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Evaluation of the Mtukwao Participatory Media Project

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Table of contents Executive summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.0 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.0 Context

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3.0 The project being evaluated. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.0 Methodology of the evaluation.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4.1 Limitations of the evaluation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 5.0 Findings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 5.1 Capacity building and journalistic skills. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 5.2 CMCs, RRGs and theatre groups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 5.3 Community and its leaders.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 5.4 Partner NGOs in communities.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 5.5 Jamii FM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

5.6 Sustainability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

5.6.1 Financial sustainability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 5.6.2 Social sustainability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 5.6.3 Organization, staff and equipment sustainability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 6.0 Conclusions and recommendations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

6.1 General recommendations.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

6.2 Specific recommendations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

7.0 Lessons learnt. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

Abbreviations CMC = Community Media Centre RRG = Rural Radio Group Vikes = Viestintä ja kehitys -säätiö (The Finnish Foundation for Media and Development) TCRA = Tanzania Communications Regulatory Authority

Evaluation of the Mtukwao Participatory Media Project This evaluation covers the Mtukwao Participatory Media Project on its second phase 2013–2015. Published online in March 2016.

AUTHORS

SUPERVISORS

Ally Bakari Bakari Hassan Mariam Joshua Kaija Laurila Irene Mdoe Asia Mohammed Carita Parkkinen Arapha Salum Åsa Skoglund

Terhi Dahlman Zamda George Hanna Laitinen Sophia Ndibalema PHOTOS Kaija Laurila Peik Johansson Terhi Dahlman

Viestintä ja kehitys -säätiö The Finnish Foundation for Media and Development The Mtuwao Participatory Media Project is supported by the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland.


Mohamed Massanga in front of Jamii FM radio station building in Naliendele village.

Executive summary â– The evaluation was made in cooperation between three universities from Finland and Tanzania. The cooperation involved nine students and four lecturers from University of Dar es Salaam School of Journalism and Mass Communication (Tanzania), Humak University of Applied Sciences (Finland) and Stella Maris University College (Tanzania). Students acquired a two days training in Mtwara, Tanzania, to prepare them in the use of participatory methods in data collection. These methods were applied to obtain information from different stakeholders, including the leadership and young journalists of Mtukwao Community Media (later Mtukwao), community journalists and community leaders in the villages. Based on three weeks of field work, this evaluation report was written by the students under the supervision by their teachers. According to the evaluation findings, the Mtukwao Participatory Media Project has been able to build a solid ground for citizen journalism and participatory community media in Mtwara and Lindi regions in southern Tanzania. Mtukwao and Jamii FM are well known by the stakeholders and communities. Local NGOs and community leaders are supportive, and community members are expecting Jamii FM soon to go on air. In some communities, Mtukwao activities and the community journalists were not wholeheartedly embraced, which could be due to the mistrust towards media in general and lack of knowledge on the importance of the media within these communities. After receiving the broadcasting license in January 2015, Mtukwao started to construct the radio transmission tower. During the evaluation, the tower construction was already 3


completed, but power supply and the procurement of the transmission equipment were still expected for the tower to operate. To maintain the results and move on with promoting community media, it is of utmost importance that the technical procurements and constructions are completed and Jamii FM can launch its broadcasting as soon as possible. The radio broadcast is estimated to reach up to one million people in areas with low level of education and where the only media so far are the urban-based commercial radio stations or the national government radio TBC (Tanzania Broadcasting Corporation). Mtukwao reaches several different groups through its key activities supporting participatory community video productions, community radio activities and community theatre. With the support from the project, Mtukwao has organized several trainings and seminars with good results. Mtukwao management has gained capacity to develop their work and produce professional radio programmes. The management trusts that when Jamii FM is finally operating, local businesses and other institutions will advertise through Jamii FM and professionally produced sponsored programmes will be aired as a source of revenue. Some of the observed achievements and benefits for Mtukwao include trained journalists at Jamii FM and well established Community Media Centres and Rural Radio Groups. The trained journalists were motivated and willing to volunteer. Since they come from the existing communities, it is also easier for them to confront community members and raise discussions concerning the issues important to the community. The communities that are so far involved in the project represent of course only a small minority of all communities in the area. The evaluation team provides a number of recommendations that may be useful for the project in the future: • The project should definitely be continued and its activities made sustainable. In the short term, the focus should be on ensuring the financial sustainability of Jamii FM for the radio station to be able to function without external donor funding in the future. • Jamii FM should maintain its special features as a free, independent community media that does not favour any political institution or company. • During the following years, Mtukwao should emphasize more on crosscutting issues, especially on gender issues and people with disabilities. • Jamii FM should invite more women and persons with disabilities to join the programme production. • Mtukwao should continue focusing on themes that are truly coming from the grassroots level, such as health issues, the importance of education, access to clean water, and problems related to poverty.

