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CROWN DEPENDENCY OF NHS DESIGN REALISATION REPORT Vilius Vizgaudis BENVGA08 UNIT 10 Tutors: CJ Lim, Simon Dickens + Jon Kaminsky Consultants: Chris Mathews + Alistair Shaw Module Leaders: Pedro Gil + Dirk Krolikowski 2018


PROJECT SUMMARY Inspired by the great delusional adventures of Don Quixote, the project takes on the UK Conservative party’s promise to fix the NHS. The project is a floating vessel, that provides healthcare and wellness for elderly Britains. Established in times of ‘Brexit’, austerity, ageing population, housing crisis and a general political push-back on immigration, it champions a new grand approach to healthcare, combining physical and social well-being of the patients. By establishing a new Crown Dependency, the project circumvents immigration rules in order to keep the NHS ‘afloat’. Migrating yearly around the British Isles in order to provide a never changing, optimal climate, the vessel invites the elderly to leave their homes and daily worries and join a grand cruise of nostalgic Britain.


TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 1: BUILDING FORM, SYSTEMS, PLANNING AND CONTEXT 1.1 INTRODUCTION 1.2 NARRATIVE 1.3 CONCEPT 1.4 POLITICAL JUSTIFICATION - HOW TO FULLFILL ALL THE PROMISES 1.5 ECONOMIC JUSTIFICATION - HOW TO FUND THE NHS CROWN DEPENDENCY 1.6 PROJECT DESCRIPTION - CREATING HEALTH 1.7 STRATEGY SUMMARY 1.8 CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT 1.9 KEY STRATEGIES - BUILDING FLOATING STRUCTURES 1.10 KEY STRATEGIES - SHIP STUDIES 1.11 SITE ANALYSIS 1.12 MASTER PLAN 1.13 BUILDING PROGRAMME OVERVIEW 1.14 ARRANGEMENT STRATEGY 1.15 STRUCTURAL PRINCIPLES 1.16 SITE ANALYSIS - CLIMATIC CONDITIONS 1.17 FIRE STRATEGY 1.18 STRUCTURAL PHASING 1.19 ACCESSIBILITY STRATEGY 1.20 CIRCULATION STRATEGY

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

APENDIX : GA DRAWINGS CHAPTER 2: BUILDING CONSTRUCTION (FOCUS CHAPTER) 2.0 OVERVIEW SECTION 2.1 KEY ISSUE AREAS 2.2 BUOYANCY CALCULATIONS 2.3 VERTICAL STABILITY STRATEGY 2.4 MONOCOQUE CONSTRUCTION 2.5 FOUNDATION DETAIL 2.6 HINGING SYSTEM 2.7 HINGE SECTION 2.8 DRYING TOWER STRUCTURAL DIAGRAM 2.9 DINING HALL, CROWNS AND HOUSING STRUCTURAL DIAGRAM 2.10 CROWN CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 2.11 CROWN ROOF AND DOME DETAILS 2.12 SPA CUPS: CHANGING ROOMS 2.13 SPA CUPS : CHANGING ROOMS SECTION 2.14 INHABITABLE WALL BUILD UP DIAGRAM 2.15 INHABITABLE WALL DETAILS

21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36

CHAPTER 3: BUILDING PERFORMANCE 3.1 ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGIES OVERVIEW 3.2 ENVIRONMENT STRATEGY DIAGRAM 3.3 ICE HULL ENERGY STRATEGY 3.4 WAVE ENERGY GENERATION 3.5 GARDENS 3.6 WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY 3.7 WATER DESALINATION 3.8 FLOWER DRYING TOWER ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGIES

37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44

CHAPTER 4: ENTREPRENEURIALISM & DELIVERY 4.1 PROVISION OF HOUSING 4.2 DECREASING IMMIGRATION 4.3 CONTRACTS 4.4 COSTING 4.5 ARCHITECT’S FEES 4.6 TIME SCHEDULE

CHAPTER 5: BIBLIOGRAPHY AND REFERENCES

45 46 47 48 49 50


1. BUILDING FORM, SYSTEMS, PLANNING AND CONTEXT


CROWN DEPENDENCY OF NHS 1. BUILDING FORM, SYSTEMS, PLANNING AND CONTEXT 1.1 INTRODUCTION

THE NARRATIVE

Miguel De Cervantes

DON QUIXOTE DE LA MANCHA

Cervante’s Don Quixote de La Mancha story follows the adventures of a gentleman named Mr. Alonso Quixano who reads so many chivalric romances that he loses his sanity and decides to set out to revive chivalry, undo wrongs, and bring justice to the world, under the name Don Quixote de la Mancha. He recruits a simple farmer, Sancho Panza, as his squire, who often employs a unique, earthy wit in dealing with Don Quixote’s rhetorical orations on antiquated knighthood. Don Quixote does not see the world for what it is and prefers to imagine that he is living out a knightly story.

CREATING DELUSION OF GRANDEUR Delusion of Grandeur in Don Quixote

Delusion of Grandeur on a migrating island

Delusion of grandeur is one of the main features of Don Quixote’s and Sancho Panza’s adventures. Great heroism exists in the main protagonists head, which consequently brings his sidekick into this fantastical world of chivalry, knights and giants.

Takes on the UK Conservative party’s delusional promises stated in their 2017 election manifesto. The project is a floating vessel, that provides healthcare and wellness for British elderly. Established in times of Brexit, austerity, ageing population housing crisis and a general political push-back on immigration, it champions a new grand approach to healthcare, combining physical and social well-being of the patients.

DEMOGRAPHICS OF NEGLECT

British elderly (65 and over) Reasons: - Takes up most of NHS current budget and is mostly affected by decline of the services (1) - Owns large portion of housing in UK, that could be downsized in order to avert the housing crisis (2) - Most sceptical group in regards to declining British culture (3)

PROJECT DEFINITION

DELUSION OF GRANDEUR: POLITICAL MANIFESTO NEGLECT: MAIN USER GROUP OF THE PROJECT PARTICIPATION: FRAMEWORK OF THE PROJECT

Concept drawing of elderly moving to new Britain Project is a floating island of British grandeur for retired British elderly, who have bought their passage by selling their homes. The vessel and care services are provided by immigrant workforce and the community constantly migrates along the newly established post-Brexit and post-London Accord exclusive economic zone, this way protecting regained valuable territory. 1 . https://www.theguardian.com/society/2016/feb/01/ageing-britain-two-fifths-nhs-budget-spent-over-65s 2. https://visual.ons.gov.uk/uk-perspectives-2016-housing-and-home-ownership-in-the-uk/ 3. https://yougov.co.uk/news/2016/06/27/how-britain-voted/

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CROWN DEPENDENCY OF NHS 1. BUILDING FORM, SYSTEMS, PLANNING AND CONTEXT 1.2 NARRATIVE

STORIES = TRUTH

MEMBERSHIP = LAND

Imagined stories are taken for their true value, changing perception of the real world,events or places. For example, oil and water is perceived as all healing medicine a pure placebo.

It depicts the promise of land of abundance for all that are loyal.

INN = CASTLE Treating simple inns as castles rethinks and questions the role of government. Also delusions make ordinary objects into something exceptional.

SHEEP = WARRIORS Placed between two sides, Don Quixote always chooses the weaker one. This delusion provides direction of the project to address user groups that are neglected,

MASTERPLAN OF DELUSION The foundation of madness is Don Quixote’s books. That is where giants, miraculous balsams and castles are born.

CONCLUSION Narrative informs programmatic and spacial development of the project. Architecture of the project is developed based on don Quixote’s key delusions. These collages contribute to development of spaces and building form of the project.

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CROWN DEPENDENCY OF NHS 1. BUILDING FORM, SYSTEMS, PLANNING AND CONTEXT 1.3 CONCEPT

MOVING ISLAND OF SAN SERRIFFE FACTS ABOUT SAN SERRIFFE Location: Halfway between Africa and India in the Indian Ocean Population: 1,782,724 Capital: Bodoni President: M. J. Pica Tourist Centres: Garamond, Villa Pica, Gillcameo, Cap Em, Umbra Currency: San Serriffe Corona (100 ems) C1 = £4.30 Language: “English is the working language. Caslon is used on ceremonial occasions, and there is a language (Ki-flong) indigenous to the Flongs.”

NONE OF THE FACTS ABOUT THE ISLAND OF SAN SERRIFFE ARE REAL. On 1 April 1977 the Guardian produced a 7 page travel supplement on the tiny tropical republic of San Serriffe, “a small archipelago, its main islands grouped roughly in the shape of a semicolon, in the Indian Ocean”, which was apparently celebrating ten years of independence. The country was in fact completely made up as an April Fool’s joke. The name San Serriffe and the shape of the islands were just the first clues; everything connected with San Serriffe was named after printing and typesetting terms. (1)

HIGHCLERE CASTLE

DON’T BOTHER YOUR HEADS WITH WHAT’S GOING ON NOW, JUST WALLOW IN FAKE THIS BEAUTIFUL NOSTALGIA. -KEVIN LOACH

Highclere castle designed by Charles Barry was featured in popular TV series Downton Abbey and represents the good old days of Britishness. It is however, a romanticised and delusional picture of Britain that people tend to cling to. It makes a certain appeal to the older generation which sees Britishness as a disappearing culture, often related to immigration. This has manifested in the Leave the EU vote in 2016, where the older generation has overwhelmingly voted to leave and one of the main reasons given was that many of them could not recognise Britain for what it was anymore. Therefore, this castle is taken as one of the key inspirations for the project that creates a feeling of living in the good old days.

GRANDEUR AND HEALTHCARE

The project is trying to recreate the grandeur of healthcare. End of 19th century, beginning of 20th hospital buildings were of prestige class. Architecture, flowers and surroundings were an integral part of improving the health of the patients. This is somewhat lost in the developments of the new super-hospitals in the UK where efficiency and functionality is prioritised above everything else. Brighton Dome converted into hospital under WW1

Casino Lechin Hospital, Le Havre, France

Surgical ward at Hospital of St. John and St. Elizabeth .St. John’s Wood, London. 1911

DELUSION OF GRANDEUR EXAMPLES 1.

2.

1. John Constable - Wivenhoe Park, Essex Famous British landscape painter creates a picture of 19th century England that did not exist anymore at that time by focusing on the present past and omitting elements of Industrial Revolution. 2. Amargosa Opera House in Death Valley Junction, USA The Amargosa Opera House is always full of spectators that Marta Becket painted on her venues walls and ceiling.

3.

4.

3. A Tribute To Sir Christopher Wren Framed Print by Charles Robert Cockerell Bringing Christopher Wren’s buildings to London creates a new imagined city. 4. Town of Poundbury An attempt by Prince Charles to recreate a model city of the past in the 21st century.

CONCLUSION These are key concepts from around the world and history that inspired and informed the development of the project. Moving island, referencing British castle and royal elements, grandeur of healthcare are to be created by replication, scale and symbol manipulation.

https://www.theguardian.com/gnmeducationcentre/archive-educational-resource-april-2012 https://medium.com/@realdougwilson/the-beautiful-island-of-san-serriffe-d95adbc5febb

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CROWN DEPENDENCY OF NHS 1. BUILDING FORM, SYSTEMS, PLANNING AND CONTEXT 1.4 POLITICAL JUSTIFICATION - HOW TO FULLFILL ALL THE PROMISES

HEALTH Real terms increases in NHS spending reaching £8bn extra per year by 2022/23 Retain the 95% four hour A&E target Require foreign workers and overseas students to pay more to cover the cost of NHS care.

HOUSING

The British Conservative Party has made lots of promises to the public in their manifesto. This projects takes a critical stance to these government claims by taking up the challenge to fulfil these delusions.

Meet 2015 commitment to deliver a million homes by the end of 2020 and half a million more by the end of 2022 Build better houses to match the quality of previous generations I PROMISE...! 160,000 houses built on government land

IMMIGRATION Commitment to "bare down on immigration from outside the EU" across all visa routes Immigration cut to under 100,000

HOW TO DECREASE IMMIGRATION, BUT SAVE NHS? CROWN DEPENDENCIES

Isle of Man

Bailiwick of Jersey Sark Guernsey Alderney

Bending the rules. The Crown dependencies are the Isle of Man in the Irish Sea, and the Bailiwicks of Jersey and Guernsey in the English Channel. Even though citizens hold British passports, population and migration numbers are excluded from statistics of Great Britain. By establishing a new Crown dependency and redirecting some of the migrants , for example, the ones immigrating in order to work for NHS, it would be possible to decrease the overall immigration and continue to support health services.

(1)

HOW TO AVERT HOUSING CRISIS?

1 house = 1 household

1 house = X households

Existing housing stock

Existing housing stock + 2.5 million households

Downsizing out of housing crisis. Housing market is under pressure in UK. One of the ways to alleviate this and provide housing for future generations is by downsizing homes that are mainly occupied by the older generation. In the older generation could be enticed to move out and let their dwellings be downsizes, there would be potential for 2.5 new households in the UK. (2)

HOW TO DEAL WITH AGEING POPULATION?

Healthcare for the elderly. ‘People are living longer. This is a good thing, but we should not ignore the consequences. As our society ages, the costs of caring for older generations – pensions, pensioner benefits, health and social care – rise; and these are borne by working people through their taxes. As the relative number of younger people is falling, those costs increase, not just in total, but also for individuals. So if we are to give older people the dignity we owe them and younger people the opportunities they deserve, we face difficult decisions’ (1) (3)

CONCLUSION In response to relationships between declining NHS services, health service’s dependency on immigrant workers, growing elderly population in Britain and housing crisis the project proposes creating a new Crown Dependency and relocate some of the country’s elderly there. At the same time, employing immigrants working for the NHS, it would help reduce immigration numbers. 1. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-wales-politics-38981129 2. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/sheltered-accommodation-elderly-free-up-family-homes-housing-crisis-policy-conservatives-tories-a7564406.html 3. https://www.theguardian.com/society/2017/may/24/nhs-faces-staggering-increase-in-cost-of-elderly-care-academics-warn-dementia 4.The Conservative Party Manifesto 2017. https://www.conservatives.com/manifesto

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CROWN DEPENDENCY OF NHS 1. BUILDING FORM, SYSTEMS, PLANNING AND CONTEXT 1.5 ECONOMIC JUSTIFICATION - HOW TO FUND THE NHS CROWN DEPENDENCY

THE GOVERNMENT WILL BE ABLE TO SPEND ITS £13BN FOREIGN AID BUDGET ON BRITISH OVERSEAS TERRITORIES AFTER CHANGES TO INTERNATIONAL RULES AGREED IN PARIS. UK aid The UK can now send aid to countries hit by catastrophes such as Hurricane IrmaCredit: PA The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) ruled that aid could be used for “short-term” help to wealthier countries – such as the UK’s Caribbean territories.(1)

We send the EU £350 let’s fund our

million a week

instead

Let’s take back control

Vote Leave

RETHINKING HOW BRITAIN USES FOREIGN AID ability to use it on its own overseas territories, including Crown dependencies. In 2016, the UK spent £13.4 billion on overseas aid, in line with the 0.7% target.

THE HEALTH SERVICE SHOULD GET THE CASH BOOST IT WAS PROMISED DURING THE EU REFERENDUM, THE HEAD OF THE NHS IN ENGLAND IS EXPECTED TO SAY LATER. Simon Stevens will use controversial claims used by Vote Leave to put the case for more money in a speech later. With waiting times worsening, he will say trust in politics will be damaged if the NHS does not get more. During the referendum it was claimed £350m a week was sent to the EU and that would be better spent on the NHS. The claim was widely contested at the time and ever since - it did not take into account the rebate the UK had nor the fact the UK benefited from investment from the EU. Some argued it proved highly influential in the referendum result.(2)

LEAVE BUS PROMISE. Highly debated £350 million a week that could be going to NHS . That is over £18 billion a year.

How the NHS budget has grown Health spending in the UK (£bn in 2016-2017 prices)

NHS FUNDING

Average NHS spending per person by age group.

The elderly take up the largest proportion of NHS budget. That will only become more evident with increasing amount of elderly.

