â€œEnergy Efficiency and Your General Planâ€? A VIEW users guide to incorporating Energy Efficiency in your General Plan San Joaquin Valley Energy Leader Partnership, a.k.a. Valley Innovative Energy Watch 2010 - 2012
This Program is funded ed by California utility ratepayers and administered by Southern California Edison Company and Southern California Gas Company under the auspices of the California Public Utilities Commission.
EE and Your GP! A VIEW users guide to incorporating Energy Efficiency in your General Plan: What is all this talk about energy efficiency and policy documents? Okay, but does it really matter if I formalize my commitment to energy efficiency? What are my options for including energy efficiency in a General Plan? Say that I’m interested—how do I use this guide to make my updates? How do I get the data on my energy use that our planners need? *release date, June 2012.
What is all this talk about energy efficiency and policy documents? In January 2011, the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) issued an update to the Long Term Energy Efficiency Strategic Plan--California’s roadmap for energy efficiency adoption and greenhouse gas emission reduction. The update reiterated the important role that local governments play in shaping consumer energy use and established the following goal: By 2020, California’s local governments will be leaders in using energy efficiency to reduce energy use and global warming emissions both in their own facilities and throughout their communities. “The passage of the California Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 (Assembly Bill 32) has amplified the need for intensive energy efficiency efforts across California. The California Air Resources Board’s (CARB) Draft Scoping Plan for Assembly Bill (AB) 32 implementation states that while ‘California has a long history of success in implementing regulations and programs to encourage energy efficiency… [it] will need to greatly expand those efforts to meet our greenhouse gas emission reduction goals.’” (California Public Utilities Commission, 2011) CARB’s scoping plan sets GHG reduction targets for energy efficiency at 32,000 gigawatt hours and 800 million therms by 2020. These savings would result in over 25 million metric tons of GHG reductions, making energy efficiency the second largest component in California’s overall emissions reduction program. Increased energy efficiency investments also will contribute to reductions in air pollution from ozone and particulates. In support of that effort, the San Joaquin Valley Energy Leader Partnership, a.k.a. VIEW Partnership (VIEW) in cooperation with Southern California Edison, Southern California Gas Company, local government partners, and the implementer determined the best use of strategic plan funds would be to assist our local governments to set up a template of generic polices customized for the region. The recommendations could be included in General Plan updates, or added as an amendment to recently updated plans. The VIEW Partners would be able to make use of the data reported through other strategic plan efforts to benchmark facilities in the ENERGY STAR Portfolio Manager program.
Okay, but does it really matter if I formalize my commitment to energy efficiency? First of all, “investing in energy efficiency epitomizes responsible government stewardship of tax dollars” (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2011). Second, local governments are in the unique position to lead their communities with innovative programs that address energy efficiency. By making a formal commitment to energy efficiency a local government not only signals support, but also sets out their own roadmap. Knowing what is being spent, where and why—well that is a necessity for any smart planning to take place! As a VIEW partner you probably have formalized, or know you need to formalize your commitment to Energy Efficiency in a policy adoption: As a participant in the Valley Innovative Energy Watch, [your jurisdiction name here], California, has pledged to reduce the energy consumption of its portfolio of buildings by [your goal percent based on ELP needs] or more. As a result of our RESOLUTION [#] to participate in the San Joaquin Valley Energy Leader Partnership with Southern California Edison, Southern California Gas Company, and the San Joaquin Valley Clean Energy Organization, our city buildings have been entered in Portfolio Manager. Officials are using data from this tool to make decisions about energy upgrades and operations within their buildings. They are also incorporating energy efficiency best practices into new building designs. [City/County] officials are leading by example and demonstrating to local government agencies and businesses that they too can reduce their energy consumption while continuing to deliver quality services. (United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2009)
Additionally, there is a strong positive correlation between increased investments in energy efficiency, improvements in air quality, and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. Many states have established policies to integrate Clean Energy and Air Quality. The US Department of Energy recognizes this connection and works with state and local governments through the Clean Energy and Air Quality Integration Initiative to include energy efficiency projects in their air-quality programs. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) encourages and supports state and local efforts to reduce air pollution through energy efficiency measures. Improved efficiency in energy end use and at the generation stage reduces the amount of fuel required to produce a unit of energy output and reduces the emissions of pollutants produced through this process. A General Plan is, at its core, a blueprint for development, including concepts of energy efficiency and sustainability that simply lays the foundation for a responsible and efficient approach to energy use and a roadmap toward energy independence.