The project should definitely be continued and its activities made sustainable.

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1.0 Introduction ■ This evaluation covers the Mtukwao Participatory Media Project on its second phase up to the situation of the implementation in August 2015. The evaluation should provide Vikes (Viestintä ja kehitys -säätiö, The Finnish Foundation for Media and Development), Mtukwao Community Media and its stakeholders, the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland and the wider public with sufficient information by assessing the performance of the project and making recommendations for follow-up actions regarding the project, as stated in the project evaluation Terms of Reference. The field phase of the evaluation took place from July 22 to August 14, 2015 in Tanzania. The evaluation was conducted in Mtwara and Lindi regions, especially in Mtwara town and Naliendele village with field visits made to Msangamkuu, Mtama and Ziwani. The evaluation was carried out by nine students from three different universities from Finland and Tanzania. Students formed a multidisciplinary team and represented the following fields: sociology (Stella Maris University College), mass communication (UDSM), NGO work, civic activities and sign language interpreting (Humak). The main evaluation questions were to what extent the objectives of the project have been achieved, how participatory and inclusive the project implementation has been so far, whether it has created a sense of engagement and ownership among its immediate beneficiaries and stakeholders, is the project sustainable, and are the implemented actions reflecting the main objective of the project.

Victoria Mrope editing a radio programme during a live broadcast training at Jamii FM. 5


Traditional dance group performing at Makuya cultural arts festival in Mtwara.


2.0 Context ■ According to the 2012 national census of Tanzania, Mtwara region has a population of 1,270,854 and Lindi region has a population of 864,652. Most of the residents in these regions live in rural areas where they lack access to media. Radio is the most important source of news and information. Televisions are still very rare. The only media reaching the rural villages so far are the urban-based commercial radio stations or the national government radio TBC (Tanzania Broadcasting Corporation). Mtwara and Lindi regions have a literacy rate of 61%, which is clearly lower than the current national average literacy rate 69%. Mtwara region has one of the lowest pass rates in primary school (44%), and the school dropout rate is also high (50%). (Wentworth Africa Foundation: Facts about Tanzania) These are some of the reasons why radio is a good source of information in these areas and why education and empowerment of the people in rural areas in these regions is so important. The Mtukwao Participatory Media Project intends to promote citizen journalism and participatory community media in the Mtwara and Lindi regions in the southern part of Tanzania. Before the establishment of Mtukwao Community Media, people in Mtwara and Lindi regions had no community media. Jamii FM is expected to reach up to one million people in an area stretching over 120 kilometres from the radio station in Naliendele village in Mtwara. Community media can be defined as a media platform that is created and controlled by a community. Maarit Nermes describes features of community media as following: “Common features for the diverse community media are: content production by amateurs, non-profit activities, participation of communities and prioritization of local languages.” (Maarit Nermes: Yhteisömedia. Nomerta Kustannus, 2013). According to the Mtukwao project coordinator Said Swallah, Mtukwao wants to reflect the true features of a community media by following the BIFA principle where the community media is operated by the community, in the community, for the community and about the community. William Lobulu expresses the media environment as following: “The majority of people in Africa live in rural areas and their participation in decision-making is limited because they lack the opportunity and the means to do so or simply because of the ignorance. Community media that are owned and controlled by the community themselves can make a difference.” (William Lobulu: The role of community media in Tanzania. Media Council of Tanzania, 2011)

Jamii FM is expected to reach up to one million people in its area of coverage.