THERE IS A CRISIS AT THE OTHER END OF THE PROPERTY MARKET WHICH LEAVES THOUSANDS OF OLDER PEOPLE IMPRISONED IN UNSUITABLY LARGE PROPERTIES. A lack of smaller, more manageable homes, along with punitive stamp duty and other moving costs, is leaving would-be downsizers stumped. Increasingly, the way in which many access the wealth tied up in their property is through borrowing against it. This can be costly. Housing analysts estimate that if those deterred from downsizing because of the costs were able to sell, it would bring 111,000 extra family homes on to the market. A shortage of suitable alternative homes is key.

DOWNSIZING A lot of elderly own large properties that they are not able to maintain anymore. Providing them with good conditions for their retirement in exchange to thri houses, could release these properties into the market.

CONCLUSION There are several ways to fund the project: foreign aid, stopping EU contributions, direct NHS budget or private investment by elderly looking to downsize in their retirement.

1. https://www.politicshome.com/news/uk/foreign-affairs/news/90272/uk-can-now-send-foreign-aid-disaster-hit-british-overseas 2. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-41908302 3.https://www.telegraph.co.uk/pensions-retirement/financial-planning/820000-house-big-nowhere-move/

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CROWN DEPENDENCY OF NHS 1. BUILDING FORM, SYSTEMS, PLANNING AND CONTEXT 1.6 PROJECT DESCRIPTION - CREATING HEALTH

SEASIDE NATIONAL HEALTH SERVICE ADVICE

Doctors now advise that just being by the sea can boost your health in a range of natural ways, says Victoria Lambert.

GET TO THE SEASIDE! BENEFITS INCLUDE: SUNLIGHT

SEAWATER

SAND

SEA AIR

SEA FOOD

Getting 15-30min sunlight a day provides vitamin D supply that can help against muscle pain, weak bones/fractures, osteoporosis, fatigue, lowered immunity, depression, mood swings and sleep irregularities, Type 2 diabetes, heat diseases, breast and prostate cancer, ageing and age-related memory decline.

While you can enhance your health on holiday by taking exercise and eating well, could it be that just being beside the seaside is also good for you? The Georgians and Victorians certainly thought so, as they flocked to resorts such as Bournemouth, Torquay and Morecambe. And modern science is backing up their enthusiasm.

Can be used to treat dernatitis, improve eczema, reduce infection, heal skin, reduce snoring, posibly cure hay fever, cold and sinus infections because of antihistamine effect. Acts as a natural exfoliant, improving natural skin regeneration, perfect surface for excercising. Dimethyl sulphide gas causing the ‘smell of seaside’ can help improve sleep, oxygen absorbtion, neutralise damaging free radicals, balance seratonin (fellgood hormone) making us less prone to anxiety. Sea air can also provide releaf for cystic firbosis sufferers, and patients with other respiratory problems and pulmonary disorders. Seafood such as fish and seaweed provides essential nutrients, promotes heart health, is good for joints, maintains eyesight and good skin, may increase grey matter in the brain and protect it from age-related deterioration, fights against depression, improves immune function, provides vitamin D

EDWARD BACH’S FLOWER REMEDIES

Bach claimed that dew found on flower petals retain imagined healing properties of that plant. Systematic reviews of clinical trials of Bach flower solutions have found no efficacy beyond a placebo effect. However, believers in this medicine continue to use it as alternative to conventional medication. Agrimony - mental torture behind a cheerful face Cerato - lack of trust in one’s own decisions Chestnut Bud - failure to learn from mistakes Chicory - selfish, possessive love Clematis - dreaming of the future without working in the present Gentian - discouragement after a setback Gorse - hopelessness and despair Heather - self-centredness and self-concern HollyHolly - hatred, envy and jealousy Honeysuckle - living in the past Hornbeam - tiredness at the thought of doing something Impatiens - impatience Mimulus - fear of known things Mustard - deep gloom for no reason Olive - exhaustion following mental or physical effort Rock Water - self-denial, rigidity and selfrepression Scleranthus - inability to choose between alternatives Vervain - over-enthusiasm Water Violet - quiet self-reliance leading to isolation Wild Rose - drifting, resignation, apathy Flower remedies are made by placing freshly picked flowers in a bowl of spring water left in the sun for several hours. This process is believed to “energise” the water.

PECKHAM EXPERIMENT - HOLISTIC HEALTH CENTRE

Peckham health centre

GARDENING ON PRESCRIPTION

Dance night

ROYAL COLLEGE OF NURSING REPORT REGARDING ELDERLY CARE Board games night

Water sports

The Peckham Experiment was an investigation into the nature of health. It ran from 1926 – 1950 in Peckham, south London. It operated from the Pioneer Health Centre, a purpose-built centre in which Doctors observed families interacting in a social setting. The Experiment concluded that health is more than just an absence of disease, and identified the crucial role played by the environment in promoting health. The most important conclusions from the experiment: -Health is a process that has to be cultivated if it is to thrive. -Medication is not the only way to achieve good health. -Social interaction between people can promote and increase overall health of the community

Doctors should prescribe gardening far more often for patients with cancer, dementia and mental health problems, the NHS has been urged in a new report. Outdoor spaces including gardens can reduce social isolation among older people as well as help patients recover and manage conditions such as dementia, according to the influential King’s Fund health thinktank. (2)

The Royal College of Nursing reported finding that older people’s wards have a different skills mix from other wards, with fewer registered nurses per patient: Older people’s wards have between 9.1 and 10.3 patients per registered nurse. The recommendations for ideal, good quality care are: a 65:35 mix of registered nurses to health care assistants at least one registered nurse for every five to seven patients at least one member of staff per 3.3 to 3.8 patients four to six registered nurses for a typical 28-bed ward at least eight nursing staff on duty for a typical 28-bed ward (1)

CONCLUSION Non-traditional healthcare is essential to the project. Surroundings such as the seaside can be beneficial medically as well as social and physical activities. One other form of medicine is also very important - garden flowers. Edward Bach’s list of varying plants are meant to improve all sorts of conditions even though just as a placebo. Pairing this with recent prescriptions by GPs to do gardening in order to improve health, cultivation of ‘medicinal’ flowers becomes an integral part of the project. https://www.nhs.uk/news/2012/03march/Pages/nursing-staff-levels-elderly-care.aspx https://www.theguardian.com/society/2016/may/17/doctors-should-prescribe-gardening-for-patients-more-often-says-report

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CROWN DEPENDENCY OF NHS 1. BUILDING FORM, SYSTEMS, PLANNING AND CONTEXT 1.7 STRATEGY SUMMARY

4

5

Move the island along the post Brexit/London Accord Britain’s exclusive economic zone in order to: - Protect the newly established territorry - Maintain optimal temperatures through out the year - Collect elderly from around the country on the way

3

Provide quality healthcare based on: gardening social interactions water treatments power of placebo

Establish wave energy collection and storage network that could function as docking stations that could provide activities while charging.

1

2

Use highly popular symbol of Britishness - Highclere castle in order to entice the older generation to move

7

6

Establishment of a new Crown dependency with NHS elderly care facilities.

Freed up housing can be downsized in order to avert housing crisis.

Redirect part of the immigration into newly established NHS Crown Dependency

l

Winning the next genera election

Existing crown dependencies Belongs to the British Crown, but immigration is not part of UK statistics

TO DO LIST: -Solve housing crisis -Handle ageing population -Fix declining NHS services -Stop growing immigration

INVESTIGATION Can architecture engage with political narrative and be a critique of political delusion? At the same time, can it improve the lives of a group of society such as the lderly? With elderly care is getting more and expensive every year, can the Crown dependency of NHS provide an alternative?

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CROWN DEPENDENCY OF NHS 1. BUILDING FORM, SYSTEMS, PLANNING AND CONTEXT 1.8 CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT ADAPTATION OF HIGHCLERE CASTLE I promise you this castle and a glorious life in it!

It is actually called Highclere and it is delusional to think the past was just like depicted in the TV series Downton Abbey.

Highclere castle as a symbol of delusion about British past is adopted into the project as underlying tectonic element. However, it not a mere recreation of the castle. The original tectonic undergoes several modifications.

1. MAKING THE CASTLE ‘SKIN DEEP’ The original castle is striped of its internal walls and only exterior facade is kept. Skin deep represent shallowness and delusion of Don Quixote’s adventure or British government promises where only a facade, a gesture is important and the outcome may be disregarded.

Look at that Downton Abbey castle! This popular culture symbol shows a glorious British past! Who wouldn’t want to live in it?

2. UNWRAPPING THE SKIN

2

1

The skin is then folded at the points of towers are located in order to modify the arrangement so that it becomes linear which is more suited for a travelling conditions.

3. SCALING Scaling of 3 times is adopted so that the walls become thick enough to be inhabited - 5m thick. This will also justify structural grid for the entire project. At this scale wall height becomes 36 m, allowing for 9 floors and tower at 72m.

Now it seems only skin deep! Just like your promises...

3

4. RE-WRAPPING Well, we are definitely inside the castle walls now. You enter from inside!

Last modification is allowing for the castle to hinge again so that this modification creates an inner courtyard surrounded by exterior walls. It allows to experience the exterior layer all at once deluding the passengers that this is the castle. The original entrance is re-appropriated as docking station that will facilitate reception and passenger exchange.

4

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CROWN DEPENDENCY OF NHS 1. BUILDING FORM, SYSTEMS, PLANNING AND CONTEXT 1.9 KEY STRATEGIES - BUILDING FLOATING STRUCTURES HOW TO MAKE IT FLOAT?

SHIP CONSTRUCTION

PONTOON MEGAFLOAT

MOBILE OFFSHORE BASE

ICE SHIP

JOINED EXISTING SHIPS

Steel / Wood

Steel

Steel

Water

Existing vessels

Very High

Very High

High

Low

Medium

Mobility

Very Good

Very low

Low

Good

Poor

Seafaring

Very Good

not possible

Good

Good

Poor

no

no

no

yes

no

Materials Price

Delusion

FLOATING ICE ISLANDS

Floating airport

Project Habbakuk illustration

Project Habbakuk test model

Before the aeroplanes could make the transatlantic journey, there was a great interest in creating midway stations in the middle of the ocean. Some of the proposals were based on solidifying water by freezing in order to create these floating islands.

Refrigerating duct

During WW2 Geoffrey Pyke built on this idea in order to create a floating airfield for the military. Pyke saw a giant floating ice ship as a natural option in the face of material limitations. Steel and aluminium were in short supply, but water was everywhere. And making it into ice required relatively little energy.

30.5m

Pyke envisioned a giant aircraft-carrying vessel over a mile long with solid hull made of ice. It would feature a long landing platform along the top and central void running its length below. This empty space would be able to shelter aircraft beneath the main landing surface. It was designed to be the largest machine ever built on land or water. Its sheer size (and the ability to repair it with water) would make it effectively unsinkable — the ultimate top-secret weapon.

void

Principle section of project Habbakuk

Tests with 1000-tons of ice were made in Canada. The structure needed 1 horse power engine to maintain the ice. After it was over, it took 3 summers to melt. (1)

FREEZING OF WATER 1L 20OC

20OC

COOLING DOWN 4200 J/ 1L / 1O 4200 X 20 = 417 KJ

20OC

1L 0 OC

CRYSTALIZING 333 KJ/ 1L 84 + 333 = 417 KJ 20 C O

1L 0 OC

REFRIGERATION UNIT COEFICIENT : 4

In order to freeze 1 l of water from 20oC 105 kJ of energy is required. That is the same as a 50W light burning for 30 mins. 142627000 L of ice will be required to maintain the structure afloat (calculation follows later). Maintaining the ice will also require power. From the sea temperature data, we can see temperatures vary from 40C in winter/spring to 170C in the summer months.

Conducting my own tests, I found that creating air pockets inside the ice, will help decrease it density and thus raise higher above the water surface. Also, I could investigate melting patterns and found that ice closest to waterline erodes fastest due to faster moving water on the surface.

417 / 4 = 105 KJ/L

CONCLUSION Ice hull construction method is used due to possibility to build (freeze) the structure fast and utilise local abundant and easily accessible material - water. However, inhabitable structures are to be made using ship construction methods using steel and wood due to low temperatures needed to maintain. Though none of ice floating islands or ship were ever built, small scale tests and research suggest the possibility to use frozen water in creating a large scale vessel. Source http://www.nmrn-portsmouth.org.uk/sites/default/files/Habbakkuk.pdf

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CROWN DEPENDENCY OF NHS 1. BUILDING FORM, SYSTEMS, PLANNING AND CONTEXT 1.10 KEY STRATEGIES - SHIP STUDIES

This section shows location and size of engine rooms in an ocean liner. This analysis is done on a similar size vessel in order to find out space requirements.

engine rooms 38.000 mm

Ocean liner SS Canberra Length: Beam: Draught: Capacity: Complement: Crew:

820 feet (250 m) 103 feet (31 m) 35.5 feet (10.8 m) 4,200 m3 of cargo 548 First class, 1,690 Tourist class 1961-73, 900. 1973-97, 795

CHINA HAS LAUNCHED THE FIRST ALLELECTRIC CARGO SHIP

Hybrid marine engine using diesel/natural gas engines and electrical batteries as propulsion system. These drive electric motors. Based on comparison to similar sized SS Canberra, the project would require at least 75,000 kW engine output.

According to China Daily, the 230 foot long vessel is equipped with a 2,400 kWh lithium-ion battery that stores enough electrical energy to transport 2200 tons of cargo a distance of 50 miles on a single charge at a top speed of about 8 miles per hour. Time to recharge the battery is given as 2 hours, which is approximately the time needed to unload the ship at its destination.(1)

This could be acquired by the use of wave buoys that could accumulate and store energy through out the year and then charge the batteries. Also changing onboard waste into biogas with the help of anaerobic digesters could greatly benefit energy production and provide waste management method. Engine type used for the project: ABB Azipod podded electric propulsion unit Weight: 45 tonnes Output: 76,800 kW

25.200 mm

38.000 mm

Engine room layout and section of SS Canberra

This diagram shows how the proposed vessel compares to other large ships. It has been modelled to be the size of cruise ship MV Britannia due to it being a large passenger vessel.

CONCLUSION Ship propulsion methods will be needed in order to make the vessel move. A space of about 38x25m needs to be designated for the engine(s) as well as hybrid engine using wave energy accumulated by buoys and biogas produced on-board by biodigesters.

1. http://uk.businessinsider.com/china-just-launched-the-worlds-first-electric-cargo-ship-2017-12?r=US&IR=T

10


CROWN DEPENDENCY OF NHS 1. BUILDING FORM, SYSTEMS, PLANNING AND CONTEXT 1.11 SITE ANALYSIS

EUROPE

THE SITE

UNITED KINGDOM

The site is located in northern Europe. It is a dotted line along the British Exclusive economic zone which the project vessel moves along and stops at every bend of the border. It travels clock-wise along the North-East Atlantic, The Irish Sea, English Channel and the North Sea. Being in the sea, ocean currents, bathymetry, country borders and travel routes are influencing the design in terms of travel direction, engine power needed, hull size and depth.

Bathymetry map Shows depths of the seas around the British isles. Places like Dogger Bank will be too shallow to pass by due to shallow sea and will require an alternative route. Otherwise, this can be overcome by reducing ballast amounts or altering the shape of the hull.

64

SALINITY 3.5%

SALINITY 1-3.45%

SALINITY 3.2-3.45%

SALINITY 3.5%

ICELAND

FAERO ISLANDS

NORWAY

DOGGER BANK DEPTH: 25-50M DENMARK 3000

UK

2500 2000

GERMANY

1750 1500 1250 1000

SALINITY 3.5%

750 500 250

NETHERLANDS

100 50 25

IRELAND

SE ICELAND

FAEROES

BAILEY

FAIRISLE

N. UTSHIRE

VIKING

S. UTSHIRE

HEBRIDES CROMARTY

FORTIES

FISHER

NORTH SEA ROCKALL

FORTH MALIN

Main trade routes and shipping zones High sea traffic along the English channel and between Scotland and Iceland will require the vessel to be able to communicate with other ships and will require extra lights so that it is seen during the night time.