What are my options for including energy efficiency in a General Plan? Well, there are quite a few. But at VIEW we want to keep it simple, straight forward, and realistic. We’ve compiled a list—those policies that our local governments are open to and would be willing to implement with assistance. Say that I’m interested—how do I use this guide to make my updates? Our local governments indicated five preferred goals that could be included in or amended to a General Plan: Decrease Energy Use; Adopt Green Building Standards; Minimize Green House Gas Contribution; Increase Renewable Energy Use; and Utilize and Encourage Alternative Modes of Transportation. Each new goal begins where you see a large blue circle. Each goal is what would be called out in the actual document (plan or amendment).
GOAL Within each goal you will find four elements that can help you to implement and support your selected goal(s).
POLICY Those actions that can be implemented to reach your goal. The guide includes multiple policy options under each goal, but should be considered examples—what could be done, or a jumping off point for your own idea. What Can You Do? The What Can You Do? sections break down the policy actions into achievable objectives and provide recommendations for action. Real Life Because local governments are so often told what is good for them by people not in local government, it’s important to share real world examples from local governments that have put these recommendations into practice. The intent on including them was to provide validation for the recommendation as well as a point of reference for local governments wanting to try something similar. Resource These web links provide additional information on a concept or action. All addresses in the document were working at the time of publication, but links may break over time. The purpose of this guide is to provide a template for California’s San Joaquin Valley region, but it draws on success stories from across the country. Many of the Real Life features were selected for regional similarities, but some are just plain good ideas that our local governments have indicated they would be interested in supporting. So, without further ado…
VIEW Recommendations for General Plan Inclusion…
Resource: www.epa.gov/statelocalclimate/resources/strategywww.epa.gov/statelocalclimate/resources/strategy guides.html#energyeff
GOAL GOAL:1: DECREASE Decreased ENERGY Energy Use USE
Resource: www.ca-ilg.org/EnergyEfficiencyResources ilg.org/EnergyEfficiencyResources POLICY: ADOPT ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS. What Can You Do? Replace traffic signal and street lights with energy energy-efficient LEDs.
Real Life: Selma, California. The City of Sel Selma installed 144 new light emitting diode, or LED, street lights casting a brighter glow than the old high high-pressure pressure sodium bulbs they replaced. The new lights are also significantly icantly more energy efficient, saving the City much needed money on its utility bills. “In In these challenging budget times, it is a great assistance to have new street lights provided through a grant that will help the City of Selma reduce its utility bill billss as well as provide brighter lighting for residents.” said Ken Grey, Mayor This means significant savings to City coffers through lower utility bills. The energy efficiency retrofits, when complete, will save the City about 66,700 kilowatt hours of power and about $8,500 in energy costs per year. The amount of greenhouse gases removed from the atmosphere annually would be roughly equivalent to that produced by nine passenger vehicles. LED Streetlights
What Can You Do? Integrate energy efficiency into new or expanded waste wastewater water treatment plant design. Wastewater plants and drinking water systems can account for up to one one-third third of a municipality’s total energy bill! (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2011) POLICY: REDUCE ENERGY USE IN MUNIC MUNICIPAL FACILITIES. What Can You Do? Publicly formalize your commitment to energy efficiency at the municipal level. Real Life Life: Louisville, Kentucky. “In In 2007, the mayor of Louisville signed on aas an ENERGY STAR partner and took the ENERGY STAR Challenge, setting a goal to reduce energy use in Louisville by 10 percent or more by the year 2020. During two days of kickoff meetings, the mayor and city staff met with city leaders, managers of city city-operated operated facilities, private sector building owners and operato operators, rs, and important local businesses to provide