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3.0 The project being evaluated â– The Mtukwao Participatory Media Project was launched in 2010 to support community media activities by Mtukwao Community Media in Mtwara and Lindi regions in Tanzania. The main objective of the project is to raise discussion about issues that are important to the people in rural communities. The community media platform aims to offer people at the grassroots level a possibility to take part in the public debate about issues concerning their livelihoods. Media is expected to be used as a tool for their development and for advancing democracy, human rights and good governance. The focal point of the project has been to promote citizen journalism and participatory community media in Mtwara and Lindi. The key project activities have included supporting participatory community video productions, community radio activities, including the launching of Jamii FM, and community theatre, as well as organizing seminars and capacity building of young community media journalists.

Transmitter and generator building under construction at Jamii FM transmission tower in January 2016.


Members of Mtama CMC in group discussion during the evaluation mission.

Main stakeholders of this project include: Mtukwao Community Media Tanzanian partner organization and facilitator of the Mtukwao Participatory Media Project Vikes Finnish partner organization and coordinator of the Mtukwao Participatory Media Project Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland Main donor Jamii FM young journalists Beneficiaries and the facilitators of the implementation Community journalists at Community Media Centres (CMCs) & Rural Radio Groups (RRGs) Beneficiaries and the link to the final beneficiaries Partner NGOs in communities Civil society groups in the communities and partners helping in facilitation Local leaders Link to the final beneficiaries Community members Final beneficiaries The chain of activities of the project revolves around the above stakeholders who can actively participate in the project up to date.

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4.0 Methodology of the evaluation ■ The data collection in this evaluation involved participatory methods, which provided an active involvement of the stakeholders of the project. Languages used in the data collection were Swahili and English, however Swahili was mostly used because most of the respondents were comfortable with it. The methods used included: Focus group discussions. This method involved an active discussion within the stakeholders group facilitated by the evaluators on issues concerning the project. Opinion mapping. This involved the stakeholders rating an opinion or importance of issue on the scale of either “1 to 10” or “yes and no” by actively forming a line and expressing why they are in that spot. Historical timeline. The respondents formed a line to represent the time of their involvement in the project in comparison to others. Challenge chapattis. This method involved the respondents discussing in their groups the challenges that they are facing regarding to the project and then writing them down in circular shaped papers (chapattis) in different sizes to portray the biggest challenge to the smallest one. Furthermore, they would discuss and arrange the “chapattis” in the order of what they can change to what they had no power in changing as far as the project is concerned. Daily activity clock. The method was used to see what the respondents did on a day to day basis to see how much time the radio work takes in their daily routine and how that would change once Jamii FM is on air. Structure drawing. The method involved the respondents discussing and drawing the connections between the various project stakeholders. Score ranking. The method was used to point out the preferences of the community members (grouped into men, women and youth) on what topics are of importance and should be covered in the upcoming radio programmes. Diagramming. This method was used to point out challenges and present them in a visible manner with those challenges that they can affect and those that they cannot affect on different sides of the diagram. Interview. This method was used when we had few respondents in a certain stakeholder group.

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All the evaluators participated in the field work either all together or in groups. Groups were formed so that each group had a student from each professional field. Selection of the methodology used depended on the number of people present in the stakeholder group. Short notes, voice recordings and videos were also taken. Evaluators visited four villages (Naliendele, Msangamkuu, Mtama and Ziwani) where Jamii FM and Mtukwao are already operating. Village visits were organized by the management of Mtukwao.

4.1 Limitations of the evaluation During the evaluation, the field phase discussions were done in Swahili, while desk and synthesis phases were done in English. Therefore, something might have gone lost in translation. During the field work, the evaluators were lacking the term “community journalist” and it was replaced by using the term “young journalist” to cover both the young journalists operating Jamii FM and the community journalists in the villages. It was known that they are two different categories, but in some of the field work notes both groups might be referred to as one.

The data collection involved participatory methods, which provided an active involvement of the stakeholders of the project. Challenge chapattis were used to discuss the biggest challenges regarding the project and how to solve them.