DOGGER BANK

DOGGER

GERMAN BIGHT

TYNE

FRANCE

BORDERS AND CITIZENS`

Exclusive economic zones This shows exclusive economic zones of European countries including resources such as gas, oil and fish. The grey zone indicates UK’s part, that it will regain full control of after leaving the EU. The project will be protecting this newly regained resourceful territory. The project will be a kind of border patrol.

ATLANTIC OCEAN

BORDERS AND RESOURCES

IRISH SEA

IRISH SEA

HUMBER

SHANNON

In post Brexit British economic zone, one of the key resources of Britishness will be depleting as some fish species are migrating North due to warming seas. By tracing this newly established border the project highlights the importance of this territory, but also of relationships with the neighboring countries in the post Brexit Europe.

THAMES

LUNDY FASTNET

DOVER

WIGHT

SOLE

CELTIC SEA PLYMOUTH

PORTLAND

Symbolically, ice hull could provide more favourable conditions for the fish in the immediate surroundings.

FITZROY BISCAY

64

Prevailing ocean currents Shows main currents around the British isles. This helped determine direction of travel so to use the currents However, parts such as English Channel will require extra energy to move, so deploying the buoys at closer distances will be beneficial.

Plaice

Cod

Haddock

BORDERS AND CITIZENS Newly established borders with other EU countries will be causing issues to both Britons living in the EU and EU citizens living in the UK. What will happen with these citizens is a large part of Brexit negotiations and Britain is expecting to get favourable trade conditions with the Union by ensuring that the rights of these citizens are ensured (at least during the ‘transition period’)

EXCEPTIONAL TERRITORIES Right now Crown dependencies are often subject to creating tax havens, but with the looming Brexit, why not create ‘immigration havens’ that could help maintain British NHS and appease EU by guaranteeing its citizens rights?

CONCLUSION Analysis of bathymetry, ocean currents, shipping routes and economic zones helped determine direction and exact travel route of the project. For example, original design to travel counter-clock wise, was reversed after gathering data on ocean currents. Also shallow Dogger Bank waters must be taken into consideration due to the depth of submersed part of the project. And while restrictions to immigration will challenge NHS staff numbers, placing the project outside mainland will allow for independent immigration policies for the project as it will be treated as a crown dependency. 11


CROWN DEPENDENCY OF NHS 1. BUILDING FORM, SYSTEMS, PLANNING AND CONTEXT 1.12 MASTER PLAN

LEGEND F E ROE

Ferry connection to mainland Domestic ferry routes NHS Crown Dependency moving path / UK’s exclusive fishing zone that needs protection from the EU post BREXIT NHS Crown Dependency stay place with date Other Crown Dependencies

A JUNE 21

I SL A N D S

Travel direction: Avoids autumn storms forming in The North Atlantic and use Ocean currents.

B JUNE 30

Speed chart

NO RWAY B JULY 9

JUNE 16 B MAY 11 B

4h

MAY 29 JUNE 7 B B

MAY 20 A

3h

Regular ferry 40km/h

Fast ferry 89km/h

2h

3h

Scalebars

C JULY 18

4h

0

3h

rw

ick

Grutness

Le

2h

s

4h

100

200 Km

Lerwick

Ki

rk

wa

ll

6-7h

4h

2h

2½h

JULY 27

B 2h

1h

A AUGUST 5

14h

C AUGUST 14

7h

3h

2h 1h

2h

4h

MAY 2 A

S C O T L A N D

2h 3½h 2h

2h

6h

B A APRIL 23 APRIL 14

5h

4h

s

6h

B AUGUST 23

1h

1h

A APRIL 5 B MARCH 27

EDINBURGH

2½h

s

2h

C SEPTEMBER 1

1h

GLASGOW

2h 2h

MARCH 18 A B MARCH 9

1h

s 3¾h

3h s

2h

3h

2h 1h

2h

Dagger Bank

BELFAST

C FEBRUARY 28

N ORTHERN IREL AN D

s

B SEPTEMBER 10

3h 4h

8h 3h

s

3h

C FEBRUARY 19

3h

MANCHESTER

s

4h

8h

R E P U B L I C DUBLIN OF IREL AN D

2h

4h

3h

LIVERPOOL

B SEPTEMBER 19 1h

A FEBRUARY 10 3½h

WAL ES

2h

FEBRUARY 1 C

E N G L A N D

4h

2h

LONDON

CARDIFF

4h

1h

A

JANUARY 23 A JANUARY 14

Ch a

2h

2h

B

nne l

OCTOBER 7

Tu n ne l

B OCTOBER 16

C OCTOBER 25

2h

B ELGIUM

B A NOVEMBER 3 NOVEMBER 12

3h 10h

C SEPTEMBER 28 NETH ER L A ND S

3h

3h

C NOVEMBER 21 C B NOVEMBER 30 DECEMBER 9 3h

2h

F R A NC E JANUARY 5

B

B

DECEMBER 18

A DECEMBER 27

357 days a year

Every 9 days

Day 0

Day 1

A Day 2-8

B Day 2-8

C

Day 2-8

Docking station generating wave energy Day -1

Passengers arriving from the UK

Vessel approaching the docking station

Reception extending into the vessel for passenger exchange

Mainland ferry leaving

Vessel folds to form an inner courtyard around an inflatable beach.

Vessel folds to form an inner courtyard around an inflatable band stand. Event occurs in celebration of public holidays.

Event occurs in protected water with low waves.

MASTER PLAN DESCRIPTION Master plan is based on the new Exclusive Economic Zone of Britain. The vessel travels every 9th day in order to travel around British Isles in a single year. It starts in the most northern point on 21th of June and celebrates New Years Eve in the most Southern point of the journey. This way it can maintain its location in optimal climate all year round and collect new passengers on the way. Every docking station generates energy and charges the station. Additionally, docking stations create event spaces by the use of inflatable landscapes. These spaces alternate depending of local conditions. 12


CROWN DEPENDENCY OF NHS 1. BUILDING FORM, SYSTEMS, PLANNING AND CONTEXT 1.13 BUILDING PROGRAMME OVERVIEW

2 1

8 3

4 7 5 6

9 10

1

Docking station Situated around the British border, they generate and store energy through out the year and deploy an inflatable landscape once the island arrives. It provides reception for passengers and place for deliveries of food and other supplies.

6

2

Housing for elderly and care staff Staff is housed in the towers with main escape cores - help is never further away than the fire escape.

7

3

Teacup SPA Swimming pools and baths of different temperatures - aquajogging, aquaerobics, swimming, changing rooms and showers

4

Sails of laundry Laundry racks that help move the vessel

5

Desalination fountains Production of fresh water in the form of ice, provides brine for the baths

Ice garden: Before Ice is used as drinkable water, it is used to make a sculptural garden

Crown Kitchens and dining hall: Harvest and food preparation hubs Skylights into dining hall

8

Gardens: Cultivation of medicine flowers and food

9

Waste disposal system Anaerobic digester Fertilizer for the gardens Energy for the island

10

Hospital tower Doctor and captain’s house GP consultation Flower/herb drying tower

13


CROWN DEPENDENCY OF NHS 1. BUILDING FORM, SYSTEMS, PLANNING AND CONTEXT 1.14 ARRANGEMENT STRATEGY

NHS island vessel is arranged on an ice hull providing buoyancy and stability. Heavy machinery and storage tanks are placed in the pockets carved out in ice and wrapped in monocoque structure in order to lower the point of gravity while accommodations are located inside the inhabitable wall of the project. These two parts are connected by the Water garden based with central part of desalination by freezing that separates seawater into brine and fresh water. 3

SOCIAL

2

1

Docking station - reception that extends into the building upon arrival to allow passenger exchange. Deploys inflatable landscape

2

Grand dining hall - this is the main social space for the inhabitants that serves food, games and events.

3

Crown Kitchens - placed in the gardens for fresh produce. Serves grand banquet for the inhabitants every day.

4

Laundry rooms / golf practice pitch / drying rack sails

9

1

ACCOMMODATION -located in Highclere castle walls

7 6

10

4

5

13

8

5

Crew quarters

6

Inhabitable wall - elderly accommodation with 360 rooms.

7

NHS staff towers - 120 accommodation units for care staff. Care staff to elderly ratio 1:3

11

HEALTH 17

10

8

GP consultation office

9

Roof gardens - 3796 m2 elevated into the sun and away from sea water. Flower drying tower and storage - flowers produced in the gardens are dried and stored here in order to produce medicine (placebo).

10

16 12

WATER GARDEN

15

11

Desalination plants - uses process of water purification by freezing to provide brine for the pools and fresh water for the rest of the building.

12

Ice garden - frozen water is stocked here in shape of ice sculptures and slowly melts into storage tanks underneath.

13

Tea cup spa - different temperature water pools and stems saunas

14

18

SERVICES

RESTAURANT GARDENS POOLS

14

Engine rooms

15

Fresh water storage

16

Brine storage

17

Refrigeration plant

18

Ice hull

Private

Publicly private GP’S OFFICE TOTAL 1272 m2

FRESH WATER PRODUCTION STAFF TOTAL 7,430 m2 ELDERLY TOTAL 22290 m2

WASTE TREATMENT ENGINES

REFRIGERATION

Public TOTAL 21,990 m2

Services TOTAL 13785 m2 Docking stations TOTAL 500 m2

14


CROWN DEPENDENCY OF NHS 1. BUILDING FORM, SYSTEMS, PLANNING AND CONTEXT 1.15 STRUCTURAL PRINCIPLES

WHY?

1

1 2

External truss system allows to achieve large span of the domes and keeps structural parts on the exterior side, so they don’t obstruct glass surface.

GLASS DOME Waterloo station by Grimshaw Architects(1) Used in the kitchen roofs to bring light into dining halls below.

75 m

3

2

In the marine environment it is important to keep the green areas away from seawater as salts would kill most of the plant species. Placing the gardens on the roof raises the gardens well above the sea level.

GREEN ROOF Marcel Sembat High School by Archi5 (2) Used on all the roofs to cultivate medicinal flowers and vegetables

5 m structural grid

3 45

STEEL AND CLT HYBRID STRUCTURE (3)

m

CLT is chosen as massive panels can be used as bracing elements. Moreover, finished surface can be specified to be used in the interiors. Wood has many quantifiable health and benefits such as: -Improvements to a person’s emotional state -Reduced blood pressure, heart rate and stress levels -Improved air quality through humidity moderation -Increased wish to interact with others (4)

Primary construction method in the project. Steel provides strength, while CLT allow fast construction through prefabrication.

4

0m

33

5

4

This is chosen as is provides durable/watertight construction which is essential for sea environment. Monocoque will be able to connect the above deck structures to the ice, effectively creating one large beam structure that acts as one.

MONOCOQUE SHIP HULL INSERT

ICE HULL

This robust structure will house heavy machinery and storage areas as well connect ice to the rest of the vessel. Ice is chosen as its materiality has built in properties for buoyancy is virtually everywhere and will use smaller amounts of resources and energy than equivalent floating structures.

BOW

U V OR

?

HULL SHAPE U shaped Hull is chosen for project. Ships with round-bottom hulls move fluidly, but the resistance of the water makes them extremely slow. Nevertheless, the need for stability and a smooth ride outweigh overall speed, thus making the roundbottom displacement hull he best fit for the project.

The plumb bow has extra resistance when dealing with sideon waves, but is slower than other types of hulls. This type is chose due to priority of comfort for the passengers versus speed and agility.

1. http://www.constructionenquirer.com/2014/05/06/300m-waterloo-station-revamp-coming-out-to-bid/ 2. https://inhabitat.com/gorgeous-green-roofed-high-school-rises-in-france/ 3. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0950061815306759 4. http://makeitwood.org/documents/doc-1253-wood--housing--health--humanity-report-2015-04-00-final.pdf

conventional

reverse

plumb

5

ICE HULL axe

Using this abundant material and refrigeration, it is possible to create a hull that could substitute use of steel and other materials in stead.

Moreover, process of keeping the hull intact - refrigeration - will produce excess heat which can be used for heating of the spaces ENERGY REQUIRED TO PRODUCE 1KG : STEEL = ICE(20 >0 = ) O

O

40,000 kJ 105 kJ

15


CROWN DEPENDENCY OF NHS 1. BUILDING FORM, SYSTEMS, PLANNING AND CONTEXT 1.16 SITE ANALYSIS - CLIMATIC CONDITIONS

LOCATION

June 21st - June 28th 63.89ON, 0.49 OW

In order to analyse projects response to the surrounding climate, one location is chosen - most northern point of the route. This is due to it being representing one the most extreme conditions the vessel will have to endure as it is in the open sea. At the same time it shows average conditions in regards to wind direction, sun and waves.

WIND

One of the main factors in the open sea is wind. Through out the year and in different locations of the travel wind strength and direction varies. However, the most dominant wind direction is North-West and South-West.

Flower drying tower Anchored docking station The wall

June

J

F

M

J

A

S

A

M

J

O

N

D

-As a response, the project docks to a moored docking station that prevent the vessel from drifting away. -The project wraps around the station that becomes primary inhabitation and recreation area -Tower and housing wall provides protection for the inner harbour. -During predicted storms, the vessel will delay departures and will stay in a protective circle around the dock. -Waves are most commonly caused by wind, thus the docking stations will harvest wave energy through out the year and charge the vessel during docking stage.

Source: www.windfinder.com

SUN June 21

12.00

Main tower

Sun-path is studied in order to create an active building strategy on how the vessel can orient itself accordingly. -While docked, the building orients its tallest tower towards the sun in order to receive maximum sunlight without overshadowing other parts -The gardens are elevated from the deck in order to protect them from the sea water and provide most sunlight. -The distance is created between ‘the wall’ and elevated gardens in order to avoid overshadowing both onto the gardens, but also onto the housing units. -Dock mooring orientation is predetermined according to this data.

The wall Source: http://andrewmarsh.com/apps/releases/sunpath2d.html

WATER TEMPERATURE Sun-path is studied in order to create an active building strategy on how the vessel can orient itself accordingly.

0-25oC 6-15oC 6oC

December

March

0m 20 40

Bottom of the hull

summer autumn winter spring

60 80 100 June

AIR TEMPERATURE

September

6

8

10

12

14

C

o

http://www.seafriends.org.nz/oceano/current2.htm

JAN

C

20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4

FEB

MA R

OCT

NO V

DE

-While docked, the building orients its tallest tower towards the sun in order to receive maximum sunlight without overshadowing other parts -The gardens are elevated from the deck in order to protect them from the sea water and provide most sunlight. -The distance is created between ‘the wall’ and elevated gardens in order to avoid overshadowing both onto the gardens, but also onto the housing units. -Dock mooring orientation is predetermined according to this data.

APR

P SE

23OC

Although temperature averages on route would be higher than the UK average, the vessel would still need to provide heating strategy. This will be done by using excess heat coming from refrigeration system maintaining the ice and desalinating water. Refrigeration systems often have efficiency of 1.7. Therefore the process would produce 1.7 times the heat that it will extract from the ice.(1) having large amount of ice to keep cool will ensure there is always enough excess of heat for the spaces above.

MA Y

AU G

JU

N

JUL AVERAGE TEMP. ON THE ISLAND (0C)

AVERAGE TEMPERATURE UK (0C)

AS AN EXAMPLE COMPRESSION REFRIGERATION USING 25W OF ENERGY, WOULD EXTRACT 1.7 X 25W = 42 W AND THEN PRODUCE (REJECT) 42W + 25W = 67 W.

1. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?pid=S1678-58782011000200006&script=sci_arttext&tlng=pt, table 3

16


CROWN DEPENDENCY OF NHS 1. BUILDING FORM, SYSTEMS, PLANNING AND CONTEXT 1.17 FIRE STRATEGY

Two main documents are adopted in order to create fire strategy for the project: Building regulations Part B and International Life-Saving Appliance Code 1. The vessel is designed as institutional residential building for elderly care 2(a). 2. Ship is divided into compartments in order to implement Planned Horizontal Evacuation. This is due to the fact that ‘the residents will need some assistance to evacuate’ and in order to ‘provide a place of relative safety within a short distance’. (1) 3. 10 protected cores that will provide main escape routes and accommodate protected areas for the elderly/disabled that need assistance to evacuate. 4. Due to reduced travel distances for the elderly, each room is provided with a personal life boat capable of carrying at least 2 persons and a person lying on a stretcher, all wearing immersion suits and life-jackets. 5. Lifeboats by the main cores will be capable of carrying 50 passengers each including a person lying on a stretcher, all wearing immersion suits and life-jackets. (total project capacity 500 people) 6. Docking station is equipped with inflatable lifeboats for 500 people. 7. It is important to stop fire spread immediately to prevent progressive spreading threat. Therefore, sprinkler heads to be placed every 5 meters.