background information on the ENERGY STAR program for buildings and to share best practices for achieving energy efficiency improvements with ENERGY STAR tools and resources. As a result of these efforts, local commercial real estate associations joined Louisville Metro Government to form the Louisville Energy Alliance, which in 2009 launched the Louisville Kilowatt Crackdown, a year-long competition to promote and recognize commercial building energy efficiency by benchmarking and tracking energy use via the EPA’s Portfolio Manager. The city has also incorporated the ENERGY STAR Challenge into its Go Green Louisville! campaign, an initiative to ‘go green and save green’ by adopting sustainable practices.” (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2011) Resource: www.louisvilleenergyalliance.com What Can You Do? Create a position or office solely focused on energy independence. Real Life: Fayetteville, Arkansas. “In 2007, Fayetteville created an Office of Sustainability to coordinate energy and environmental programs aimed at reducing utility costs and environmental impacts. Under this mandate, the office coordinated an energy use assessment as part of a comprehensive government GHG emissions inventory. “The office followed this assessment by initiating an energy consumption reduction competition among 17 government facilities. In addition, 10 government facilities were incorporated into an energy performance contract and each completed a range of energy efficiency projects. These energy efficiency investments are producing an annual return of more than $400,000.” (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2011) Resource: www.governing.com/topics/energy-env/Mr-Sustainability.html Real Life: Des Moines, Iowa. In 2007, the State of Iowa established the Office of Energy Independence, which sets the strategic direction for Iowa's clean energy future by identifying goals to achieve desired results. The office aligns itself with state government efforts for achieving energy independence through partnerships with business and industry, community leaders, government and public agencies, and other stakeholders. The OEI focuses on implementation of the state’s Energy Independence Plan by continuing to collect baseline data and complete projections that will inform planning and the activities of OEI and the Iowa Power Fund. (Iowa Office of Energy Independence) Resource: www.energy.iowa.gov What Can You Do? Work collaboratively with local utility to take advantage of programs and funding for energy efficiency improvements.
Real Life: St. Paul, Minnesota. “St. Paul has partnered with its electric utility to retrofit heating and cooling systems, purchase ENERGY STAR labeled products, replace street lighting and traffic signals, and implement other energy efficiency improvements. These activities have saved the city nearly $8 million in energy costs annually and reduced its annual CO2 emissions by more than 73,000 metric tons, equivalent to the annual emissions of 13,000 cars.” (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2011) What Can You Do? Benchmark municipal facilities to identify opportunities for audits and energy savings through efficiency measures. Real Life: Forth Worth, Texas. “The City of Fort Worth has pledged to reduce the energy consumption its portfolio of buildings by 10 percent or more. Officials are benchmarking all city buildings in Portfolio Manager and using data from this tool to make decisions about energy upgrades and operations within their buildings.” (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2011) Portfolio Manager Screen Shot
Resource: www.fortworthtexas.gov/government/mayor/price.aspx?id=94794 Resource: www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=evaluate_performance.bus_portfoliomanager Resource: www.viewthesavings.com/resources What Can You Do? Adopt self-sustaining funding sources for energy efficiency improvements, such as “paid from savings,” revolving loan funds, lease-purchase agreements, or performance contracting. Real Life: Phoenix, Arizona. “In 1984 Phoenix established an energy conservation savings reinvestment plan. A reinvestment fund was created using money collected from a state oil overcharge. Under the reinvestment plan, half the city’s annual energy cost savings from energy efficiency improvements funded through the plan are reinvested in the fund to provide for future improvements. The fund has been used to offset the costs of new energy-efficient equipment in city buildings.” (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2011) Real Life: Westminster, Colorado. The city council passed a resolution in 2005 that authorized the city to enter into a lease-purchase agreement to purchase and install approximately $2.5 million in energy-efficient equipment in 21 city facilities. The city issued an RFP for financing bids for the project and the city was able to settle on a lease-purchase agreement with a low interest rate of 3.79 percent. The city council considered cash-funding the purchase but determined that capital improvement budget constraints would mean that the project would have to be implemented piecemeal over 8-12 years. (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2011)
There are many benefits of tax-exempt lease purchase agreements (a.k.a. municipal lease), including no need for capital budget appropriation, no voter referendum, monetary obligation is limited to the current budget period, lower interest rates and repayment can be tied to energy cost savings. POLICY: REDUCE ENERGY USE IN PROCESSING OPERATIONS. What Can You Do? Work with industry to reduce energy use in processing operations (storage, transport, refrigeration).
POLICY: INTEGRATE GREEN BUILDING PRACTICES IN MUNICIPAL FACILITIES.