5.0 Findings ■ In the findings, the evaluators describe the data based on five categories: Capacity building and journalistic skills; CMCs, RRGs and theatre groups; community and its leaders; partner NGOs in communities; and Jamii FM. The data provided is based on the review of important documents at Mtukwao, radio programmes made by the young journalists, observation of the use of equipment by the trained journalists, and interview and discussion sessions with the young journalists, community journalists, partner NGOs in communities, local leaders, community members and Mtukwao management.

5.1 Capacity building and journalistic skills This category discusses the capacity and journalistic skills of the young journalists as well as the management skills of Mtukwao management. There are at the moment 12 trained and active young journalists at Jamii FM in Naliendele, which include ten male and two female. The young journalists have acquired technical skills, such as how to use media equipment, prepare documentaries or how to make live programmes, and journalistic skills, such as how to report, make interviews and how to facilitate and encourage community members to participate in discussions pertaining to their development. The young journalists have been trained and they are able to maintain and practice their skills in the studios. Due to this reason, the journalists are committed to the project and it is convenient for them to work as volunteers. During the visit to Jamii FM, the evaluators listened to two radio programmes, which were produced with Finnish journalist and media trainer Laura Satimus from the Finnish Broadcasting Company (Yle). Laura was training the young journalists in Mtwara for two months in radio journalism and live broadcasting in March and April 2015. The evaluators also observed the practical use of the equipment in the studios. The young journalists also produce community video productions about important topics for rural areas, such as good governance and the government-sponsored agricultural development campaign Kilimo kwanza (Agriculture prioritization). Among the 12 trained journalists in Naliendele, there is one with disabilities. In an interview with the evaluators, the journalist said: “Through Jamii FM, I have learnt computer skills, which has helped improve my journalist skills. I believe that through this project, I can help to change the mindsets of disabled people by encouraging them to follow their dreams.” During the project, Mtukwao management has acquired several skills on media management. According to a project report from July–September 2013 and an interview with Fakihi Mussa, the chairperson of Mtukwao Community Media, the Mtukwao management together with the young journalists have made several visits to other community radio stations in other parts of Tanzania and shared ideas on how to manage a community radio station.

“I believe that through this project, I can help to change the mindsets of disabled people by encouraging them to follow their dreams.” 12


Mzarubu Salum doing a sports news report during a live broadcast training at Jamii FM.


5.2 CMCs, RRGs and theatre groups There are at the moment approximately 30 to 40 community journalists in seven separate communities. Community journalists in the CMCs and RRGs have taken part in a number of trainings. They are however not yet equipped with adequate journalistic and technical skills. Community journalists mentioned some of the skills they have learnt through trainings, such as how to create and prepare a programme and how to use a tape recorder. Because of the long delay in receiving the broadcasting license for Jamii FM and due to a lack of enough equipment in all communities, the community journalists have not been able to practice and maintain their skills as regularly as the young journalists at Jamii FM in Naliendele are. This observation was made through the discussions and interviews with the members of CMCs and RRGs. Community journalists from Mtama explained that because of the lack of equipment, they cannot practice and maintain their skills of using a tape recorder. One of the Mtama community journalists also expressed that they lack skills on how to interview people and how to encourage other community members to participate. 11 community journalists were interviewed during the village visits, including five female and six male. It should be clear however that this is not the total number of community journalists, but rather those present during the evaluation. Throughout the evaluation, the community journalists have felt ownership of the radio and are very committed to work for the radio to reach out to the community. Despite losing some of the community journalists because of frustration caused by the delay in Jamii FM receiving the broadcasting license, those remaining are still committed to do voluntary work for the station. By August 2015, there were four CMCs and seven RRGs in Mtwara and Lindi regions. According to an interview with Mtukwao project coordinator Said Swallah, it was in the project plan of Mtukwao to establish one new CMC annually. Two new CMCs remained to be established in 2015. The establishment of these new CMCs will go hand in hand with selecting new community journalists from that specific area. During the second phase of the project, theatre groups have been mostly active in 2014. Community theatre groups received a one month training, and selected groups were invited to perform at the Participatory Theatre Mini Festival on February 8, 2014, but they have been dormant ever since. An interview with Fakihi Mussa clarified that they are waiting for the radio to be on air, which is at the moment the first and foremost priority, and then they will focus more on activating links with the theatre groups. The evaluators visited Mtama and Ziwani CMCs as well as Msangamkuu RRG. There were some differences between the villages concerning their equipment and general facilities. In Msangamkuu, there is no office where the equipment could be safely stored and thus the RRG members have to borrow the equipment from Jamii FM in Naliendele and then return it after use. In Ziwani, there is a simple editing studio, but based on the observation and interview, it is too small to accommodate many people conveniently. In Ziwani, evaluators saw that the equipment was not in a good condition and they were told that the computer at the CMC was not reliable. In Mtama, the evaluators could see that the office is not very safe, because there was no proper lock on the door. A comparison of the three visited villages shows that Ziwani CMC is the most active. This is because they have been practicing by themselves, making programmes and playing them to the community through loudspeakers. These actions have been supported by community leaders to a large scale.