1200mm

Continuous handrails

water below

50 person lifeboat

1200mm

Assembly evacuation platform Refuge area for wheelchair users on upper floors Emergency comms at 1100mm height

1400mm 900mm

Fire main outlet Wall fire resistance minimum 60 minutes

Fire-fighting lift in liftshaft

Wall fire resistance minimum 120 minutes

Fire strategy axonometric view

Typical core

5m

Refuge zones Life-boat Internal FD 60 doors Main evacuation routes

Boarding

Personal evacuation routes

Window section opening and pulling the lifeboat out.

Lowering the life-boat. Personal evacuation strategy

https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/441669/BR_PDF_AD_B2_2013.pdf

17


CROWN DEPENDENCY OF NHS 1. BUILDING FORM, SYSTEMS, PLANNING AND CONTEXT 1.18 STRUCTURAL PHASING

1

CONSTRUCTING A NEW FLOATING DRY-DOCK Crane on top to receive and move materials. The dry-dock must have locks at each ends in order to act as a freezing mould. Size: 60 x 350 x 70 m Feasibility is based on plans to create an armada of NHS retirement cruises. Also other ships could be built in this dock.

1 1

Time of year : summer

2

2 CONSTRUCTING THE MONOCOQUE SHELL This would be done at the base of the dock as it will not yet be filled with water. Steel structure comes in on barges and gets lifted into the dock. There is also possibility for prefabrication of sections of the hull and lifting them into place on site.

2

14% OF PAPER FIBRE: 108,108 m3

3

Time of the year: autumn

86% OF H2O: 664,092 m3

3 LIFTING THE SHELL

3

3a

Refrigeration plants can now be installed and the monocoque raised to the required level. Refrigeration pipes can be hung from the hull. they will act as anchors holding ice and the building together. Time of the year: winter

3b

4 3a

FILLING IN THE MOULD Now the mould is filled with water and paper-fibres in order to create improved pykrete. Water expands about 9% when freezing so this should be considered when measuring the amount of water and paper needed,

4

H2O LIQUID

H2O SOLID

Time of the year: winter 3b

FREEZING Freezing 772200 m3 of water and paper will require quite a lot of energy. Therefore, it is useful to use cold climate and time of the year in order to utilize natural temperature as a construction method.

CONSTRUCTION LOCATION

Fresh water input

Forth Ports Inchgreen Dry Dock BAE Systems Clyde Shipping CO

GLASGOW

150m deptht

Possible location for harbour construction is Firth of Clyde due to close location Glasgow with established shipbuilding industry, cold climate, access to fresh water. Creating jobs in the area would also prevent Scotland from making another independence referendum (1)v

Time of the year: winter

4 ADDING STRUCTURE AND PREFABRICATED ELEMENTS After the hull is frozen, the top structure can be added. The speed of this process can be increased with prefabrication since the design is modular. Time of the year: spring

CONCLUSION Construction sequence will require building a whole new dry-dock that will function as a giant mould or an ice-tray. However, by building this could later be used to build more of NHS islands as well as used for regular shipbuilding. Cold climate and abundant fresh water supply of northern UK can be utilized to help with freezing process. 1. https://www.theguardian.com/business/2013/nov/06/bae-closure-portsmouth-shipyard-row

18


CROWN DEPENDENCY OF NHS 1. BUILDING FORM, SYSTEMS, PLANNING AND CONTEXT

50 m

1

m 45

m 45

45 m

1.19 ACCESSIBILITY STRATEGY

3 4 6

2

50 m

m 45

m 45

45 m

Dining hall level

5 Ground floor level

Radius from care staff wards

Vertical circulation cores

Handrails

Wheelchair accessible internal areas with non slip floor material

Exterior deck, non-slip material

30

min150

0

700

min150

150

150

Ramp landings are also scenic viewpoints and provides access into the gardens 150

230

120 1/17

150

30 110

+400

1 RAMPS Ramp landing provided every 700 centimetres with at least 150 x 150 centimetres movement areas that will also provide scenic views.

240

120

160

120

2 HANDRAILS

3 DINING HALL

Handrails installed in 110 cm. A circular or oval cross-section, with diameter between 3.00 and 4.5 cm with mounts on the underside will be adopted.(2)

Restaurant visits may prove to be rather strenuous on account of the frequently encountered dense seating. To ensure wheelchair-friendly access, clearance widths of around 120 cm are provided behind the seats of adjacent tables. A clearance width of 150 cm is left at unoccupied head sides of tables. (2)

4 410mm

BATHROOMS

All housing units are equipped bathrooms according to Building regulations Part M and Life Time Homes. WC and a hand rinse basin are positioned so that the basin can be reached from the WC position. Wall hung fittings create greater manoeuvrability at floor level and ease of cleaning. (4)

Ramp gradients not to exceed 1/20 slope and flights will be no more than 10m. (1)

6 ROOM LAYOUTS

5 POOLS Lifts, shallow steps and upstands, matching the height of a wheelchair seat will provide access to the pools

50 50

Regular

Care phase

For wheelchair user

Different layouts are provided depending on health of the elderly.(3) a - view out b - storage c overview room d - sleeping e - communicating f - sitting g - personal hygiene h - writing - wall mounted alarms

CONCLUSION Accessibility strategy is based on two main documents: Building regulations Part M and Life Time Homes. This is implemented both inside the housing units, but considerations also made in regards to pools, dining hall and small details such as handrails. Also, care staff wards are provided at every main core tower to ensure close proximity (45m away) and good services. 1. Criterior 3, http://www.lifetimehomes.org.uk/data/files/For_Professionals/accessible_revisedlthstandard_final.pdf 2. Meuser Philipp, Construction and Design Manual. Accessible Architecture. 2012, DOM Publishers, Berlin 3. Oliver Heiss et al., Barrier-Free Design. Principles, Planning, Examples. 2010, Birkhauser, Basel

PULL IN CASE OF EMERGENCY

19


CROWN DEPENDENCY OF NHS 1. BUILDING FORM, SYSTEMS, PLANNING AND CONTEXT 1.20 CIRCULATION STRATEGY

45m 1-3mins

1

110m 1 - 8 mins 2

1

45m 1-3mins 1

1

1

45m 1-3mins

308m 5-22min

280m 4-20min

DINING Elderly walking speed an range between 0.23 and 1.0m/s (1)

2

2 2

560m 9-0mins

This plan shows furthest distances and times that it will take for the elderly to come into the grand dining hall.

2

1. Grand dining hall 2. Housing units

65m 1-5mins

GARDENS

POOLS

This plan shows furthest distances and times that it will take for the elderly to come to the gardens.

This plan shows furthest distances and times that it will take for the elderly to come to the pools

65m 1-4min

1. Gardens 2. Main access towers

1. Housing units 2. Pools

1 110m 1 - 8 mins 2

2 lifeguards every 3 hours

2

1 2 2 lifeguards every 3 hours

360m 6-26mins

1

2

LIFEGUARD PATROL 2

1

308m 5-22min 2 lifeguards every 3 hours

2

VISITING GP

DOCKING STATION

This plan shows furthest distances and times that it will take for the elderly to come to GP for consultation or treatment.

This plan shows furthest distances and times that it will take for the elderly to come to he docking station.

1. GP tower 2. Housing

2

1. Docking station 2. Housing

2 lifeguards every 3 hours

2

2 1

The four sections of the ship will have Lifeguards on duty that will patrol and check rooms every 3 hours to see if passengers need any medical, physical or social assistance. They will also be able to assist the elderly in reaching other destinations on the ship, especially in stormy conditions. 1. Housing 2. Main access towers

1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2967707/

20


CROWN DEPENDENCY OF NHS

GENERAL ARRANGEMENT DRAWINGS BASEMENT & GROUND FLOOR PLAN LEVEL 4, DINING HALL PLAN LEVEL 7, ROOF 1 PLAN SECTION A SECTION B SECTION C SECTION D


2. BUILDING CONSTRUCTION (FOCUS CHAPTER)


1 Glass domes borrows from Grimshaw architects Waterloo station.

1

GLASS DOMES

1. GLASS DOME CONSTRUCTION PLAN DETAIL 1:25@A3

2

35 m

2

GREEN ROOF

Since weight is an important factor for the vessel, growth medium should be very light. Depths will also have an effect on both weight and plant species are are able to grow. 3

FIBREGLASS POOLS 3

4 ETFE

Mould

75 m

Wax is applied as mould release

4

Gel coat is applied to provide colour

HYBRID CLT AND STEEL STRUCTURES

EFTE membranes are used for exterior cladding in order to reduce overall weight of the construction. Also it is not affected by environmental weathering, making it perfect material for a sea climate.

Fibreglass, Resin & Catalyst is applied in layers and rolled out

WOODEN PANELS

After curing, the part is removed from the mould excess material is trimmed and it is ready for assembly

Ships have long tradition of using wood. What is more, wood provides good internal climate and is aesthetically preferred material to be used for elderly accommodations according to Design Guidlines by UK government.

Both sides of the fibreglass shell are assembled onto a framework

LARGE SPAN STRUCTURES 5m 5m

5

ANCHORING INTO ICE

SHIP CONSTRUCTION PRINCIPLES

Engine / refrigerator/ storage Anchors

Refrigeration pipes

Steel monocoque hull

insulation ice

CORES

Carbon fibre wires holding refrigeration pipes and structure into ice

A typical cross-section of a 5000 DWT coastal tanker showing all the essential stiffeners and resultant stiffened panels

HOW MUCH ICE?

6

Ships can weigh upwards of 71,500 tons. They displace the equivalent amount of water when they press down on the ocean, which meanwhile pushes up and keeps the ship afloat, or buoyant. The ship has to displace its weight in water before it’s submerged. That’s a lot easier to do if the ship is constructed in a way so that it’s less dense than the water below it.

45 m 5

MONOCOQUE HULL

Centre of gravity Buoyancy force

Using Ice as a hull material and adding a structure on it is not exempt of these forces.

65 m

IF AN OBJECT WEIGHS MORE THAN AN EQUAL VOLUME OF WATER, IT IS MORE DENSE AND WILL SINK, AND IF IT WEIGHS LESS THAN AN EQUAL VOLUME OF WATER, IT IS LESS DENSE AND WILL FLOAT.

Air density 1.225 kg/m3 Structure Density 62.5 kg/m3 Main Deck max 20m from waterline Ice Density 90 kg/m3 Water density 100 kg/m3

How much ice to make it float? Total Floor Area: 57,050 m2 Total Dead Weight: 57,050 m2 x 250 kg/m2 = 14,262,500 kg Structure Volume: 57,050 x 4m (floor height) =228,204 m3 Downwards force: 14262500 x 9.8 = 139,772,500N Structure Density: 14,262,750 kg / 228204 m3 = 62.5 kg/m3 Water density at average temp 15oC, 34.5 salinity PSU: 1026 kg / m3 SINKING POINT/NEUTRAL BUOYANCY 1m3 OF PURE ICE CAN UPLIFT 100 KG OF ADDED WEIGHT. THAT IS 1.6m3 OF THE BUILDINGWEIGHT AT DENSITY OF 62.5 kg/m3 .(920+62.5X=1020 , X=1.6) TOTAL MINIMUM VOLUME OF ICE NEEDED: 142627.5m3

330 m

6

ICE HULL

U V OR

?

Ships with round-bottom hulls move fluidly, but the resistance of the water makes them extremely slow. They can only go so fast before the addition of more engine power reaches a point of diminishing returns. Nevertheless, the need for stability and a smooth ride outweigh overall speed, thus making the round-bottom displacement hull a good fit for cruise ships.


Structural parts will be hoisted into place using a gantry crane.

FLOWER DRYING TOWER

pg 29

Steel truss systems are used to provide large span structures. pg 27-28 HINGE SYSTEM

CROWN KITCHENS

pg 35-36 INHABITABLE WALL

pg 30-32

TEACUP SPAS

pg 33-34 pg 23-24 ICE HULL

MONOCOQUE

pg 25-26

Housing units are prefabricated using hybrid steel and CLT system. Steel will provide structural strength and exposed to interior CLT will brace the structure as well as give good indoor climate. One of the primary materials used in the project is ICE. This is due to abundance of it in the sea and relatively low refrigeration requirements. It will also create a protective layer around monocoque structures embedded into the ice, protecting steel from corrosion. The inhabitant will also interact with ice by cultivating and ice sculpture garden from desalinated water ice blocks. as water will slowly melt, it will be used to balance uneven weight of the vessel.

21


CROWN DEPENDENCY OF NHS 2. BUILDING CONSTRUCTION 2.1 KEY ISSUE AREAS CHOOSING A STRUCTURAL SYSTEM FOR ABOVE DECK STRUCTURES

CONSTRUCTION Main construction principles are based on the use of ice, monocoque and steel structure. Ice will provide buoyancy and separate steel parts from the water, reducing requirements for maintenance. Monocoque will bind ice and the above hybrid structures of steel and CLT together. CLT is chosen as a bracing material due to its benefits for well-being of the inhabitants. Cladding of English Oak is chosen due to it being British wood type that fares well in marine environments.

REINFORCED CONCRETE Advantages High compressive Strength Lower skilled construction Easy maintenance Good Resistance To Marine Environments Fire resistance Disadvantages Lower Tensile Strength Large space requirement Very heavy

STEEL FRAME Advantages Highest strength to weight ratio Lighter than other framing materials Less scrap and waste Prefabrication possibility Disadvantages Expensive Needs protection from corrosion Needs additional fire protection

TIMBER FRAME Advantages

How to construct the housing wall and mount it into ice?

Light weight Renewable Cheap

How to create large hinges that would allow folding of the structure? How to construct ice hull and embed structure into it

Disadvantages

How to build glass domes?

Poor fire resistance Only few locally available sorts can be used in marine environment

How to construct large span structures? How to construct cantilevering tower?