GOAL 2: ADOPT GREEN BUILDING STANDARDS
Real Life: Denver, Colorado. In Denver, the mayor issued an executive order establishing a green buildings policy for new construction and major renovations of existing and future cityowned and operated buildings. To maximize the environmental performance and energy efficiency, the executive order requires municipal buildings be built and certified to at least the LEED-Silver standard, Designed to Earn to the ENERGY STAR using Target Finder, and benchmarked with Portfolio Manager. (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2011) Denverâ€™s Webb Municipal Office Building
Resource: www.greenprintdenver.org Resource: www.ca-ilg.org/greenerbuildings Resource: www.ca-ilg.org/greenbuildingstories What Can You Do? Divert construction waste and require building projects to recycle or reuse a minimum of 50% unused or leftover building materials. What Can You Do? Incorporate materials and furnishings made from recycled content. What Can You Do? All new buildings shall include lighting systems using less energy than state standards in place at the time of adoption. New buildings shall incorporate daylighting (skylights /windows). POLICY: PROVIDE PUBLIC INFORMATION AND EDUCATION What Can You Do? Lead by example! Incorporating energy efficiency and green building practices into taxpayer funded facilities that the public frequently visit is a highly visible way to
get the message out. Public libraries and city halls are perfect examples of teaching opportunities. Real Life: Seattle, Washington. ”In 2004 the City of Seattle opened its new public library that incorporates energy efficiency features, including energy-efficient lighting and ventilation systems, a high performance building envelope, and energy-efficient mechanical equipment and appliances, as well as various green building features, such as water conservations and use of low-toxic materials. Because the facility provides Seattle’s Central Library excellent demonstration opportunities (approximately 8,000 patrons visit the library daily), the city has installed signage and an information kiosk, featured the buildings sustainable features on a special Web site, and conducted public tours to explain the facility’s energy and environmental benefits and the benefits of energy efficiency and green building in general. In addition, materials developed for children and teens educate library users on the health and conservation benefits of building sustainably.” (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2011) Resource: www.cascadiagbc.org/resources/case-studies/SeattlePublicLibraryCaseStudy.pdf What Can You Do? Advance energy efficiency in the private sector. Real Life: West Chester, Pennsylvania.”The city council unanimously voted to adopt a resolution that requires new commercial buildings higher than 45 feet to be designed to achieve the ENERGY STAR and to achieve the ENERGY STAR after one year of operation.” (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2011) What Can You Do? Provide ongoing training to meet minimum requirements for Green Building Professional Certification. Resource: www.sce.com/b-sb/energy-centers/agtac/agtac.htm Resource: www.californiaseec.org/training/more-seec-events-trainings-coming-soon
GOAL 3: MINIMIZE GREENHOUSE GAS CONTRIBUTION
POLICY: ADOPT PURCHASING PRACTICES THAT PROMOTE EMISSIONS REDUCTIONS THROUGH ENERGY EFFICIENCY.
Real Life: San Diego, California. “After passing an energyefficient product procurement ordinance in 2001, San Diego purchased and installed energy efficient variable speed drives for HVAC pumps and motors and high-efficiency water chillers at four of its government facilities. These investments have produced energy costs savings of more than $250,000.” (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2011)