The community journalists have felt ownership of the radio and are very committed to work for the radio to reach out to the community. 14


Table 1.

Major challenges in the CMCs and RRGs as expressed by the community journalists 5

■ Inadequate transportation ■ Insufficient equipment ■ Negative response from the community ■ Inadequate training ■ No journalist ID cards ■ No allowances ■ Poor office space

4 3 2 1 0

Ziwani

Msangamkuu

Mtama

The data in the chart above was collected from the community journalists by using the challenge chapatti method. The one with the highest score was the biggest challenge. Inadequate transportation was mentioned as a challenge in every village that was visited, especially for the disabled journalists. Another major challenge mentioned in every village was insufficient equipment and lack of enough skills to use them because of inadequate training. In Msangamkuu, members of the community had previously bad experiences with some journalists from local media and therefore they were more suspicious towards the community radio. Community journalists in Mtama wished that they would have proper journalist ID cards, so they could prove their role as community media journalists and make it easier for them to be trusted by the community members. In Mtama, the CMC members also mentioned that the lack of allowances was a challenge as they are facing economic hardship. In two villages, the community journalists complained that their office was too small and not secure.

5.3 Community and its leaders Based on observations made in the four communities visited by the evaluators, the overall attitude towards Jamii FM was positive. In every community, the village leaders as well as community members knew about Jamii FM and its purposes. Some community members had doubts about media in general, and this had negative effects on their attitudes towards Jamii FM as well. According to the interviews, community members had already suggested topics to be discussed at Jamii FM when it starts operating. Community members also believe that they can be reached and will be heard and that they will have a possibility to participate and have an influence. In Ziwani, community leaders actively encourage people to participate in the media. Community members in Ziwani and Mtama were pleased with the project and explained that they wished for their own children to participate in the Mtukwao project. Local leaders in Ziwani explained that through the Mtukwao project, cooperation between them and the community members has increased to a point where good governance was attained. In Mtama, where most of the community members were still unaware of the project, the newly elected village leaders said that they will introduce the project to the community once the radio is on air and also assist in pitching in programmes to be heard on the radio. In Msangamkuu, one community member said that some people in the village had bad experiences with journalists during the gas riots in Mtwara in 2013. Most community members also do not understand media and the role it could play to support their livelihoods. Such experiences might affect Jamii FM once it is on air, because the society might not participate fully. 15


5.4 Partner NGOs in communities CMCs and RRGs have been established in the villages in partnership with local communitybased groups, such as MACUTO (Ziwani), FEM (Mtama) and SAJAKU (Msangamkuu). Members of FEM and SAJAKU told that they have the same interests to work for the community as Mtukwao. These interests include health education, good governance, environmental education, women empowerment and entrepreneurship programmes, aid for people with disabilities, sports education and the wish to have a daycare centre. One of the expectations for SAJAKU is that when Jamii FM is on air, they are able to use the local language to reach more people and get them to participate and understand important issues happening in their community. All the community-based groups are in good cooperation with Mtukwao, and they trust Mtukwao leaders. There is also good communication between Mtukwao and the NGOs in the communities, so the information from Mtukwao reaches all the stakeholders. The visit by Radio Valo delegation from Finland in 2014 inspired the NGOs to encourage also people with disabilities to get involved in the project. From the three community-based groups, MACUTO in Ziwani seemed to be more financially orientated than FEM or SAJAKU, who wanted the partnership to benefit and solve problems in the community, while MACUTO was more keen on promoting tourism, economic development and advertisement through Jamii FM.