ADVANTAGES OF PREFABRICATION 14 2

1

5m

3

5m

4

5m

5

5m

6

2,5m

7

5m

8

5m

9

5m

10

5m

11 12

5m

2,5m

5m

33

15 16

13

5m

2,5m

17

5m

18

5m

19

5m

20

5m

21

5m

22

5m

23

5m

24

5m

25

26

5m

- Prefabricated components speed up construction time, resulting in lower labour costs; - Prefabrication allows for year-round construction; - Work is not affected by weather delays - The mechanization used in prefabricated construction ensures precise conformity to building code standards and greater quality assurance; - Less wasted materials than in site-built construction; - Materials are protected from exposure to the elements during construction; - Worker safety and comfort level are higher than in site-built construction; - Quality control and factory sealing and design can ensure high energy efficiency and cost savings

A

B

5m C D

E

5m 2,5m 5m

F G

H

5m 2,5m 5m

I J K

L

Construction is30 31to use as prefabrication as 37 27 28 29 32 34 35much 36 38 39 40 possible due to the site of assembly being a floating harbour out in the water. Other benefits include:

5m 2,5m 2,5m 5m

M

5m

CONCLUSION Steel structure is chosen due to its ability to withstand large loads which is crucial for a floating structure. Primary grid is set at 5m intervals, allowing for prefabrication of elements and spacial arrangements. Exceptions are on hinge locations where structure is doubled due to separation of parts, i.e. between grid 14 & 15. Entire structure will function as a giant beam hinging around 3 points. This is due to be able to withstand waves. 15 16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30 31

32

33

22 Void

Void

41

44

45

46

47

48


CROWN DEPENDENCY OF NHS 2. BUILDING CONSTRUCTION 2.2 BUOYANCY CALCULATIONS

ANALYSIS OF FORCES ACTING ON THE VESSEL Dead weight of the structure(Ns) and Dead weight of the structure Ice (Wice)

71m Buoyancy force (B)

WHAT IS THE MINIMUM AMOUNT OF ICE (V) NEEDED TO SUPPORT THE STRUCTURE?

mwg - miceg = msg ρwV - ρice V = ms ρwAwhw - ρice Aicehice = ms h(ρwAw - ρice Aice) = ms h = ms/ (ρwAw - ρice Aice) h = 14,262,750 / (1030*14850 - 917* 14850) = 8.5m

Vdisp = Vice Ice hull area A : 45 x 330m = 14850 m2 Structure Weight: 57,050 m2 x 250 kg/m2 = 14,262,500 kg Structure Volume: 57,050 x 4m (floor height) =228,204 m3 Structure Density:14,262,750 kg/228204 m3 = 62.5 kg/m3 Vice= w * d * h ρw = sea water density = 1030 kg/m3 ρice = ice density = 917 kg/m3

HEIGHT OF ICE REQUIRED BEFORE THE STRUCTURE WILL SUBMERGE = 8.5M HOWEVER, this would assume that the top of the ice is at the same level as waterline. In order to protect structure from the waves, it needs to be raised at least 12m above the water line we would need 200m of ice. To reduce this height 20% air-pockets are inserted into the ice making the ice block height 71m in height. OVED

height (h) = ? B - Wice - Ns = 0 B - Wice = Ns Ww - Wice = Ws

R APPR

ENGINEE

An iceberg with density of 90 kg/m3 would be 90% submerged

20m

20m

20m

20m

180m

82m

51m

47m

Pure ice

10%

20%

30%

The structure requires to be higher than average waves around British seas. By adding air pockets into the ice, we can reduce this depth. Air density is 1.225 kg/m3. By adding air-pockets into the ice we can alter the density of the hull 10% of air, object density becomes 81 kg/m3 20% air: 72 kg/m3 30% - 63 kg/m3 Main deck will be 20 - 8.5 m = 11.5m above water line which is enough to withstand regular waves in the British seas which are 3-4m high. Air pocket is to be located as high as possible so that ice, which is heavier than air and thus will ensure lower centre of gravity.

ICE HULL REFRIGERATION STRATEGY

SPACEFRAME

CATENARY CURVE

VERTICAL ANCHORS

Engineered spaceframe holding refrigeration pipes

Refrigeration pipes are supported by series of lines that due to weight will form a centenary curve

Vertical lines holding refrigeration pipes creating a net connecting main structure to the ice

ADVANTAGES

ADVANTAGES

Cheap construction Light wires used to suspend pipes

Good freezing control during construction Structure will embed well into structure Can be made asymmetric to counter structures on top

ADVANTAGES Robust structure Good control of overall hull form DISADVANTAGES Requires a lot of structure to suspend the pipes Only perimeter freezing Very expensive

DISADVANTAGES Shape of the hull is made by gravity Higher centre of gravity, which will reduce stability

DISADVANTAGES Will require more refrigeration pipes Expensive

CONCLUSION 8.5m of pure ice would be able to hold the structure afloat. However, taking into consideration the height of the waves in the British seas, (maximum average of 4m(1)). this height is increased to total 71m with 20% air pockets in it in order to raise the deck level well above wave height. For construction method, vertical anchors holding refrigeration pipes is chosen due to good control of freezing pipe location during construction phase. It is more expensive method,, however,it provides the best control over process and economical solution. 1. https://www.weatheronline.co.uk/marine/weather?LEVEL=5&MENU=0&MEER=grbr

23


CROWN DEPENDENCY OF NHS 2. BUILDING CONSTRUCTION 2.3 VERTICAL STABILITY STRATEGY

LISTING PREVENTION

ANALYSIS OF FORCES ACTING ON THE VESSEL

M

B

G

G

a) Stable

G

M

B

B

b) Stable

b) Unstable

A floating body is stable if the body is bottom-heavy and thus the centre of gravity G is below the centroid B of the body, or if the metacentre M is above point G. However, the body is unstable if point M is below point G. Therefore, a strategy to maintain vessels stability must be investigated.

How to prevent the vessel from listing and capsizing?

LOAD 1

G

LOAD 2

LOADBALAST ENGINEER

APPROVED

ENGINEER

Due to its asymmetric loading, the vessel would list to one side. This can be counteracted by using voids in the monocoque structure as ballasts. By compartmentalising them and filling some of the compartments with water, a full control can be achieved to counteract loading differences on the ship.

APPROVED

Concrete filled dovetail notches By placing heavy machinery inside the hull as well as filling some of the voids with concrete, centre of gravity is lowered to provide more stability.

LOAD1 < LOAD2 LOAD1 + LOADBALLAST = LOAD2

There can be situations where the hull gets damaged and will need repairs.

If the damage is above water line, the vessel would fill water ballasts in order to sink to appropriate level and allow sea water to be frozen in the damaged area.

Then the water ballasts are emptied and the vessel raises back to a nominal level.

CONCLUSION When vessel stability is considered, even loading and centre of gravity is important. That is why bottom of the structure is partially filled with concrete to lower the centre of gravity and ballasting system is adopted to help balance the structure. Repair method is also considered, that involves self-repairing strategy.

24


CROWN DEPENDENCY OF NHS 2. BUILDING CONSTRUCTION 2.4 MONOCOQUE CONSTRUCTION

FOUNDATION BUILD UP

ICE HULL BUILD UP

Wooden decking with non-slip strips in the grooves

Distance battens

Steel column base with carbon fibre tensile anchors.

Monocoque steel assembly. Thicker in placement of columns

The hull in shown upside down

400 mm insulation

Ice compartments separated by hinging plates Spaces for heavy machinery and storage Insulation wrapping around the monocoque Steel plating on both sides

Web anchors embedded into ice

Hollow steel framework

WOOD JOINERY In order to embed the monocoque structure into ice, wood joins are investigated. Wood joints are perfect reference as it shows how 2 different structures can be joined through geometry rather than mechanically. DOWELLED BUTT JOINT

FINGER JOINT

DOVETAIL JOINT

Simple construction, held by inserted dowels. Not much interlocking surface area.

Joint with interlocking fingers, holds the structure through friction of the materials. Not suitable between ice and steel

Similar to finger joint, but with diagonal cuts. Geometry of the cut holds the parts together.

Dovetail joint is chosen for its characteristics to hold the parts together due to diagonal cuts. The shape of the embedded spaces will prevent slippage from the ice, reducing other mechanical means of fixtures required.

BASEMENT PLAN DETAIL 1:25

400

BASEMENT PLAN

80

°

1000

R250

ICE

REFRIGERATION PIPE

HEAT SINK RODS

INSULATED REFRIGERATION PIPE OUTLET

50 R4

2500

80

°

INTERLOCKING BETWEEN MONOCOQUE AND ICE

2400 REFRIGERATION PLANT

25


CROWN DEPENDENCY OF NHS 2. BUILDING CONSTRUCTION 2.5 FOUNDATION DETAIL

300mm Steel column

FOUNDATION DETAIL 1:25 @ A3

10mm steel plating 400mm insulation

ICE

600mm hollow steel beams 1000mm hollow steel beams under column locations Ø 150mm Carbon fibre sleeve so no heat transfer occurs through constructions Connection to the next anchor

Ø 100mm Anchor rods with Geocell honeycomb mesh stretched between them for even load distribution through brittle ice

ICE

ICE ENGINEER

APPROVED

LOAD DISTRIBUTION

ANCHORING INVESTIGATION

Z-SURFACE Structure is embedded through its surface directly,but only top layer of ice would be bound.

HELIC ANCHORS Good load distribution and works in both compression and tension. However, loading in not distributed widely enough.

PRONG ANCHORS Good load distribution and works in both compression and tension. By attaching geocell mesh between them, area for load distribution can be increased dramatically.

The system of prongs and mesh allows dealing with compression forces. However, as the vessel will be swaying due to waves, anchoring system will have to accommodate for tension too.

Tension Compression

26


CROWN DEPENDENCY OF NHS 2. BUILDING CONSTRUCTION 2.6 HINGING SYSTEM

HOW TO MAKE A HINGE FOR A VERY LARGE STRUCTURE?

A

B

FINGER JOINT PRINCIPLE As a principle for hinging mechanism, a finger join is used. This is due to its ability to resist bending forces that would occur due to waves.

A) While travelling

B) During docking situation. Hinge’s fingers help reduce moment forces acting on the hinge due to waves STRUCTURE OPTION 1

HINGE WORKING MECHANISM ‘Fingers’ pivot around central axis running along entire height of the vessel.

Structure: access tower Steel pivot

Steel ‘box’ attached to tower structure and steel pivot

Structure overlaps on each floor Option 1 is chosen due to solidity of structure around the the pivot which will help counteract bending forces in the structure.

Slewing ring bearing with driving motor Support around pivot shaft

Running the pivot along entire height of the vessel will also help in preventing pinching along the rotation point. ENGINEER

APPROVED

STRUCTURE OPTION 2 Structure: Housing

LOCATION OF HINGES 85m

90m

100m

45m

60m

DELUSION OF THE HINGES Hinges based on finger joints will allow entire structure to reconfigure into inverted castle of re-imagined Highclere. This is to create delusion /illusion of an known popular culture British icon facade, that could be experienced all at once. Pivot joint will have to endure large bending forces due to waves affecting separate parts of the vessel differently and therefore strengthened structure around pivoting points is chosen.

27


CROWN DEPENDENCY OF NHS 2. BUILDING CONSTRUCTION 2.7 HINGE SECTION

HINGE SECTIONAL DETAIL 1:50 @ A3 INSIDE HOUSING

INSIDE TOWER

Floor structure Steel beams and CLT Slewing ring and driver motor English Oak cladding 100 mm hard insulation 50 mm steel casing around hinge

A slewing bearing or slewing ring is a rotational rolling-element bearing that typically supports a heavy but slow-turning or slow-oscillating load, often a horizontal platform such as a conventional crane, a swing yarder, or the wind-facing platform of a horizontal-axis windmill. This system together with dual motor drive is used on each floor of the running hinge.

Support flanges

Pivot shaft

Hinge axis runs along entire height Section through hinge at opening 1:1000 @ A3

HINGE DETAIL 1:10 @ A3 Pivot attachment to slewing ring with bolts Bearing interlock structure and at the same time allow it to rotate in relation to each other Driver motor Cladding on each section in in line

HINGE PLAN DETAIL (POSSITION:WHILE TRAVELLING, REFER TO PAGE 27) 1:30 @ A3 HINGE PLAN DETAIL (POSSITION:DOCKED, REFER TO PAGE 27) 1:50 @ A3

Structure rotates 90o when docked

INSIDE TOWER

Overlapping structure below and above

1

Steel pivot shaft with slewing gears and drive motors on each floor Rotates 90o when docked Mechanism in encased in steel structure WATER BELOW CLT/Steel hybrid wall: 22mm European Oak cladding 40mm Ventilation gap 200mm Mineral wool insulation 150mm Mass timber structural panels with sacrificial layer, CLT finish exposed on the inside

INSIDE HOUSING

Hinges become an interaction point between the two parts of the structure. Slewing ring bearing system is chosen as it is commonly used in large crane structures. Dual driver motors placed on each floor connection will ensure smooth rotation.

28


CROWN DEPENDENCY OF NHS 2. BUILDING CONSTRUCTION 2.8 DRYING TOWER STRUCTURAL DIAGRAM

Diagonal bracing is added to make corners of the tower act as stabilising cores

Housing, that attaches to one side of the tower helps stabilise the tower horizontally

Steel columns and beams act as a primary structure for the tower. Thickness of the monocoque is increased under columns Anchors in ice transfer loads and spreds them out into the ice. Addition of these bracing members after consulatation with the engineer allowed to avoid using a transfer structure to accommodate cantilevering of the tower. In stead, bracings connect to foundation embedded directly into ice, transferring loads diagonally.

29


CROWN DEPENDENCY OF NHS 2. BUILDING CONSTRUCTION

min 1700 mm

2.9 DINING HALL, CROWNS AND HOUSING STRUCTURAL DIAGRAM

Due to high wind speeds, structural depth is increased

RULE OF THUMB FOR CALCULATION OF STEEL TRUSSES TRUSS DEPTH = LENGTH/12 L L/12

WITCH TRUSS TYPE TO CHOOSE?

Ring beam transfers loads downwards to the truss frames

Brown

The Brown truss is a box truss that consists of diagonal cross compression members connected to horizontal top and bottom stringers

Warren

The Howe truss a structure of connected elements usually forming triangular units. The connected elements may be stressed from tension, compression, or sometimes both in response to dynamic loads.

Pratt

A Pratt truss includes vertical members and diagonals that slope down towards the centre. The interior diagonals are under tension under balanced loading and vertical elements under compression.

Warren truss is chosen due to good performance with dynamic loads

Vierendeel The Vierendeel truss is a structure where the members are not triangulated but form rectangular openings, and is a frame with fixed joints that are capable of transferring and resisting bending moments.

30


CROWN DEPENDENCY OF NHS 2. BUILDING CONSTRUCTION 2.10 CROWN CONSTRUCTION DETAILS 52.50

CROWN KITCHEN SECTION 1:100 @ A3 LEGEND 1

Roof garden

2

Kitchens

3

Down to dining hall

4

Glass dome

20 40 20 40

150

100

50

English Oak vertical board cladding Airgap Plywood Mineral wool insulation Metal flashing

Enlish oak trim

CLT panel, exposed finish

4

CLT sacrificial layer that will char quickly to prevent fire

35.50

DETAIL C 1:10 @ A3 35.00

Detail A: Green roof/deck

Detail D: Roof/ Glass dome Detail C: Door head/ wall

OUTSIDE

34.10 1

INSIDE

Wood joists to level floor with terrace

2

Wooden batten

32.00

Wooden floor

Detail B: Deck/floor

Moisture membrane

Moisture barrier (root resistant)

2500 Draynage layer

Filter 2500 felt

Vermiculite 2500 growth medium:

Steel flashing to retain soil

2500 Adjustable pedestal

2500 3

Deck floor board with non-slip infils in the grooves

20 45 200

varies: min. 250

410

150

100

DETAIL A 1:10 @ A3

DETAIL B 1:10 @ A3

31


CROWN DEPENDENCY OF NHS 2. BUILDING CONSTRUCTION 2.11 CROWN ROOF AND DOME DETAILS

1

OUTSIDE

INSIDE

Light

Cast steel joint Steel hollow section, Ø 228 mm Cast stainless steel hinge Round steel bar, Ø 75mm Curtain wall with double glazing Steel hollow section, Ø 228 mm Stainless steel cover plate, 15mm Cast steel hinged joint Stainless steel pin Ø 100 mm Ringbeam UB 346x229 mm Tubular flashing with inbuilt raingutter

1o

Steel flashing Varies. min 50 50

Roofing membrane

Sloping rigid insulation 346

45 12

50mm CLT

Mineral wool insulation Wood sheet ceiling

English Oak vertical board cladding Airgap 15o

Plywood

Mineral wool insulation

Curved CLT panel, exposed finish

DETAIL D 1:15 @ A3 20 40 40 20

150

100 50

1. GLASS DOME CONSTRUCTION PLAN DETAIL 1:25@A3

32


CROWN DEPENDENCY OF NHS 2. BUILDING CONSTRUCTION 2.12 SPA CUPS: CHANGING ROOMS

PLAN OF FIBREGLASS SHELLS.

Support column

D

E

A

Fibreglass shell

R 2,5m

R 5m

A

R 5m

Steel framing

R 5m

B

Suspended curtain tracks

R 2,5m

A

Circular roman blinds

R 10m

R 5m

Showerhead with pipe built into support hanger post

C

Railing / water /curtain controll Terrace deck with non slip strips in the grooves

There are two types: roof and pool shell in 5 different sizes, all using the similar construction principle and geometry.

Roof

Pool

Monocoque structure

10,000 mm

R125

4,100 mm

R225

R775

R3

62

5

2,500 mm

R125

D Foundation: rod holding geotextile embedded into ice

Standardised geometry for teacup shell production.