What Can You Do? Use life-cycle cycle cost analysis to determine long long-term term cost benefits benefit of energy-efficient efficient products, thereby making energy energy-efficient efficient products competitive with conventional products. Real Life: Cobb County, Georgia. “In 2008 the county’s board of commissioners missioners approved a policy drafted by the county purchasing department that enables the department to use lifelife cycle cost analysis when purchasing products, such as energy energy-efficient efficient appliances. Historically, the department had been required to accept lo lowest-bid bid offers for purchases of $1,000 or more, which would have precluded purchases of some energy energy-efficient efficient products.” (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2011) Resource: www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=bulk_purchasing.bu www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=bulk_purchasing.bus_purchasing Resource:www.sjgov.org/uploadedfiles/sjc/departments/gtp4/resources/green_purchasing_po www.sjgov.org/uploadedfiles/sjc/departments/gtp4/resources/green_purchasing_po licy_sjc_2008.pdf Resource: www.ca-ilg.org/procurementpractices ilg.org/procurementpractices POLICY: WHERE FEASIBLE, REPLACE FLEET VEHICLES WITH HYBRID FUEL VEHICLES. Real Life: The City of Tulare operates a green fleet that consists of 48 light vehicles, including seven police vehicles that use E85 ethanol, 17 refuse vehicles, 36 buses that use liquefied natural gas and street sweepers and other light vehicles powered by CNG. (City of Tulare, 2004) Resource: www.ca-ilg.org/transportation Resource: www.ca-ilg.org/greenfleetoptions Tulare Fleet LNG Station
Resource: www.ca-ilg.org/fuelefficientfleets ilg.org/fuelefficientfleets POLICY: INCREASE RECYCLING AT GOVERNMENT GOVERNMENT-MAINTAINED MAINTAINED FACILITIES. FACILITIES Example: San Joaquin uin County, California. In 2009 the county began a low-key key recruitment campaign to ‘green’ county operations. Using the REACON Green Sustainable Business program as an assessment model and with the support of the governing board, the county implemented a variety of sustainable practices. Instructing each department green team volunteer to achieve as close to ‘green nirvana’ as possible possible--to County’s Recycle Program Marketing do the best they could with the building and resources available the county put the power in the hands of its employe employees. Byy 2011 the county saw impressive results: 30.25 percent of total county office supplies purchased was made of recycled products; 47,071 pounds of electronic waste was recycled recycled; 98,180 pounds of metal was recycled; and 302 tons of confidential documen documents ts were shredded and recycled, producing
$50,439 in revenue. The Green Committee Chair produces an Annual Green Report to document successes and recognize extraordinary achievements. (Louis, 2012) Resource: www.greenteamsanjoaquin.com/recycling-energy-air-conservation.htm Resource: www.ca-ilg.org/WasteReductionResources
POLICY: PROTECT LOCAL RENEWABLE RESOURCES.
GOAL 4: Increase Renewable Resource Use
Real Life: Lake County, California. In 2008, the county adopted its General Plan, including the Geothermal Resources Element. The element established goals, policies, and implementation measures that the county will use in efforts pertaining to geothermal resources in the county. The county discourages commercial and residential development in the primary geothermal resource areas where there is a reasonable likelihood of geothermal development in the future. The county encourages cooperation between relevant local agencies to implement appropriate geothermal resource conservation practices. (Matrix Design Group, Mintier & Associates, 2008) Geothermal Plant
What Can You Do? Identify possible sites for production of energy using local renewable resources, such as solar, wind, small hydro, biogas, etc. Real Life: Riverside County, California. The Bureau of Land Management has proposed "solar energy zonesâ€? intended to make some of the desert's most sensitive landscapes less desirable for solar prospecting by identifying "sweet spots" that have already passed environmental requirements and therefore promise expedited permitting. One of those is the proposed Riverside East solar energy zone consisting of 202,896 acres in Riverside County, within Chuckwalla Valley, the southern portion of Palen Valley, and the California Desert Conservation Area. (Solar Energy Development Programmatic Mapped Image of the Riverside East SEZ EIS) POLICY: PROMOTE RENEWABLE ENERGY. What Can You Do? Explore regional collaborations among local governments, special districts, nonprofits, and other public organizations to share resources, achieve economies of scale, and develop renewable energy policies and programs that are optimized on a regional scale.