5.5 Jamii FM It took several years for Mtukwao to receive the broadcasting license for Jamii FM due to the very bureaucratic process by Tanzania Communications Regulatory Authority (TCRA). This delay has had the most negative impact for the entire project not only because of frustration among the journalists and community members, but it has also threatened the budget and might threaten the sustainability of the project. However, in January 2015, Jamii FM received a one year trial license and a construction permit to complete equipment procurements and the construction of power supply to the transmission tower and to launch trial broadcasts. Successful broadcasting within the year will then grant them a permanent broadcasting license. The construction of the transmission tower was finalized by July 2015 with only electricity and the transmission equipment yet to be installed.

5.6 Sustainability In this passage, the findings are based on discussions and interviews with Mtukwao management, Vikes project coordinator, village leaders, partner NGOs, young journalists, community journalists at CMCs and RRGs, and community members, as well as observations by the evaluators during the field visits, and annual and quarterly project reports. 5.6.1 FINANCIAL SUSTAINABILITY Planned sources of income to operate Jamii FM include payments from renting antenna space at the transmission tower, sponsored educational programmes and advertisements. The tower is the highest in the area (60 metres), and Mtukwao plans to rent antenna space for local commercial radio stations with a lower price than at the next highest tower, which is owned by a local mobile phone operator. Local businesses will most likely be interested in advertising through Jamii FM. It is also likely that more institutions will be interested when they hear the programmes with good quality. As Fakihi Mussa says, “In the future, we have plans to have very good and attractive programmes, so that other institutions will ask us to make [sponsored] programmes for them.� He also said that they will try to seek for new external funding from institutions and other countries, even though that will not solve the problem of the financial sustainability of Mtukwao itself. 16


Salehe Kaondo and Patricia Nchia editing a radio programme at Jamii FM newsroom.

According to project coordinator Said Swallah, the existing reliable sources of income at the moment include membership fees and additional annual fees from Mtukwao board members. Mtukwao has also done some commission work by preparing video productions for local NGOs and institutions, such as Naliendele Agricultural Research Institute (NARI). Mtukwao is going to hire a professional marketing manager after receiving the permanent broadcasting license to help with the promotion of the radio through planned publicity tactics and other means. By the end of 2015, the project is in a situation where the external funding is going to end at least temporarily due to budget cuts by the new Finnish government and the cancellation of an application round for support to NGO projects in 2016. Certain necessities are still missing, including power supply to the transmission tower, which must be installed before the radio can go on air or antenna space can be hired from the tower. Managing the finances over this gap between the ending of the external funding until the time when Jamii FM will start broadcasting and hopefully attracting income will be challenging. 5.6.2 SOCIAL SUSTAINABILITY As already stated above, local leaders are supporting the project as it will help them to make use of the radio to communicate about important issues concerning the village, such as health issues. Having the young journalists and community journalists making follow-ups on public decision-making will improve transparency and promote good governance and democracy. A local leader in Ziwani said: “It is a radio which includes the voice from our own society. The radio will raise up the voice from those people who have low status and people who haven’t 17


