Fish feed ingredients as growth inhibitor 1
Vikas,2 Munish kumar, 3Gyandeep gupta, 4Shashi bhushan, and 5B. Madhusudhana Rao
National Institute of Abiotic Stress Management, Malegav, Baramati, Pune, Maharashtra 2,3,4,5
Central Institute of Fisheries Education Mumbai 400061
Introduction Anti-nutritional factors are compounds which reduce the nutrient utilization and feed intake of plants or plant products used as animal feeds and they play a vital role in determining the use of plant ingredients for animal (Tadele, 2015). Anti-nutritional factors are a chemical compounds synthesized in natural feedstuffs by the normal metabolism of species and by different mechanisms (inactivation of some nutrients, diminution of the digestive process or metabolic utilization of feed) which effect contrary to optimum nutrition (Soetan and Oyewol, 2009). These antinutrients are also known as â€˜secondary metabolitesâ€™ in plants and they have been shown to be highly biologically active (Shanthakumari et al., 2008). These chemicals which have been evolved by plants for their own defence, other biological functions and preventing optimal exploitation of the nutrients which is present in a feed especially proteins, vitamins, and minerals and decreasing the nutritive value (Ugwu and Oranye, 2006). Antinutrients interfere with feed utilization, affect the health and production of animal or which reduce nutrient intake, digestion, absorption and utilization (Akande et al., 2010), causes deleterious effects related to the absorption of nutrients and micronutrients (Gemede and Ratta, 2014). Many plant ingredients which contain in their raw state wide varieties of antinutrients which are potentially toxic (Dâ€™Mello, 2000). Anti-nutritional factors divided into two major categories. They are: (1). Proteins (such as lectins and protease inhibitors) which are thermo labile to normal processing temperatures. (2). Other substances which are heat stable to these temperatures and which include, polyphenolic compounds (mainly condensed tannins), non-protein amino acids and galactomannan gums (Osagie,1998). The major anti nutrient are: tannins, cyanogenic glycosides, toxic amino acids, saponins, phytic acid, oxalates, gossypol, goitrogens, lectins (phytohaemagglutinins), chlorogenic acid, protease inhibitors and amylase inhibitors (Akande et al., 2010). A single plant ingredient may contain two or more toxic compounds, generally drawn from the two categories, which add to the difficulties of detoxification. According to Aletor (1993), there are several anti-nutritional factors some are significant in plants used for human foods and animal feeds and some are toxic to animal health and productivity are discussed hereunder.
Tannins Tannins are the most widely occurring antinutritional factors found in plants. Tannin is an astringent, heat stable and bitter plant polyphenolic compound that binds or precipitates proteins and other organic compounds including amino acids and alkaloids. These compounds are present in various leguminous forages, seeds and agro-industrial by-products (Dube et al., 2001). Tannins have a property to bind with protein to form reversible and irreversible complexes due to presence of a number of phenolic hydroxyl groups. Tannins have molecular weights ranging from 500 to over 3000 (Muzquiz et al., 2001). Tannins are
water soluble polyphenolic compounds and condensed tannins are have two different groups of these compounds (Smitha et al.,2013).These two types differ in their nutritional and toxic effects. According to Akande et al. (2010) condensed tannins more profound digestibilityreducing effect than hydrolysable tannins, whereas, latter may cause varied toxic manifestations due to hydrolysis in rumen. Tannins are decreased protein digestibility in animals, by either making protein partially unavailable or inhibiting digestive enzymes activity of trypsin, chymotrypsin, lipase, amylase and increasing faecal nitrogen it also decrease the protein quality and interfere with dietary iron absorption (Habtamu and Nigussie, 2014). Tannins are responsible for decreased feed intake, feed efficiency, growth rate and protein digestibility in experimental animals. The high concentration tannins in diet may be depressed microbial enzyme activities including cellulose and intestinal digestion may be depressed (Aletor, 2005).
Phytate Phytate is also known as inositol hexakisphosphate, is a phosphorus containing compound that binds with various minerals and inhibits mineral absorption. Phytate cause of mineral deficiency is commonly due to its low bioavailability in the diet. The presence of phytate in feeds has been associated with reduced mineral absorption due to its structure which has high density of negatively charged phosphate groups which build very stable complexes with mineral ions finely causes non availability for intestinal absorption (Walter et al., 2002). Phytate are generally present in soybean, rapeseed, cotton seed, wheat bran, and whole grains (Oatway et al., 2001).
Protease Inhibitors Protease inhibitors most commonly encountered class of antinutritional factors, widely distributed in the plants, mostly in seeds of cultivated cereals and legumes (Liener and Kakade,1980). Protease inhibitors inhibit the activity of proteolytic enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract of animals. Protease inhibitors are easily denatured by heat processing although some residual activity may still remain in the commercially produced products. The antinutrient activity of protease inhibitors is associated with inhibition of growth and pancreatic hypertrophy (Gu et al., 2010).
