In 1973, the US signed the Paris Peace Accords to take all their troops out of Vietnam, and this was the first war that the US lost.
Foreign Affairs Foreign affairs between the United States and its two major Communist rivals, the Soviet Union and China. During the Vietnam War, Nixon used the foreign policy of Vietnamization, which was a foreign policy made by president Richard Nixon that involved a gradual withdrawal of American troops. Nixon did this because he and most Americans understood that the Vietnam War could not be won and the American soldiers should return home. After the withdrawal from the Vietnam War, Nixon made detentes, or relaxation of tensions with these two communist nations. The SALT Treaty or the Strategic Arms Limitations Treaty, was made by the United States and the Soviet Union. In this treaty, both countries would agree to limit the number of weapons each country had, which marked the end of the Cold War. Diplomatic relations were made between the United States and China after the U.S. Congress passed the Taiwan act, which commits the United States to helping maintain Japanâ€™s self defense and considering to come to Japanâ€™s defense if it was to be attacked by mainland China. These two nations have now cooperated ("U.S.-China Relations Since 1949 | together in working for peace with Korea. Asia for Educators | Columbia University")
,n .d .)
Book Review Books have been around since the year 1450, and have taught people ever since. Richard Bachâ€™s novella Jonathan Livingston Seagull is no exception. Richard Bach, an American author born in 1936, published his best-selling novel in 1970. The novel touches (Jonathan Livingston Seagull, n.d.) important motifs such as happiness, individuality, and self-discovery. Jonathan Livingston Seagull became truly popular in 1972, with over a million copies being sold all over the country.
Jonathan Livingston Seagull tells the tale of a young seagull named Jonathan. Jonathan obsesses over the idea of self-perfection, and constantly practices his flying skills. His goal in life is to fly the fastest and highest out of all the seagulls in his clan. However, his family and his clan disapprove of his love of flight. They firmly believe that seagulls should fly low and slow to catch food for themselves. So, they regard him as a crazy outcast, and never include him in their lives. Nevertheless, Jonathan is unbothered, as he is only concerned with being the best seagull he can be. One day, while practicing his flying, he accidentally crashes into a cliff. After falling into the sea after the crash, Jonathan wakes up to find himself in the presence of seagulls just like him- ones that loved to fly! From there, he makes good friends and learns what it means to be free. He then makes freedom and flight his legacy as he passes on this liberty to other seagulls like him. Although he cannot change the entire clan, he is willing to try, one seagull at a time. And so, with his friends, he educates seagulls on the joys of flight, so that the seagulls can lead fulfilling lives where they can be truly happy. (The King, 2014)
("Kent State Shootings")
Aside from having a huge impact on foreign affairs, the Vietnam War also had a lasting impact on the American people left at home. Because the Vietnam War was still going on in the earlier 70s, there were still many anti-war protests going around, especially among young people, such as the Kent State shooting in 1970, at a college campus in Ohio, that got out of hand when the National Guard started firing at the protesters, and four were killed. The Vietnam War was widely unpopular back in the US, influenced greatly by the war being the first to be publicly televised, which allowed people to witness the gruesome effects of the war. Aside from many protests against it, many people sought out to be conscientious objectors and chose to be jailed rather than be drafted for the war, and even burned their draft cards. Many kids petitioned to decrease the voting age from 21 to 18 because they felt that if they were old enough to fight, then they were old enough to vote, which led to the passing of the 26th amendment.
Domestic Affairs During the 1970s, under Gerald Ford’s presidency right after the Vietnam War, the country was at its highest unemployment rate because many veterans from the war had trouble adjusting back to everyday life and finding jobs, so Ford’s domestic policy to lower inflation was a plan called Whip, but it did not work. In 1970, the Environmental Protection Agency was created. Following the creation of the EPA, many new environmental laws were created such as the Clean Air Act of 1970, the Clean Water Act in 1972, and the Energy Security Act in 1978,Also, in 1972, cigarette commercials were banned on TV because society started to acknowledge the many serious health risks that came from smoking. In 1977, the US signed the Panama Canal and Neutrality treaties which promised to give the Panamenas control over the Panama Canal, starting in 2000. Some other important acts that were passed during the 70s were the Handicapped Children Act of 1975, the Tax Reduction Act in 1975, and the Airline Deregulation Act of 1978, which removed the government’s role in commercial aviation.
(“Space Invaders”, n.d.)
Fun Facts: Pong was invented in 1972 (“Pong”, 2018), Atari Breakout in 1976, and Space Invaders in 1978!
Celebrity Gossip (“Paul McCartney Quits Beatles”, n.d.) To the surprise of fans all over the Western hemisphere, the Beatles broke up officially on December 29, 1974 while in Disney World (Bonis, 2016). Although the legal suit had been filed on December 31, 1970, it took a long time to finally dissolve the group. However, according to the latest gossip, their break up could have occurred even earlier. Certainly, this collapse had been years in the making. For example, the story behind The Fab Four’s break up starts with Yoko Ono. Yoko Ono, John Lennon’s supposed true love, was a hippies, peace activist, artist, singer, and songwriter. She is known for her performance art in both English and Japanese. As much as Lennon loved Ono, George Harrison, Paul McCartney, and Ringo Starr were annoyed when Lennon’s girlfriend was brought in to be part of the musical process. It strained their friendship, and caused rifts between the professional and private world. Although McCartney was able to befriend Yoko Ono, the other two felt threatened by her in the studio. ALso, when Allen Klein became the band’s new manager in 1969, favoritism damaged the already fraying friendship between McCartney and Lennon (Gilmore, 2017). Lennon was Klein’s favorite out of the Beatles, and Paul McCartney was less than thrilled with this revelation. Furthermore, Lennon wanted to escape the confines of the Beatles to make a name for himself as a single artist. This was in contrast to McCartney, who dearly loved the group and wanted to keep it together, The difference in opinion led to fights amongst the Beatles, and the unofficial leader of the group, Lennon, quarrelled with McCartney. Eventually, this proved to be too much for the band, with Ringo walking out in 1968.. George and Paul followed suit soon afterwards in 1968 and 1969, respectively. Once split, The Beatles each pursued their own solo careers. Paul McCartney was particularly successful, and was even knighted for his music in 1997. John Lennon continued to write music, and released an album together with his wife, Yoko Ono. They separated for a while, after Lennon had an affair while drunk, but got together later on thanks to Elton John. Ringo Starr released three extremely successful albums and even a photography book. George Harrison, on the other hand, did not receive as much public recognition, even though he released his own albums and produced music (Bonis, 2016).
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