had a possibility to be heard from the mainstream radio stations. It’s an instrument to raise up the village issues outside of the region.” The social sustainability of Jamii FM depends on working together with the communities, and most of the community members seem to be supportive of its actions. Community journalists are largely trusted by the community members as they come from the same communities. Negative response from the community due to ignorance and lack of understanding of the role of media in the society might threaten social sustainability in some communities. A community journalist in Mtama explained: “Community members have negative response, when it comes to cooperating with us. Maybe they don’t trust us enough. Because this is the beginning and we don’t have enough equipment, but later when we really do the work, others can understand and join.” Also, some village leaders might have too much power and influence making it more difficult for community members to truly share their opinions and ideas. Social sustainability of Jamii FM also depends on whether the programme policy will be truly inclusive for all community members, including marginalized groups in the community, such as women, youth, people with disabilities etc. The Mtukwao project has in many ways tried to emphasize the presence and influence of women in the project, as well as people with disabilities. However, it is essential to point out that marginalized groups such as these were not influencing the project actively due to a number of setbacks, one of them being the fact that the radio is not yet broadcasting. One of the local leaders from Mtama explained: “Jamii FM, once on air, will be a proper platform for women and youth to express themselves, and it will also serve as an advertising platform for entrepreneurs in the Mtama village.” Emmanuel Lawrence from Mtukwao also expressed that, “We need to work with female journalists. For instance in the RIPS project [a rural development project supported for years by Finnish government], the group was divided according to gender. For Muslim women, it is easier to talk to other women. We encourage women to come along, but we cannot do anything about their husband’s negative opinion of them working in the media.” It is however important to point out that Mtukwao acknowledges the importance of the participation of women, youth and persons with disabilities in the project despite challenges that were faced. A female young journalist at Jamii FM explained that one woman who was previously active among the young journalists had to quit after she got married. Such incidents negatively influenced the project. Furthermore, it should be noted that the Jamii FM project cannot be very effective without the influence and participation of marginalized groups. So far, measures to involve these groups had been made, as was seen in Msangamkuu, where there were five women among the community journalists. One young journalist with disabilities is also working at Jamii FM. The participation of women and persons with disabilities can be supported by incentives, such as small allowances. 5.6.3 ORGANIZATION, STAFF AND EQUIPMENT SUSTAINABILITY Mtukwao management group consists of Said Swallah (project coordinator, treasurer), Fakihi Mussa (chairperson) and Lawrence Emmanuel (secretary). The organization has 48 registered members in total, including three board members, 12 young journalists and more than 30 registered community journalists. During the interviews, Mr. Swallah and Mr. Mussa gave a high value also for the support group that consists of a lawyer, a businessman, a senior development consultant and a radio consultant with long experience from a community radio station. The purpose of the support group is to give advice and insights to Mtukwao and allow the Mtukwao management to share opinions with these experts. Mtukwao and support group members arrange meetings once or twice a year. In addition, Mtukwao has received advice from Finnish media professionals who have visited Mtwara, conducted media courses and are familiar with the project. 18


At Jamii FM, the young journalists explained that they have specific roles based on their own professional strengths. They had divided roles for themselves, such as a project coordinator, two engineers, one procurement manager, one finance expert and one administrative coordinator. In addition, there were journalists in different fields of specialization, such as sport news, video production and DJ. In addition to the media courses arranged with the young journalists twice a year, they continue to maintain their skills through internal in-house trainings and by independent practice. Essential equipment such as a generator and uninterruptible power supplies were available along with professional studio equipment, which were used and maintained by the young journalists. Some of the equipment received from Finland as donations from Yle will need replacement in the future. To ensure staff sustainability in terms of quality and availability, Mtukwao has developed an upgrading programme, whereby the RRG community reporters are trained to work at CMCs and later on they can advance to work at the main station. Mtukwao has also planned that when Jamii FM goes on air, they would have a three-level staff system, which includes volunteers, part-time and full-time employees.

Social sustainability of Jamii FM depends on whether the programme policy will be truly inclusive for all community members. Group selfie of Jamii FM staff at the end of a live broadcast training with Finnish trainer Markku Liukkonen in January 2016.