Saponins Saponins are secondary compounds which are generally known as non-volatile, surface active which are occurring primarily in the plant including pulses and oil seeds such as kidney bean, soybean, chickpea, groundnut, lupin and sunflower (Liener, 1980; Jenkins and Atwal, 1994; Price et al., 1987). They are consist of non polar aglycones and one or more monosaccharide moieties. This combination of polar and non-polar structural elements in their molecules formed soap-like behaviour in aqueous solutions. Due to structural complexity of saponins it developed a number of physical, chemical, and biological properties, which include bitterness and sweetness, pharmacological and medicinal, haemolytic properties, insecticidal activities, as well as antimicrobial absorption (Habtamu and Nigussie, 2014). Saponins reduce the uptake of certain nutrients which including glucose and cholesterol within the gut through intra-lumenal physicochemical interaction. Hence, hypo cholesterolemic effect has been reported (Loewus, 2002). Jenkins and Atwal (1994) reported the chickens saponnin have been reduce growth, feed efficiency and also affect the absorption of dietary lipids and vitamins (A & E).
Gossypol Gossypol is a naturally occurring polyphenolic antinutrient present in the pigment glands of cotton seed (Gossypium spp). Glanded cotton seeds contain the average gossypol varying from 0.4-2.4% but some low gossypol cotton seed meals contain less than 0.01% (Liener, 1980; Castaldo, 1995; Robinson and Brent, 1989). Lysine availability reduced in cotton seed protein during heat processing due to the ability of gossypol to bind with the reactive epsilon amino group of lysine (Wilson et al., 1981; Church, 1991; Robinson, 1991). Dietary gossypol cause olive-green discolouration of yolks in eggs, loss of weight, depressed appetite, laboured breathing and cardiac irregularity. Hence, fish death is usually occur due to reduced oxygen carrying capacity of the blood, haemolytic effects on erythrocytes and circulatory failure (Church, 1991; Olomu, 1995; McDonald et al., 1995).
Oxalate Strong bonds are formed by oxalic acid and various minerals, such as Calcium, Sodium, Magnesium, and Potassium results in the formation of oxalate (Nachbar et al., 1980). Oxalic acid binds calcium and forms calcium oxalate which is insoluble which affects the absorption and utilization of calcium in the animal body (Olomu, 1995). When it is processed or digested in the gastrointestinal tract, it comes into contact with the nutrients bind with, rendering them inaccessible to the body. Dietary feed with excessive amounts of oxalic acid is consumed regularly, nutritional deficiencies are likely to occur, as well as severe irritation to the lining of the gut (Habtamu and nigussie, 2014). Ruminants can ingest considerable amounts of high-oxalate plants without adverse effects, due to principally microbial decomposition in the rumen. The hulls of sesame seeds contain oxalates and it is essential to avoid toxicities, meals should be completely decorticated (Oke, 1969).
Chlorogenic acid The sunflower meal contains high levels of chlorogenic acid, a tannin like antinutrients that inhibits activity of various digestive enzymes including trypsin, chymotrypsin, lipase and amylase (Cheeke and Shull, 1985). The chlorogenic acid is uncondensed and nonhydrolyzable, its contain about 1% or more of a total of 3-3.5% phenolic compounds in sunflower meal. Chlorogenic acid is also a precursor of ortho-quinones which formed by the action of the plant enzyme polyphenol oxidase. These compounds then react with lysine during processing or in the gut. The toxic effects of chlorogenic acid can be reduced by dietary supplementation with methyl donors such as choline and methionine. Aqueous extraction method readily removed chlorogenic acid from sunflower seeds (Dominguez et al., 1993).
Goitrogens Goitrogenic compounds cause enlargement of the thyroid gland, it found in legumes such as soybean and groundnut. Goitrogenic compounds inhibit the synthesis and secretion of the thyroid hormones. Thyroid hormones play very important role in the control of body metabolism their deficiency results in reduced growth and reproductive performance (Olomu, 1995). Goitrogenic effect have been effectively prevented by iodine supplementation rather heat treatment (Liener, 1975).
Cyanogenic glycosides The some legumes like linseed, kidney bean, lima bean and the red gram contain cyanogenic glycosides, Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN) may be released by hydrolysis. The Phaseolus
lunatus (lima bean) contain a cyanogenic glycoside called phaseolutanin, HCN is liberated due to enzyme action, when tissues are broken down by grinding or chewing or under damp conditions (Purseglove, 1991). The ground meal is cooked in water, hydrolysis occurs rapidly and most of the liberated HCN is lost by volatilization. Low concentration HCN is very toxic to animals. HCN can cause dysfunction of the respiratory failure, central nervous system and cardiac arrest (Dâ€™Mello, 2000).
Conclusion The presence of antinutritional factors in feed responsible for the deleterious effects that are related to the absorption of nutrients which may interfere with the function of certain organs. Most of the antinutritional factors are present in feeds of plant origin. Prior to use any plant fish feed ingredients first you should know the nutritional value of ingredients, concentration of the antinutrients and also the bioavailability of nutrients. The concentration of antinutritional factor in plant ingredients vary from species of plant, processing technology. By applying effective processing technique and supplementation of some amino acids, minerals, vitamins could help to reduce the adverse effects of these antinutrients in plant protein sources and there by improve their nutritive value.
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