Real Life: Pioneer Valley, ley, Springfield, Massachusetts. Since 1962, the Pioneer Valley Planning Commission ion (PVPC) has been the designated regional planning body for the Pioneer Valley region, which encompasses 43 cities and towns in the Hampden and Hampshire county areas. The Pioneer Valley Clean Energy Plan was initiated in 2003 by analyzing local barriers to the siting of clean energy projects in the Pioneer Arial of Pioneer Valley Valley and inventorying clean energy efforts underway. In 2005, the PVPC and the Franklin Regional egional Council of Governments secured funding from the Massachusetts Technology Collaborative to develop a clean ean energy plan for the region. The Clean Energy Plan is part of a larger effort in the Pioneer Valley to create an ecologically sustainable region. This plan offers a path to a clean energy future, which will need to be implemented by communities, businesses, busines institutions and even individuals in their homes, backyards, businesses and municipalities. Based on research, expert opinions and results of a very dynamic public planning process, the plan endorses specific action items for immediate implementation by key target audiences, including: municipalities, energy committees, regional planning agencies, businesses, nonprofits/advocacy groups, educational institutions, individuals and Massachusetts legislators and policy makers. (National tional Association of Regional Councils, 2008) Resources: www.pvpc.org/resources/landuse/Clean%20Energy%20Plan/clean_energy_plan.pdf POLICY: PROVIDE INFORMATION, MARKETING, TRAINING, AND EDUCATION TO SUPPORT RENEWABLE RESOURCE USE. Real Life: Boulder, Colorado. olorado. In 2005, the Boulder Office of Environmental Affairs announced the Wind Power 500 Challenge, a program to encourage residential and commercial municipal electric utility customers to enroll in the utilityâ€™s wind power program. The goal for the ch challenge was for 500 new customers to enroll in the program over a two two-month month period. After two months, the program had more than doubled its enrollment goal, gaining 1,150 new customers. (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency , 2008) Resource: www.conservationcenter.org/energy conservationcenter.org/energy-division-main/boulder-wind-power power-challenge Resource: www.epa.gov/statelocalclimate/state/topics/renewable2.html#a05
GOAL 5: UTILIZE & ENCOURAGE ALTERNATIVE MODES OF TRANSPORT
What Can You Do? Lead by example! Offer financial incentives to encourage local government rnment employees to make use us of alternative transportation and reduce vehicle miles traveled. Real Life: Hennepin County, Minnesota. â€œIn 200 00 the county decided to lead by example by updating its 20 20-year year old
employee transit incentives program. The county replaced payroll deductions for a discounted bus pass with a pre-tax employee transportation program to cover bus and parking costs. The county also offered a 40 percent discount on transit pass purchases. These changes led to 1,900 additional employee transit pass purchases in three years (the county employs approximately 13,000 people). The pre-tax benefits saved the county money that it used to help pay for the discounted bus passes.” (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2011) Real Life: Pleasanton, California. The city offers $2 per day to city employees who leave their car at home and use a commute alternative. This program has prevented more than 20,000 trips per year, which translates to a savings of over 12,000 gallons of fuel, or more than 109 metric tons of CO2 emissions.” (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2011) POLICY: DEVELOP AND IMPROVE BICYCLE FACILITIES, INCLUDING SECURE PARKING. What Can You Do? Encourage employers to provide additional support facilities and incentives for bicyclists. Real Life: Visalia, California. As part of the city’s effort to improve options for alternative transportation methods, the Vi-Cycle program allows local employers to purchase recycled and refurbished bicycles for $25. The program encourages local businesses to provide alternative modes of transportation for their employees to reduce wear and tear on city roadways and the space needed for designated vehicle parking, as well as reduce the overall number of vehicle miles traveled by residents.
Visalia’s Bike Friendly Map
Real Life: State of California. “California state law requires certain employers that provide subsidized parking for their employees to offer cash allowances in lieu of parking spaces to incentivize alternative commute modes. A 1997 review of eight case studies of employers in southern California offering these cash-out programs revealed that solo driving to work fell by 17 percent, carpooling increased by 64 percent, transit ridership increased by 50 percent, walking and bicycling increased by 33 percent, and commuter parking demand fell by 11 percent. These mode shifts reduced the total vehicle miles traveled for commuting by 12 percent, with a range from 5 to 24 percent for the eight firms.” (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2011) Resource: www.ci.berkeley.ca.us/ContentDisplay.aspx?id=6656 Resource: www.ci.visalia.ca.us/depts/parks_n_recreation/trails_n_waterways/ Resource: www.ci.visalia.ca.us/civica/filebank/blobdload.asp?BlobID=5401#page= POLICY: DEVELOP PEDESTRIAN PLAN TO INCLUDE DESIGN GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (SIDEWALKS, CROSSWALKS, ETC).