6.0 Conclusions and recommendations ■ The main objective of the Mtukwao Participatory Media Project is to raise discussion about issues that are important to the people in rural communities in Mtwara and Lindi regions. Community media aims to offer people in the communities a possibility to take part in the public debate about issues concerning their lives, livelihoods and development. Through the project, people in the communities can have a chance to find the best solutions to the development of their local areas in order to advance democracy, human rights and good governance. The Mtukwao Participatory Media Project has already to some extent raised discussion about important issues in the rural areas, at least among the communities that have been participating in Mtukwao activities. Members of the Rural Radio Groups could name many issues that should be widely discussed in rural communities, and they believed that through the radio, it is possible. The work of Mtukwao leads towards the main objective through giving the voice to the grassroots level, to the people themselves. People who participated in the project are committed, including Jamii FM young journalists, community journalists and Mtukwao management. The ownership of the radio is clearly strong among the young journalists and community members. It remains to be seen during the following years, whether the radio will spread the discussion from community to community and to the local or national decisionmakers. Mtukwao Community Media reflects the true features of a community media organization by its deep involvement of the community. Based on the fieldwork and the findings, the evaluators agreed that to a large extent all the objectives of the project have already been attained. Evaluators have recognized the importance of the project and its ability to develop rural areas by promoting debate on issues concerning the communities by using participatory media.

Table 2.

SWOT analysis about main findings STRENGTHS

WEAKNESSES

• Trained and trainable young journalists

• Not enough equipment in the communities

• Good reputation of Mtukwao and Jamii FM in the communities • Good cooperation with other stakeholders

OPPORTUNITIES

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• Transmission infrastructure still missing (at the time of writing) • Vulnerability of organizational structure • Lack of training for community journalists in the villages

• Wide coverage of the rural areas when Jamii FM goes on air

THREATS

• Professionally produced programmes and documentaries

• Voluntary-based work

• Active community members

• Financial sustainability

• Commitment


6.1 General recommendations • The project should definitely be continued and its activities made sustainable. • In the short term, the focus should be on ensuring the financial sustainability of Jamii FM for the radio to be able to function without external donor funding in the future. • Jamii FM should maintain its special features as a free, independent community media that does not favour any political institution or company. • During the following years, Mtukwao should emphasize more on crosscutting issues, especially on gender issues and people with disabilities. • Jamii FM should actively involve marginalized groups in their programme production, not only by talking, educating or making programmes about these issues, but by inviting women and persons with disabilities to join the programme production. • Mtukwao should continue focusing on themes that are truly coming from the grassroots level, such as health issues, the importance of education, access to clean water, and problems related to poverty.

6.2 Specific recommendations • Bicycles and audio recorders should be bought as soon as possible by making use of the project funds that have been earmarked for those purchases. • CMCs and RRGs should have secure offices to keep the equipment safe. • Training and education should remain one of the main focuses. • Before the launching of Jamii FM, radio programmes should be played through loudspeakers as in Ziwani to make the community members and journalists themselves hear the results of the work they have done. • More regular networking is needed between RRGs, CMCs, Jamii FM and Mtukwao management in order to build the commitment and motivation. • Well performing community journalists could have the possibility to receive allowances and part-time job. • Jamii FM should use the participatory methods such as score ranking when evaluating which programmes should be aired in terms of community priorities. • Journalist ID cards should be arranged as soon as possible in order to ease the work of community journalists.

Based on the fieldwork and the findings, the evaluators agreed that to a large extent all the objectives of the project have already been attained.

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7.0 Lessons learnt â– A multicultural team of at least midterm academic level students can successfully implement a development project evaluation, especially when it is expected to be done by using participatory methods. A multidisciplinary team has the ability to bring different points of views from their own professional fields. The evaluation made by students is an opportunity for NGOs to implement an evaluation with lower costs but still in a wider scale. Community media is a good platform to educate, share information and promote active citizenship in the whole society. The evaluators have seen the importance of community media and its capability to be used as a tool for development. That is why it should be an alternative along with public and commercial media. The project has proved that active involvement of different stakeholders increases the feeling of ownership and effectiveness of their actions.

Community media is a good platform to educate, share information and promote active citizenship in the whole society.

Members of the evaluation team after presenting their preliminary findings at an evaluation seminar in Mtwara in August 2015. 22


Viestintä ja kehitys -säätiö The Finnish Foundation for Media and Development PL 252, 00531 Helsinki, Finland www.vikes.fi

Evaluation of the Mtukwao Participatory Media Project in Tanzania 2016  
Evaluation of the Mtukwao Participatory Media Project in Tanzania 2016  

Based on the evaluation findings, the VIKES Mtukwao Participatory Media Project has been able to build a solid ground for citizen journalism...

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