FIBREGLASS SHELL PRODUCTION METHOD Mould, sectioned into 4 parts is made

ICE

Wax is applied as mould release

Gel coat is applied to provide colour

Fibreglass, Resin & Catalyst is applied in layers and rolled out Shell is left tu cure for 24 hours

WIND LOAD CALCULATION ON SUPPORT COLUMN Wind load relative to average UK wind speeds: 1/2 q x v2 = 1/2 x 1.225kg/m3 x (30m/s)2 = 1kN/m2 Affected wind area: 4,1m x 10m = 41m2

Wind Force: 41m2 x 1kN/m2 = 41 kN = 4.5 tonnes Force enacted at the point of support: 4,5m x 45kN = 202.5 kNm

A ROUND Ã&#x2DC; 219MM CHS COLUMN IS CHOSEN ACCORDING TO STEEL DESIGN DATA TABLE(1).

219.1mm 16mm

Diameter Thickness

10 m

Moment resistance

USED

4,1 m

2m

Moult is separated and the part taken out

A: For pools

2,5 m

202,5 kN/m

B: For roofs

4,5 m

ALSO POSSIBLE

1. https://www.tatasteelbluebook.com/en-gb/building-codes/eurocode-3/uk-na/structural-hollow-sections/hybox/chs/bending/hybox-355/

33


CROWN DEPENDENCY OF NHS 2. BUILDING CONSTRUCTION 2.13 SPA CUPS : CHANGING ROOMS SECTION

Square 150 x 100 steel frame

EDGE DETAIL 1:5 @ A3

Framework mounting brackets 10 mm moulded fibreglass shell Ø 6mm Countersink bolt with sealant ring, fixed to CHS 70 steel tube every 450mm

CHS 219 Steel column

CHS 70 horizontal steel tube frame, Ø 70

Flexible rubber ring spacer Square 150 x 100 steel frame

2500

4100

Bottom joint between two shells make drip nose.

Service hatch around the column

CUP CHANGING ROOM SECTION 1:30 @ A3

Water supply led in through support column

34


CROWN DEPENDENCY OF NHS 2. BUILDING CONSTRUCTION 2.14 INHABITABLE WALL BUILD UP DIAGRAM

Detail: Roof parapet

Detail: Upstand and greenhouse

Greenhouse

Green roof

Internal partitions Steel structure Enclosed balcony

Escape staircase - steel Insulation Aluminium panels Wooden cladding CLT panels Windows facing terrace

Terrace

Escape boat release by opening the ‘window’ Wooden deck Insulation under steel structure

Detail: Splashing protection

Ice hull

CALCULATING STEEL BEAM SIZES: We need to find load applied to the beam per meter w = L x imposed load x safety factor x self weight x safety factor

5m

5m

w = 5m x (2kN/m2x 1.5t x 1kN/m2x 1.35) = 20.25 kN/m

Grid size 5x5m

Bending moment =

wl2 8

=

20.25 kN/m2 x 52 8

= 63.3 KN/m

AN UB 305 X 165 X 40 BEAM IS CHOSEN ACCORDING TO STEEL DESIGN DATA TABLE(1). HYBRID STEEL AND CLT STRUCTURE This type of structure was chosen due to the strength of steel which is vital in a floating building. Cross laminated timber panels is primarily chosen due to aesthetic and indoor climate. Specified exposed finish will increase well-being of inhabitants. Moreover, these massive panels can be used as a bracing element in the structure.

100mm 3 layer CLT

CLT mounting bolt

UB 305x165x40 UC 203x203x46

Typical structure assembly with CLT as bracing elements

Bolted corner joint.

Bottom footing fixed into monocoque shell

Elevation view. CLT acts as floor slabs,too.

[Academic use only]

1. https://www.steelforlifebluebook.co.uk/ub/ec3-ukna/buckling-resistance-s355/

35


CROWN DEPENDENCY OF NHS 2. BUILDING CONSTRUCTION 2.15 INHABITABLE WALL DETAILS ROOF PARAPET DETAIL 1:10 @ A3

UPSTAND AND GREENHOUSE DETAIL 1:10 @ A3

150 x 50mm Square hss steel frame fixed to steel perimeter beam Circular steel support for bolt on glass system Steel cap flashing

min.38 mm

150 x 150 mm Steel perimeter beam

Ã&#x2DC; 45 mm handrail UPSTAND ASSEMBLY 20mm English Oak cladding 45mm Air gap/aluminium distance lists 2 Layers waterproof membrane 12mm Sheeting 40mm Rigid insulation 50mm CLT panel 150mm mineral wool insulation 12mm sheeting 45mm Air gap/aluminium distance lists 20mm English Oak cladding

Perfurated steel balustrade bolted to perimeter steel beam Perfurated sheet bolt support

150 x 150 mm Steel perimeter beam Steel cap flashing Gravel

1100 mm

Daffodils and other flowers

20 45 12 40

50

50

100

12 45 20

WAVE SPLASHING PROTECTION DETAIL 1:10 @ A3

100mm CLT Bolt calmp fixing, welded to the steel flange UB 254x146x43

BEAM TO PANEL CONNECTION PRINCIPLE English Oak cladding, fixed with countersunk screws every 450mm MONOCOQUE ASSEMBLY: 10mm steel 980 x 8mm hollowed steel sheets 10mm steels Continuous SFS profile, galvanised 400 mm Spray foam insulation

6mm corrosion and rust resistant folded stainless steel sheet as protection from wave spashing

A threaded bolt is welded to the top flange of the beam. Precut CNC panels and mounted onto the bolt and tightened with a steel plate with teeth.

20mm Impregnated structural plywood sheeting

Fexible neoprene layer bolted into monocoque

36


CROWN DEPENDENCY OF NHS

3. BUILDING PERFORMANCE


DRYING TOWER FOR HEALTH REMEDIES Stack effect helps ventilate and Sunlight heats up the Docking station 366and flowers dry herbs tower days a year

HARNESSING THE WAVES Facade can be opened to let the wind through in case of a Docking station big storm. this also washes area with the smell of dried onthe arrival flowers.

Charging of the batteries Some of the air is used to inflate landscape

Waves surge Waves heave Pump and generator

Pump and generator

Tower faces the wind and protect the rest of the structure Ocean pressure forces water into the tank, driving a hydroelectric turbine

Generated energy drives a pump to push air into the underwater baloons

Ocean floor

PROVIDING WATER, BRINE AND HEAT

Ocean floor

CULTIVATING HEALTH Agrimony - mental torture behind a cheerful face Centaury - the inability to say 'no' Cerato - lack of trust in one's own decisions Chestnut Bud - failure to learn from mistakes Chicory - selfish, possessive love Clematis - dreaming of the future without working in the present Elm - overwhelmed by responsibility Gentian - discouragement after a setback Gorse - hopelessness and despair Heather - self-centredness and self-concern HollyHolly - hatred, envy and jealousy Honeysuckle - living in the past Hornbeam - tiredness at the thought of doing something Impatiens - impatience Mimulus - fear of known things Mustard - deep gloom for no reason Olive - exhaustion following mental or physical effort Rock Rose - terror and fright Rock Water - self-denial, rigidity and self-repression Scleranthus - inability to choose between alternatives Star of Bethlehem - shock Vervain - over-enthusiasm Vine - dominance and inflexibility Water Violet - quiet self-reliance leading to isolation Wild Oat - uncertainty over one's direction in life Wild Rose - drifting, resignation, apathy


CROWN DEPENDENCY OF NHS 3. BUILDING PERFORMANCE 3.1 ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGIES OVERVIEW

PASSIVE SOLAR GAIN

BIOMASS PRODUCTION

WAVE ENERGY GENERATION AND STORAGE

NATURAL VENTILATION AND STACK EFFECT

WIND ENERGY PROPULSION

WATER DESALINATION SYSTEM

WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

REFRIGERATION AND HEAT DISSIPATION SYSTEM

WATER FILTRATION & STORAGE

GENERAL STRATEGIES The project aims to create surroundings that will provide best environment for the elderly and their health. Three main strategies are employed to provide for the floating self-sustaining community: passive, active and reuse. The project harnesses wave energy in order to make electricity for general use, movement, water desalination. It also takes advantage of the environment by freezing water around itself in order to maintain buoyancy. As a passive strategy, solar gain is used to provide good environment for growth of remedy plants as well as stack effect helps drying them. Last, but not least, waste is also utilised to maximise sustainability of the project: garden and human produced waste creates more energy through anaerobic digestion process, heat extracted from desalination and hull freezing processes is used to heat up spaces, leisure pools and gardens, brines and salts are used for pool water and de-humidification of spaces respectively. 37


CROWN DEPENDENCY OF NHS 3. BUILDING PERFORMANCE 3.2 ENVIRONMENT STRATEGY DIAGRAM

Seawater pumping

Desalination by freezing

Ice garden / melting chamber

Water storage

WATER

Ice hull

Heat exchanger

Refrigeration

Battery storage

Organic waste

ENERGY

Spring gardens

WASTE MANAGEMENT

Heated pools

Electricity

Biodigester

Housing

Biogas

Fertilizer

Food preparation

Wave energy

Underwater energy storage

Inflatable landscapes

DOCKING STATION

ENVIRONMENTAL RELATIONSHIPS These diagrams show the relationships and dependencies of different environmental systems on the project. The main energy sources come from wave energy and biodigestion. Interlocking docking station will charge ships batteries every 9th day. As it will produce and store energy through out the year, this should be more than sufficient to provide for the needs of the project. Heat exchange from the refrigeration plants will also provide heat for gardens, pools and housing.

38


CROWN DEPENDENCY OF NHS 3. BUILDING PERFORMANCE 3.3 ICE HULL ENERGY STRATEGY

ENERGY REQUIREMENT CALCULATION

DECK LEVEL

Total ice volume: 806781 m3 Area, through which there will be exchange of heat with water and air = 8250 m2

12m

ZONE 1

ZONE 2

0-25 0C

Melting 1m3 of ice from -400C to 00C would take 2000 hours (1) in water of + 60C and would require 501000kJ of energy /m2 of ice. Q = mc (t2-t1) Q = 4200kJ/1m3/10C * 40 = 168000kJ

ZONE 1

TOTAL = 501000KJ 20m 6-15 0C

The hull would gain 168000kJ/2000h = 85 kJ/h/m2 = 24Wh/m2 Total heat gain: 8250 m2 x 24 =198 kW

50

Using refrigeration with heat exchange coefficient of 4, we can reduce this energy requirement: ZONE 3

-40 0C

198 / 4 = 49.5kW -40 -0 0C

60m

TOTAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION PER YEAR: 49.5 kW * 2,080 h/yr = 102,960 kWh

28m

An average UK household consumes 4648 kWh/year (2)

6 0C

ZONE 4

15.7m

15.7m

REFRIGERATION SYSTEM WOULD CONSUME THE SAME AS X 22 HOUSEHOLDS

25m

INSULATION METHOD COMPARISON

U-VALUE CALCULATIONS

+250C 1

Different zones would have different heat gain and thus need for refrigeration. However, after making calculations, I have established that differences were minor and thus took an average calculation. However, heat transfer between Zone 1 and Deck level needs to be investigated as it will need to be separated by an insulation layer to prevent melting pockets and cold floor. TYPE

K-VALUE ADVANTAGES (W/m.K)

BATT INSULATION (FIBREGLASS)

0,034

Resistance to moisture, non- Environmental issues, flammable irritant

CELLULOSE (PAPER)

0,030

Environment friendly, recycle Risk with moisture and material pests

EXTRUDED POLYSTYRENE

0,029

Moisture resistant, good thermal value

Rigid, does no adhere odd shapes.

Good thermal value, adaptable to odd shapes

Expensive

SPRAY INSULATION 0,023 (POLYURETHANE)

DISADVANTAGES

Spray insulation is chosen due to its high k-value and adaptability to odd monocoque shape.

2

3 4 3

CONDITIONS TEMP -40 C Internal 25 6 External -40 STRUCTURE Layer Thikness (mm) Conductivity (W/mK) R-value (m2/W) Inside surface - - 0.14 1. Wood floor 20 0.14 0.14 2. Airgap 150 0.15 1.00 3. Steel 10 50 0.00 4. Airgap/steel frame 60 0.23 0.26 4. Steel 10 50 0.00 5. Polyurethane insulation 400 0.024 16.67 Outside surface - 0.04 TOTAL 18.3 U-VALUE 0.05 5

0

The lower the value, the more effective is construction. This is well below the value of 0.20m2/W set in building regulations for floors

DELUSION OF THE ICE HULL One of the delusional aspects of the project is creating the hull of ice and maintaining it as it is a not a conventionally accepted method of building floating buildings . However, yearly energy requirements to maintain the ice hull at this scale are relatively low that this method of construction could be economically feasible. 1. https://scratch.mit.edu/projects/23396397/ 2. http://shrinkthatfootprint.com/average-household-electricity-consumption

39


CROWN DEPENDENCY OF NHS 3. BUILDING PERFORMANCE 3.4 WAVE ENERGY GENERATION

1

Docking station

2

Wave energy generators

3

Anchoring to seabed

4

Air storage balloons

5

Inflatable landscape 1

5

CorPower Ocean energy generating buoy stationed offshore can generate about 250 kilowatts of powerâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; enough to cover the electricity needs of 200 homes

2

3

1

2 4

Potential wave energy zones in British waters.

1. Air pump/ generator 2.Wave actuator

Docking station 366 days a year

Docking station on arrival

Charging of the batteries Some of the air is used to inflate landscape

Waves surge Waves heave Pump and generator

Pump and generator

Ocean pressure forces water into the tank, driving a hydroelectric turbine

Generated energy drives a pump to push air into the underwater baloons

Ocean floor

Seamus Seabag airstorage units in testing.

Ocean floor

Atmosfields (1970) by Graham Stevens, St Katherineâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Docks, London

CONCLUSION Using the buoy wave generators combined with the docking stations, it will be possible to provide enough energy for the project. Through out the year, the buoy generators will generate and store energy by filling underwater balloons with air. On the arrival day, the air will be released due to water pressure, running the turbine and feeding electricity to the ship. Excess air will be used to inflate landscapes around the docking station, creating social events.

40


CROWN DEPENDENCY OF NHS 3. BUILDING PERFORMANCE 3.5 GARDENS

1

Vermiculite/compost growth medium

2

Drainage, aeration, water storage and root barrier, heating elements.

1 2 3 4 5

3

Insulation

4

Roofing membrane

5

CLT substructure

MATERIAL

KG/m3 DRY

KG/m3 WET

WATER VERMICULITE PERLITE SPHAGNUM PEAT GROUND BARK COMPOST EXPANDED CLAY LOAM SAND

3 3.25 4.8 8.5 16 20 40 25

30 12 16 35 27 41 27 60 36

1

Greenhouse with raised beds

2

Green roof

3

Wheelchair accessible path

ROOF BUILD UP MATERIALS JAN 20

C

DE

FEB

18

200

16

1

NO V

14 12

R MA

10 8 6

150 OCT

4

APR

3 2

SE

P

100 MA Y

DAYS WITH RAIN AVERAGE TEMPERATURE (0C)

AU G

JU

N

50

JUL JAN

DE

200

SUNSHINE (hours)

16 14

NO V

J F M A M J J A S O N D

FEB

18

R

SPRING AVERAGE WEATHER 10 days of rain 10oC 50mm of rain 160 hours of sunshine

8 6 4

OCT

150

MA

Gardens

12 10

SE

P

100

APR

Greenhouses

MA Y

Flower drying and storage

AVERAGE TEMPERATURE (0C)

JUL

RAINFALL (mm)

VERVAIN

KEY GARDENING STRATEGIES:

TULIP

STAR OF BETHLEHEM

SCLERANTHUS

MUSTARD

SUNSHINE (hours)

MIMULUS

IMPATIENS

HORNBEAM

HONEYSUCKLE

J F M A M J J A S O N D

HEATHER

GENTIAN

DAFFODIL

CLEMATIS

CHICORY

CROCUS

0

GORSE

GARDENS PLAN

CERATO

AU G

50

N

Anaerobic digester: fertilizer and waste

AGRIMONY

DAYS WITH RAIN

JU

0

20

C

RAINFALL (mm)

Raised away from sea surface Alternating greenhouses and open gardens Rainwater collection in drainage layer. Solar radiation

JANUARY FEBRUARY

Excess heat from housing and refrigeration heats up soil in he cold months in order to provide constant spring conditions.