What Can You Do? Adopt a Complete Streets ordinance! “More than 25 jurisdictions across the country have adopted Complete Streets ordinances that encourage walking and bicycling through measures such as street and sidewalk lighting, pedestrian and bicycle safety improvements, street trees, public transportation facilities, and other measures.” (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2011) Real Life: Boulder, Colorado. “The city has instituted a Safe Routes to School program; one school reported that 75 percent of its students now walk or bike to school—a 620 percent increase from before the program started. More than 4,000 people participate in Boulder’s annual Bike to Work Day. The city employs a Complete Streets approach when considering major transportation facility enhancements, and at Colorado Safe Routes to School least 95 percent of arterials in Boulder have bike lanes or trails on them. The city recently completed two major underpasses for bikes, and offers online bike mapping. A total of $3.1 million, 15% of Boulder’s 2004 transportation budget, was dedicated to support bicycle mode operations/maintenance enhancement activities. In 2003, biking accounted for 21 percent of commute trips and 14 percent of all trips in the community—up from 10.6 percent and 9.1 percent, respectively, in 1990. Bike use and other non-automotive modes have limited the growth on vehicle miles traveled in Boulder to about 1 percent annually since 1990.” (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2011) Resource: www.saferoutespartnership.org/local Resource: www.msa2.saccounty.net/transportation/Pages/PedestrianMasterPlan.aspx POLICY: ENCOURAGE RIDESHARING AND/OR IMPLEMENT A VANPOOL PROGRAM. What Can You Do? Establish a ride-matching database. Real Life: Hudson Valley, New York. “MetroPool, in the mid and lower Hudson Valley region of New York State, offers two types of matching services for its commuters. Its traditional ride-matching service informs people about less expensive and environmentally friendly commuting alternatives. MetroPool also participates in the first incentive-based ride-matching NuRide Process program in the United States, NuRide, which allows commuters to track their “green trips” (carpooling, vanpooling, riding public transportation, walking, biking, and telecommuting) and earn rewards, including coupons for restaurants and retail companies. MetroPool’s contribution has added more than 3,200 NuRiders in the last three years. Between Earth Day 2007 and Earth Day 2008, MetroPool helped eliminate more than 5 million Vehicle Miles Traveled by 10,000 employees who shared 138,800 riders, avoiding 1,800 metric tons of CO2 equivalent emissions.” (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2011) Resource: www.nuride.com/nuride/public/how_it_works.jsp
References California Public Utilities Commission. (2011). CA Energy Efficiency Strategic Plan, January 2011 Update. San Francisco: California Public Utilities Commission. City of Tulare. (2004, May 4). Air Quality Efforts. Retrieved April 16, 2012, from City of Tulare: www.ci.tulare.ca.us/pdfs/AirControlMeasuresRev.pdf Iowa Office of Energy Independence. (n.d.). Legislation and Rules. Retrieved April 16, 2012, from Iowa Office of Energy Independence: http://www.energy.iowa.gov/ Louis, D. M. (2012, April 19). County of San Joaquin Purchasing & Support Services Department, Green Committee Chair. (C. B. Kalashian, Interviewer) Matrix Design Group, Mintier & Associates. (2008, September). LAKE COUNTY GENERAL PLAN (2008). Retrieved April 16, 2012, from County of Lake Calfornia: http://www.co.lake.ca.us/Assets/CDD/2008+General+Plan+Draft/GP+2008+Draft+10Lake+GPR+Geothermal+Resources+9.20.07.pdf National Association of Regional Councils. (2008). Energy. Retrieved April 13, 2012, from Green Regions: Practical Solutions to Regional Issues: http://narc.org/uploads/greenregions/Energy.htm Solar Energy Development Programmatic EIS. (n.d.). Riverside East. Retrieved April 16, 2012, from Solar Energy Development Programmatic EIS: http://solareis.anl.gov/sez/riverside_east/index.cfm U.S. Environmental Protection Agency . (2008). Clean Energy Strategies for Local Governments. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency . U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2011). Local Government Climate and Energy Strategy Series: Energy Efficiency in Municipal Operations. Retrieved April 16, 2012, from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: http://www.epa.gov/statelocalclimate/documents/pdf/ee_municipal_operations.pdf U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2011). Local Government Climate and Energy Strategy Series: Energy Efficient Purchasing. Retrieved April 16, 2012, from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: http://www.epa.gov/statelocalclimate/documents/pdf/energyefficientpurchasing.pdf U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2011, March). Local Government Climate and Energy Strategy Series: Transportation Control Measures. Retrieved April 16, 2012, from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: http://www.epa.gov/otaq/stateresources/policy/430r09040.pdf
United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2009, June 2). State and Local Climate and Energy Program. Retrieved March 2011, from EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency: http://www.epa.gov/statelocalclimate/documents/pdf/ee_municipal_operations.pdf