MARCH APRIL MAY JUNE JULY

Green roof insulation

AUGUST SEPTEMBER OCTOBER NOVEMBER DECEMBER

+250C

Planting

Growing

Flowering

Forced flowering

FLOWERS GROWING CALENDAR Based on Dr. Bachs remedies and climatic data, flowers were chosen for the roof top gardens. One particular flower - daffodil - is important to note as it can be forced to blossom year round by planting it in different times and providing favourable spring conditions: temperature, sunlight and water levels.

41


BIOFERTILIZER

Biofertiliser used in gardening, improving crop yields and replacing petro-chemical fertilisers

CROWN DEPENDENCY OF NHS 3. BUILDING PERFORMANCE 3.6 WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY

WASTE MANAGEMENT MAP

ANAEROBIC DIGESTER

High-pressure valve WASTE FROM THE GARDENS, HOUSING AND KITCHENS IS TREATED

Mixer motor

Biogas

FERTILIZER, ELECTRICITY AND HEAT RETURNED

Effluent gas Effluent substrate Substrate inflow Fluid zone Container wall: Inner steel wall Mineral wool insulation Brass gilded steel covering Sludge zone Mixing zone Ground sludge pipe Ground injection pipe

WASTE MANAGEMENT OVERVIEW

Heat fed into gardens for year-round crops production

HEAT CHP ENGINE

ELECTRICITY

Electricity used locally

BIOGAS

WASTE

DIGESTERS

PASTEURISATION

DIGESTATE TREATMENT

Digesters are located in the same section as engines and batteries as well as with good access to gardens, kitchens and housing.

Biofertiliser used in gardening, improving crop yields and replacing petro-chemical fertilisers

BIOFERTILIZER

CONCLUSION As the project is detached from land, it will need a waste management strategy. One of the key methods for this is utilisation of anaerobic digestion process which turns organic waste into biogas, heat and fertiliser. A double closed loop process can be created to use CHP engine to turn biogas into electricity and heat as well as using fertilizer to increase growth in the gardens.

42


CROWN DEPENDENCY OF NHS 3. BUILDING PERFORMANCE 3.7 WATER DESALINATION

1

Sea water pumps/ fountains

2

Desalination chambers

3

Ice garden

4

Water storage tanks

Ice is formed into sculptures and slowly melts, filling up the water storage tanks

Seawater is pumped into desalination tanks where it is frozen and ice of fresh water is separated from the brine

2

1

3

4

Brine and heat from the desalination process is used to heat up spaces of the building as well as water pools.

DESALINATION PROCESS DIAGRAM (2) DAILY FRESH WATER CONSUMPTION PER PERSON

1. FILL. Raw water to be purified fills the freeze engine. A cooling coil is located on the upper surface.

35.2

TEA AND DRINKING

5

Sea water 35.3

COOKING

5

BATHING

20

33 32

35.1 35.4

SPAS

35

30*

ice 34.8

WASHING UP

10

TOILET FLUSHING

55

WASHING UP

30

GARDEN WATERING

10

TOTAL/PERSON/DAY

135L

TOTAL (400 PEOPLE)/DAY

54000 L

*USES BRINE

30L

2. FREEZE. Cold refrigerant flows through the cooling coil on the upper surface to form a layer of ice crystal. The impurities are concentrated in the unfrozen water and the ice crystal is purified.

34

34.6 34.4

3. DRAIN. After the layer of ice crystal has reached the optimal thickness, the refrigerant flow is stopped and unfrozen water is drained from the freezing chamber (along with the impurities).

Brine

35.5

35.6

MEASURED IN 2 ppt 1 ppt 0.1-0.5ppt

Purified ice

WATER SALINITY IN BRITISH WATERS PARTS PER THOUSAND(ppt)(1) Salinity of water used for Agriculture irrigation Drinking water (max.) Drinking water (recommended)

4. MELT. The layer of ice crystal falls onto the lower surface. Process is repeated 4 times in order to completely desalinate the water.

WATER PRODUCTION Project is detached from any fresh water supply and therefore must produce its own. There is however and abundance of sea water that can be desalinated and used as fresh water. A freeze desalination method is used which can produce ice of fresh water that can be used to create a garden of ice in stead of using mechanical melting processes. Waste products of brine and excess heat can be used in the spa pools. 1. http://www.deutschesklimaportal.de/SharedDocs/Kurzmeldungen/DE/KLIWAS/2013/KLIWAS_Nordsee_Klimatologie.html 2. http://www.wmconlon.com/wp-content/uploads/papers/IATC92.pdf

43


CROWN DEPENDENCY OF NHS 3. BUILDING PERFORMANCE 3.8 FLOWER DRYING TOWER ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGIES

DRYING OF HERBS One of the methods the project provides healthcare is using placebo affect of Dr. Bachâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s remedy flowers. The flowers produced in the gardens are dried and stored inside the tower of the project. They can later be placed into water and left in the sun for 2-4 hours to make sun tea or brewed as regular tea. Strategies to provide dry, warm well ventilated space are defined through use of stack effect, natural salt de-humidifiers, solar heat moderation through adjustable facade and phasechange thermal storage materials. 1. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1876610217326474

44


CROWN DEPENDENCY OF NHS

4. ENTREPRENEURIAL PRINCIPLES


NHS CROWN DEPENDENCY

DIRECTOR Leader of the Conservative party

THERESA MAY

WRITERS Narrative Manifesto Script designer

CERVANTES CONSERVATIVE PARTY 2017 VILIUS VIZGAUDIS

EXECUTIVE PRODUCERS brexit housing finances immigration health and social care

DAVID DAVIS SAJID JAVID PHILIP HAMMOND BORIS JOHNSON JEREMY HUNT

CAST 540 Inhabitants

4 gps 50 nurses 50 care workers 15 pool workers 1 head chef 1 head gardener 14 restaurant staff 16 lifeguards 30 sailing crew

ELDERLY AGED 65 AND ABOVE FOREIGN WORKERS

MICHELIN STAR CHEFF

PRODUCERS steel

WAKERWELD ENG. GROUP

Walkerweld Engineering Ltd

monocoque hull

clt

glazing

BAE SYSTEMS KHL

PILKINGTON GLASS

FINANCIAL SUPPORT £350 million a week Rethought use of £13.4 billion a year Yearly budget increase by 8 billion

BREXIT FOREIGN AID FUND NHS

SPECIAL THANK YOU All the elderly that will let their homes be downsized in order to move to the NHS Crown dependency vessel, releasing up to 2.5 million homes in the UK, worth £802 billion. All the foreign workers that work and support National Health Services.


CROWN DEPENDENCY OF NHS

BRIEF INTRODUCTION OF DELUSIONAL VENTURE

4. ENTREPRENEURIALISM & DELIVERY

The delusion of The Conservative Party’s manifesto is taken as a benchmark for measuring success of the project. As an entrepreneurial venture, the project is measured through its ability to provide housing and reduce immigration. By fulfilling these promises, the party will ensure themselves a win in the next election in May 2022. Therefore time is of the essence and the project is planned according to the election schedule. NUMBER OF PEOPLE IN THE UK, AGED 65 AND ABOVE, RECEIVING HOME RELATED CARE SERVICES,2014

400000

300000

59,300

200000

100000

0 Residential Care

Home care

TYPE OF HOUSING SCHEME

The project tackles the largest support group of the elderly - ones in need for Residential Care. Residential homes provide living accommodation, which includes an en-suite room, meals and help with personal care, such as washing, dressing and going to the toilet. Staff will give care during normal short illnesses, but do not provide nursing care. The project will also employ a number of qualified nurses so it is suitable for people who also require regular medical care. By providing good care, elderly homeowners can get an incentive to move.

371,770

421,100

500000

4.1 PROVISION OF HOUSING

Day care

Short term residential - not respite

PERCENTAGE OF EACH AGE GROUP THAT ARE HOME OWNERS, UK

Usual costs of care and nursing homes in UK: Living at home with full-time care during the day up to £30,000 PER YEAR Live-in carer up to £150,000 PER YEAR. Care home: £28,500 PER YEAR. Nursing home: £37,500 PER YEAR. (1)

RELEASING HOUSING ASSETS

The project aims to tackle housing crisis by addressing barriers to supply, rather than simply addressing demand. It will provide incentive to the older generation homeowners to leave their homes and embark on a permanent cruise around the Great Britain, where they can enjoy their retirement in the grandeur : living in home built like a castle with surroundings to provide the best healthy sunset years, all paid by selling their old homes. According to the statistics, large proportion of housing assets in the UK market are tied with people aged 65 and above while younger generations are struggling to buy homes. Out of 11,800,000.0 (18%, 2016) of UK’s 65,648,054 are aged 65 and above. Given that about 75% of these are homeowners it gives 8,862,487 households. Almost a third of these elderly homeowners are considering downsizing which is could potential release 2.6 million homes worth combined £802 BN (3) (AVERAGE HOUSE PRICE IN UK: £308,461) If renting, this amount could cover up to 10 years of care home expenses - more than averge life expectency in Care home (2years)

WE WILL MEET OUR 2015 COMMITMENT TO DELIVER A MILLION HOMES BY THE END OF 2020 AND WE WILL DELIVER HALF A MILLION MORE BY THE END OF 2022 THE VALUE OF AN ELDERLY PERSON’S PROPERTY WILL NOW BE INCLUDED IN THE MEANS TEST FOR CARE IN THEIR OWN HOME, MEANING MORE PEOPLE WILL BE LIABLE TO CONTRIBUTE TO THE COST OF BEING LOOKED AFTER. (4)

HERE’S HOW:

3 SOLD HOME FOR SALE

HOME FOR SALE 1

HOMEOWNERS AGED 65 AND ABOVE, LIVING IN OVERSIZED HOMES, LOOKING TO RETIRE, PUT THEIR HOMES ON THE MARKET.

1

SELLING PROVIDES INCOME FOR THE REST OF THEIR LIVES AND, ATTRACTED BY THE NOTION OF LIVING ON A PERMANENT CRUISE CASTLE, THE ELDERLY MOVE OUT. ON AVERAGE, THE ELDERLY WOULD EARN £308,000 PER HOUSE.

1

2

THE OVERSIZED HOUSES ARE DOWNSIZED, PROVIDING PLACE FOR UP TO 3 HOUSEHOLDS. UP TO 2.5MILLION HOMES ARE RELEASED TO THE MARKET.

2

3

YOUNG FAMILIES/INDIVIDUALS WILL BE ABLE TO AFFORD SMALLER HOMES. ALSO, INCREASED SUPPLY WILL REDUCE PRICES EVEN FURTHER.

460 km

ELDERLY MOVE IN INTO THEIR NEW HOME THAT WILL PROVIDE EVERYTHING THEY WOULD EVER NEED. THE ELDERLY COULD EXPECT TO LIVE THERE FOR UP TO 10 YEARS FOR THE MONEY THEY GOT FOR THEIR HOUSE. AS ONE HOUSING UNIT ON THE VESSEL EQUALS 3 LEFT IN THE MAINLAND THIS COULD POTENTIALLY RELEASE UP TO 1080 HOMES IN THE MAINLAND.

THE PROJECT’S DELUSIONAL GOOD INTENTIONS DOES NOT COME NEAR THE NEEDED NUMBERS FOR THE GOVERNMENT, BUT PROVIDES A CASE STUDY THAT COULD BE MULTIPLIED. TO MEET THE DEMAND OF 1.5MILLION HOMES, AN ARMADA OF 1390 WOULD BE NEEDED. IN TURN THESE COULD POTENTIALLY HOUSE MOST OF THE ELDERLY CURRENTLY IN NEED OF RESIDENTIAL CARE.

THE DELUSIONAL PROPOSAL WOULD STRETCH FOR 460 KM - THE SAME AS THE DISTANCE FROM LONDON TO NEWCASTLE.

How does project measure its success and feasibility? Increasing housing crisis for the young and pressure on elderly care are two issues that can be exploited. Aging population has difficulties to maintain their large houses while the young generation cannot afford theirs. By providing alternatives for the elderly to move to, their homes can be downsized and provide housing for many. All the while the elderly can enjoy their hard earned fortunes in the sunset years of their lives. Average housing price on the project is lower than than that of UK’s prices and thus would be greatly affordable for the elderly. In addition, average life expectancy in care homes is only 2 years,costing around £60,000 - £150,000 thus making it cheaper than the average earning for selling their house. 1. https://www.unforgettable.org/blog/comparing-the-cost-of-care-at-home-sheltered-housing-and-care-homes/ 2. http://landregistry.data.gov.uk/app/ukhpi 3. https://www.theguardian.com/money/2015/sep/23/downsizing-could-free-up-25m-homes 4. https://www.conservatives.com/manifesto, pg 70-71

45


CROWN DEPENDENCY OF NHS 4. ENTREPRENEURIALISM & DELIVERY 4.2 DECREASING IMMIGRATION

TOP 10 NON-UK NATIONALITIES INDIA 18,424

NIGERIA 7,492 Doctors

1,189,028

4,911

940,735

UK

8,094 Nurses, Midwives, Health visitors

4,473

5,085 Nurses, Midwives, Health visitors

3,035

2,103 Clinical staff support

2,914

IRELAND 12,613 TOTAL NON-UK

248,293

700

3,182 Nurses, Midwives, Health visitors

2,341

1,296 Nurses, Midwives, Health visitors

One of project’s success criteria is providing good healthcare for the elderly as they are the group that is mostly dependent on the services - 40% of NHS’ yearly budget of £116.4 billion is spent on people over 65. Staff is the key to ensure high quality of services.

GERMANY 937 Doctors

NHS is highly dependent on immigration and foreign workforce. Up to 10% of staff in health sector are non-Britons. Thus, for maintaining and improving healthcare services it is vital to keep this workforce and even attract more.

PORTUGAL

POLAND 5,507

2,878

ZIMBABWE

PHILIPPINES 12,744

NHS AND IMMIGRATION

SPAIN

1,759 Clinical staff support

1,482 Nurses, Midwives, Health visitors

PAKISTAN 1,971 Doctors

IMMIGRATION

THOUSANDS

BREXIT

600

600,000

500

Another criteria to judge success of the project is its ability to provide an alternative way to reduce immigration.

EU Citizens 230,000

Net migration in 2016 was 225,000 while the government promised to reduce it to tens of thousands. The challenge then arises to reduce immigration without compromising NHS services.

400 375,000

300

225,000

Non-EU Citizens 224,000

200 100 2016

2015

2014

2013

2012

2011

2010

2009

2008

2007

0

British Citizens 73,000 0

Migration 2007 - 2017 (2)

50

100

150

200

Immigration by citizenship, 2017 (2)

250

At the same time, Brexit and the settlement of ensuring EU citizens rights is one of the hottest topic in the negotiations. The project could be a place where these rights would be guaranteed indefinitely in exchange for a good deal to stay connected to the single European market and Customs Union.

IT IS OUR OBJECTIVE TO REDUCE IMMIGRATION TO SUSTAINABLE LEVELS, BY WHICH WE MEAN ANNUAL NET MIGRATION IN THE TENS OF THOUSANDS, RATHER THAN THE HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS WE HAVE SEEN OVER THE LAST TWO DECADES. (1)

Redirecting immigration to the moving NHS Crown dependency vessels

Restricting immigration Encouraging emigration

IMMIGRATION PREVENTION

Encouraging foreign worker already in the country and planning to emigrate to take up jobs on the NHS island

IMMIGRATION REDIRECTION

SCENARIO 1. CURRENT GOVERNMENT POLICY

SCENARIO 2. DELUSION OF THE PROJECT

This scenario is current government politics to prevent immigration and at the same time make it more difficult for foreign workers/students to stay in the country by increasing earnings thresholds for sponsors of immigrant workers as well as stricter visa rules.

This scenario is the delusion of the project. It proposes that by establishing floating Crown dependency legal entity, which is exempt of immigration statistics and where immigrants could be redirected. The project would therefore provide a place of employment for foreign workforce, while supporting NHS services of the mainland.

Single vessel provides 120 living units. 60 singles and 60 doubles, totalling in 180 workers. Again as with housing, the project is of delusional wishful thinking as these numbers are nowhere near the realities of immigration statistics. But so are the governments promises. A proposed armada of 1390 these vessels could provide 252,000 workplaces, accommodating current NHS foreign staff and allowing for future increase.

1. https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/2017-manifestos/Conservative+Manifesto+2017.pdf, pg 54 2. https://www.ons.gov.uk/surveys/informationforhouseholdsandindividuals/householdandindividualsurveys/internationalpassengersurveyips

46


CROWN DEPENDENCY OF NHS 4. ENTREPRENEURIALISM & DELIVERY 4.3 CONTRACTS

MAIN CLIENT

UK government

National Health Services Theresa May

Criteria

C2 COST

2

3

4

5

C1 Lowest possible capital expenditure

C1

COST

C3

Priority (0 lovwest - 5 highest scale) 1

C2 Certainty over contract price, no fluctuation

COST

C3 Best value for money overall

1

2

3

4

Q2

5

T3

T2 Certainty over contract duration T3 Shortest possible contract period

contract form chosen: MANAGEMENT CONTRACT

Q2 QUALITY

QU ALI T

E TIM

T2

Q1

QUALITY

TIME

T1 Earliest possible start on site

Y

0

TIME

T1

Q1 Top quality, minimum maintenance

The diagram above shows the three important measures of a building contract. TIME and COST are particularly important to the retirement island. Time is of the essence due to upcoming elections.

C2 Sensitive design, control by employer C3 Detailed design not critical, leave to contractor

PROJECT CLIENT - UK CONSERVATIVE PARTY: Theresa May MP Prime Minister, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service David Davis MP Sajid Javid MP Secretary of State for Exiting the Secretary of State for Housing, European Union Communities and Local Government

Philip Hammond MP Chancellor of the Exchequer

Boris Johnson MP Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs

Jeremy Hunt MP Secretary of State for Health and Social Care

CLIENT REPRESENTATIVE

Management and coordination team

PROJECT MANAGER

BIM MODEL MANAGEMENT AGENT

QUANTITY SURVEYOR

Main design team

ARCHITECT

Construction team

STRUCTURAL ENGINEER

MEP ENGINEER

ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEER

CONTRACTOR A

CONTRACTOR B

LANDSCAPE ARCHITECT

PLANNING ADVISOR

NAVAL ENGINEER

SUBCONTRACTOR A

SUBCONTRACTOR A

THE PROJECT TEAM Diagram above shows contractual relationships between the client, management, design and construction teams.

information flow contractual liability

47


CROWN DEPENDENCY OF NHS 4. ENTREPRENEURIALISM & DELIVERY 4.4 COSTING

THE HULL

GP OFFICE

TYPE: Factories - heavy industrial/specialist construction

TYPE: Health centres

13785 m2 x £1800 = £24,813,000

1272m2 x £1550 =

ELDERLY HOUSING

TEA CUP SPAS

TYPE: Nursing homes 29720 m x £1250 2

TYPE: swimming pools - fun = £37,150,000 £37,150,000

1960 m2 x £2200

DESALINATION PLANTS

=

£4,312,000

KITCHENS

TYPE: Light industrial 432m2 x £650 =

£1,971,600

TYPE: restaurants £280,000

2850M2 X £1450 =

£4,132,500

GARDENS

DOCKING STATIONS

TYPE: agricultural

TYPE: Light industrial - Community centres

3396 m2 x £500

REFERENCE

= £1,697,000

43 X 500 m2 x £1250

= £26,875,000

TOTAL CONSTRUCTION PRICE: NOTES: 24,813,000 1,971,600 37,150,000 4,312,000 280,000 4,132,500 1,697,000 26,875,000

£ 101,238,900 X 2 =

£ 209,058,328

Due to complexity of design, construction as well as required prototyping , the total price for the project is doubled. However, as the project would entail an entire armada, the price for consequent vessels would decrease.

48


CROWN DEPENDENCY OF NHS 4. ENTREPRENEURIALISM & DELIVERY 4.5 ARCHITECT’S FEES

ARCHITECTS FEE CALCULATION

13

Table below indicates relative percentage rates for providing architectural services. The graph consists of five curves, each representing different building class. NHS crown dependency falls under Class 4 as it is housing project for the elderly with leisure pools.

12 11 10 9 8 7

CLASS 5 Contract value: £ 101,238,900* 4

6

3 2

5

1

4 10

100

1000

10000

100000

Due to the size of the project the actual architect’s fee would be closer to 2%, based on the size of design team to produce work within the given time-limit.

COST OF WORKS (£000’S)

BUILDING CLASSIFICATION ARCHITECT’S FEE DEVELOPMENT TOTAL COST

CLASS 4 2.5% £ 101,238,900 (£238,923,804*)

ESTIMATE OF PROFESSIONAL FEES Architect 3% Structures Engineer 2% Services Engineer 2% Planning Supervisor 1% Quantity Surveyor 3%

£2,530,973.00 £2,024,778.00 £2,024,778.00 £1,012,389.00 £3,037,167.00

TOTAL £10,623,900 ESTIMATE TOTAL BUILD COST (CONSTRUCTION AND FEES)

£111,862,800 (£222,725,600*)

ARCHITECTURAL FEE BREAKDOWN (RIBA STAGES 2013) Stage 1 Feasibility 20% £404,955.60 Planning Submission 10% £202,477,80 Stage 2 Details 25% £506,194.50 Stage 3 Production Information 30% £607,433.40 Stage 4 Tender returns and site contract administration 15% £303716.70 TOTAL £2,530,973.00 ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN TEAM EXPENSES DURING DESIGN (47 WEEKS) Role Hour rate Hours dedicated Part 1 assistant £ 20.00 40 Part 1 assistant £ 20.00 40 Part 2 assistant £ 50.00 40 Part 2 assistant £ 50.00 40 Part 2 assistant £ 50.00 40 Architect £ 95.00 20 Senior architect £ 140.00 10 Specialist consultant t/ naval architect £ 180.00 30 Director £ 180.00 5 TOTAL PAY/WEEK TOTAL EXPENSE / 47 WEEKS ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN TEAM EXPENSES UNDER CONSTRUCTION (141 WEEKS) Hours dedicated Role Hour rate 40 Part 2 assistant £ 50.00 20 Architect £ 95.00 10 Senior architect £ 140.00 10 Specialist consultant / naval architect £ 180.00 2 Director £ 180.00 TOTAL PAY/WEEK TOTAL EXPENSE/141 WEEKS CONTRACT VALUE ESTIMATE = ARCHITECT’S FEE @ 2% =

£115,918,540.00 £2,530,97.00

Week £800.00 £800.00 £2,000.00 £2,000.00 £2,000.00 £1,900.00 £1,400.00 £5,400.00 £900.00 £17,200.00 £808,400/ Week £2,000.00 £1,900.00 £1,400.00 £1,800.00 £360 £7,460.00* £1,051,860 TOTAL £1,860,260.00

TOTAL EXPENSE: 1,860,260.00 TOTAL EARNINGS: 670,713.00

Architect’s fees are 2.5% total project price. Due to novel construction method, a contingency for prototyping is taken into account in a form of increased total price of the project. Also, due to necessary large scale testing, higher percentage of the fees is placed into starting stages of the project. Since repetition of the project will occur in order to provide a fleet of elderly housing vessels of identical design, a licence fee will be agreed to be paid out to the architect for the use of the work. Improvements and further developments in the future will be agreed on a separate contract. *this sum is doubled due to prototyping to £ 209,058,328. However, architect’s fees are calculated accordm

49


CROWN DEPENDENCY OF NHS 4. ENTREPRENEURIALISM & DELIVERY 4.6 TIME SCHEDULE

2019

CONSTRUCTION PROGRAMME

J

F

2020

M

A

M

J

J

A

S

O

N

D

J

F

M

2021 A

M

J

J

A

S

O

N

D

J

F

M

2022 A

M

J

J

A

S

O

N

D

J

F

M

A

M

J

J

A

S

O

N

D

DESIGN AND APPROVAL Funding approval Team Assembly Development and Technical Design Pre-Planning Consultation Planning Application process Preconstruction Information PRE-CONSTRUCTION Set Up Site Office Environmental protection Set Up Floating Harbour Construction OFFSITE CONSTRUCTION Prefabrication: Monocoque Prefabrication: Housing Steel Frames Prefabrication: Crown Steel Framework Prefabrication: Dining Hall Steel Trusses Prefabrication: Fibreglass Pools Prefabrication: Greenhouse frames Prefabrication: Anaerobic digesters Prefabrication: Docking Station framing

Start of vessel NO.2

Start of vessel NO.3

Start of vessel NO.4

Start of vessel NO.5

ONSITE CONSTRUCTION Primary structural element: Monocoque assembly Primary structural element: Foundation pile assembly Services : Refrigeration system installment and pipe layout Primary structure: Refrigeration of ice Primary structural element: Steel frame installation Secondary structural element: Housing wall construction Secondary structural element: Drying tower construction Secondary structural element: Crown kitchens installation Secondary structural element: Pools installation Secondary structural element: Ramp gardens construction Green roof construction Greenhouses craned and fixed in place Soil delivery and flower planting Equipment installation Interior furnishings

5 May, 2022 2022 5 MAY,

Removal of Equipment Setting up Docking stations

UK MAY 5TH 2022

TION IAMENT ELEC

GENERAL PARL

e candidate Vote for only on your choice

ss

by putting a cro

in the box next

to

CRATS

LIBERAL DEMO

The construction sequence identifies time lines of completion of different construction and fabrication elements. Gantt chart illustrates how works can be completed in parallel for efficient delivery.

GREEN PARTY

THE LABOUR

PARTY

VATIVE PARTY

THE CONSER

NDENCE PART

GDOM INDEPE

THE UNITED KIN

Y

It also outlines time schedule in relation to general UK election determined by Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011 as it is important to complete the first prototype before the 5th of May 2022 in order for the Conservative Party to win the election.

Projectâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s two primary goals to reduce immigration and provide housing is set into time perspective as it is important for the Conservative government to prove their working module with the first vessel before the next election day on the 5th May, 2022. By that time, first immigrant workers and elderly will move in providing homes in the mainland and reducing immigration. THIS WILL PROVE THAT ALL OF THEIR PROMISES STATED IN THE 2017 MANIFESTO CAN BE MET AND WILL ENSURE WINNING THE NEXT ELECTION AGAIN.

50


CROWN DEPENDENCY OF NHS

5. BIBLIOGRAPHY AND REFERENCES


CROWN DEPENDENCY OF NHS 5.BIBLIOGRAPHY AND REFERENCES

BIBLIOGRAPHY

CHAPTER 1 bbc.co.uk/news/health-41908302, accessed 22.03.2018 bbc.co.uk/news/uk-wales-politics-38981129 , accessed 12.03.2018 conservatives.com/manifesto, accessed 15.03.2018 constructionenquirer.com/2014/05/06/300m-waterloo-station-revamp-coming-out-to-bid/, accessed 02.03.2018 gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/441669/BR_PDF_AD_B2_2013.pdf, accessed 22.03.2018 independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/sheltered-accommodation-elderly-free-up-family-homes-housing-crisis-policy-conservatives-tories-a7564406.html,accessed 12.02.2018 inhabitat.com/gorgeous-green-roofed-high-school-rises-in-france/, accessed 22.01.2018 lifetimehomes.org.uk/data/files/For_Professionals/accessible_revisedlthstandard_final.pdf, accessed 18.03.2018 makeitwood.org/documents/doc-1253-wood--housing--health--humanity-report-2015-04-00-final.pdf, accessed 15.03.2018 medium.com/@realdougwilson/the-beautiful-island-of-san-serriffe-d95adbc5febb, accessed 12.03.2018 Meuser Philipp, Construction and Design Manual. Accessible Architecture. 2012, DOM Publishers, Berlin ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2967707/ 20, accessed 22.03.2018 nhs.uk/news/2012/03march/Pages/nursing-staff-levels-elderly-care.aspx , accessed 22.03.2018 nmrn-portsmouth.org.uk/sites/default/files/Habbakkuk.pdf, accessed 24.03.2018 Oliver Heiss et al., Barrier-Free Design. Principles, Planning, Examples. 2010, Birkhauser, Basel visual.ons.gov.uk/uk-perspectives-2016-housing-and-home-ownership-in-the-uk/, accessed 05.03.2018 politicshome.com/news/uk/foreign-affairs/news/90272/uk-can-now-send-foreign-aid-disaster-hit-british-overseas, accessed 16.03.2018 scielo.br/scielo.php?pid=S1678-58782011000200006&script=sci_arttext&tlng=pt, table 3, accessed 18.03.2018 sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0950061815306759

, accessed 28.03.2018

telegraph.co.uk/pensions-retirement/financial-planning/820000-house-big-nowhere-move/, accessed 03.03.2018 theguardian.com/business/2013/nov/06/bae-closure-portsmouth-shipyard-row, accessed 22.03.2018 theguardian.com/gnmeducationcentre/archive-educational-resource-april-2012, accessed 22.03.2018 theguardian.com/society/2016/feb/01/ageing-britain-two-fifths-nhs-budget-spent-over-65s , accessed 22.03.2018 theguardian.com/society/2016/may/17/doctors-should-prescribe-gardening-for-patients-more-often-says-report, accessed 12.03.2018 theguardian.com/society/2017/may/24/nhs-faces-staggering-increase-in-cost-of-elderly-care-academics-warn-dementia , accessed 12.03.2018 uk.businessinsider.com/china-just-launched-the-worlds-first-electric-cargo-ship-2017-12?r=US&IR=T, accessed 05.03.2018 yougov.co.uk/news/2016/06/27/how-britain-voted/, accessed 03.03.2018

CHAPTER 2 steelforlifebluebook.co.uk/ub/ec3-ukna/buckling-resistance-s355/, accessed 05.04.2018 tatasteelbluebook.com/en-gb/building-codes/eurocode-3/uk-na/structural-hollow-sections/hybox/chs/bending/hybox-355/, accessed 01.04.2018 weatheronline.co.uk/marine/weather?LEVEL=5&MENU=0&MEER=grbr, accessed 01.04.2018

CHAPTER 3 deutschesklimaportal.de/SharedDocs/Kurzmeldungen/DE/KLIWAS/2013/KLIWAS_Nordsee_Klimatologie.html , accessed 05.04.2018 scratch.mit.edu/projects/23396397/, accessed 03.04.2018 shrinkthatfootprint.com/average-household-electricity-consumption, accessed 04.04.2018 wmconlon.com/wp-content/uploads/papers/IATC92.pdf, accessed 06.04.2018 sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1876610217326474, accessed 07.04.2018

CHAPTER 4 conservatives.com/manifesto, pg 70-71, accessed 11.04.2018 landregistry.data.gov.uk/app/ukhpi, accessed 09.04.2018 ons.gov.uk/surveys/informationforhouseholdsandindividuals/householdandindividualsurveys/internationalpassengersurveyips, accessed 13.04.2018 s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/2017-manifestos/Conservative+Manifesto+2017.pdf, pg 54, accessed 12.04.2018 theguardian.com/money/2015/sep/23/downsizing-could-free-up-25m-homes, accessed 10.04.2018 unforgettable.org/blog/comparing-the-cost-of-care-at-home-sheltered-housing-and-care-homes/, accessed 08.04.2018

Profile for Vilius Thorsgaard Frølunde-Vizgaudis

Crown Dependency of NHS. Design Realisation Report 2018  

Document, outlining building form, systems, planning, construction, environmental and entrepreneurial principles of my 4th Year project at T...

Crown Dependency of NHS. Design Realisation Report 2018  

Document, outlining building form, systems, planning, construction, environmental and entrepreneurial principles of my 4th Year project at T...

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